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Scandinavian Women

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					        Scandinavian Women
• Gender Studies
• Stereotypes
Stereotypes / Looks
            Stereotypes / Health

• WHO 1996 physical
  health survey
• Scandinavian Countries
  at the top of the list
• Exercise / Sports
• Diet
• Fashion
• P.E. in        Exercise / Sport
  schools from
  K-12
• Sports clubs
• Regular
  exercise
• Sports:
  soccer,
  badminton,
   team-
  handball,
  volleyball,
  tennis,
  basketball
                      Diet
• Awareness of
  healthy food
• Pork / poultry /
  fish
• Changing eating
  habits with US
  influence
• Growing number of
  overweight adults
  and children
• Lower rate of
  obesity than U.S.
• Rugbrød (Rye – Bread)
• Heavy Bread with lots of grain form the
  basis of the Scandinavian diet
                 The skinny, the young, the
Fashion – for:   healthy
    Fashion - Weddings

•
              Liberal / Promiscuous ?
• Tidens Kvinder: Women of our
  Time
• Target group: (men and)
  women from 18-40 years
• Number of readers: 187,000
• Published every other month
• ”Erotic magazine for women.
  Contains everything about the
  joys of eroticism for those who
  love to make love and want new
  inspiration. Articles, short
  stories and suggestions for a
  better sex life.”
            Pornography
• In Denmark, written pornography was
  legalized in 1967
• Picture pornography in 1969
• Prostitution is not legal (Holland,
  Nebraska)
• Sex-trade
         Sexuality / Morality Feud
• 1880’s, heated debate
  about sex
• ”The Big Nordic War
  about sexual morals”
• Authors, suffragettes,
  intellectuals
• Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
• Georg Brandes
• Industrialization and
  Modernity
• Marriage and the
  family - sexuality for
  procreation

• The daughters of
  the bourgeoisie:
  wives and mothers

• The sons:
  active and outgoing
  breadwinners
• Women had no
  sexual urges.
• Sexual behavior =
  mentally deranged

• Men had strong and
  natural sexual urges
  which must be
  satisfied

• Prostitution, which
  was tacitly accepted
• 1863: Law about police
                               Albertine, 1884
  supervision of prostitutes
• 1874: Law about curbing
  STD’s (primarily incurable
  syphilis)
• Legalized prostitution,
  registration of the
  prostitutes, and weekly
  medical examinations

• Women and Christian
  circles violently opposed
  this double standard
                            Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson
• BB wrote ”A Glove” in            1832-1910
  1883, promoting
  celibacy for both men
  and women
• Responses:
• Women’s
  Associations: healthy
  and wholesome
• Realists / Naturalists:
  sexual freedom for
  both sexes
’The Feud’ gradually died out, but women started
advocating different forms of freedom:
Gymnastics, 1909
Bicycling, 1890
Reformdress, 1907
No corset, no bustle, loose skirts, pants
     underneath = mobility, 1909
Suffrage = the right to vote
• Finland 1906
• Norway 1913
• Denmark 1915
• The UK 1918
• Sweden and
  Iceland 1919
• The USA 1920
Suffragettes
• Inspired by the
  British movement
  led by Emmiline and
  Christobel Pankhurst


• And the US
  movement led by
  Susan B. Anthony
Elna Munch in the Danish Parliament,
1918
Women entered many new fields, 1929
                  The World Wars
• Scandinavian
  countries did not
  participate on a
  grand scale

• But women started
  working – here 1928
    Jobs           Nurses 1938

• Women have
  always held
  most of the
  nurturing jobs
                        Operator 1940’s

• But more and more
  jobs were opened to
  women
• And women had to
  make ends meet
And finally cars became available
after WWII
But most women still had their feet on the
ground and worked long hours in hard jobs
            Modern Times
•   Feminist Revolution
•   Equal Rights
•   Body Image
•   Abortion / Reproductive Rights
•   The ”Soft” Man
•   Equal Pay
     Rødstrømper (Red Stockings)

• Grassroot
  movement
• Established 1970
• Traditional
  women’s roles
• Young and old,
  housewives and
  career women
 Ø-lejre (Island-camps)   Femø 1971

• 1960’s and 1970’s
• Discussion of
  roles
• No men and boys
  over 12
• Collective living
  and sharing of
  duties and
  enjoyment
• Involvement of
  local women
Equal Rights

•   Demonstrations
•   Paying 80% of bus tickets
•   Few women getting a higher education
•   Few women in leading positions
•   Few women in politics
•   Women working outside and in the
    home
 Body Image

• Commercialized
  images of women
• Bra burning
• Nudity was
  promoted on the
  beaches
• Make-up was
  regarded with
  contempt
Reproductive Rights
• Sexual
  experimentation
• Communal living
  and sharing
• Free medical
  services
• Easy access to
  contraception
Abortion
• Abortion legalized in
  Jan. 1973 (US Dec.
  1972)
• Not challenged
• Sexual education in
  schools
• Number of abortions
  going down
• Morning-after pill
                   The ”Soft” Man

• The 1970’s saw the
  rise of male groups
• Attempting to raise
  awareness
• Redefinition of
  roles
• ”The oppressed
  can’t teach the
  oppressor how not
  to oppress”
Equal Pay
• Equal pay for equal work instituted in
  1919, but didn’t materialize
• Norway: 1959
• Sweden: 1960
• Denmark: 1973
• Women still paid less than men!
• No sex discrimination in job postings
              Right Now
• Ideology and Welfare
• Everyday Life
• The importance of women
  – Pre-natal and post-natal care
  – Leave of absence
  – The father’s role
  – Sick leave
  – Vacations
  – Childcare
 Ideology, Welfare, and Everyday Life

• Welfare state needs
  tax-payers
• Women are
  important
• Two incomes
  attractive
• Volunteer work
• Wages are higher,
  but so are taxes and
  prices
            Pre-natal and post-natal care
• Maternity leave
•     1974: 16 weeks
•     1991: 8 months
•     2003: 1 year
• Full pay
• Guaranteed job on
  return
• Regular check-ups
• Free hospital care
• Free visiting nurses
     Leave of absence / The father’s role

• The father
  gets 2
  weeks paid
  paternity
  leave
• The mother
  and father
  can divide
  32 weeks
              Sick Leave and Vacation
• Public sector: fired
  after 120 days of
  consecutive illness
• Parents take off the
  first day a child is ill
• Mininum of 6 weeks
  paid vacation in a
  year. Some have
  more.
• Charter trips to the
  south
                  Childcare

• Nurseries and
  daycare; 6mths- 3
  years: $280-
  350/mth
• Kindergarten 3-6
  yrs: $210/mth
• Kindergarten-class
  6-7 years: free
• After school
  activities: $150/mth
• Very affordable
                   Education
•   A majority of women in high school (51%)
•   A majority of women in Universities
•   A majority of women in the sciences
•   But fewer women in ph.D and research
    programs
          Professions for Women
• Many ’nurturing’
  jobs:
• Caregivers / Nurses
• Doctors
• Dentists
• Midwives
• Education
• Male dominance in
  engineering,
  technology, physics,
  chemistry and math
         Career Opportunities
• Private Sector   • Public Sector

• Top Managers:    • Top Managers:
• Men = 96 %       • Men = 82%
• Women = 4%       • Women = 18%
                     • Instituted in the 70’s
Affirmative Action   • Ministry for the
                       Equality of the
                       Sexes
                     • Advertisements and
                       job postings must
                       be addressed to
                       both genders
                     • Age- and ethnic
                       discrimination is
                       illegal
                     • The State Ombud
                       (Ombudsmand) can
                       decide cases
Politics: Percentage of women candidates (RED)
         elected to the Danish Parliament
Danish Parliament             US Legislature
• 179 places, 66 women        • The US House of
  (38%)                          Representatives: 435 seats,
• Christiansborg Castle in       74 women (17%)
  Copenhagen                  • The US Senate: 100 seats, 16
• The Cabinet: 19                women (16%)
  Secretaries, 6 women        • The Cabinet: President, Vice
  (26%)                          President + 15 Secretaries, 4
- Education                      women (24%)
- Attorney General             - State
- Integration and refugees     - Transportation
- Developmental                - Labor
  contributions / 3rd world    - Education
- Environment & Nordic
  cooperation
- Health and Human Services
  and Equality
Literature
     •   Pia Tafdrup
     •   Dorrit Willumsen
     •   Suzanne Brøgger
     •   Inger Christensen
     •   Marta Tikkanen
     •   Vigdis Bjørkøv
     •   Torill Hauger
     •   Iben Sandemose
Music

        • Sanne
          Salomonsen
        • Anne Linnet
        • Lis Sørensen
        • Michala Petri
        • Sissel Kjyrkebo
Painters
           •   Ida Schandorph
           •   Inge Ellegaard
           •   Anna Ancher
           •   Harriet Backer
           •   Bodil Halvarson

				
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posted:2/4/2012
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