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                                           LITERACY IMPACT!


                                        Literacy Across the Curriculum:
                                            Maintaining the Momentum

                                                           Geoff Barton
                                                        February 4, 2012


                                        All resources can be downloaded at www.geoffbarton.co.uk
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!

              1 Where are we (and where are you) with literacy?

              2 Who are your key players and what do you need to do next?

              3 Developing practical approaches …
                                        • in Humanities subjects
                                        • in Scientific subjects
                                        • in tutor time             … and how will you
                                        • in speaking & listening   measure IMPACT?
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!

                    The approach …
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                                               SECTION 1:
                                        So where are we with whole-
                                             school literacy?
                                          Reasonable but
                                        horrible questions …
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                                                     oneabest teachers
                                       1 - Name your child who has do
                                     23- -IfIfyou have3important,working
                                         If literacy is literacy is what
                                               I do
                                   45- -Whatasked of your staff it part
                                     party,all lesson read, orsaid, what
                                                                  writing
                                    improved their readingwrite, think
                                               how much money do their
                                   to help students observations?
                                   yourof   whole-school policy
                                  based on a literacy initiative at your
                                                salaries represent?
                                              spell better? reply?
                                      andReviews?theyHow do you
                                                 would Performance
                                                     school?
                                                      know?
                                                   management?
English Review 2000-05
October 2005: Key findings




English is one of the best taught subjects in
both primary and secondary schools.
October 2005: Key findings


        Standards of writing have improved as a
       result of guidance from the national
       strategies
        Some teachers give too little thought to
       ensuring that pupils fully consider the
       audience, purpose and content for their
       writing.
October 2005: Key findings

      Schools do not always seem to understand the
     importance of pupils’ talk in developing both
     reading and writing.
      Myhill and Fisher: ‘spoken language forms a
     constraint, a ceiling not only on the ability to
     comprehend but also on the ability to write,
     beyond which literacy cannot progress’.
      Too many teachers appear to have forgotten
     that speech ‘supports and propels writing forward’.
      Pupils do not improve writing solely by doing
     more of it; good quality writing benefits from
     focused discussion that gives pupils a chance to
     talk through ideas before writing and to respond
     to friends’ suggestions.
October 2005: Key findings

 The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study
(PIRLS) 2003: although the reading skills of 10 year old
pupils in England compared well with those of pupils in
other countries, they read less frequently for pleasure
and were less interested in reading than those
elsewhere.

 NFER 2003: children’s enjoyment of reading had
declined significantly in recent years

 A Nestlé/MORI report : ‘underclass’ of non-readers,
plus cycles of non-reading ‘where teenagers from families
where parents are not readers will almost always be less
likely to be enthusiastic readers themselves’.
October 2005: Key findings



      The role of teaching assistants was
      described in the report as ‘increasingly
      effective’.
October 2005: Key findings

      Despite the Strategy, weaknesses remain,
      including:

           the stalling of developments as senior
          management teams focus on other initiatives
           lack of robust measures to evaluate the
          impact of developments across a range of
          subjects
           a focus on writing at the expense of
          reading, speaking and listening.
                 Implications for you …?

                              S&L: Does it happen systematically
                              anywhere to develop thinking and to
                                        model writing?


Writing: is there an understanding    Reading: Who is teaching reading? Has
across any teams of how to develop     reading for pleasure slipped from your
   writing - eg how to get better                      radar?
 evaluations, better essays, better
          scientific writing?
                                       Leadership: Has your leadership team
                                        lost interest in literacy? How will you
                                                   reignite interest?
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!



                                         What’s the latest news?
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                                                            LITERACY LATEST!
                                                       What we know about Writing …
   •                                    The standard of writing has improved in recent years but still lags 20%
                                        behind reading at all key stages (eg around 60% of students get level 4 at
                                        KS2 in writing, compared to 80% in reading).
   •                                    Writing has improved as a result of the National Strategy.
   •                                    S&L has a big role in writing - it allows students to rehearse ideas and
                                        structures and builds confidence.
   •                                    But S&L has lower status because of assessment weightings.
   •                                    In teaching writing we tend to focus too much on end-products rather than
                                        process (eg frames). We should think more about composition - how ideas
                                        are found and framed, how choices are made, how to decide about the
                                        medium, how to draft and edit.
   •                                    We are still stuck with a narrow range of writing forms and need to
                                        emphasise creativity in non-fiction forms.
   •                                    We need to rediscover the excitement of writing.
                                                                                      With thanks to Professor Richard Andrews,
                                                                                                               University of York
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                                                             Some implications for us …


              •                         Who’s actually teaching writing in our school?
              •                         Is there a shared understanding of what helps pupils to write?
              •                         How can we teach composition?
              •                         Which teams could have a particular impact if they developed a shared
                                        approach to writing?
              •                         How is speaking & listening being used to help pupils to write?
              •                         Is there a school or departmental approach to S&L?
              •                         Where should we start?
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                                                        What we know about vocabulary …

              •                         Aged 7: children in the top quartile have 7100 words; children in the lowest have
                                        around 3000. The main influence in parents.
              •                         Using and explaining high-level words is a key to expanding vocabulary. A low
                                        vocabulary has a negative effect throughout schooling.
              •                         Declining reading comprehension from 8 onwards is largely a result of low vocabulary.
                                        Vocabulary aged 6 accounts for 30% of reading variance aged 16.
              •                         Catching up becomes very difficult. Children with low vocabularies would have to
                                        learn faster than their peers (4-5 roots words a day) to catch up within 5-6 years.
              •                         Vocabulary is built via reading to children, getting children to read themselves,
                                        engaging in rich oral language, encouraging reading and talking at home
              •                         In the classroom it involves: defining and explaining word meanings, arranging
                                        frequent encounters with new words in different contexts, creating a word-rich
                                        environment, addressing vocabulary learning explicitly, selecting appropriate words
                                        for systematic instruction/reinforcement, teaching word-learning strategies



                                                                                                    With thanks to DES Research Unit
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                                                           LITERACY LATEST!
                                                             Some implications for us …


              •                         Teach 10 words per week - by whom, when, where?
              •                         Ensure key pupils are read to with vocabulary explanations
              •                         Teach new words in a text prior to reading
              •                         Encourage questions about word meanings
              •                         Display key words and meanings
              •                         Have a glossary in the planner
              •                         See tutor time as a literacy kick-starter each day
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                                        What we know about students who
                                        make slow progress …
   Characteristics: 2/3 boys. Generally well-behaved. Positive in outlook.
   “Invisible” to teachers. Keen to respond but unlikely to think first. Persevere with
   tasks, especially with tasks that are routine. Lack self-help strategies. Stoical,
   patient, resigned.
   Reading: they over-rely on a limited range of strategies and lack higher order
   reading skills
   Writing: struggle to combine different skills simultaneously. Don’t get much
   chance for oral rehearsal, guided writing, precise feedback
   S&L: don’t see it as a key tool in thinking and writing
   Targets: set low-level targets; overstate functional skills; infrequently review
   progress



                                                                             With thanks to DfES
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                                                          LITERACY LATEST!
                                                             Some implications for us …


              •                         How to get more S&L into their lives?
              •                         How to get them thinking before answering?
              •                         How to get better feedback?
              •                         How to set more challenging targets?
              •                         How to stop them from being invisible?
              •                         Who should be their champions?
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                                        What we know about functional skills …


              Background: concerns from employers about
              GCSE. Key skills effective but not mainstream.
              Intention: students won’t be able to get A*-C without
              mastering level 2 functional elements. Could be
              standalone qualification. Won’t be solely multi-
              choice.
              Currently: being trialled. Watch this space.


                                                                        With thanks to DfES
                                                          What we know about
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                                                     Literacy Across the Curriculum
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                          •             Good literacy skills are a key factor in raising
                                        standards across all subjects
                          •             Language is the main medium we use for teaching,
                                        learning and developing thinking, so it is at the heart
                                        of teaching and learning
                          •             Literacy is best taught as part of the subject, not as an
                                        add-on
                          •             All teachers need to give explicit attention to the
                                        literacy needed in their subject.
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                                                              is achieved when …

         •                              Literacy skills are taught consistently and systematically
                                        across the curriculum
         •                              Expectation of standards of accuracy and presentation
                                        are similar in all classrooms
         •                              Teachers are equipped to deal with literacy issues in their
                                        subject both generically and specifically
         •                              The same strategies are used across the school: the
                                        teaching sequence for writing; active reading strategies;
                                        planning speaking and listening for learning
         •                              Teachers use the same terminology to describe language.
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                                              Ofsted suggests literacy across the
                                              curriculum is good when …

              •                         Senior managers are actively involved in the planning
                                        and monitoring
              •                         Audits and action planning are rigorous
              •                         Monitoring focuses on a range of approaches, e.g.
                                        classroom observation, work scrutiny as well as formal
                                        tests
              •                         Time is given to training, its dissemination and
                                        embedding
              •                         Schools work to identified priorities.
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 Talking Point 

 • What have been the successes
   in your own school?
 • What do you need to do next?
Literacy strategy: The next phase



  Self-evaluation:
  So where are you up to in your school?


             0                3            5
   NO                                            GOOD
PROGRESS                                       PROGRESS
Literacy strategy: The next phase
    Key player    Progress rating   Priority
       Head

        You

      SENCO

     Teachers

     Teaching
     assistants
     Governors

     Librarian

      Tutors
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                                               SECTION 2:
                                        Working with the key players
      Focus relentlessly
      on T&L

   “Schools are places where the pupils go to watch the
           teachers raised ONLY by changes
‘Standards areworking” (John West-Burnham)
               are put into school effect by
      whichyears, attendance atdirect has been required
  “For many
     teachers and pupils in classrooms’
   (for children and for teachers) while learning at school
             has been optional.” (Stoll, Fink & East)
                                                 Black and Wiliam,
                                             ‘Inside the Black Box’
    Key players
                         Librarian
  Strategy manager
                       Working party

         Headteacher
                        Governors
Teaching assistants
                       Subject leaders
         Students!
                           Tutors
     Key players

    Strategy manager

•    Focus, tailor, customise
•    See as professional development rather than
     delivery
•    Differentiate training
•    Emphasise monitoring more than initiatives
•    Use pupil surveys for learning & teaching
   Headteacher



Must be actively involved as head TEACHER
Eg monitoring books, breakfast with students,
feedback to staff
Must be seen in lessons
Must be reined in to prioritise
     Librarian

Key part in improving literacy
Include in training
Part of curriculum meetings
Library should embody good practice - eg key
words, guidance on retrieving information, visual
excitement
Active training for students, breaking down subject
barriers
Get a library commitment from every team
Then sample to monitor it
    Governors



Visit library, get in classrooms, talk to students
Clearly signal the “literacy” focus
Emphasise s/he’s discussing consistency
Sample of students and feedback
Part of faculty reviews on (say) how we teach writing
  Working party



Maintain or disband?
Less doing and more evaluating - questionnaires,
looking at handouts, working around rooms, talking
to students
Asking questions: “What do teachers here do that
helps you to understand long texts better?”
Work sampling
Creating a critical mass
     Students



Tell us how we’re doing
Build into school council
Small groups work with faculty teams to guide and
evaluate
Audit rooms for key words, etc
Teaching Assistants



•   Make them literacy experts
•   Let them lead training
•   Make their monitoring role explicit
•   Publish their feedback
    Subject leaders


•    Help them to identify the 3 bits of literacy that will
     have the biggest impact
•    Prioritise one per term or year
•    Join their meetings at start and end of process
•    Help them to keep it simple
•    Provide models and sample texts
•    Evaluate
•    Build literacy into their team’s performance
     management
       Tutors


•   Reconceptualise tutor time as creating an ethos
    for learning / reviewing targets
•   Think therefore how the environment of tutor
    groups could embody good practice - key words,
    glossaries, approaches to reading and spelling,
    connectives
•   Reject silent reading and replace with literacy-
    based quizzes, etc
•   Make the school planner a central document for
    literacy
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                                                Your role …


   1. Don’t call it literacy - call it good learning &
      teaching, or writing, or reading
   2. Build it into lesson observation sheets
   3. Build it into performance management
   4. Keep it in the public eye
   5. Emphasise increased student motivation
   6. Talk to your Head about core skills for all teachers
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                                7 Show before & after models
                                8 Don’t focus on grammar knowledge needed by staff
                                9 Show it’s part of a whole-school strategy
                                10 Celebrate every small-scale success
                                11 Quote students’ feedback
                                12 Be consultant, not doer
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                                              SECTION 3:
                                          Practical approaches
            Book sampling…


ame        Year /   Teacher   Cover   Homework   Homework       Presentation       Types of writing       General comments
            Set               clean    evident    marked           GFP
                               YN       YN         YN
                                                                                  T hinking              Clearly sequenced,
 Elsom       9       WD        Y         Y           Y               G            Notes               challenging, high-level;
TORY                                                                              Extended             exemplary feedback Ğ
                                                                                                      positive, precise, personal
                                                                                  T hinking             V different ability of
Robotham     9       WD        Y         Y           Y               G            Notes              student Ğ but same strong
TORY                                                                              Extended             expectations; tangible
                                                                                                         progress in studentÕs
                                                                                                      work; supportive, positive
                                                                                                                marking
                                                                                  Notes               Good positive feedback;
ey Ward?     9       YE        Y         Y           Y               G            Exercises             evidence of regular
 RAPHY                                                                                                 marking; good range of
                                                                                                                writing
                                                                                  Notes                 Clear and well-used
Simpson      9       HS        Y         Y          Not              G            Exercises          overall; good to note some
 RAPHY                                           consistently                     Some extended       extend worrk; marking
                                                                                   work               appears to end in late Sept
1 What grade did you get in English?              English Literature?   
2 Think of all the subjects you studied last year. Circle one of the numbers below to show
where you would place English in a rank order of the subjects you studied

                      1 (high) 2 3 4      5 6 7 8      9 10 (low)

3 Without naming teachers, please name ONE thing you liked most about English lessons


4 Without naming teachers, please name ONE thing you liked least about them



5 Looking back, how did you feel about your usual group for English for É
      (a) getting on with other people?
            (liked it a lot) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (liked it a little)

       (b) learning effectively?
             (liked it a lot) 1 2 3 4   5 6 7 8       9 10 (liked it a little)
Student perception interviews

Year 9
4 girls
4 boys
Sets: 1 4 2 3 1 3 2
Rank order: 8 7 3 3 9 3 10 3

What do you like about MFL lessons?What activities do you enjoy? Why?
   Fun, like ICT interactive whiteboard, playing games, practical and group work

What   activities do you not enjoy? Why? What do you find difficult? What would help?
      Tests Ğ some are useful and some are not
      Practical lessons are good
            t
       DonÕ like teachers constantly talking in French. I get behind and de-motivated
      DonÕ like having to speak in front of the class Ğ feel under pressure and worried
             t
                                          t
       Panic when asked to speak and donÕ know how

How do you learn best? What helps you learn in other lessons?
   Objectives are sometimes set Ğ but doesnÕ make any difference
                                              t
   I like to have some group work and some formal writing
   Reinforcing the talking with writing rather than just talking and then moving on and talking
      some more
   Group work
   Games
   When behaviour is good. Behaviour is good in languages

How do you feel during MFL lessons?What makes you feel this way?
  - Bored Ğ 1 student
  - Interested Ğ 1 student
  - Enjoy Ğ 1 student
  - Tired Ğ 1 student
  - DonÕ know Ğ 4 students
          t
Consensus from interviews - languages is Ò   okÓ but not a subject which students would wish to
choose to take further. Group consensus that about 30% of the lessons are enjoyable. Most students
preferred languages in the Middle School Ğ more practical, games, etc
Of all the ways the teacher gets you to learn about things which do you enjoy the most?

              Activities Ğ not writin g, nothing intimidating. More discussion, needs to be variety (maths now =
               all fro m books)
              Biology = copy from board Ğ donÕt eve read it
                                                        n
              VAKi in French to analyse own learning
              If teachers drone on = some of us donÕthave the attention span
              Unfairness abo ut time given to complete cours ework ie some = meet d eadlines. Oth ers = 3 month s
               late so hav e extra 3 months to work on it
              Too many tests in short space of time
              Would help if dif ferent subject teachers could talk to each other so w e do not get all coursework
               assignments at the same time.

Of all the ways the teacher gets you to learn about things, which do you enjoy least?

              Vague questions that you donÕtknow what it means
              I think we should b e setted for English be cause it cou ld be more challenging too lon g on one piece
               of work would be helpful, disruptive people were in difficult group
              Humanities Ğ go round and round in circles because        donÕt have specialist teachers. Spend time
               trying to mana ge behaviour
Literacy strategy: The next phase




         IMPACT!
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                                             What are the core literacy skills needed by
                                                            teachers?

              •                         General teaching approaches to writing, handouts,
                                        vocabulary development
              •                         Specific approaches in humanities / scientific
                                        teaching?
              •                         Culturally - in S&L, tutor time, the physical
                                        environment
                           Reading                     Writ ing             Speaking & listening
                   Use layout and language        Be clear and explicit         Using a varie ty of
Essential          to make texts accessible Ğ about the conventions         groupings for structured
                          eg white space,       of the writing you expect    talk Ğ pairs, same-sex,
literacy rooted      typographical features,        from students Ğ eg      friendship, triads, ability
in professional     summaries, bullets, short       audience, purpose,               groups
development                 paragraphs           layout, key words and
                                                     phrases, level of
                                                         formality
An example …                                                       m
                  Using a range of strategie s Providin g asse ss ent       Setting objectives for talk
                       to support studentsÕ      crite ria and models of     and providin g language
                  reading Ğ eg reading aloud,     appropriate text types      mode ls Ğ eg level of
                   key words and glossaries,                                formality, key words and
                  word banks, display, paired                                        phrases
                  reading, talking about texts
                         before answering
                     Spe lling Ğ marking no            Using shared         Providin g alternatives to
                        more than 3-5 key         composition to show           traditional Q&A
                  spellin gs per work, writin g   students how to write      approaches Ğ eg open
                   the correct spelling in the                              questions, thin king time,
                       margin with the error                                big questions, no-hands,
                  identified; students puttin g                             paired consultation ti me,
                  these into spellin g pages in                              dealing with answers,
                      the middle of exercise                                prompts, answer starters
                      books; using starters /
                  word games / mnemonics /
                      display / rules / words
                     within words to support
                         studentsÕ spelling
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                                        Teaching sequence
                                                                 Key conventions



                                                      WRITING

                                        Connectives             Sentence variety
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!                         1
                                Know the writing sequence:
                                          1.   Establish clear aims
                                          2.   Provide examples
                                          3.   Explore conventions of the text
                                          4.   Define the conventions
                                          5.   Demonstrate how it is written
                                          6.   Compose together
                                          7.   Scaffold first attempts
                                          8.   Independent writing
                                          9.   Draw out key learning
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!                                      2
                                Know the dominant text-types for your subject:

                                Purpose: What is its purpose? Who is it for? How will it be
                                used?
                                Text level: Layout? Structure?
                                Sentence level: Prevailing tense? Active/passive? Sentence
                                types and length?
                                Word level: Specialist vocabulary?
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!                                  3
                                            Know your connectives
              Adding: and, also, as well as, moreover, too
              Cause & effect: because, so, therefore, thus, consequently
              Sequencing: next, then, first, finally, meanwhile, before, after
              Qualifying: however, although, unless, except, if, as long as, apart from,
              yet
              Emphasising: above all, in particular, especially, significantly, indeed,
              notably
              Illustrating: for example, such as, for instance, as revealed by, in the
              case of
              Comparing: equally, in the same way, similarly, likewise, as with, like
              Contrasting: whereas, instead of, alternatively, otherwise, unlike, on the
              other hand
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                                          LITERACY IMPACT!                                          4
                          Encourage sentence variety


                                        1. Start with an -ing verb (Reaching 60 these days is ..)
                                        2. Start with an -ed verb (Frustrated by ….)
                                        3. Start with an adverb (Well-done chicken leads to …)
                                        4. Start with a preposition (Within the city limits you will …)
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                                        Students must see you writing
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 Talking Point 

 • What have been the successes
   in your own school?
 • What do you need to do next?
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                                           LITERACY IMPACT!

                    Subject-specific                                  Approaches to reading
                    vocabulary


                                                            READING


                                        Active research
                                        process, not FOFO               Using DARTs
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                                            LITERACY IMPACT!           6
                                        Subject-specific vocabulary:
                                        •   Identifying
                                        •   Playing with context
                                        •   Actively exploring
                                        •   Linking to spelling
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                                            LITERACY IMPACT!             7
                                Approaches to reading:
                                        •    Scanning
                                        •    Skimming
                                        •    Continuous reading
                                        •    Close reading
                                        •    Research skills, not FOFO
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                                        Using DARTs:
                                          •   Cloze
                                          •   Diagram completion
                                          •   Disordered text
                                          •   Prediction
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                                          LITERACY IMPACT!

                      Break tyranny of                          No hands up
                      Q&A
                                                                     Thinking time

Key words /                                        Speaking &
connectives                                         listening
                                                                        Reflective
                                                                        groupings
 Rehearsing responses

                                                      Get teachers watching
                                                      teachers who manage
                                                      S&L well
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 Talking Point 

 • What have been the successes
   in your own school?
 • What do you need to do next?
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!



                                          Better Handouts
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                                                                                                    Handouts
                                        Readability …
              Morphine, C17H19NO3, is the most            Morphine is a powerful sleeping drug. It is
              abundant of opium’s 24 alkaloids,           named after Morpheus, the Roman god of
              accounting for 9 to 14% of opium-extract    slumber and is famous for numbing pain,
              by mass. Named after the Roman god of       changing our moods and making people
              dreams, Morpheus, who also became the       sleepy. With its related forms (known as
              god of slumber, the drug morphine,          opioids) it is unbeatable at dulling severe
              appropriately enough, numbs pain, alters    pain. However, it is also highly addictive
              mood and induces sleep. Morphine and its    and in the American Civil War 400 000
              related synthetic derivatives, known as     soldiers became addicted to it. Morphine is
              opioids, are so far unbeatable at dulling   also known as C17H19NO3 and is made
              chronic or so-called “slow” pain, but       from an extract of opium (a seed in poppy
              unfortunately they are all physically       plants).
              addictive. During the American Civil War,
              400 000 soldiers became addicted to
              morphine.

                                           17                        14
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                                                                                                                     Handouts
                                                Layout guidance …

               Aim for:
              •   spacious presentation (as much                                  Avoid:
                  white page as black text)                                    •   densely-packed writing
              •   use of typographical features:                               •   cramped margins
                                        •    headlines and subheadings         •   excessive use of upper case
                                        •    bold, italic, underline,              lettering
                                             different font styles and sizes   •   poor reprographics
                                             (though not too many in a
                                                                               •   lack of images / typographical
                                             single document)
                                        •    boxes, shaded panels, vertical        features
                                             lines to add visual interest      •   excessive use of colour (which
              •                         use of columns to make reading             can actually prove distracting)
                                        more efficient
              •                         short paragraphs
              •                         glossary of key words
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!
                                        So what would you suggest …?
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                                                             3 Highlight key
1 Mention big
                                                             words
picture / purpose



2 Flag first task in                                         4 Add more
advance                                                      visuals
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5 Use small-scale                                              7 Provide sentence
questions to build                                             starters / connectives
comprehension


6 Give guidance                                                8 Give some
on the style and                                               indication of how the
conventions of the                                             task will be assessed
writing task
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!

              For teachers of humanities subjects …

                    1. Readability through questions, subheadings,
                       layout
                    2. Use of connectives like later, despite this,
                       although
                    3. Formality (eg essay style that avoids “I” and
                       emotion)
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              For teachers of Science subjects …

                    1. Demystifying complex vocabulary (making
                       connections between words)
                    2. Modelling an impersonal style (including
                       passive v active)
                    3. Teaching causal connectives
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                                        LITERACY IMPACT!




                                           A Culture for Literacy
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              Creating a literacy culture …
                    1. Have core skills for all teachers
                    2. Have specific skills for specific teachers / TAs
                    3. Focus on library and tutor time
                    4. Have simple principles on speaking and
                       listening - why it’s important; how it helps
                       students to learn; what good teachers do
                    5. Build into school systems
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                                                       Final Thoughts
                                        1. Small steps
                                        2. You’re coordinator … not doer
                                        3. Work with key players
                                        4. Focus on impact and evaluate endlessly
                                           (involving students)
                                        5. It’s all about learning and teaching, not
                                           literacy
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                                           LITERACY IMPACT!


                                        Literacy Across the Curriculum:
                                            Maintaining the Momentum

                                                           Geoff Barton
                                                        February 4, 2012


                                        All resources can be downloaded at www.geoffbarton.co.uk

				
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