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MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 15

									MINISTRY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
            DEPARTMENT OF
 TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

               EP 5002
      POWER SYSTEM OPTIMIZATION

                      B.E
         Electrical Power Engineering

                    Presented
                       By
              Daw Than Than Win
               Professor and Head
   Electrical Power Engineering Department
       Yangon Technological University
                       EP 5002

Chapter 1   General Background
Chapter 2   Economic Operation of Generating Plant
Chapter 3   System with daily load cycle
Chapter 4   Transmission loss as a function of Plant
                  Generation
                      CHAPTER 1
                      Introduction

-   Nature of electric supply
-   Nature of power deliver
-   Characteristic of various plant
-   Study of economic distribution
-   Different characteristic within a plant
            Economic load Dispatch

- Cost rapid change with time
- Regulation of rate
- Nature of Profit
           Optimum Generation Allocation

- C = ni=1 Ci      $ / hr
- Ci = Ci (PGi )‫‏‬

C = ni=1 Ci (PGi) = C1(PG1)+C2(PG2)+-----+Cn(PGn)‫‏‬
                           CHAPTER 2

              Economic Operation of Power Plant

-Equality Constraint
  Generated Power = Demand Power+ Power Losses.

  -Inequality Constraint
  PG1 min  PG1 PG1max
  C = C1 + C2 = C1(PG1) +C2(PG2)
  PG1 + PG2 – PL = 0 for PL = 0
              incremental‫‏‬fuel‫‏‬rate‫‏=‏‬Δ‫‏‬input/‫‏‬Δ‫‏‬output‫‏‏‬
                           (or)  input/ output
                     Heat rate = input /output
        -Economic Operation of Generating Plant
Incremental Production Cost = IFC + I cost of (Labour, Supplies,
                    material,maintenous,water,etc)‫‏‬
Fixed percentage of incremental fuel C (I F C)‫‏‬
              dfn/ dpn = 
    dF1/ dP1 = dF2/ dP2 =  for 2 unit system
-Approximation of Incremental Production Cost
 Various control schemes by analog method, digital method.
                  CHAPTER 3
           System with daily load cycle

Methods of scheduling Turbine Generator
•   Base loading capacity
•   Base loading to most efficient load
•   Proportional capacity
•   Determination of capacity
Determination of capacity
• Economic evaluation
• Reserve requirement
• Stability limitation
• Voltage limitation
• Ability to pick up load quickly.
         Method of calculation on loss economy
• (i) Calculation schedule
        F11 P1 + f1 =  , F22 P2 + f2 = 
                 F11 P1+ f1 – f2
    So P2 = --------------------
                     F22

    with respect to PR where PR = P1 + P2  P1 = F22 PR + f2 – f1
                                                       -------------------
                                                       F11 + F22
    (ii) Calculation of various values of PR
    Δ‫‏‬Ft = [ (df2 / dp2 )11 – (df2 / dp2 )1 ]‫‏‬Δ‫‏‬p1
           -------------------------------------------
                              2

    Or‫‏‬Δ‫‏‬Ft = [ (df2 / dp2 )11 – (df1 / dp1 )11 Δ‫‏‬p2
              -----------------------------------------
                                2
    Derivation of expression for hourly loss from error
    Δ‫‏‬Ft =‫‏‬a‫‏‬Δ‫‏‬p2 where a = F11 = F22
                     CHAPTER 4

     TRANSMISSION LOSS AS A FUNCTION OF

               PLANT GENERATION
Plant 1   1                3                             2   Plant 2
                 a                    b
                                               I1 I 2

                           c

                                          4




  P 3 R 3
  L I
      2
   1 a  I
           2
         2R 3 
            bI
              1 2R
                I
                  2
                   C                                        

               P1                                  P2
     I1                       I2 
              3 V pf                          3 V 2 pf 2
                 1  1
                      Continued

     P 2 (Ra  R b )
      1                P22 (Rb  Rc )      2RcP P2
                                               1
PL                                  
          2                 2
       V (p 1)2
        1     f         V2 (p f )2
                                2
                                        V V2 (p 1)(p 2 )
                                         1      f    f

PL  P 2B1 1 P22B2 2  2P P2B1 2
      1                    1

               (Ra  R b )         (Rb  Rc )
wh ereB1 1 
     ,                     , B2 2
                  2                  2
               V (p f ) 2
                1     1            V2 (p f ) 2
                                          2
                   RcP P2
                       1
      B1 2 
                             f
               V V2 (p f )(p 2 )
                1      1
                               Continued



• Loss‫‏‬coefficient‫‏‬by‫‏‬KRON’S‫‏‬method
• (i) individual line current total load current
           IK1                    IK2
• NK1 = ------ , NK2 =        ---------------
•         IL                    IL

• (ii) By using super position IK = IK1 + IK2
• (iii) All load current with respect to phase angle
   I1 = | I1| Cos 1 + j |I1| Sin 1
   I2 = | I2| Cos 2 + j | I2| Sin 2
                  Continued
 PL = m nk=1 Pm Bmn Pn
 In matrix form
             PL = [Pt ] [ B ] [ P ]
               P1                        P1    
               P                         P     
                2                         2    
               P3      B11   12 --, 1n  P 3
                                B-    B          
                         B                
                                          -      
    P   L     -   
                         21   B- - B 
                                 22 -  2n        
               -                         -     
                         B
                          n1   B- - B 
                                 n2 -     
                                       mn        
                    
               -                         -     
               P                         P     
                m                         n    
                       Continued

• Modified coordination equations involution
• Direct comparison of cost between plant
• df1 / dp1 = 1 / (1-dpl1,2 / dp2) (df2 /dp2)‫‏‬
• Similarly df2 /dp2 = 1/(1-dpl1,2 /dp1)(df1/dp1)‫‏‬
• With partial derivative
 f1 /p1 = 1/(1-pL1,2 / p2) (f2 / p2)‫‏‬

• Define the Penalty factor LK=1/(1-pl /pK)‫‏‬
• Where pL = f (p1-p2-----pn)‫‏‬

								
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