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									                                 8           Passive Smoking                                                                                                                                                          Harm caused
                                                                                                                                                                                                                by passive smoking
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Health effects on adults
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HAIR                                                    Harm caused
“An hour a day in a room with a smoker is
    nearly a hundred times more likely to                                                                                                                                                                                         • Smell                                                   by passive smoking
  cause lung cancer in a non-smoker than                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Health effects on children
   20 years spent in a building containing                                                                                                                                                                                  BRAIN AND
         asbestos.” Sir Richard Doll, 1985                                                                                                                                                                              MENTAL EFFECTS
                                                                   ly"                                                                                                                                                                                                                      HAIR
                                                              se on                                                                                                                                                           • Strokes
                                                         nal u                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Smell
                                                    inter
The first conclusive evidence on               "For                le
                                                                   ing
                                                            s no s        y                                                                                                                                                          EYES
the danger of passive smoking
                                                  ÒT here i reproducibl                                                                                                                                     • Sting, water and blink more
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BRAIN
                                                        ble,          tity                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Possible association with brain tumours
                                                defina teristic en
came from Takeshi Hirayama’s
                                                 charac wn as ETS.Ó
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              and long-term mental effects
study in 1981 on lung cancer in                                                                                                                                                                                                      NOSE
non-smoking Japanese women                             kno                                                                                                                                                                    • Irritation
                                                                       sues                                                                                                                                                                                                                 EYES
                                                               ris Is
                                                         ip Mor nual, 1995
married to men who smoked.                                                                                                              Secre                                                                                                                                               • Sting, water and blink more
                                                   Phil g Ma                                                                                 t pol
                                                                                                                                                  l for                                                        RESPIRATION AND LUNGS
                                                           n
                                                   Traini
Although the tobacco industry                                                                                                             Tobac
                                                                                                                                               co In    the U
                                                                                                                                                             S                                                            • Lung cancer
                                                                                                                                                    stitu                                                                                                                                   EARS
immediately launched a multi-                                                                                                                            te                                                  • Worsening of pre-existing
                                                                                                                   ÒWhat                                                                                                                                                                    • Middle ear infections
million dollar campaign to                                                                                      himsel the smoker                                                                               chest problems, such as
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (chronic otitis media)
                                                                                                                       f
discredit the evidence, dozens of                                                                               but wh may be his does to                                                                    asthma, chronic obstructive
                                                                                                                       at             b
                                                                                                                  the no the smoker usiness,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pulmonary disease
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            RESPIRATION AND LUNGS
further studies have confirmed
                                                                                                                differ   nsmoke         does                                                                            and emphysema
                                                                                                                       ent ma r is quite ato
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Respiratory infections
the link. Research then broadened                                                                              see as         tter.                                                                                                                                                           (including bronchitis and
                                                                                                                        t            Th                                                                                            HEART
into other areas and new scientific                                                                              develo he most dang is we                                                                                                                                                    pneumonia)
                                                                                                                        pment                                                                             • Harms, clogs weakens arteries
evidence continues to accumulate.                                                                              viabil
                                                                                                                      it       yet to erous                                                                        • Heart attack, angina
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Asthma induction
  A complex mixture of chemicals                                                                                 indust y of the tob the                                                                                                                                                      and exacerbation
                                                                                                                        ry tha         acco                                                                                                                                                 • Chronic respiratory symptoms
is generated from the burning and                                                                                     occurr t has yet                                                                                            UTERUS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (wheezing, cough, breathlessness)
                                                                                                                             ed.Ó                                                                                   • Low birthweight or
smoking of tobacco. As a passive                                                                              Roper                                                                                             small for gestational age
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Decreased lung function
                                                                                                                     Organi
smoker, the non-smoker breathes                                                                                             zation                                                                          • Cot death or Sudden Infant
                                                                                                                                   ,1978                                                                          Death Syndrome (SIDS)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HEART
“sidestream” smoke from the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Deleterious effects on oxygen,
burning tip of the cigarette and                                                                                                                                                                                               after birth
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              arteries
“mainstream” smoke that has been                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Increased nicotine receptors
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BURNS
inhaled and then exhaled by the                                                                                                                                                                           • From fires caused by tobacco
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BLOOD
smoker.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Possible association
  The risk of lung cancer in non-                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             with lymphoma
smokers exposed to passive                                                              Children exposed to passive smoking at home
smoking is increased by between                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             BURNS
                                                                                                                                                                      selected countries                                                                                                    • From fires caused by tobacco
20 and 30 percent, and the excess                                                                                                                           2001 or latest available data
risk of heart disease is 23 percent.                        69% 68% 7%                                                                                                       percentages                                                                                                    ROLE MODEL
                                                                   6
  Children are at particular risk                                     63%                                                                                                                                                                                                                   • Greater likelihood of becoming
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Numbers affected by passive smoking                   a smoker as a teenager
from adults’ smoking. Adverse                                                                         57% 5%
                                                                                                         5
health effects include pneumonia                                                                             53%                                                                                                                                    in the USA
                                                                                                                                            49%                          %                                                                                annual 1990s
and bronchitis, coughing and                                                                                                                          46% 45.5
wheezing, worsening of asthma,                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Lung cancer 3,000
middle ear disease, and possibly                                                                                                                                         34% 34%                                                             Ischaemic heart disease 35,000 to 62,000
neuro-behavioural impairment                                                                                                                                                               31% 9%
                                                                                                                                                                                              2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Infants and children
                                                                                                               Russian Federation




and cardiovascular disease in
adulthood.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Low birthweight 9,700 to 18,600
  A pregnant woman’s exposure
                                                                   Argentina




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Cot death (SIDS) 1,900 to 2,700
                                                                                          Indonesia




                                                                                                                                            Ukraine



                                                                                                                                                                Mexico



                                                                                                                                                                                 Nigeria




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Bronchitis or pneumonia in infants 150,000 to 300,000
                                                                                                                                                      Bolivia




to other people’s smoking can
                                                                               Poland




                                                                                                                                    China
                                                            Cuba




                                                                                                      Chile




                                                                                                                                                                         India



                                                                                                                                                                                           Haiti

                                                                                                                                                                                                   Peru




harm her foetus. The effects are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Respiratory effects in children
compounded when the child is                                                                                                                                                                                                               Middle ear infection 700,000 to 1,600,000
exposed to passive smoking                                                                                                                                                                                                               Asthma induction (new cases) 8,000 to 26,000
after birth.                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Asthma exacerbation 400,000 to 1,000,000

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