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CAI Development Process

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					Computer-Aided Instruction




  Department of Computer Science
         Xavier University
        Week 7



  User and User Needs
Assessment and Analysis
 Week 7 Outline

  Process Model for Developing CAI
   Programs
  Research Techniques
  Team Organization
  Project Schedule
  Media Specifications


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction     cs92_w07: 3
 Instructional Design Process

    A systematic approach for designing,
     developing and delivering strategic
     instruction focused on improving the
     learners' performance and the
     elimination of performance gaps that
     are the result of a training problem.



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction      cs92_w07: 4
  I.D. Process
                                    Analysis




     Evaluation                                         Design




               Implementation                  Development




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                            cs92_w07: 5
 I.D. Process

    Preparations: Collect Resources
       – Subject Resources
            • materials relevant to the subject matter
       – Instructional Design Resources
            • materials relevant to the instructional
              development
       – Media Resources
            • hardware, software, operation manuals

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                        cs92_w07: 6
 I.D. Process

    Preparations: Learn the Content
       – refer to expert if not familiar with subject
         matter
       – studying resources gathered
       – includes content structure and not only the
         actual content



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction             cs92_w07: 7
 I.D. Process

    Analysis
       – Performance Analysis
       – Goal analysis
       – Task analysis




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w07: 8
 I.D. Process

    Analysis: Performance Analysis
       – reveals the gap between actual learner
         performance and the desired learner
         performance
       – determines if the gap can be eliminated
         through an effective training program




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w07: 9
 I.D. Process

    Analysis: Goal analysis
       – turns abstract statements into concrete
         tasks that can be taught
       – e.g. Employees should be safety
         conscious. How do I know if someone is
         safety-conscious?




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction         cs92_w07: 10
 I.D. Process

    Analysis: Task analysis
       – a sequenced description (or flowchart) of:
            •   the step by step actions
            •   the tools, equipment, materials, and supplies
            •   any associated safety concerns
            •   required prerequisite knowledge
            •   acceptable standards of performance
            •   key points required to complete a task


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                      cs92_w07: 11
 I.D. Process

    Analysis: Task analysis
       – understand the user activities that a
         product is intended to support
       – consider the goals of the product and the
         goals of the end users
       – ensures the need to know information is
         taught


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 12
 I.D. Process

    Design
       – Learner Analysis
       – Learning Objectives
       – Skill Hierarchies
       – Course Prerequisites
       – Content Design
       – Technical Design

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w07: 13
 I.D. Process

    Design: Learner Analysis
       – a description of the people who will receive
         the training
       – this might include:
            • their skills, knowledge (experience level), and
              expectations
            • their reading ability
            • their attitudes and interests


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                     cs92_w07: 14
 I.D. Process

    Design: Learner Analysis
       – consider personality, individual preferences
         and dislikes
       – determine what the student should know or
         be able to do
       – assess the characteristics and instructional
         needs of intended users


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w07: 15
 I.D. Process

    Design: Learning Objectives
       – statements that define what the learner
         must do to demonstrate learning has been
         accomplished.
       – contain 3 distinct components:
            • Performance: States what a learner is
              expected to be able to do.
            • Conditions: Describes the important conditions
              under which the performance is to occur.

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                  cs92_w07: 16
 I.D. Process

    Design: Learning Objectives
       – contain 3 distinct components (cont.):
            • Criteria: States the specific standard of
              performance by describing how well the learner
              must perform in order to be considered
              acceptable.




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                  cs92_w07: 17
 I.D. Process

    Design: Skill Hierarchy
       – a diagram showing the relationships
         between the skills in the training
       – helps you determine what to teach first




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w07: 18
 I.D. Process

    Design: Course Pre-requisites
       – gives you a starting point
       – describes what knowledge and skills the
         learners must have before taking your
         course
       – everything between the course
         prerequisites and terminal objectives =
         course content

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 19
 I.D. Process

    Design: Content Design
       – Generate Ideas
            • brainstorming
            • conceptual design
            • “the more ideas you generate early in the
              design process, the more likely it is that at least
              one of them will be an exceptionally good one”




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                      cs92_w07: 20
 I.D. Process

    Design: Content Design
       – generate Ideas (ideas about Information to
         be taught)
       – e.g.
         history of computers
         parts of the computer



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 21
 I.D. Process

    Design: Content Design
       – generate Ideas (ideas about how to teach
         the topics)
       – e.g.
         give a video about the history of the
         computers
         show a picture of a computer system and
         label the parts

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 22
 I.D. Process

    Design: Technical Design
       – Flowchart the Design
            • series of diagrams describing the operations a
              computer performs
            • visual representation of decisions and events
            • shows sequence




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                   cs92_w07: 23
 I.D. Process

    Design: Technical Design
       – Storyboarding
            • process of preparing textual and pictorial
              displays
            • depicts content and presentation
            • draft of actual instructional messages such as
              presentations, questions, feedback, directions,
              prompts, pictures, and animations


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                    cs92_w07: 24
 I.D. Process
                                    Good




              Fast                          Cheap
                           Pick any two!
  If you want it fast and good – don’t expect it to be cheap.
  If you want it fast and cheap – don’t expect it to be good.
  If you want it good and cheap – don’t expect it to be fast.

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                          cs92_w07: 25
 I.D. Process

    Development
       – Criterion tests
       – Relevant practice
       – Content derivation
       – Delivery system selection
       – Module development
       – Sequencing
       – Tryout

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction    cs92_w07: 26
 I.D. Process

    Development: Criterion tests
       – Criterion testing evaluates whether the
         learner has met the objectives. A test may
         have a learner:
            • provide a correct answer from alternatives
              (multiple choice, fill in the blank, etc.)
            • do or produce something to demonstrate the
              objective has been met


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                 cs92_w07: 27
 I.D. Process

    Development: Content Derivation
       – content promotes complete understanding
         and successful completion of test items.
                                    Objectives




             Content                             Test
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                       cs92_w07: 28
 I.D. Process

    Development: Delivery System
     Selection
       – sometimes referred to as “media
         selection.”
       – you decide how the training will be
         presented to the learners.
       – examples: simulator based, instructional
         videos

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 29
 I.D. Process

    Development: Module Development


                                    Objective(s) –    Skill Check
  Big picture -
                                    stated in terms   Description -
  orients learners                                    demonstrate
                                    learners can
                                                      mastery of objective
                                    understand




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                              cs92_w07: 30
 I.D. Process

    Development: Module Development


Instruction -                       Demo - shows          Relevance -
gives information                   what performing       tells why it’s
needed for                          the objective looks   important to
objective                           like                  them




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                                 cs92_w07: 31
 I.D. Process

    Development: Module Development


                                                        Self check -
Practice - gives                    Feedback -
practice in doing                                       allows learners to
                                    gives information   see if they can
the objective                       on performance      perform the
                                                        objective




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                                cs92_w07: 32
 I.D. Process

    Development: Sequencing
       – determining the most efficient order to
         present the modules to learners.
       – organize information in one of these ways:
            • Hierarchically (from easy to difficult, from
              simple to complex)
            • Chronologically
            • Spatially (left to right, top to bottom, outside in)
            • Spirally

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                        cs92_w07: 33
 I.D. Process

    Development: Tryout
       – try out your design
       – debugging
       – re-engineering
       – evaluation: intended users




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction     cs92_w07: 34
 I.D. Process

    Implementation
       – the training system is put in place and
         persons are trained on how to use it
         properly




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w07: 35
 I.D. Process

    Evaluation
       – focus on continuous improvement
       – this step tells you:
            • whether or not the training solved the original
              training problem
            • what you can do to improve the training
            • how training impacts the bottom line



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                     cs92_w07: 36
 I.D. Process

    Evaluation
     Evaluation Levels              Methods of Obtaining

     Learner Reaction               Course Survey

     Measuring Learning             Pre & Post Test

     Application of Skills          Observation/Sample Output

     Results Analysis               Cost vs. Benefit Analysis


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                          cs92_w07: 37
 Research Techniques

  Expert Reviews
  Site Visits
  Survey Construction
  Paper Prototype Tests
  Contextual Inquiry
  Technology Immersion
  Participatory Design
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w07: 38
 Research Techniques

    Expert Reviews
       – provide “quick checks” of design to catch
         obvious problems
       – check for violations of usability guidelines




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction              cs92_w07: 39
 Research Techniques

    Site Visits
       – provide information about the end users’
         use of products in context
       – e.g. examining what makes a product
         retain appeal and “replayability” or how
         quickly children master certain types of
         interactivity


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 40
 Research Techniques

    Site Visits
       – explores end users’ preferences and other
         qualitative reactions to design ideas
       – goal: increase the chance that the end
         users will choose the product over many
         options




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 41
 Research Techniques

    Survey Construction
       – Questionnaires
       – must be age-appropriate




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w07: 42
 Research Techniques

    Survey Construction
        
                 A scale for asking children to rate
                 software on attributes of usability
                 and engagement


        
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                  cs92_w07: 43
 Research Techniques

    Paper Prototype Tests
       – low-tech prototyping
       – screen shots, sketches, or storyboard
         made of paper, crayons, etc.
       – interaction between researcher and end
         users



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 44
 Research Techniques

 Research Technique                 Stage/s

 Expert Reviews                     Throughout
 Site Visits                        Concept, Prelim Design
 Survey Construction                Concept, Prelim Design
                                    Beta Testing
 Prototyping                        Prelim Design

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                  cs92_w07: 45
 Research Techniques

    Contextual Inquiry
       – observation technique
       – users can be, at times, nonverbal o less-
         reflective in discussing the world around
         them
       – goal: to understand what these needs may
         be


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 46
 Research Techniques

    Technology Immersion
       – immersing the users with large amounts of
         technology
       – provide as many options as possible
       – observing likes, dislikes, preferences on
         hardware and software



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 47
 Research Techniques

    Technology Immersion
       – a combination of technology, time, and
         freedom of choice offers researchers more
         opportunity to understand what users do
         and want with technology




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 48
 Research Techniques

    Participatory Design
       – develops partnership between designers
         and end users
       – low-tech prototyping
       – users: not only reactants but designers as
         well



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 49
 Research Techniques

    Participatory Design
       – adult researchers can identify new
         technology possibilities that might not have
         been considered otherwise
       – in practice: CHI Kids




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction            cs92_w07: 50
 Project Schedule

  Documentation of General Project
   Information
  Listing of Project Deliverables
  Scheduling of Project Activities




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction   cs92_w07: 51
 Project Schedule

    Documentation of General Project
     Information
       – purpose of the project and what need is
         addressed
       – current performance gaps and obstacles
       – desired outcome
       – project constraints
       – assumption that have impact on time lines
         or project success
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 52
 Project Schedule

    Listing of Project Deliverables
       – Audio Scripts
       – Storyboards
       – Prototype Screen Interface
       – Programming Templates or models
       – Video Scripts



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 53
 Project Schedule

    Scheduling of Project Activities
       – All team members must:
            • know their roles and responsibilities
            • be aware of the project time line
            • deliver their project components at the
              appropriate time




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                       cs92_w07: 54
 Project Schedule

    Scheduling of Project Activities
       – Schedule Reviews
            •   Technical or Functional Review
            •   Instructional Design Review
            •   Standards Review
            •   Editorial Review
            •   Management Review



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                cs92_w07: 55
 Team Organization

  List Team Roles
  Assign Roles and Responsibilities
  Match tasks to members




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction      cs92_w07: 56
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Project Manager / Project Leader
            • manages the project including people,
              resources, schedule, and processes
            • estimates the project costs
            • creates and maintains project schedule
            • sets the goals for the team and defines the
              roles and responsibilities of team members


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                   cs92_w07: 57
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Audio Producer or Technician
            •   produces all audio
            •   casts talents
            •   schedules audio recording sessions
            •   mixes, edits, and digitizes audio
            •   finds sources of music and sound effects
            •   reviews the product from an audio perspective


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                    cs92_w07: 58
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Video Editor or Technician
            • digitizes and edits all video
       – Video Producer
            •   produces and directs all video
            •   generates final video scripts
            •   casts talents
            •   reviews final product from a video perspective

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                      cs92_w07: 59
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Creative Director
            • works closely with the interactive designer and
              graphics designer on design and development
              of the human-computer interface (storyboards,
              and scripts)
            • carries responsibility for the overall quality of
              the media elements of the product
            • reviews the product from a quality perspective

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                     cs92_w07: 60
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Editor
            • edits written or authored material
            • creates or reviews writing specifications
       – Evaluation Specialist
            • develops or reviews the evaluation plan and
              tools
            • develops or reviews the testing plan


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                     cs92_w07: 61
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Graphic Designer
            • designs and produces graphics for instructional
              materials
            • designs the overall visual look of the product
            • works with the instructional designer and
              creative director to conceptualize the main
              interface and content graphics
            • creates content art, illustrations, and animation

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                     cs92_w07: 62
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Graphic Artist
            • works with the graphic designer to create
              content graphics
            • creates screen or interface designs
            • creates illustrations and animations for the
              product




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                     cs92_w07: 63
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Interactive/Instructional Designer
            • prepares objectives as part of the project team
            • defines content
            • selects sequence activities
            • writes (or works with subject-matter experts) to
              develop instructional material
            • develops multimedia instructional design
            • develops the interactive design of the product
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                    cs92_w07: 64
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Interactive/Instructional Designer
            • works with the systems designer to design flow
              diagrams to support the instructional and
              interactive design
            • creates storyboards with the graphic designer,
              creative director, and video/audio producers
            • works with creative director to write audio and
              video scripts
            • bears responsibility for the overall quality of the
              instruction and interactivity of the product
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                       cs92_w07: 65
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Author (Publisher, Materials Developer)
            • produces written or electronically mediated
              instructional materials
            • integrates media elements and creates the
              product using an authoring tool
            • works with the graphic designer and creative
              director to incorporate multimedia into the
              product
            • constructs interactions and makes revisions
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                   cs92_w07: 66
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Quality Reviewer or Evaluator
            • identifies what impact an intervention has on
              individual or organization effectiveness
            • reviews the product from an educational and
              quality perspective




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                    cs92_w07: 67
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Subject-Matter Experts
            • reviews the content in various stages for
              accuracy and gives feedback to interactive
              designer
            • functions as a content expert throughout the
              development process




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                   cs92_w07: 68
 Team Organization

    List Team Roles
       – Systems Designer
            • designs how the product works from a technical
              standpoint
            • decides how the program logic and flow is
              structured
            • manages authors
            • works with the instructional or interactive
              designer to design flow diagrams
            • conducts technical reviews
CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                  cs92_w07: 69
 Media Specifications

    Describes standards and design for
     multimedia elements such as:
       – theme and interface design and
         functionality
       – writing style and grammar guidelines
       – feedback and interaction standards
       – video and audio treatments


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 70
 Media Specifications

    Describes standards and design for
     multimedia elements such as:
       – text design and standards
       – graphic design and standards
       – animation and special effects




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction        cs92_w07: 71
 Media Specifications

    Design decisions on these elements are
     a set of compromises that weigh:
       – theories and best practices in learning and
         performance support
       – knowledge of the audience and content
       – project team preferences, skills, and talent
       – project realities such as budget, time line,
         and stakeholder preferences

CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction             cs92_w07: 72
 Media Specifications

    Four Approaches to Learning
       – Visual
            • presenting instruction using anything students
              can look at (e.g. video, graphics, animation,
              text)
       – Auditory
            • presenting instruction using anything students
              can listen to (e.g. sound effects, music)


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                   cs92_w07: 73
 Media Specifications

    Four Approaches to Learning
       – Olfactory
            • presenting instruction using anything students
              can smell or taste
       – Tactile or Kinesthetic
            • presenting instruction using anything students
              can touch or manipulate (e.g. models, actual
              parts or equipment)


CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction                   cs92_w07: 74
 Media Specifications

       Specifications Procedure
       1. Define Look and Feel of the Theme
       2. Define the Interface and Functionality
       3. Define the Interaction and Feedback
          Standards
       4. Define the video and audio treatments



CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction           cs92_w07: 75
 Media Specifications

       Specifications Procedure (cont.)
       5. Indicate text design standards
       6. Prepare the graphic design standards
       7. Decide on animation and special effects




CS 92: Computer-aided Instruction          cs92_w07: 76

				
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