Docstoc

Business Plan for a Procurement Company

Document Sample
Business Plan for a Procurement Company Powered By Docstoc
					Business Plan For A Procurement Company

Contact Information:
604 Harmony Lane New York, NY 10007 (212) 555-1234

This document contains confidential information. It is disclosed to you for informational purposes only. Its contents shall remain the property of Business Plan For A Procurement Company and shall be returned to Business Plan For A Procurement Company when requested.

This is a business plan and does not imply an offering of securities.

Table of Contents

1. Executive Summary Business Opportunity Product/Service Description 2. Company Background Business Description Company History 3. Business Plan For A Procurement Company

1

3

5

4. Services

6

5. The Industry, Competition, and Market Market Definition Primary Competitors Customer Profile 6. Marketing Plan

7

10

7. Financial Plan Investment Plan Break-even Analysis Liquidity Plan Earnings Plan Risk Analysis 8. Conclusion

11

19

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

1

1. Executive Summary
Procurement services are one of the growing businesses in the trading area. The growth rates of the average company in this business show that there is a strong demand from every line of business because cost control and earnings optimization are key factors of successful enterprises. Compared to other business activities the business service area has low risks because of low required investments. Internet-based marketplaces and new technologies help to create a worldwide procurement business. The return on typical procurement offerings has a growth rate of about 20% to 25% per year. The goal of this start-up is the operation of a procurement business for other firms that offers a wide range of services depending on customer demand. New online technologies will support the international activities, increase sales revenues and utilize personnel capacity. 1.1 Business Opportunity The business service industry shows currently a strong growth marked by a higher demand but also growing costs. The development of new business strategies and solutions seems critical for new industry players to get market shares and survive in this highly competitive industry. Procurement services are one part where new companies can gain significant market shares. The choice of services as well as the development of applications can be one strategy in this field of business. Additionally a sound cost management is of critical importance for a solid stream of revenues. Big industry players have shown that even in a competitive market growth rates of more than 20% can be sustained. Many businesses in the industry have failed to adjust their strategy when customer demands and environmental factors changed. The most critical failures in such times were non-competitive offerings, unsatisfactory service, slacking cost control and management mistakes. On the other hand, companies that reacted flexibly to their changing environment show significantly higher revenues and margins and increased shareholder value. Especially new forms of distribution support the successful businesses. The operation of a procurement service business that offers a range of services and applications in this field is the core of this start-up. A strong focus of this business will be placed on the development of new and innovative procurement strategies for the customers that deliver a significant value and reduce costs. As an add-on a broad range of consulting services will be offered, which will help utilize company and employee capacity. The range of products is selected to provide solid growth potentials. The operation of this business requires a good knowledge of the procurement area as well as a competitive service concept to increase customer satisfaction. The demand to explain the handling of special items for other companies is likely to require a high degree of individual customer advise. However, it is critical that this service is offered with a strong focus on cost management.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

2

One central goal of the proposed business strategy is the development of an own corporate identity. Such identity will create customer loyalty and help gain a competitive advantage. Therefore it is planned that additional to the selection of new and interesting services a company design is developed. For this reason the service around the offered applications and the additional businesses are very extensive. The required investment for the proposed business is moderate compared to other companies in the industry. Labor is expected to be the main cost driver whereas no other substantial investment in fixed assets is required. Depending upon the location the minimum required investment amount ranges between $45,000 and $50,000 in the start-up phase based on a 15-18% average revenue margin. This amount is well within the financial requirements observed for other comparable companies. Further investments are required for technical implementations and an electronic procurement system. 1.2 Product/Service Description The business will operate in the business service industry with a variety of services and applications in the procurement segment. An additional source of revenues is the sale of specialised consulting services to improve the procurement section of the customer. This can range from technical consulting of computer systems to procurement and cost optimization. Cross selling is planned to be one of the prime strategies in this business since all products are targeted to serve a similar need and can easily be combined. Synergies in selling product across business segments is likely to boost earning further. Net earning are expected to be at least 4% above traditional consulting businesses with only one or two sales segments. Figure 1.1 shows the revenue mix across segments in the start-up phase. This projection is based on the expected strategic direction, investment amount and business environment. Being the core business the procurement service segment is expected to generate the largest share in revenues. The sale of consulting services is expected to be another important generator of revenues which also helps utilze invested capacity. The sale of technical implementations and other business services is expected to be intensified depending upon market conditions and investment opportunities.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

3

2. Company Background
The goal of this start-up is the operation of a business-services company in the procurement area with different services and similar offers. The focus of this business will be to provide procurement services for companies which shows the highest profits. The main argument for the customers are the reduced costs through lower product and material prices as well as through lower administration efforts. Additionally, the sale of consulting services and the offering of an electronic procurement tool is planned to reach an optimal utilization of personnel and company capacity. An initial investment amount of at least $45,000 to $50,000 is required which will allow the operation of a business with 2 to 5 employees. Sales revenues and fees are expected to range between $100,000 and $200,000 in the start-up phase and the operation is expected to generate profits starting in the second or third business year. 2.1 Business Description Management is expected to have a solid knowledge of the offered procurement services to influence the customers. The goal is to create an innovative business in which the customer experiences competent service. A well chosen and targeted selection of offerings will complement this strategy. Both aspects are a core requirement to build customer loyalty. In the mean run repeat customers are expected to generate revenues of 40% and more. Although this strategy is likely to require additional investments it is expected that revenues per customer will increase significantly and range above industry average. Furthermore this strategy will provide a clear entrance barrier for prospective competitors. The development and promotion of a corporate identity is another central task for management. Given the homogeneity of businesses in this industry the development of a corporate identity will markedly increase sales revenues and build a customer base. Furthermore a corporate identity will support expanding the business to a larger international target market. 2.2 Company History In the start-up phase the business is operated as a one-man-business. This set up carries a certain risk potential because of the high equity stake the manager bears and the personal and statutory liability assumed. However, this set-up preserves a high degree of flexibility in managerial decision taking. The number of personnel to be employed depends on the structural complexity of the operations and the desired size. Figure 2.1 shows a break up of costs in the industry. It is expected that the target employee earns a monthly salary of $3,000 to $4,000 based on 40 hours per week. The sales and service area requires 1 to 2 employees on average working in 2 shifts. Due to illness and vacation times in the long run an average of 3 permanent employees will be required after the start-up phase. With increasing sales and better utilization of employee work time revenue margins will and thus costs per employee will decrease on average. With revenues ranging around $500,000 capacity utilization is expected to be around 85%.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

4

During the start-up phase a single person will attend to all necessary management task, coordinate employees and provide strategic direction to the developing business. Accounting, administrative and machine maintenance will be outsourced to external partner since those tasks can typically be provided at better rates externally. Sourcing and marketing will require one employee. Finding the optimal location for a business is one of the success factors in the short and long run. This is also important for virtual businesses because taxes, employees and additional costs are crucial for all businesses. The following analysis is based on 10 businesses in the business-services industry. Since a small company is recruiting its customers typically from the home country and later from a worldwide area a national location is considered as the core market. For the planned location the following factors are regarded as relevant: The taxes and other administration costs are low. Administrative costs are expected comparably small given the expected revenues. The possibility to recruit additional personnel is favorable. Public institutions are expected to provide additional sponsoring. It is easy to find appropriate employees. Because of the favorable growth perspectives in the chosen market and growing investment activities we expect to realize yearly growth rates in revenues of 15% to 20% given a 4% economic growth rate.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

5

3. Business Plan For A Procurement Company
The company focuses on providing procurement and e-procurement services that improve the process efficiency and reduce the costs of procurement. Additional value added offerings like payment services, logistics, and optimization processes will also be offered in the future. One of the key elements of a successful business in the business services industry is the selection of services that are currently as profitable as possible and show a high demand. Procurement services are one of these fields. A key element of a product presentation against the customers is to minimize the costs of procurement and to increase the profit. The fees of the service have to be compensated by the cost cutting results. The following points show the steps that will typically be offered to the customer. customer individual analysis of procurement activities matching of customers to create a higher bargaining power and to get lower prices selection of producers to find the best prices strategy consulting to optimize the procurement process of the customer The specific selection of services and applications offered will be monitored constantly and vary according to business needs. The selection will include low and high priced combinations as well as new and innovative elements. Here e-procurement is one of the main elements that will contain the following parts. development of an electronic system where customers can insert their requests for products development of a market places that matches the supply and demand technical optimization of the whole procurement process This strategy with different offerings provides a competitive edge against other procurement service companies in the environment and is expected to generate an additional demand and the possibility for a price mark-up. Such mark-ups will be one of the key elements of profitability. New applications and services with an additional functionality for the customer will have a mark-up potential of 10-12% above average while the additional cost is minimal at 5%. This provides a 10-15% margin. Such strategy should focus on items with the highest mark-up potential for the future.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

6

4. Services
Additional service and consulting elements will be important for whole company. Especially the supply of complex service offerings with a higher priced range will require extensive consulting activities. This strategy will help utilize the capacity in personnel since it allows for an optimal coordination of employees. On the one hand because of the difficult processes consulting is one requirement of the customer. On the other hand these services will create a significant part of the revenue. The consulting service will only have an advantage for the customer if the project will be supported by a theoretical basis with the newest information. Therefore a database that collects all customer information and all processes is required. Initially the investment in inventory, technical equipment and personnel capacity of this segment is limited. Outsourcing of the whole procurement process is one of the services that will be offered in the future. Because of the complexity a knowledge base has to be developed. Further investments are also required. The impact of this area is to create a better productivity, faster processing, greater visibility and the reduction of costs. The return of investment of the customer should significantly increase in the long run.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

7

5. The Industry, Competition, and Market
A careful analysis of the market and competitive forces in this industry is a key element in assessing the business potential of the project. This analysis will provide marketing- and sales data that are indispensable to develop the business potential optimally. The main competitors are business service companies with a similar selection of offerings and applications and comparable size. Since the planned project is of national and international scope the competitive analysis will not only have to focus on the local market but on a worldwide environment. The market and competition analysis will be based on the entire specified market. 5.1 Market Definition Figure 5.1 shows average growth figures in revenues of procurement and similar companies during the past 6 years. Despite slowing global economic growth in general and in the service and support industry in particular, a lot of companies have experienced constant growth rates of more than 20% since 2001. For 2004 an overall growth of 15% is expected with a strong development in the first and last quarter. Despite slowing economic growth and decreasing customer demand the business service industry underwent a relatively favorable development. New and innovative business concepts like e-procurement still show high growth potentials while growth rates of traditional businesses in that industry were below average. The significant growth of new business concepts is primarily due to sharp cost control and more efficient business strategies that accounted for higher revenue and earning figures. According to industry estimates 35% of such innovative businesses gained from cross-selling activities between their business segments. Sinking prices of input products and service costs have allowed the industry to partially compensate for slowing demand. Savings in input costs were also due to decreased labor costs. However, starting in 2004 this trend is expected to reverse and growth rates will pick up markedly despite the uncertainty in the development of input prices and worldwide economic developments.

5.2 Primary Competitors The competitive environment is primarily determined by the choice of item groups and

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

8

national or international location. But regardless of the selection of items high mark-ups are not feasible in the long run since this will attract competitors who compete away any rents. With a high density of businesses in one location businesses with the highest marginal cost will be driven out of the market. Such locations will yield a return of 12-15% on average. This is the expected equilibrium return in a saturated market. To further analyze the competitive environment it is necessary to define the players in that environment. A firm that generates $300,000 to $3,000,000 in revenues and employs 5 to 10 people should regard a firm with revenues and personnel 3 times this figures as a viable competitor. On the product and service side, businesses with a comparable selection of offers are regarded competing in the same market segment. Figure 5.4 shows the size of businesses in this market segment which also includes different products and services that will be sold worldwide. The numbers are based on average revenues of companies that run their business more than five years.

5.3 Customer Profile The specialized way of distribution and offerings are primarily targeting companies and public institutions. A possible segmentation to identify different customer groups is by segmentation of different lines of business. The public sector is also seen as one line of business with the same characteristics. Figure 5.2 shows the demand for business services and especially procurement services from different lines of business. Numbers are based on averages per company of a particular group multiplied by the number of companies in the respective group. This gives total demand share per individual group. As can be seen companies in the industry segment like car manufacturer have a high demand for procurement services because of the large demand for raw materials and other high priced products. Also other industries like telecommunication and information technology have a growing demand in the procurement segment especially because of cost cutting efforts and business optimization. Figure 5.3 shows the distribution of the average revenues per customer. It can be seen that medium sized companies between 40 and 60 Million have the highest demand for this type of service.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

9

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

10

6. Marketing Plan
In the start-up phase it is a central task of the marketing concept to establish a name recognition and own trade mark. Later on the strategy will primarily be targeted to gain new customers and create customer loyalty of repeat customers. Several marketing and sales promotion strategies are available in the business-services industry with a focus on small and medium customers. Figure 6.1 shows different marketing elements and their use in marketing strategies as well as their estimated potential success factor. The figure can serve as a direction for the planning of a marketing and sales promotion strategy. The numbers are based on typical businesses in the considered industry. As can be seen printed advertisements targets a large potential customer group but at a relatively high cost. Printed advertisements in international newspapers and magazines is regarded as very beneficial in the start-up phase to attract a large group of potential customers and draw attention to the range of articles offered. 49% of businesses in the industry use printed advertisements and about 60% of this group regard this as the most beneficial form of marketing. Sales promotion strategies have temporary effects only. They are used at business openings primarily and offer special discounts. 49% of businesses use sales promotion strategies frequently and 81% of the users responded that this instrument is successful. Marketing alliances with other online businesses to generate cost savings and increase efficiency are used rarely. Such strategies include mutual use of marketing and web promotion events and joint promotion arrangements. Only 45% of businesses have used these elements and 55% of these regard this instrument as beneficial. Web and e-mail marketing is used frequently in the service industry because this is a relatively inexpensive effort. Direct mailings are a very efficient strategy that sends mailing to selected customers or businessmen groups. Since spreading costs of such mailing are very low this marketing element provides a useful tool for special offer promotions. The use of marketing and sales promotions proceeds as follows: to a broad base attract new customers the strategy will include a combination of printed advertisements and special offers with opening discounts. Furthermore a group of customers will be selected for direct mailings. This strategy is expected to continue for 3-4 months after which the effort will turn towards creating a customer loyalty for regular customers. This strategy is supplemented by a regular marketing strategy and direct mailings to regular customers. A marketing alliance and online advertisements will also come to use.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

11

7. Financial Plan
A sound financial plan is the key factor for the success of a business start-up. Investors and banks will base their funding decision on the information given in this plan. Besides a plan of the financial needs this plan must insure that the business is always liquid and ultimately profitable. Since the sales and earnings projections in the business plan are based on expectations, the financial plan has to be revised and refined on a constant basis so that discrepancies can be uncovered and solved instantly. The inputs for this financial plan are based on 20 businesses of different size and market segments in the business service industry which serve as a group of comparable firms as well as own estimates based on the planned business environment. Revenue estimates are conservative and expense projections include a cushion for unforeseen contingencies. The initial capital requirement is estimated to be $45,000 to $50,000 based on a procurement volume of $5,000,000 and fees of $150,000 to $200,000. The sales margin is expected to be 18-20% whereby each business segment contributes differently to sales and earnings. The procurement fees will of all segments have the largest contribution to sales in relative terms (75%) and given the high sales volume also the largest in absolute terms. Revenues from service and consulting sales with 12% can be differentiated into those from low priced consulting to sophisticated procurement services with some parts. The contribution of technology developments is expected to generate a 8% sales margin while the margin from sales of additional business services is expected to be closer to 5%. Figure 7.1 shows the source of revenues by segment during the start-up phase. The shares can change during the business period. Depending on the initial investment sum cost and revenue estimates vary. Figure 7.2 shows the expected relationship of cost and revenues. As can be seen the relationship is not linear everywhere but costs decrease relative to sales at an initial investment of $50,000. This effects is due to the better utilization of capacities in personnel at rising revenues at constant cost. If capacity is fully utilized additional personnel must be recruited. At an investment sum of $500,000 administrative costs are expected to return to a linear relationship of sales. At sales levels between $1,000,000 to 2,000,000 costs increase by the factor 1.85. The cost revenue relationship is important not only during the start-up phase but also for planned further expansion. Often such expansion strategies are based on this relationship. Other industries are able to generate cost savings of 30-50% during expansion periods while for the service industry this factor is close to 15%. At a specific size this relationship reverses because administrative costs rise sharply. This affects small businesses between 10 and 20 employees most severely. The details of the financial plan are laid out in more detail as follows: Section 7.1 gives an investments schedule. This includes all investments necessary during the start-up phase. Section 7.2 gives a break-even analysis that shows revenues at the break-even point. Every additional sales revenue adds to profit and vice versa.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

12

Section 7.3 gives a liquidity plan. This plan is based on current cost and revenue estimates from Section 7.2. Liquidity must always be positive. Section 7.4 contains a long-term profit projection for the first 4 years of business. The projection shows that the critical amount of revenues at which the business is profitable and how profit develops over time. Section 7.5 provides a risk analysis. The risk analysis contains critical factors that may impact the financial numbers presented in this plan.

7.1 Investment Plan The investment plan comprises primary capital needs for the foundation and operation of a procurement service company with different services. The plan also includes initial marketing and sales promotion expenses. The figures are based on a business with 2-5 employees and expected revenues of $250,000 in year 2-3.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

13

7.2 Break-even Analysis The break-even analysis shows how earnings rise as a function of sales. The break-even point is the point at which revenues from sales cover total costs (fix costs and costs rising with sales). This analysis is important for the development of the liquidity plan. If the break-even point is not achieved in the long run the business loses liquidity and may become insolvent. This requires that a critical amount of revenues must be generated. At a sale revenue of $200,000 and given fixed costs the business will generate a profit. Fixed costs are estimated at $150,000 to $160,000 and variable costs at $50,000. At a realizable revenue of $500,000 after 2-3 years profits will rise to $125,000 pre-tax. This represents an earnings margin of 25% pre-tax and 14% after-tax. These estimates are realistic in this market segment. Increasing sales volume will increase pre-tax

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

14

earnings margins but this development reverses when administrative costs begin to rise sharply. Up to a sales volume of $1,000,000 earnings margins rise to 27.5% after which the margin decreases to constant 25.5%. Figure 7.3 shows at which critical sales volume the business generates a profit. This serves as a base for a pricing strategy. Additionally the graph shows the amount of sales at which a marketing campaign can be run profitably.

7.3 Liquidity Plan The liquidity plan shows the amount of finances necessary to assure permanent liquidity of the business. The plan is based on 4 representative months of a typical business with 3 to 5 employees and annual sales of $300,000. Revenue estimates are drawn from a standard normal distribution.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

15

7.4 Earnings Plan The earnings plan shows the results from ordinary operations. The plan is based on the first 4 years of business. Revenue estimates are drawn from a normal distribution with an estimated growth rate of 20 to 30%. Figure 7.4 shows profit over time.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

16

7.5 Risk Analysis The risk analysis considers critical factors that may lead to a failure of the business concept. Such factors can involve failures during the implementation phase as well as during operations. Such potential factors are ordered according to the probability at which they can arise. Shown is the key factor that led to the failure only. Data are drawn from questionnaires of 10 procurement and industry-service businesses with comparable product offerings and revenue- and cost structures as well as analyses of different

Business Plan For A Procurement Company research institutes.

17

1. Insufficient demand: This is the most frequent reason that leads to business failure. This includes permanently low demand as well as a temporary collapse in demand. Often demand estimates were too optimistic at the outset. Such failures might also come from external shocks instead of operating deficiencies. 19% of businesses with insufficient demand go bankrupt. 50% of these businesses report that once demand slacked they did not react accordingly because they believed that this phenomenon was only temporary. Since the expected frequency of customers during the start-up phase are still low a critical success factor is to focus promotional effort so as to generate customer loyalty early on which will help minimize the effects of demand fluctuations. This is also important for the future development of the business. 2. Behavior of Competition: Due to low entry barriers additional businesses can enter the market at low cost. Approximately 16% of insolvent businesses were driven out of the market by that competition. A better service concept, innovative ideas and concentration on core businesses are an easy means for an entrant to gain a competitive edge. 3. Personnel and capacity utilization: Often personnel capacity cannot be adjusted flexibly easily when demand slows down. Currently service businesses have a capacity utilization rate of personnel of 75%, i.e. 75% of employee working hours can be directly credited to sales. At small businesses this value is often lower which means that 25% of working hours arise without generating any further revenue. 12% to 13% of such businesses go bankrupt for this reason. 4. Liquidity constraints: Another frequent reasons for bankruptcy is in sufficient liquidity. In that case it is possible that all liquid funds are used to cover losses or that liquidity needs were planned too tight. To be able to flexibly react to changing liquidity needs it is important that sufficient funds be planned even during the start-up phase thus 5-10% of the investment sum should be held as liquidity reserve permanently. 13% of insolvent businesses reported liquidity as the reason for bankruptcy. 5. Over-indebtedness: Many business are run on a small equity base. The majority of investments are funded by debt. If the business becomes unprofitable, debt obligations cannot be covered. Little more over 10% of insolvent firms reported over-indebtedness as the reason for going bankrupt. It is therefore important that a share of earnings is retained for debt service. 6. Macroeconomic Conditions: In a cyclical downturn revenue expectations my not come in according to expectation. Although this factor does not affect the business in itself it does have an impact on profitability, liquidity and leverage. Cost remain constant during such period but revenues typically decrease which affects overall profitability. 10% of all insolvent businesses report that they went bankrupt due to macroeconomic conditions although the relevant indicators of the business looked healthy. 7. Location and market: The market of the business and the selection of the right

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

18

potential customers is an important success factor and one of the fundamental decisions that have an impact on the future prosperity of the firm. Therefore a careful analysis is necessary. More than 10% of insolvent businesses reported that they went bankrupt because of the wrong market selection. Often start-ups did not consider that even when the choice of market may not be wrong at the outset it may later become so when economic conditions worsen. This may be due to structural changes or different interest of customers. 8. Wrong Business Decisions: Often wrong business decisions and difficult situations go unnoticed for some period which can lead to a failure of the business. A critical and independent reflection of a decision are critical factors to determine the value of a management decision and evaluate the business profitability. Studies have shown that many businesses fail in their start-up phase because of management’s inability to make sound business decisions while one a business is settled such mistakes are very rare. A critical management instrument is the ability to detect potential failures and problems. Certain key figures can help measure this ability and allow to objectively determine a decision's chance for success. Small businesses should use such indicator ratios to assess their business outlooks. Figure 7.5 shows the relative importance of each factor for businesses that went bankrupt. The numbers are based on the most relevant reason that triggered bankruptcy but not the reason responsible for bankruptcy. As can be external factors that changed the competitive environment and changing macroeconomic conditions were the most important reasons relative to internal factors.

Business Plan For A Procurement Company

19

8. Conclusion
The procurement business with different offers from technical implementations to complete projects is a very profitable business while other segments in the business service market currently lives through a difficult time. This situation is mostly driven by the competition of larger companies. A business that successfully survives the current temporary slow down of the economy can be certain of increased profitability one the situation rebounds. The relatively modest investment requirements and running costs compared to other businesses are a favorable argument since external funds from banks becomes more difficult since the risk aversion to finance such ventures has risen. A company with specific knowledge and innovative ideas in the procurement business has good chances to move into profitable market niches and run a successful business. Market conditions change constantly as do customer demands. This is the chance for businesses with innovative ideas and new offerings to secure a dependable customer basis. Service is a critical factor that can earn a competitive edge. This is also true for new trends in the industry to better control costs and increase efficiency. For a successful operation of a procurement company 5 factors are critical and central for the business strategy: In the business service industry it is important that the customer experiences a comprehensive and competent service. This will secure customer loyalty and optimize profitability in a market that is very competitive. Innovative developments are one essential task to gain customers. The utilization of personnel capacity is critical for the long-term profitability because of changing margins and the constraints to flexibly reduce personnel. Therefore the additional selling of similar services is a further segment of the business that is integrated in the sale of the whole business process. A carefully selected assortment of interesting contents as well as the selected choice of new technologies is a potential to gain a competitive edge against competitors. Furthermore a service that aims to give the customer an added value through new services can justify price mark-ups. A critical factor in the services industry is quality management. Better quality at lower cost increases customer satisfaction. Deficiencies in service quality can lower demand while good service quality can help create customer loyalty. Cost management not only as a key argument for the customers but also for the whole business process is a critical success factor for businesses in industries where margins are low. Computer aided planning is an integral part of cost management.

-

-

-

-