高二英语(选修七)unit 2 Language points2 .ppt

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高二英语(选修七)unit 2 Language points2 .ppt Powered By Docstoc
					Unit 2
      What is a robot?
A robot is basically a computer-
controlled machine that is programmed
to move, manipulate (操纵) objects, and
accomplish work for us human beings.
It is able to perform repetitive tasks
more quickly, cheaply, and accurately
than humans.
All robots are made up of 3 elements:
     Body Control Behavior
These definitions includes many objects
that we encounter in our everyday lives.
For example:
           Robot              Non-Robot

       Alarm Clock            Walkman

   Traffic Light (timed)        Car

Microwave (cook for 2 min)   Typewriter
  Photocopier (make 100)      Bicycle
     VCR (recording)         Flashlight
Sometimes, a few of the objects we've
classified above can be considered
both robot and non-robot. Those that
can fall into both categories include
the car (it's a robot with cruise
control), the TV (it's a robot if it has
alarm capabilities), and the VCR (it's
a non-robot if you're just playing a
•   Mobile
•   Humanoid
•   Legged
•   Industrial
Warming up
humans   huge arm

snake    (mantis)   spider
What can robots do ?
                                      What can
                                      robots look
       play with me
 play football

 …                       humans, snake,
                        huge arm, spider
What kinds of work are robots usually used for?

 Robots are made to perform different tasks.
Many of them are used for tasks that are either
dangerous or unpleasant for us human beings.
In medical laboratories, robots handle
potentially hazardous materials, such as blood
or urine samples (尿样). In other cases, robots
are used in repetitive, monotonous tasks in
which human performance might degrade (降
低价值) over time. Robots can perform these
repetitive, high-precision operations 24 hours
a day without fatigue.
             Why use Robots?
There are many benefits to using robots instead of
humans. Can you imagine working in a factory all
day, every day, doing the exact same thing over and
over again? The good thing about robots is that they
will never get bored, and they will do things more
efficiently than people. Also, robots never get sick,
or need to rest. This means they can work for 24
hours a day, 7 days a week. They will never need
time off, or lunch breaks. Sometimes, when a task is
too dangerous or difficult for a human, a robot will
be able to do it without any risks or problems.
(Robots in the Real World will focus on these tasks)
        Why study robots?

                         Search engines

           Appliances        What else?
             Honda Humanoid Robot


                      Sony AIBO
Robot Teams

  USC robotics Lab
       History of Robots
This was one of the first robots - The
robot's name was Elektro and his dog's
name was Sparko. They appeared at the
New York World's Fair in 1939. While
plugged in, Elektro could say 77 words
and move backwards and forwards.
 When did the first robot appear?
In the 1920's, Karl Capek from
Czechoslovakia introduced the world's
first robot on stage. His play was entitled
"Rossum's Universal Robots." The theme
of the play was robots controlling humans
in society. Although he introduced the idea
of robots, Karl Capek was skeptical about
how much of an impact robots could have.
He rejected all suggestions that a robot
could ever replace a human being, or have
feelings such as love or rebellion.
            Laws of Robotics
The Russian/American scientist and author, Isaac Asimov,
who wrote science fiction, proposed three (and then he
added Law Zero) Laws of Robotics (in the 1940's):
Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through
inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
Law One: A robot may not injure a human being or through
inaction allow a human being to come to harm.
Law Two: A robot must obey the orders given it by human
beings, except where such orders would conflict with the
First Law.
Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence, as long
as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second
                 Robot Quiz
1. Which one of the following is NOT a robot?
   A. Bicycle        B. Traffic light
  C. Microwave        D. Photocopier
2. Which of the following can be considered both a
robot and a non-robot?
   A. Alarm Clock      B. Motor Bike
  C. Microwave          D. VCR
3. Why would a company choose to use robots
instead of humans?
   A. They never get sick
   B. They don't need a lunch break
   C. They'll never be bored
   D. All of the above
4. Robots can do work that is too ______________
for humans.
   A. Fun B. Scary C. Dangerous D.Predictable
5. A robot would be used instead of a human in which
   A. An elephant escaped from the circus
   B. A terrorist planted a bomb in an office building
   C. A cat was stuck in a tree
   D. Your friend fell into the lake and couldn't swim
6. Where do you think robots will show up in the
  A. Our homes B. Our schools
  C. Our bodies D. All of the above
7. What is the hardest thing for a robot to do?
   A. Eat B. Walk C. Talk D.All of the above
8. Who introduced the world's first robot?
   A. Thomas Edison         B. Marie Curie
   C. Karl Capek            D. Neil Armstrong
9. What is a robot NOT allowed to do according to the 3
Laws of Robotics?
   A. Have fun                      B. Drive a car
   C. Injure a human being          D. Go to the movies
13. What was the name of the robot-camera involved in the
discovery and exploration of the Titanic shipwreck?
   A. Frank B. Jason        C. Bill        D. Scott
14. What was the name of the robot-dog that you read about
in the History of Robots?
   A. Fido     B. Sparko    C. Spot        D. Fluffy
 Do you know science fiction
 literature, films , TV shows or
 cartoons about robots?
• Fiction : stories, novels, etc. which describe
  events and people that do not exist
• Non-fiction :writing that is about real
  people ,events and facts
• Literature: writing that is considered to be
  work of art, including novels , plays and poetr
I robot
        Language points

       appear ~ seem ~ look
e.g. If the sky appears blue to us on earth, it is because the earth’s
atmosphere scatters a certain number of blue rays of sunlight.
They looked tired.
They seemed to have finished the work.
时,seem和appear后都可接to do或to be,而look后只接to be。
e.g. The whole world seemed/appeared to be black and empty.
She looks to be the best person for the job.
语)+appear/seem + that从句”这一句型,而look则不行。
e.g. There seems to be a mistake in these figures.
It appears/seems that he has been ill for a long time.
look和seem后可接like短语,也可接as if引导的从句,appear两者都不用。
e.g. It looks/seems like rain.
It seems as if he knew nothing about it.
fiction   n.

stories or novels about imaginary
people and events;
a thing that is divide or imagined
and is not true虚构出来或想象出来的事
detective fiction
science fiction
vt. to wish or want sth.
n. a strong wish
desire to …
desire sb. to …
a desire to do…
a desire for sth
• desire
【 c / un. 】( 1 )a strong wish 渴望,意欲
       I am filled with desire to go back there.
       He has a strong desire to succeed / for success.
They had a desire that I(should)attend their wedding
( 2) Something or someone desired. 渴望的人或东
        What’s your greatest desire?
【 v. 】 to wish or want very much
        I desire to be successful.
  The Queen desired you to come at once.
= The Queen desired that you( should)come at once
originally adv.
Designing :
Suppose you are engineers in a
company that makes robots and you
are asked to design a new type of robot .
Your robot can be used in the home ,
workplace , street , natural
environment , space or anywhere else
you can think of .
In groups , carry out your designing , you
can consider these followings :
1 What does your robot look like ?
2 What can your robot do ? Are there any
laws for him to obey ?
3 Draw your robot and have one member
explain your design .
4 After discussion ,every group write a
paragraph describing your robot and make
the company convinces that your designing
is the best .
Every group please make up one play
  between your designed robot . You
  can :
1 decide who will play each characters
2 plan what the characters will say
3 plan the actions of each character
4 show how the characters are feeling
  by using suitable gestures , facial
  expressions ,words and actions
5 perform your play before the class

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