Chapter Seven - Psychosocial Development

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					Chapter 7:Psychosocial Development

     Theories explaining psychosocial
     development during the first
     two years of life
          Psychoanalytic
          Erikson
          Epigentic
          Attachment theory
Freud: Oral and Anal Stages
 • Oral Stage—1st stage, where infant
   obtains pleasure through sucking and
   biting

 • Anal Stage—2nd stage, where anus
   becomes main source of gratification,
   i.e., bowel movements and the control of
   them
Erikson: Trust and Autonomy
• 1st Stage—Trust vs. Mistrust
  – basic needs need to be met with consistency,
    continuity, and sameness


• 2nd Stage—Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  – basic desire to gain self-rule over their own
    actions and bodies and to feel ashamed if it
    doesn’t happen
• Through their interactions with
 others, children develop working
 models.

• Working model—set of assumptions
  used to organize perceptions and
  experiences
Epigenetic Theory
• Each child is born with a genetic
  predisposition to develop certain traits
  that affect emotional development

• Temperament—―constitutionally based
  individual differences in emotion, motor,
  and attentional reactivity and self-
  regulation.‖

• Three types of temperament

• Goodness of fit
Research on Temperament:
Nine Characteristics
• activity level, rhythmicity, approach-
  withdrawal

• Adaptability, intensity of reaction

• threshold of responsiveness

• quality of mood, distractibility

• attention span
Attachment
• Enduring emotional connection
  – Proximity-seeking behaviors
  – Contact-maintaining behaviors


• Three types of attachments
  –   Secure
  –   Insecure-ambivalent
  –   Insecure-avoidant
  –   Disorganized
Measuring Attachment
• Strange Situation—lab procedure
  to measure attachment; observed
  are
  – exploration of the toys (caregiver
    present)
  – reaction to caregiver’s departure
  – reaction to caregiver’s return
Secure attachment
• Explores freely using the care-giver as
  the base

• May be distressed at separation

• Always greets the care-giver in a warm
  way on return
Insecure ambivalent
• Resists active exploration

• Preoccupied with care-giver

• Shows separation anxiety

• Resists as well as wants contact with
  care-giver on reunion
Insecure-avoidant

• Explores freely and shows no
  unconcern for the care-giver’s
  presence.



• On reunion, ignores or actively avoids
  the presence of the care-giver
Disorganized

• Does not show any coherency in
  behavior.

• Frozen or trance-like behavior

• May move in slow motion or stereotyped
  behavior
Emotional Development in
Infancy

• In the first 2 years of emotional
  development, infants progress from
  simple reactions to complex patterns
  of social awareness
The First Year
• Newborns’ first discernable emotions
  – distress
  – Contentment


• Later emotions (after first weeks)
  – anger
  – fear, expressed clearly by stranger
    wariness and separation anxiety
The Second Year
• New emotions appear
  –   pride
  –   shame
  –   embarrassment
  –   guilt
Self-Awareness

• Foundation for emotional growth
  – realization of individual distinctions
• At about 5 months begin developing a
  sense of self apart from mother
• 15-18 months the ―Me-self‖
  – rouge experiment
Pride and Shame

• Self-awareness becomes linked with
  self-concept early on
• Negative comments more likely to lead
  to less pride or shame
• Own pride can be more compelling than
  parental approval
The Development of
Social Bonds

• Social connections help us understand
  human emotions



• Social referencing

				
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