Docstoc

Adoption

Document Sample
Adoption Powered By Docstoc
					   SCODE


IMPROVED COOK STOVES ADOPTION AND
  USE: HOUSEHOLD AND COMMUNITY
       LEVEL SURVEY REPORT.



            MARCH, 2010.




                                1
TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0. BACKGROUND ..................................................................................................................... 3

2.0 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................. 3
2.1 Subject areas covered ................................................................................................................ 3
3.0 FINDINGS................................................................................................................................ 4
3.1 Household level. ........................................................................................................................ 4
3.2 Community level ....................................................................................................................... 5
3.3 Levels of awareness on ICS and their benefits .......................................................................... 5
3.6 Obstacles to a faster ICS adoption rate ...................................................................................... 5
4.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ................................................................................................... 6
5.0 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................ 6
APPENDICES. ............................................................................................................................. 7




                                                                                                                                             2
1.0. BACKGROUND
From the Gender and Energy baseline survey conducted by SCODE and SNV, in
September 2009, it was evident that energy needs of men and women differed, and that
age, household’s level of income and location played a role in energy needs, type of
energy technologies and their adoption rates. Challenges faced in meeting individual
energy needs were also looked at during the survey and those faced by players along the
ICS value chain of production. The need however to design an effective GM action plan
to address the issues called for a further analysis of the baseline survey report to identify
gaps that needed to be filled and aid in the development of a feasible action plan that
tackled problems with emphasis on the ICS value chain of production. Among the gaps
identified included the need to map specific areas in which the SCODE ICS project is
being implemented within Rift valley and Central provinces and find the approximate
population of residents in the regions and the number of households. Other key issues
included number of households using ICS and those without, indicating the household
heads (whether male or female headed), individual/household participation in the ICS
value chain of production and obstacles to a faster ICS adoption rate. There was also need
to find out how ICS users were exploiting their freed time and saved cost on fuel wood as
a result of their adopting the use of ICS. This therefore made it necessary for a household
and community level ICS adoption and user survey to be carried out in sampled regions.
Being a planting season, pilot household visits indicated a low response as questionnaires
were not being distributed to the intended target population because households were left
with the very young and the very old who could not participate in planting and therefore
the survey had to extend to community groups and worked with existing groups, carrying
out the survey through attendance of self help group meetings, Focal area meetings
organized by the Ministry of Agriculture and chiefs’ “barazas.”

2.0 METHODOLOGY
Specific regions in the Rift valley and Central provinces where the SCODE ICS
Dissemination and Enterprise Development project is being implemented were found to
have a population of 4,408,767 people: (2,235,071) female, (2,173,696) male and 956
468 households (1999 census results).A total of 37 households and seven community
groups were randomly sampled within the project area for the survey through random
sampling. Data collection was by use of questionnaires and focus group discussions. The
following regions were visited:
     I. Koibatek (Eldama Ravine)
    II. Nyandarua ( Olkalau and Dundori)
   III. Nakuru North (Kiamaina)
  IV. Nakuru North (Bahati)
    V. Nakuru North (Engashura)
  VI. Nakuru North (Good Samaritan)
  VII. Naivasha (Ihindu)

2.1 Subject areas covered
           Number of households with and without ICS.
           Household heads in relation to the adoption and use of ICS.
           Group members (at the community level) with and without ICS.


                                                                                           3
                         Household/community levels of awareness on ICS and their benefits
                         Obstacles to a faster ICS adoption rate
                         Individual/Household/ community level participation in the ICS value
                          chain of production
                         Utilization of the saved time and cost (for ICS users) as a result of their
                          adoption and use of ICS productively to generate income
                          Opinion: what ICS users and potential users would like to see in future,
                          i.e. improvement

2.2 Data Processing, Analysis and presentation
Percentages were used to simplify data that was presented in charts using Ms Excel and
Ms Word applications.


30.0 FINDINGS
The results of the survey were analyzed at two levels: Household and Community.
3.1 Household level.


                            ICS adoption and use

                56%           54%
                54%
                52%
   Percentage




                50%
                48%                             46%
                46%
                44%
                42%
                               1                 2
                Households with and without ICS respectively




Out of the 54% households with ICS, 92% were male headed and 8% female headed,
while those without, 76% were male headed and 24% female headed. The results
however represent a small fraction of the project area (37 households out of 956 468
targeted household within the project area) The ICS found in the sampled households
were mainly KCJs (83%) and only 17% fire wood burning stoves.




                                                                                                   4
3.2 Community level
At the community level, the survey targeted existing groups where focus group
discussions were conducted and the findings indicated the following: 6.08% had ICS
while 93.9% did not.



  100
    90
    80
    70
    60                                               Group members with
    50                                               ICS

    40                                               Group members without
                                                     ICS
    30
    20
    10
     0
            1            2            3



3.3 Levels of awareness on ICS and their benefits
Household and community levels of awareness on ICS were sought during the survey and
from the findings, 68% of sampled households were aware of ICS although only 54% had
adapted the use of ICS while 14% of those aware of ICS cited affordability, production of
inadequate heat to by the ICS to warm the kitchen and attachment to traditions as reasons
for their not using the ICS. Of the 68% aware of ICS, 60% were able to cite benefits that
come along with the use of ICS, some from experience while others had learnt them from
awareness creation sessions. 32% of households interviewed neither knew about ICS nor
their benefits.
At the group level, 18% of respondents were aware of ICS and their benefits, 6.08% were
using ICS for cooking and heating while 93.9% were yet to adopt the use of ICS.

3.6 Obstacles to a faster ICS adoption rate
Other than lack of awareness, affordability and production of inadequate heat to warm the
kitchen by ICS while cooking were identified as major obstacles to a faster ICS adoption
rate. 97% of households with ICS (mainly KCJs) were using them alongside 3 stone open
fire places and only 3% exclusively used ICS for cooking and heating. Among the
reasons for incorporating the 3 stone open fire places in the energy provision for cooking
and heating included warming the kitchen and the user, and readily available sources of
firewood (especially in Koibatek) as compared to charcoal, a region where awareness on
energy saving stoves that use firewood was found to be low as individuals equated ICS to
KCJs.
All the ICS users interviewed, although had realized the benefits that came along with the
use of ICS, none had exploited the saved cost and freed time on looking for fuel wood as


                                                                                        5
a result to generate secondary benefits. To them, the adoption and use of ICS ended with
the benefits.

4.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
     Lack of awareness, affordability, culture and production of inadequate heat by
      ICS to warm the kitchen while cooking are the key obstacles to a faster ICS
      adoption rate.
     Female headed households without ICS were more compared to male headed
      ones.
     Benefits of using ICS need to be elaborately explained to potential users in
      comparison to the traditional methods of cooking to enable them realize the
      difference.
     ICS users have not exploited the freed time and saved cost on fuel wood
      productively to generate income.
     Household surveys are the most effective in determining ICS adoption rates as
      results from focus groups and those from household survey (within a similar
      geographical region) portray a large disparity, meaning people are not willing to
      disclose whether they have ICS or not, unless their households are visited.


5.0 CONCLUSION
Despite the continued effort to raise awareness levels on ICS and their benefits, the
survey results indicated low awareness levels as one of the key obstacles to a faster ICS
adoption rate, alongside affordability, culture and inadequate heat produced by the ICS to
warm the kitchen as the main obstacles to a faster ICS adoption rate.
Individual participation in the ICS value chain of production was also gauged and found
to be low. 97% respondents involved in ICS were users and only 3% were installers and
retailers. Stove entrepreneurship is yet to be embraced by residents within the sampled
regions. On maximizing benefits that emanate from the use of ICS, users had realized the
benefits but none had exploited the benefits to generate secondary benefits.
The need therefore to intensify awareness creation, address the issue of affordability and
improve the ICS to enable them produce adequate heat to warm the kitchen while
cooking, sensitize users on available stove business opportunities and the need to
maximize on the benefits that emanate from the use of stoves productively to generate
secondary benefits is an issue of priority.




                                                                                        6
Appendix1. Household questionnaire

1.   IDENTIFICATION
     Province
     District
     Division
     Location
     Sub location
     Village

     Household head (tick                            Tick   Comment
     where appropriate)
                                Husband
                                Wife
                                Other ( specify)

2.   ICS
     What do you use for        3 stone-fire place
     cooking? (tick where
     appropriate)
                                Improved jiko
                                (specify)
                                Biogas
                                Electricity
                                Other( specify)
     ICS users
     How did you get to know
     about the ICS and who
     financed it? (Please
     explain)
     Do you play any other      Producer
     role in the ICS value
     chain? (Tick where
     appropriate)
                                Retailer
                                Installer
                                Other (specify)
     Benefits
     What are the benefits of   Time saving
     using the ICS? (Tick
     where appropriate)
                                Reduced cost of
                                fuel
                                Improved
                                income levels



                                                                      7
                                   Reduced
                                   drudgery in
                                   activities.
                                   Reduced smoke
                                   Other (specify)
     Any Secondary benefits
     as a result of the
     identified primary
     benefits (above)? For
     example, if it is time
     saving, are you using the
     extra time for other
     productive activities? If
     YES, how? If NO, why?
     Non ICS users
     What are the reasons for      Not aware
     your not using the
     ICS?(Tick where
     appropriate)
                                   Not affordable
                                   Traditions/beliefs
                                   Other(specify)
3.   FUTURE PLANS
     What would you like to
     see in future as far as our
     ICS is concerned? E.g.
     any improvement?




                                                        8
Appendix2. Community/ group level questionnaire

1.   IDENTIFICATION
     Province
     District
     Division
     Location
     Sub location
     Village

     Group name and
     composition
     (gender specific)

2.   ICS                                          Tick   Comment
     What do you use for     3 stone-fire place
     cooking? (tick where
     appropriate)
                             Improved jiko
                             (specify)
                             Biogas
                             Electricity
                             Other( specify)
     ICS users
     How many members
     have the ICS, how
     you got to know
     about them and how
     you financed their
     purchase/installation
     (individually or as a
     group?) ( Please
     explain)
     What are the
     benefits? (primary)
     E.g. reduced cost of
     fuel wood. (Please
     name)
     Any Secondary
     benefits emanating
     from the mentioned
     primary benefits?
     (Please name)
     Role
     Do you play any
     other role in the ICS


                                                                   9
     value chain as a
     group? If YES, please
     specify
                             Producers
                             Retailers
                             Installers
                             Other( specify)
     Non ICS users
     How many members Not aware
     do not use the ICS
     and what are reasons?
     (Tick where
     appropriate)
                            Not affordable
                            Traditions/beliefs
                            Other( specify)
3.   FUTURE PLANS
     What would you like
     to see in future (as a
     group) as far as our
     ICS are concerned?




                                                 10
Appendix3. Survey schedules

     REGION                   DATE      GROUP   HOUSEHOLDS
1.   Koibatek                 4/3/10    *
2.   Nyandarua (Olkalau)      5/3/10    *
3.   Nakuru North(Kiamaina)   9/3/10            *
4.   Nakuru North (Bahati)    10/3/10   *
5.   Nakuru North (Kiorogo)   11/3/10   *       *
6.   Naivasha (Ihindu)        12/3/10   *
7.   Nakuru North (good       15/3/10   *
     Samaritan)
8.   Naivasha (Ihindu)        16/3/10   *       *
9.   Nyandarua ( Dundori)     17/3/10           *




                                                         11

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:5
posted:2/5/2012
language:
pages:11