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					Campus Climate Survey, 2006


                                  Students Who Work While Attending CU-Boulder

Several questions in the survey assess student employment. This set of questions began with a preliminary branching
question that asked respondents whether or not they are currently employed. If the respondent answered “yes,” two
subsequent questions were displayed on the web page below that item. Otherwise, the subsequent questions were not
displayed. The three questions and the response options were worded as follows:

Are you currently working at a job?
            o Yes
            o No

                   Is this job on- or off-campus?
                          On-campus
                          Off-campus

                   How many hours per week do you work?
                        Less than 10 hours
                        Between 10 and 20 hours
                        More than 20 hours

Responses to these three items were analyzed in various ways, looking primarily at differences by class standing, ethnicity,
                                                                            1
and financial resources (family resource quartiles from financial aid files) .

Currently working at a job

Almost half (290) of the survey respondents (n=570) reported that they were working at the time of the survey.
    o A substantially higher percentage of graduate student respondents than undergraduate respondents reported they
         were “currently working at a job”--almost three-quarters (71%) of graduate students versus less than half (43%) of
         undergraduates. There are also some noteworthy differences across class standings among both undergraduates
         and graduate students with respect to the percentages of students who reported being employed (see table
         immediately below):
                Among undergraduates, lower percentages of freshmen and sophomores reported working (25% and
                    42%, respectively), compared with juniors and seniors (54% and 50%, respectively).
                Among graduate students, lower percentages of master's students reported working compared with
                    doctoral students (68% vs. 85%). Only 23% of law students reported that they were currently working.

                                                                    Weighted
                                                                      Pct           N
                                               Class Standing       Working       Working
                                              Freshman                25%           34
                                              Sophomore               41%           28
                                              Junior                  54%           41
                                              Senior                  50%           76
                                              Master’s                68%           32
                                              PhD                     85%           68
                                              JD (Law)                23%            9
                                              Total                    47%           288*
                                           *Total respondents who reported working do not sum to 290
                                             because 2 of them were classified as non-degree students.


      o   There is a notable gender difference in the percentages of students who reported that they were working at the time
          of the survey. Over half (56%) of the 290 female respondents indicated they were employed, compared with only
          slightly more than one-third (38%) of the 280 male respondents.

1
  All percentages reported in this section are weighted to reflect the sampling design, whereas the number (N)
working/responding, etc., is unweighted. Therefore, you cannot compute the percentages in the tables based on the N
responding.


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Campus Climate Survey, 2006

                                                                                                                2
       o   There was only minor variation across ethnic groups in percentages of students employed :
                 Slightly larger percentages of racial/ethnic minority students reported they were working (47% to 57%),
                   compared with 46% of white students and 44% of international students.
                 Among minority racial/ethnic subgroups, Native Americans were the most likely (57%) to indicate working,
                   and African Americans (47%) were least likely to do so.

                                                                           Weighted
                                                     Racial/Ethnic           Pct             N
                                                        Groups             Working         Working
                                                   Asian American            49%             32
                                                   African American          47%             27
                                                   Hispanic                  51%             34
                                                   Native American           57%             38
                                                   White                     46%             69
                                                   International             44%             43
                                                   Total                      47%             243*
                                                *Total respondents who reported working do not sum to
                                                 290, because for some of them race/ethnicity was unknown.


Work status: Variation associated with undergraduates' financial resources

   The relationship of family financial resources to undergraduate students' work status was examined. For analysis
    purposes, the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis assigns undergraduate students to five financial resource categories
    based on the Expected Family Contribution (EFC) to student tuition and expenses. EFC is determined from the Free
    Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), which the majority of undergraduate students submit to the Office of Financial
    Aid upon entry to the University. Incoming freshmen and transfer students who submitted a FAFSA are grouped into one of
    four “family resource quartiles” (FRQs) according to the amount of EFC calculated on their application at the time of entry.
    Those grouped in the first family resource quartile are assumed to be most in need of aid, whereas those in the fourth
    quartile are assumed to be least in need of aid. Freshmen and transfer students who did not submit a FAFSA or who did
    not apply for any “need-based” aid are placed in a fifth category. Percentages of working students in these five categories
    are reported in the table below.
      o Contrary to what may be expected, students in the first family resources quartile (i.e., students having the greatest
           financial need) were least likely to report that they were working. Only 28% of these students were currently working.
           The low percentage of working students in the first quartile may be accounted for, to some extent, by the greater
           likelihood of highest-need students' receiving a greater proportion of their overall financial aid in the form of grants
           and loans, compared with the proportion derived from work-study programs.
      o In the remaining three family resource quartiles, as financial need decreased, the percentage of students working
           also decreased--from 63% in the second quartile to 58% in the third quartile and 43% in the fourth.
      o About a third (34%) of students who did not apply for any “need-based” aid reported that they were currently
           working. It is likely that most of these had more financial resources available to them and less need to work while
           attending college.


                                                                               Weighted
                                                      Family Resource            Pct             N
                                                         Quartiles             Working         Working
                                                      st
                                                     1 Quartile                  28%             22
                                                      nd
                                                     2 Quartile                  63%             47
                                                      rd
                                                     3 Quartile                  58%             30
                                                      th
                                                     4 Quartile                  43%             28
                                                     No need-based aid            34%              53
                                                     Total                        43%            180*
                                                     * Financial aid information was not available for all students.



2
 For all analyses done by racial/ethnic groups, we have excluded the group of students for whom the Student Information database has no
specified race/ethnicity recorded; these students’ records show race/ethnicity recorded as “unknown.”

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Campus Climate Survey, 2006



Working at on-campus or off-campus jobs: Variation by class standing, racial/ethnic group, and gender

   Survey respondents who indicated they were currently working were asked whether their employment was “on campus or
    off campus.” The percentage of students working off campus (54%) is slightly larger than the percentage working on
    campus (47%).

      o   Of those students who were working, a higher percentage of undergraduate students reported that they worked off
          campus than did graduate students -- 63% vs. 25%.

                   Among undergraduates, higher percentages of freshmen (72%) and sophomores (64%) indicated that they
                    worked off campus than did juniors (59%) and seniors (61%).

                   As noted above, graduate students were much more likely to work on campus than were
                    undergraduates—with approximately equal percentages of master’s (79%) and doctoral students (78%)
                    indicating they worked on campus. This is likely due to the fact that master’s and doctoral students can,
                    and often do, hold teaching assistant (TA), research assistant (RA), or graduate-part-time-instructor (GPTI)
                    positions on campus.

                                                           Weighted         Weighted
                                                          Pct Working      Pct Working        N
                                      Class Standing      Off Campus       On Campus        Working
                                     Freshman                  72%             28%            34
                                     Sophomore                 64%             36%            28
                                     Junior                    59%             41%            41
                                     Senior                    61%             39%            76
                                     Master’s                  21%             79%            32
                                     PhD                       22%             78%            68
                                     JD (Law)                  77%             23%             9
                                     Total                     46%              54%           288*
                                     *Total respondents who reported working do not sum to 290 because
                                      2 of them were classified as non-degree students.

      o   A higher percentage of male respondents than female respondents who reported working indicated that they worked
          at a job on campus (55% versus 40%, respectively). This difference was most likely due to gender being confounded
          with class standing. Specifically, a higher percentage of all graduate students who reported working (57%) were
          male, and the great majority of working graduate students have on-campus jobs.

      o   Nearly all (93%) of the 43 international students who reported working indicated they worked on campus, compared
          with less than half (45%) of the 69 working white students and of the 131 working students in the combined
          racial/ethnic group. These findings are also confounded with class standing, in that 89% of the 43 international
          students who reported working were graduate students.


Number of hours worked per week: Variation by class standing, racial/ethnic group, and gender

    Survey respondents who indicated they were currently working were asked how many hours they spent working at their
     job each week. Of all respondents who indicated they worked, almost half (47%) reported working between 10-20 hours
     per week, slightly less than one-fourth (23%) indicated that they work fewer than 10 hours per week, and 30% reported
     working more than 20 hours per week.

 There is considerable variation across class standings in the distribution of number of hours worked per week, as shown in
  the table below.

      o   Across all undergraduate and graduate class standings, between 50% and 88% of employed students work 20 or
          fewer hours per week. Notably, however, a much higher percentage of juniors (50%) and PhD students (38%) work
          more than 20 hours per week, compared with students at other class standings-- 13-24% of freshmen, sophomores,
          and seniors, and 12% of master’s students.



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Campus Climate Survey, 2006
    o Among employed undergraduate students, higher percentages of underclassmen reported working fewer than 10
        hours per week (32% of freshmen, 44% of sophomores) compared with upperclassmen (18% of juniors, 23% of
        seniors).

      o   Among employed graduate students, 10% of master’s students and 12% of doctoral students reported that they
          work fewer than 10 hours per week. A much higher percentage of doctoral students than master’s students,
          however, spend more than 20 hours per week working at a job--38% vs. 12%.



                                                                         Weighted Pct Working
                         Class Standing              N working       < 10 hrs 10-20 hrs > 20 hrs
                         Freshmen                       34             32%       55%        13%
                         Sophomores                     28             44%       35%        21%
                         Juniors                        41             18%       32%        50%
                         Seniors                        76             23%       53%        24%
                         Master’s students              32             10%       78%        12%
                         PhD students                   68             12%       50%        38%
                         Law students*                   9             11%       77%        12%
                         Total                         288             23%       47%        30%
                        *Law students were very similar to master’s students with respect to number of hours
                         worked per week. The number of employed law students (9) is, however, too small to
                         support reliable comparisons with the other class-standing groups.

   For all ethnic groups but African Americans, the general pattern among working students with respect to number of hours
    worked per week is that most (45%-60%) report working 10-20 hours, with the remainder split between those working
    fewer than 10 hours (23%-26%) and those working more than 20 hours (16%-32%). (See table below.) Among African
    American students who work, roughly equal percentages report working fewer than 10 hours (36%), 10-20 hours (38%), or
    more than 20 hours (26%).

   Approximately one-third (32%) of white students who were employed at a job worked more than 20 hours a week,
    compared with 16%-30% of ethnic minority students and 16% of international students.
      o Among ethnic minority students who were currently working, there was considerable variation in the percentages
         working more than 20 hours per week: 30% of Native Americans, 26% of African Americans, 22% of Hispanics, and
         only 16% of Asian Americans.

                                                                                  Weighted Pct Working
                                Racial/Ethnic
                                   Groups              N Working          < 10 hrs         10-20 hrs           > 20 hrs
                              Asian                       32                24%               60%                16%
                              African American            27                36%               38%                26%
                              Hispanic                    34                26%               53%                22%
                              Native American             38                23%               47%                30%
                              White                       69                23%               45%                32%
                              International               43                18%               66%                16%
                              Total                      243*               23%               47%                30%
                               *Total respondents who reported working do not sum to 290, because
                                 for some of them race/ethnicity was unknown.


   A higher percentage of female students than male students reported working more than 20 hours per week --34% vs. 25%.




Number of hours worked per week: Variation associated with undergraduates' financial resources

   Employed undergraduate students were grouped into the five family resource categories described above (four family
    resource quartiles and a group that did not apply for need-based financial aid) and compared on the number of hours they



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Campus Climate Survey, 2006
   work per week-- fewer than 10 hours per week versus more than 10 hours per week. Results are presented in the table
   below.




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Campus Climate Survey, 2006

                                                                      Weighted Pct Working
                               Family Resource                      < 10 hrs per     ≥ 10 hrs per
                                    Quartile          N working        week             week
                               st
                              1 Quartile                 22             39%              61%
                               nd
                              2 Quartile                 47             35%              65%
                               rd
                              3 Quartile                 30              6%              94%
                               th
                              4 Quartile                 28             17%              83%
                              No need-based aid          53             33%              67%
                              Total                    180              27%              73%


   Substantially lower percentages of employed students having more limited family resources reported working ten or more
    hours per week, compared with students having greater family resources. Among working students in the first and second
    quartiles, 61% and 65%, respectively, worked 10 or more hours, compared with 94% and 83%, respectively, of students in
    the third and fourth quartiles.

      o   This difference may be explained, at least in part, by students in the lower two family resource quartiles receiving
          greater amounts of financial aid than those in the higher two quartiles. Students receiving more financial aid from
          grants and loans would likely not have to work as many hours per week to pay for college expenses.

   Among working undergraduates who did not apply for financial assistance or need-based aid, the percentage working 10
    or more hours a week (67%) was comparable to that of working undergraduates in the first and second family resource
    quartiles. Because these students did not apply for need-based financial aid, it is likely that they have more family
    resources available to them and, therefore, less need to work long hours per week.




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