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Literary Elements Today’s Objectives Identify and describe different literary elements Give examples of literary elements in literature Describe how proper use of specific literary elements adds interest to a piece of literature What are Literary Elements? Often called story elements The individual components that make up a whole story The building blocks of a story Different Literary Elements Character Plot Theme Setting Point of View Style Sound Devices Tone Character A person in the story, play, or poem. (An object or animal can be a character if it is personified.) Can develop to show the mixture of qualities that make up a person Milo and Tock from Mrs. Potts and Chip Norton Juster’s book The from Disney’s Beauty Phantom Tollbooth and the Beast Character Revelation Often called characterization Reveals the personality of the character Ways of Character Revelation Action Speech Appearance Inner thoughts and feelings Other’s comments Author’s comments Types of Characters Round Character Is complex and realistic; has depth of personality Protagonist-Central character Flat Character Lack of realistic personality May be detailed but does not have depth of personality Stereotype- traits that are commonly associated with a group of people Antagonist (Foil)- Opposes the protagonist Character Example: Harry Potter Series by J.K. Rowling Flat; Round; Stereotype; Protagonist Antagonist Harry Potter Lord Voldemort Types of Characters Continued… Dynamic Changes as a result of conflict For example: Harry Potter develops sight and understanding in order to face and fight Lord Voldemort. He grows, learns, and feels. Static Does not change For example: Lord Voldemort does not change and grow. His intentions and motives remain the same. Plot A sequence of events that occur in a story Exposition Introduces the stories characters, setting, and situation Rising Action Adds complication to the story’s conflicts Climax The moment of greatest suspense Falling Action The logical result of the climax Resolution Presents the final outcome Plot Diagram Climax 3 2 Rising Action 2 Falling Action 4 2 2 Exposition Resolution 1 5 Plot Example: Goldilocks and the Three Bears, Scandinavian Folktale The three bears return and notice The bears find the porridge and Goldilocks asleep Goldilocks eats the broken chair. in the baby bear’s Goldilocks is the porridge and hungry, tired, sits in the chairs 3 bed. and lost. Three breaking one. 2 bears leave their cottage 2 The bears’ unlocked and shouting go for a walk 4 wakes 2 Goldilocks Goldilocks, and while their takes a nap she runs out of porridge cools. 2 in one of the the cottage. beds 1 Goldilocks sees the Goldilocks 5 cottage and knocks on escapes from the door. No one is the three bears home so she walks in. unharmed. Plot Includes conflict Internal Man vs. Himself External Man vs. Man Man vs. Nature Man vs. Society Conflict Example: The Watsons Go To Birmingham-1963 by Christopher Paul Curtis Man vs. Himself Kenny wrestles with his conscious about whether or not he should disobey Grandma Sands and go swimming at Collier’s Landing. Man vs. Man Byron and Buphead bully Kenny by teaching him “how to survive a blizzard.” Man vs. Nature Byron gets his lips stuck on the rearview mirror of the Brown Bomber during freezing cold temperatures. Kenny is caught in a whirlpool and nearly dies. Man vs. Society People make fun of Kenny because he has a lazy eye and because he reads well for his age. A church is bombed in Birmingham during the American Civil Rights Movement as a sign of hatred and retaliation. Plot: Order and Patterns Chronological Order Events are told in the order they occur Cliff Hanger Suspense at the end of a chapter that keeps the reader hooked Foreshadowing Clues about what will happen next Flashbacks A disruption in the normal sequence to recount some episode in the past Sensationalism Unrelieved suspense Denouement The point where the reader understands the resolution of the conflict Plot Types Progressive Plots Central climax followed by denouement Episodic Plots One incident or short episode is linked to another by common characters or a unified theme Suspense is usually resolved within the chapter Plot: Type Examples Progressive Plots The Giver by Lois Lowery Episodic plots The Little House Series by Laura Ingalls Wilder Theme An idea about life revealed A unifying truth The main idea or central meaning in a piece of writing Must be expressed in a full sentence May be more than one theme in a book Not usually stated directly Theme Example: The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, The Witch, and The Wardrobe by C. S. Lewis The Struggle of good vs. evil Four children join forces with the mythical creatures of Narnia in order to save the land from the evil White Witch. Types of Themes Explicit Theme Theme is openly and clearly stated Implicit Theme Not stated openly; derived from the characters and actions Primary Theme Main theme Secondary Theme Additional, less important themes Setting The time and place in which a story occurs Multiple Functions Clarifies conflict Antagonist Illuminates character Mood Symbol Setting Example: Johnny Tremain by Esther Forbs Boston, Massachusetts just before the American Revolution Setting Types Integral Setting Essential Setting. The actions, characters, or themes, are influenced by the setting Backdrop Setting Relatively unimportant, the story can still take place without it Point of View The vantage point from which the story is told Four Types First-Person One of the characters is telling the story Omniscient Narrator knows everything about the characters and their problems Limited Omniscient The reader sees the actions through the eyes of one character (usually the protagonist) Objective The writer does not enter the minds of any of the characters Point of View Example: Land of the Buffalo Bones: The Diary of Mary Elizabeth Rodgers, and English Girl in Minnesota by Marion Dane Bauer First-Person Point of View “My name is Mary Ann Elizabeth Rodgers. But if you be reading this small book, you may call me Polly. That is what all call me who know me well.” ~ Land of the Buffalo Bones: The Diary of Mary Elizabeth Rodgers, and English Girl in Minnesota by Marion Dane Bauer Style The author’s choice and arrangement of words and sentences in a literary work Can reveal the author’s purpose in writing Can reveal the author’s attitude toward his subject and audience Style Example: Roald Dahl “And how often did Mr. Twit wash this bristly, nailbrushy face of his? The answer is NEVER, not even on Sundays. Mr. Twit hadn’t washed it for years.” ~The Twits by Roald Dahl “A REAL WITCH hates children with a red-hot sizzling hatred that is more sizzling and red-hot than any hatred than you can imagine.” ~The Witches by Roald Dahl Style Devices Connotation The emotional meaning of a word. The meaning in the context of the sentence. Denotation The dictionary or literal meaning of a word Examples Jenna’s new car is really ! Connotation- stylish, fashionable Denotation- a temperature, opposite of warm Style Devices Continued… Figurative Language Personification Human qualities are given to an animal, object, or idea. Simile A comparison of two unlike things using like or as. Metaphor A comparison of two unlike things WITHOUT using like or as. Style Devices Continued… Imagery Language that emphasizes sense impressions that help the reader see, hear, feel, smell, and taste things described in the work Hyperbole Exaggeration as humor Understatement The opposite of an exaggeration; to play down Style Devices Continued… Allusion A reference in a work of literature to a well known character, place, or situation from another work of literature, music, art, or from history Symbol An object, person, place, or experience that stands for something else because of a resemblance or association Pun A humorous play on words Sound Devices Onomatopoeia A word whose sound imitates or suggests its meaning Rhythm A musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables or other sound patterns Sound Devices Continued… Alliteration The repetition of the same or very similar consonant sounds in words that are close together Assonance Repetition of similar vowel sounds within a phrase Consonance The close repetition of consonant sounds Tone The attitude a writer takes toward an audience, a subject, or a character. Recap Literary elements are often called story elements They are the individual components that make up a whole story They are the building blocks of a story Recap Continued… There are several types of literary elements, all add interest and are essential to a story •Character •Point of View •Plot •Style •Theme •Sound Devices •Setting •Tone Any Questions?
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