Chromosomes by dffhrtcv3


									DNA, Mutations and Hazardous
Prokaryote Cell
Eukaryotic Cell
DNA Structure
    Nucleotides Make up Nucleic Acid
   nucleotide= nitrogenous base + phosphate
    group + sugar
   Bases DNA= A,T, G, C
   Bases RNA= A, U, G, C
   Pairs A-T(U), G-C ALWAYS
          Central Dogma Theory
   DNA replication- DNA to DNA
   DNA transcription- DNA to RNA (transcribe
    genes into RNA, junk DNA does not need to
    transcribe or gets deleted after transcription)
   Translation- RNA into protein (uses 3 types of
    RNA to get proteins made!)
Messenger RNA Begins Translation
         at a Ribosome
Genetic Code Determines Amino
Protein Chain Begins to Grow
                   Point Mutations
   Point mutations are changes in single bases
       silent mutations occur when the amino acid that it codes for
        doesn't change due to the DNA mutation
       missense mutations cause an amino acid substitution (sickle-
        cell anemia), these mutations may reduce or disable protein
       codon has a point or shift change that causes the translation
        process to be terminated too early
       frame-shift is when a single-base is inserted or deleted in a
        this has the potential of changing most of the codons and
        associated amino acids
Chromosomal Mutations- Deletion
Chromosomal Mutation- cont.
Chromosomal Mutations cont.
Chromosomal Mutations- cont.
         Other Mutagenic Terms
   Mutagen- any chemical or physical agent that induces a
    genetic mutation or increases the mutation rate
   Teratogen- any substance, agent, or process that
    interferes with normal prenatal development causing
    one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus.
   Carcinogen- a substance or agent that causes the
    development or increases the incidence of cancer
              Causes of Cancer
   More than 80% of cases of cancer are attributed
    to cigarette smoking, exposure to carcinogenic
    chemicals, ionizing radiation, and ultraviolet
    rays; overexposure to the sun is the major cause
    of skin cancer.
    Mutations can be spontaneous or
   When would a mutation be spontaneous?
   When would a mutation be induced?
     Mutations can be detrimental,
    neutral or occasionally beneficial
   Detrimental
   Neutral
   Beneficial

   Think Evolution and Natural Selection- DNA
    mutations are necessary for this to occur!

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