Determining HR needs
- Projecting staffing levels
- Job analyses
- Managing competencies
Identifying and recruiting employees
- Selection tests
Systematic process for collecting information
on the work-related aspects of a job.
1. Work activities – what the worker does, how and
why these activities are conducted.
2. Tools and equipment used in performing work
3. Context of the work environment, such as work
schedule or working conditions.
4. Requirements for performing the job – KSA’s.
Job Analysis Applications
Recruitment: job descriptions and want ads
Selection: job requirements and
Training and Development
Types of “Job” Analysis
- Task statements
- Matrix / Models
- “Compensable” factors
- Hay Process
Job Analysis Methods
1. Gather job information
Interviews: Critical Incident Technique
- Task Inventory Analysis (customized)
- Position Analysis Questionnaire (off-the-shelf)
Observation: Motion studies
Diaries: Time studies
2. Analyze job information
Create task statements
Create KSA’s or job qualifications
3. Validate job information
Knowledge: A body of information
(typically of a factual or procedural nature)
that required for successful completion of a
Skill: An individual’s level of competency or
proficiency in performing a specific task.
Usually be expressed in numerical terms.
Ability: A more general, enduring trait or
capability an individual possesses when he
or she first performs a task.
“Core Competencies” for sustainable
More general descriptions that cut across
many categories of jobs.
Integrated with selection, training, and
Competencies Behavioral indicators Validation
1. Task force (HR staff and facilitator)
identified key business imperatives.
- HR Staff and consultants
- Company strategy and business objectives
- Mission and values
2. Focus groups of managers reviewed
- Narrowed and prioritized list
- Confirm or edit 4-5 specific employee
behaviors for each competency
3. Questionnaires sent to supervisors who
were asked to rate the frequency that
each behavior was exhibited by:
- Top performers – “role models”
- Satisfactory or competent employees
- Employees who need improvement
4. Completed competencies integrated with
selection and performance management
I. Achieving Competitiveness
Customer Focus: Aggressively monitors and anticipates customer
requirements and responds to them in an appropriate manner.
Business Focus: Strategically monitors business performance
and environment to enhance competitive position.
Innovation and Change: Actively seeks out new ideas and
displays creativity in adapting to changing conditions.
Results Orientation: Demonstrates the drive and persistence to
meet and exceed job goals for self or other.
Analysis and Planning: Uses critical thinking to solve problems
and develop effective work plans.
Systems Thinking: Improves and integrates business process to
meet organizational strategic goals.
Technical / Functional Expertise: Demonstrates, enhances,
and shares job-related knowledge and skills.
II. Succeeding Through People
Valuing people: Demonstrates respect for others regardless of
Commitment to Development: Develop own and others’
capabilities to better meet organizational needs.
Professionalism: Demonstrates candor, composure, and
commitment to obligations in work relationships.
Empowerment: Delegates or accepts responsibility to expand
own capabilities to take appropriate risks and make decisions.
Influence: Uses appropriate methods to motivate others.
Team orientation: Accepts the team approach and takes
necessary action to support its processes and goals.
“Team Orientation” Behaviors
Individual Contributor Manager
Recognizes that own Creates and monitors teams
success is linked to team to meet business objectives.
success. Sets clear expectations for
Supports team roles, norms teams.
and decisions. Works to build commitment
Speaks up when the team is towards common goals.
headed in wrong direction. Provides resources
Keeps others informed of Recognizes team for
decisions and information accomplishments.
that may affect them. Measures own success by
Why use competency models?
Why avoid competency models?
Strategy and Staffing Systems
Which types of corporate and business
strategies would be likely to use:
- Job-based staffing systems?
- Competency-based staffing systems?
Process Inputs and Outputs
Number of jobs
to be filled
Pool of qualified and Job Offers
and Minimum KSA’s
Identifying and attracting applicants from
among individuals already holding jobs.
Why recruit internally?
Why NOT recruit internally
Open vs. Closed recruiting
- When should you post a job?
- When should you NOT post a job?
Open vs. Closed Systems
- Cheaper and less time consuming
- Better for targeted searches
- Should be used if open postings aren’t really
- Identify more potential candidates
- Less likely to overlook “hidden talent”
- Enhances perceptions of fairness
External Recruiting Sources
Colleges & Universities
Referrals from current employees
Deciding on a Source
Quantity of applicants
- Large headcount vs. single jobs
Quality of applicants
- Specialized skills vs. general skills
Types of people that the media
Location and Relocation
Choosing A Message
Amount of contingent pay
Team vs. individual work and appraisals
- “Promotes from within” consideration for MBA’s
Details about the company
- “Fun place to work”
- Environmentally friendly
What is Most Important For You?
Wage / Salary
Growth / Development Opportunities
“War for Talent” Study
Source: E. G. Chambers, H. Hanafield-Jones, S. M. Hankin, and E. G. Michaels, III, “Win the War for Top
Talent,” Workforce 77, no. 12 (December 1998): 50–56. Used with permission of McKinsey & Co.
Assessing Recruiting Effectiveness
Cost per hire
Time to hire
Tenure of employees recruited
Job performance of employees recruited
- Applicants per source
- Candidates per applicant
- Offers per candidate
- Acceptance per offer
- New hire per acceptance
Measuring effectiveness of advertisements by
The ratio of applicant inputs to outputs at
various points in the recruitment process.
100 Total Applicants YIELD
50 Qualified Applicants 50% / 2.0
10 Invited to Interview 20% / 5.0
4 Job Offers 40% / 2.5
3 New Hires 75% / 1.33
Overall Yield: 3% / 33.3
Companies need to hunt for talent continuously to
capture people when they are ready to make a move.
- Identify ideal candidates and court that person.
- Hire them for a specific position even if the slot is not
- While they are waiting for that position they can be doing
special projects and getting to know the organization.
GE brings in 100 people a year
Within 18 months they are hired from the “bullpen”
into line jobs within the different divisions.