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Poetry Literary Terms for Grade 10 FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE “Language of the Imagination” Definition: Language based on some sort of comparison that is not Literally true METAPHOR METAPHOR “Speak in imaginative shorthand” Definition: comparison between unlike things which some reasonable connection is instantly revealed. More forceful: uses ‘is’ to compare ideas DIRECT METAPHOR DIRECT METAPHOR Definition: States that something IS something else. Example: X is Y IMPLIED METAPHOR IMPLIED METAPHOR Definition: Implies or suggests a comparison between things that have very little in common. Ways of saying something that can open our eyes to a new way of seeing the world. EXTENDED METAPHOR EXTENDED METAPHOR Definition: A Metaphor that develops its comparison over several lines or even an entire poem. “Life for me ain’t been no crystal stair” FIGURE OF SPEECH FIGURE OF SPEECH Definition: language shaped by the play of the imagination, in which one thing is compared to something that seems to be entirely different. This is never literally true SIMILE SIMILE Definition: A figure of speech that uses the words like, as, than, and resembles to compare things that have little or nothing in common. PERSONIFICATION PERSONIFICATION Definition: When we attribute human- like qualities to a non-human thing or to an abstract idea. “The future calls” SYMBOL SYMBOL Definition: An ordinary object which has extraordinary meaning attached to it. “Red roses for love” “Skull and crossbones for danger” SYMBOLIC MEANING SYMBOLIC MEANING Definition: The deeper layer of meaning suggested by a work’s literal, or surface, meaning. “And miles to go before I sleep, And miles to go before I sleep.” CONFLICT Internal Conflict and External Conflict CONNOTATION CONNOTATION Definition: All the associations and emotions that are attached to a word. Housman’s “Loveliest of Trees” AMBIGUOUS AMBIGUOUS Definition: Allowing for opposing interpretations, or meanings. Frost’s “Mending Wall” SPEAKER SPEAKER Definition: The voice that talks directly to the reader in a poem; the speaker is not always the poet. Masters “George Gray” TONE TONE Definition: The attitude of the writer or the speaker toward the subject of the poem or toward the audience. Can be inferred from words and details. Hongo’s “The Legend” IDIOM IDIOM Definition: An expression that is peculiar to a particular language. It means something different from the literal meaning of each word. Clifton’s “Miss Rosie”- “I stand up” FREE VERSE FREE VERSE Definition: Poetry that does not have regular meter or rhyme. Usually captures natural rhythms of ordinary speech. Means: “Freedom from rules” BLANK VERSE BLANK VERSE Definition: Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter (no rhyme pattern, 10 syllables). SONNET Italian (Petrarchan) And English (Shakespearean) SONNET Definition: Fourteen-line lyric poem, usually written in iambic pentameter. Italian: two parts octave(eight lines) and sestet (six) English: four parts three quatrains (four lines) and couplet (pair of rhymed lines) IAMBIC PENTAMETER IAMBIC PENTAMETER Definition: Used in Shakespeare, when each line contains five iambs and a total of ten syllables. RHYME RHYME Definition: Repetition of accented vowel sounds and all sounds following them in words that are close together in a poem. RHYMED COUPLET RHYMED COUPLET Definition: A two-line unit in a poem that rhymes. In a Shakespearean sonnet, the last pair of lines( labeled gg ). END RHYME END RHYME Definition: Rhyme which occurs at the end of lines in a poem. RHYME SCHEME RHYME SCHEME Definition: A pattern of rhymed lines in a poem. This is indicated by labeling each new end rhyme with a letter of the alphabet. Example: abab cdcd efef gg (E. Sonnet) INTERNAL RHYME INTERNAL RHYME Definition: Rhyme that occurs within a line or lines of poetry. “The warm sun is failing, the bleak wind is wailing,” -Shelley APPROXIMATE RHYME APPROXIMATE RHYME Definition: Words that sound similar, but do not rhyme exactly. Also called half rhyme, slant rhyme or imperfect rhyme. Blade/ blood; flash/ flesh QUATRAIN QUATRAIN Definition: A four-line unit in poetry, normally found in a sonnet. RHYTHM RHYTHM Definition: Musical quality in language, produced by repetition. Established by: *a meter, *repetition of grammatical structures *using pauses *varying line lengths *balancing long and short words and phrases. METER METER Definition: A generally regular pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in poetry. SCANNING SCANNING Definition: Analyzing the metrical pattern of a poem. Also called scansion. Meter is measured in units called feet. FOOT FOOT Definition: Usually consists of one stressed syllable and one or more unstressed syllable. Examples: iamb dactyl trochee spondee anapest BALLAD BALLAD Definition: Song or song-like poem that tells a story. It is a story-poem that is meant to be sung. Use: simple language meter refrain Folk Ballad is one type is this poem. REFRAIN REFRAIN Definition: Whole lines or stanzas repeated at regular intervals. TANKA TANKA Definition: A Japanese poetic form, containing five (5) unrhymed lines and a total of thirty-one (31) syllables. Evokes a strong feeling with a single image. ONOMATOPOEIA ONOMATOPOEIA Definition: Use of a word whose sound suggests its meaning. buzz, splash, knock, bark ALLITERATION ALLITERATION Definition: Repetition of the same or similar consonant sounds in words that are close together. “Where the quail is whistling betwixt the woods and the wheat-lot.” - Whitman ASSONANCE ASSONANCE Definition: Repetition of similar vowel sounds followed by different consonant sounds in words that are close together. “I lie down by the side, Of my darling, of my darling, my life and my bride.” -Edgar Allen Poe PROSE POEM PROSE POEM Definition: A short piece that is written in the form of prose but uses the elements of poetry. Usually evokes powerful images that make the writer’s world easy to see and feel.
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