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Literary Elements - SCHOOLinSITES

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									Literary Elements
Today’s Objectives

  Identify and describe different literary
   elements
  Give examples of literary elements in
   literature
  Describe how proper use of specific
   literary elements adds interest to a piece
   of literature
What are Literary Elements?

  Often called story elements
  The individual components that make up
   a whole story
  The building blocks of a story
Different Literary Elements

  Character
  Plot
  Theme
  Setting
  Point of View
  Style
  Sound Devices
  Tone
Character
  A person in the story, play, or poem. (An
   object or animal can be a character if it is
   personified.)
  Can develop to show the mixture of
   qualities that make up a person


       Milo and Tock from        Mrs. Potts and Chip
     Norton Juster’s book The   from Disney’s Beauty
        Phantom Tollbooth           and the Beast
Character Revelation

  Often called characterization
  Reveals the personality of the character
Ways of Character Revelation

  Action
  Speech
  Appearance
  Inner thoughts and feelings
  Other’s comments
  Author’s comments
Types of Characters

    Round Character
        Is complex and realistic; has depth of personality
             Protagonist-Central character
    Flat Character
        Lack of realistic personality
        May be detailed but does not have depth of
         personality
             Stereotype- traits that are commonly associated with a
              group of people
             Antagonist (Foil)- Opposes the protagonist
Character Example: Harry Potter
Series by J.K. Rowling
                             Flat;
            Round;
                          Stereotype;
          Protagonist
                          Antagonist




         Harry Potter   Lord Voldemort
Types of Characters Continued…

    Dynamic
        Changes as a result of conflict
             For example: Harry Potter develops sight and
              understanding in order to face and fight Lord
              Voldemort. He grows, learns, and feels.
    Static
        Does not change
             For example: Lord Voldemort does not change
              and grow. His intentions and motives remain the
              same.
Plot
    A sequence of events that occur in a story
        Exposition
             Introduces the stories characters, setting, and situation
        Rising Action
             Adds complication to the story’s conflicts
        Climax
             The moment of greatest suspense
        Falling Action
             The logical result of the climax
        Resolution
             Presents the final outcome
Plot Diagram


                                     Climax

                                     3
                                 2
             Rising Action
                             2                    Falling Action

                                              4
                     2

              2
Exposition
                                                           Resolution
       1                                               5
Plot Example: Goldilocks and the
Three Bears, Scandinavian Folktale
                                              The three bears
                                             return and notice        The bears find
                                             the porridge and         Goldilocks asleep
                     Goldilocks eats
                                             the broken chair.        in the baby bear’s
 Goldilocks is      the porridge and
 hungry, tired,     sits in the chairs                   3            bed.
and lost. Three       breaking one.           2
  bears leave
 their cottage                  2                                        The bears’
 unlocked and                                                            shouting
 go for a walk                                                   4       wakes
                        2           Goldilocks                           Goldilocks, and
   while their
                                    takes a nap                          she runs out of
porridge cools. 2
                                    in one of the                        the cottage.
                                    beds

      1     Goldilocks sees the                     Goldilocks           5
           cottage and knocks on                    escapes from
            the door. No one is                     the three bears
           home so she walks in.                    unharmed.
Plot

    Includes conflict
       Internal

          Man vs. Himself

       External

          Man vs. Man

          Man vs. Nature

          Man vs. Society
Conflict Example: The Watsons Go To
Birmingham-1963 by Christopher Paul Curtis
     Man vs. Himself
         Kenny wrestles with his conscious about whether or not he should
          disobey Grandma Sands and go swimming at Collier’s Landing.
     Man vs. Man
         Byron and Buphead bully Kenny by teaching him “how to survive a
          blizzard.”
     Man vs. Nature
         Byron gets his lips stuck on the rearview mirror of the Brown Bomber
          during freezing cold temperatures.
         Kenny is caught in a whirlpool and nearly dies.
     Man vs. Society
         People make fun of Kenny because he has a lazy eye and because
          he reads well for his age.
         A church is bombed in Birmingham during the American Civil Rights
          Movement as a sign of hatred and retaliation.
Plot: Order and Patterns

    Chronological Order
         Events are told in the order they occur
    Cliff Hanger
         Suspense at the end of a chapter that keeps the reader hooked
    Foreshadowing
         Clues about what will happen next
    Flashbacks
         A disruption in the normal sequence to recount some episode in the
          past
    Sensationalism
         Unrelieved suspense
    Denouement
         The point where the reader understands the resolution of the conflict
Plot Types

    Progressive Plots
        Central climax followed by denouement
    Episodic Plots
      One incident or short episode is linked to
       another by common characters or a unified
       theme
      Suspense is usually resolved within the
       chapter
Plot: Type Examples

    Progressive Plots
        The Giver by Lois Lowery


    Episodic plots
        The Little House Series by
         Laura Ingalls Wilder
Theme

  An idea about life revealed
  A unifying truth
  The main idea or central meaning in a
   piece of writing
  Must be expressed in a full sentence
  May be more than one theme in a book
  Not usually stated directly
Theme Example: The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion,
The Witch, and The Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis


     The Struggle of good vs. evil
         Four children join forces with the mythical
          creatures of Narnia in order to save the land
          from the evil White Witch.
Types of Themes

    Explicit Theme
        Theme is openly and clearly stated
    Implicit Theme
        Not stated openly; derived from the
         characters and actions
    Primary Theme
        Main theme
    Secondary Theme
        Additional, less important themes
Setting

  The time and place in which a story
   occurs
  Multiple Functions
      Clarifies conflict
      Antagonist

      Illuminates character

      Mood

      Symbol
Setting Example: Johnny Tremain by
Esther Forbs
    Boston, Massachusetts just before the
     American Revolution
Setting Types

    Integral Setting
        Essential Setting. The actions, characters,
         or themes, are influenced by the setting


    Backdrop Setting
        Relatively unimportant, the story can still
         take place without it
Point of View
    The vantage point from which the story is told
    Four Types
        First-Person
             One of the characters is telling the story
        Omniscient
             Narrator knows everything about the characters and their
              problems
        Limited Omniscient
             The reader sees the actions through the eyes of one
              character (usually the protagonist)
        Objective
             The writer does not enter the minds of any of the
              characters
Point of View Example: Land of the Buffalo Bones: The
Diary of Mary Elizabeth Rodgers, and English Girl in
Minnesota by Marion Dane Bauer

     First-Person Point of View
         “My name is Mary Ann
          Elizabeth Rodgers. But if
          you be reading this small
          book, you may call me
          Polly. That is what all call
          me who know me well.” ~
          Land of the Buffalo Bones: The Diary of Mary
          Elizabeth Rodgers, and English Girl in
          Minnesota by Marion Dane Bauer
Style

  The author’s choice and arrangement of
   words and sentences in a literary work
  Can reveal the author’s purpose in
   writing
  Can reveal the author’s attitude toward
   his subject and audience
Style Example: Roald Dahl
   “And how often did Mr. Twit
    wash this bristly, nailbrushy face
    of his? The answer is NEVER,
    not even on Sundays. Mr. Twit
    hadn’t washed it for years.”
    ~The Twits by Roald Dahl

   “A REAL WITCH hates children
    with a red-hot sizzling hatred
    that is more sizzling and red-hot
    than any hatred than you can
    imagine.” ~The Witches by
    Roald Dahl
Style Devices

    Connotation
        The emotional meaning of a word. The
         meaning in the context of the sentence.
    Denotation
        The dictionary or literal meaning of a word
    Examples
        Jenna’s new car is really         !
           Connotation- stylish, fashionable
           Denotation- a temperature, opposite of warm
Style Devices Continued…

    Figurative Language
        Personification
             Human qualities are given to an animal, object,
              or idea.
        Simile
             A comparison of two unlike things using like or
              as.
        Metaphor
             A comparison of two unlike things WITHOUT
              using like or as.
Style Devices Continued…

    Imagery
        Language that emphasizes sense impressions that
         help the reader see, hear, feel, smell, and taste
         things described in the work
    Hyperbole
        Exaggeration as humor
    Understatement
        The opposite of an exaggeration; to play down
Style Devices Continued…

    Allusion
        A reference in a work of literature to a well known
         character, place, or situation from another work of
         literature, music, art, or from history
    Symbol
        An object, person, place, or experience that stands
         for something else because of a resemblance or
         association
    Pun
        A humorous play on words
Sound Devices

    Onomatopoeia
        A word whose sound imitates or suggests
         its meaning
    Rhythm
        A musical quality produced by the repetition
         of stressed and unstressed syllables or
         other sound patterns
Sound Devices Continued…

    Alliteration
         The repetition of the same or very similar
         consonant sounds in words that are close
         together
    Assonance
        Repetition of similar vowel sounds within a
         phrase
    Consonance
        The close repetition of consonant sounds
Tone

    The attitude a writer takes toward an
     audience, a subject, or a character.
Recap

  Literary elements are often called story
   elements
  They are the individual components that
   make up a whole story
  They are the building blocks of a story
Recap Continued…

    There are several types of literary
     elements, all add interest and are
     essential to a story

          •Character       •Point of View
          •Plot            •Style
          •Theme           •Sound Devices
          •Setting         •Tone
Any Questions?

								
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