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HR Staffing
    Determining HR needs
     -   Projecting staffing levels
     -   Job analyses
     -   Managing competencies
    Identifying and recruiting employees
    Evaluating candidates
     -   Selection tests
     -   Interviewing
    Managing retention
Job Analysis
Systematic process for collecting information
  on the work-related aspects of a job.

1.   Work activities – what the worker does, how and
     why these activities are conducted.
2.   Tools and equipment used in performing work
3.   Context of the work environment, such as work
     schedule or working conditions.
4.   Requirements for performing the job – KSA’s.
Job Analysis Applications
   HR Planning
   Recruitment: job descriptions and want ads
   Selection: job requirements and
   Pricing jobs
   Training and Development
   Performance Management
Types of “Job” Analysis
   Task analysis
    -   Task statements
    -   KSA’s
   Competency analysis
    -   Competencies
    -   Matrix / Models
   Compensation analysis
    -   “Compensable” factors
    -   Hay Process
Job Analysis Methods
1.   Gather job information
        Job documents
        Interviews: Critical Incident Technique
        Questionnaires:
         -   Task Inventory Analysis (customized)
         -   Position Analysis Questionnaire (off-the-shelf)
        Observation: Motion studies
        Diaries: Time studies

2.   Analyze job information
        Create task statements
        Create KSA’s or job qualifications

3.   Validate job information
KSA’s Defined
   Knowledge: A body of information
    (typically of a factual or procedural nature)
    that required for successful completion of a
   Skill: An individual’s level of competency or
    proficiency in performing a specific task.
    Usually be expressed in numerical terms.
   Ability: A more general, enduring trait or
    capability an individual possesses when he
    or she first performs a task.
Competency Models
   “Core Competencies” for sustainable
    competitive advantage.
   More general descriptions that cut across
    many categories of jobs.
   Integrated with selection, training, and
    performance management.

Competencies Behavioral indicators Validation
Anheuser-Busch Competencies
1.   Task force (HR staff and facilitator)
     identified key business imperatives.
     -   HR Staff and consultants
     -   Company strategy and business objectives
     -   Mission and values

2.   Focus groups of managers reviewed
     -   Narrowed and prioritized list
     -   Confirm or edit 4-5 specific employee
         behaviors for each competency
Anheuser-Busch Competencies
3.   Questionnaires sent to supervisors who
     were asked to rate the frequency that
     each behavior was exhibited by:
     -   Top performers – “role models”
     -   Satisfactory or competent employees
     -   Employees who need improvement
4.   Completed competencies integrated with
     selection and performance management
I. Achieving Competitiveness

Customer Focus: Aggressively monitors and anticipates customer
    requirements and responds to them in an appropriate manner.
Business Focus: Strategically monitors business performance
    and environment to enhance competitive position.
Innovation and Change: Actively seeks out new ideas and
    displays creativity in adapting to changing conditions.
Results Orientation: Demonstrates the drive and persistence to
    meet and exceed job goals for self or other.
Analysis and Planning: Uses critical thinking to solve problems
    and develop effective work plans.
Systems Thinking: Improves and integrates business process to
    meet organizational strategic goals.
Technical / Functional Expertise: Demonstrates, enhances,
    and shares job-related knowledge and skills.
II. Succeeding Through People

Valuing people: Demonstrates respect for others regardless of
     personal background.
Commitment to Development: Develop own and others’
     capabilities to better meet organizational needs.
Professionalism: Demonstrates candor, composure, and
     commitment to obligations in work relationships.
Empowerment: Delegates or accepts responsibility to expand
     own capabilities to take appropriate risks and make decisions.
Influence: Uses appropriate methods to motivate others.
Team orientation: Accepts the team approach and takes
     necessary action to support its processes and goals.
“Team Orientation” Behaviors
Individual Contributor           Manager
   Recognizes that own             Creates and monitors teams
    success is linked to team        to meet business objectives.
    success.                        Sets clear expectations for
   Supports team roles, norms       teams.
    and decisions.                  Works to build commitment
   Speaks up when the team is       towards common goals.
    headed in wrong direction.      Provides resources
   Keeps others informed of        Recognizes team for
    decisions and information        accomplishments.
    that may affect them.           Measures own success by
                                     team’s success.
   Why use competency models?

   Why avoid competency models?
Strategy and Staffing Systems
   Which types of corporate and business
    strategies would be likely to use:

    -   Job-based staffing systems?

    -   Competency-based staffing systems?
     Process Inputs and Outputs
  HR Planning:
 Number of jobs
  to be filled

                    Recruitment:           Selection:
                   Pool of qualified and    Job Offers
                   interested applicants
   Job Analysis:
 Job Descriptions
and Minimum KSA’s
Internal Recruiting
   Identifying and attracting applicants from
    among individuals already holding jobs.

   Why recruit internally?
   Why NOT recruit internally

   Open vs. Closed recruiting
    -   When should you post a job?
    -   When should you NOT post a job?
Open vs. Closed Systems
   Closed system
    -   Cheaper and less time consuming
    -   Better for targeted searches
    -   Should be used if open postings aren’t really

   Open system
    -   Identify more potential candidates
    -   Less likely to overlook “hidden talent”
    -   Enhances perceptions of fairness
External Recruiting Sources
   Walk-ins                           Broad
   Internet
   Print advertisements
   Colleges & Universities
   Job Fairs
   Employment agencies
   Temporary agencies
   Referrals from current employees
   Former employees
   Headhunters                        Narrow
Deciding on a Source
   Quantity of applicants
    -   Large headcount vs. single jobs
   Quality of applicants
    -   Specialized skills vs. general skills
   Types of people that the media
   Location and Relocation
   Budget
   Past experience
Choosing A Message
   Amount of contingent pay
   Team vs. individual work and appraisals
   Promotion opportunities
    -   “Promotes from within” consideration for MBA’s

   Details about the company
    -   “Fun place to work”
    -   Environmentally friendly
What is Most Important For You?
   Interesting work
   Wage / Salary
   Incentive Pay
   Benefits
   Growth / Development Opportunities
   Job Security
   Location
“War for Talent” Study

Source: E. G. Chambers, H. Hanafield-Jones, S. M. Hankin, and E. G. Michaels, III, “Win the War for Top
Talent,” Workforce 77, no. 12 (December 1998): 50–56. Used with permission of McKinsey & Co.
Assessing Recruiting Effectiveness
    Cost per hire
    Time to hire
    Tenure of employees recruited
    Job performance of employees recruited
    Yield ratios
     -   Applicants per source
     -   Candidates per applicant
     -   Offers per candidate
     -   Acceptance per offer
     -   New hire per acceptance
    Measuring effectiveness of advertisements by
     coding responses.
              Yield Ratios
The ratio of applicant inputs to outputs at
various points in the recruitment process.

  100       Total Applicants          YIELD
   50       Qualified Applicants     50% / 2.0
   10       Invited to Interview     20% / 5.0
    4       Job Offers               40% / 2.5
   3        New Hires               75% / 1.33

            Overall Yield:          3% / 33.3
Opportunistic Hiring
   Companies need to hunt for talent continuously to
    capture people when they are ready to make a move.
    -   Identify ideal candidates and court that person.
    -   Hire them for a specific position even if the slot is not
        currently open.
    -   While they are waiting for that position they can be doing
        special projects and getting to know the organization.

   GE brings in 100 people a year

   Within 18 months they are hired from the “bullpen”
    into line jobs within the different divisions.

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