高二英语(选修七)unit 2 Language points2 .ppt

Document Sample
高二英语(选修七)unit 2 Language points2 .ppt Powered By Docstoc
					Unit 2
Robots
      What is a robot?
A robot is basically a computer-
controlled machine that is programmed
to move, manipulate (操纵) objects, and
accomplish work for us human beings.
It is able to perform repetitive tasks
more quickly, cheaply, and accurately
than humans.
All robots are made up of 3 elements:
     Body Control Behavior
These definitions includes many objects
that we encounter in our everyday lives.
For example:
           Robot              Non-Robot

       Alarm Clock            Walkman


   Traffic Light (timed)        Car


Microwave (cook for 2 min)   Typewriter
  Photocopier (make 100)      Bicycle
     VCR (recording)         Flashlight
Sometimes, a few of the objects we've
classified above can be considered
both robot and non-robot. Those that
can fall into both categories include
the car (it's a robot with cruise
control), the TV (it's a robot if it has
alarm capabilities), and the VCR (it's
a non-robot if you're just playing a
tape).
Robots
•   Mobile
•   Humanoid
•   Legged
•   Industrial
Warming up
humans   huge arm



snake    (mantis)   spider
What can robots do ?
                                      What can
                 homework
                                      robots look
       play with me
                                      like?
 play football

 …                       humans, snake,
                        huge arm, spider
What kinds of work are robots usually used for?

 Robots are made to perform different tasks.
Many of them are used for tasks that are either
dangerous or unpleasant for us human beings.
In medical laboratories, robots handle
potentially hazardous materials, such as blood
or urine samples (尿样). In other cases, robots
are used in repetitive, monotonous tasks in
which human performance might degrade (降
低价值) over time. Robots can perform these
repetitive, high-precision operations 24 hours
a day without fatigue.
             Why use Robots?
There are many benefits to using robots instead of
humans. Can you imagine working in a factory all
day, every day, doing the exact same thing over and
over again? The good thing about robots is that they
will never get bored, and they will do things more
efficiently than people. Also, robots never get sick,
or need to rest. This means they can work for 24
hours a day, 7 days a week. They will never need
time off, or lunch breaks. Sometimes, when a task is
too dangerous or difficult for a human, a robot will
be able to do it without any risks or problems.
(Robots in the Real World will focus on these tasks)
        Why study robots?


                         Search engines
               Science



                           Medicine/
                           Diagnosis
Labor
           Appliances        What else?
             Honda Humanoid Robot




        Walk



                                Turn

http://world.honda.com/robot/
                                       Stairs
                      Sony AIBO




http://www.aibo.com
Robot Teams




  USC robotics Lab
       History of Robots
This was one of the first robots - The
robot's name was Elektro and his dog's
name was Sparko. They appeared at the
New York World's Fair in 1939. While
plugged in, Elektro could say 77 words
and move backwards and forwards.
 When did the first robot appear?
In the 1920's, Karl Capek from
Czechoslovakia introduced the world's
first robot on stage. His play was entitled
"Rossum's Universal Robots." The theme
of the play was robots controlling humans
in society. Although he introduced the idea
of robots, Karl Capek was skeptical about
how much of an impact robots could have.
He rejected all suggestions that a robot
could ever replace a human being, or have
feelings such as love or rebellion.
            Laws of Robotics
The Russian/American scientist and author, Isaac Asimov,
who wrote science fiction, proposed three (and then he
added Law Zero) Laws of Robotics (in the 1940's):
Law Zero: A robot may not injure humanity, or, through
inaction, allow humanity to come to harm.
Law One: A robot may not injure a human being or through
inaction allow a human being to come to harm.
Law Two: A robot must obey the orders given it by human
beings, except where such orders would conflict with the
First Law.
Law Three: A robot must protect its own existence, as long
as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second
Laws.
                 Robot Quiz
1. Which one of the following is NOT a robot?
   A. Bicycle        B. Traffic light
  C. Microwave        D. Photocopier
2. Which of the following can be considered both a
robot and a non-robot?
   A. Alarm Clock      B. Motor Bike
  C. Microwave          D. VCR
3. Why would a company choose to use robots
instead of humans?
   A. They never get sick
   B. They don't need a lunch break
   C. They'll never be bored
   D. All of the above
4. Robots can do work that is too ______________
for humans.
   A. Fun B. Scary C. Dangerous D.Predictable
5. A robot would be used instead of a human in which
situation?
   A. An elephant escaped from the circus
   B. A terrorist planted a bomb in an office building
   C. A cat was stuck in a tree
   D. Your friend fell into the lake and couldn't swim
6. Where do you think robots will show up in the
future?
  A. Our homes B. Our schools
  C. Our bodies D. All of the above
7. What is the hardest thing for a robot to do?
   A. Eat B. Walk C. Talk D.All of the above
8. Who introduced the world's first robot?
   A. Thomas Edison         B. Marie Curie
   C. Karl Capek            D. Neil Armstrong
9. What is a robot NOT allowed to do according to the 3
Laws of Robotics?
   A. Have fun                      B. Drive a car
   C. Injure a human being          D. Go to the movies
13. What was the name of the robot-camera involved in the
discovery and exploration of the Titanic shipwreck?
   A. Frank B. Jason        C. Bill        D. Scott
14. What was the name of the robot-dog that you read about
in the History of Robots?
   A. Fido     B. Sparko    C. Spot        D. Fluffy
 Do you know science fiction
 literature, films , TV shows or
 cartoons about robots?
• Fiction : stories, novels, etc. which describe
  events and people that do not exist
• Non-fiction :writing that is about real
  people ,events and facts
• Literature: writing that is considered to be
  work of art, including novels , plays and poetr
I robot
2046
        Language points

                                              辨析
       appear ~ seem ~ look
三个词都可以表示“看起来,好像”,但各自的侧重点有所不同,其句子结构
也不完全一样。
(1)appear指给人以表面的印象,暗含往往并非如此。look指显露在外能被人
看到的视觉印象。seem是说话人的一种主观判断,可能有一定根据或判断接近
事实。
e.g. If the sky appears blue to us on earth, it is because the earth’s
atmosphere scatters a certain number of blue rays of sunlight.
如果我们在地球上看天空是蓝色的,那是因为地球周围的大气层使太阳光的一
部分蓝色射线散射的缘故。(某物给人的一种表面印象)
They looked tired.
他们看起来累了。(说话人从他们身上得到的一种视觉印象)
They seemed to have finished the work.
他们好像已完成了那项工作。(说话人的判断)
(2)这三个词的句型结构比较:共同点是可接形容词;不同点如下:接不定式
时,seem和appear后都可接to do或to be,而look后只接to be。
e.g. The whole world seemed/appeared to be black and empty.
整个世界好像全是漆黑一片,空空洞洞。
She looks to be the best person for the job.
她看起来就是这份工作的最佳人选。
appear和seem都可用there放在句首作引导词的句型,也都可用“it(主
语)+appear/seem + that从句”这一句型,而look则不行。
e.g. There seems to be a mistake in these figures.
这些数字似乎有误。
It appears/seems that he has been ill for a long time.
他好像病了好长时间。
look和seem后可接like短语,也可接as if引导的从句,appear两者都不用。
e.g. It looks/seems like rain.
像是要下雨了。
It seems as if he knew nothing about it.
他似乎对此一无所知。
fiction   n.

stories or novels about imaginary
people and events;
a thing that is divide or imagined
and is not true虚构出来或想象出来的事
detective fiction
science fiction
fictional
fictionist
non-fiction
               desire
vt. to wish or want sth.
n. a strong wish
desire to …
desire sb. to …
desirable
a desire to do…
a desire for sth
• desire
【 c / un. 】( 1 )a strong wish 渴望,意欲
       I am filled with desire to go back there.
       He has a strong desire to succeed / for success.
They had a desire that I(should)attend their wedding
( 2) Something or someone desired. 渴望的人或东
 西
        What’s your greatest desire?
【 v. 】 to wish or want very much
        I desire to be successful.
  The Queen desired you to come at once.
= The Queen desired that you( should)come at once
originally adv.
     origin
    original
Designing :
Suppose you are engineers in a
company that makes robots and you
are asked to design a new type of robot .
Your robot can be used in the home ,
workplace , street , natural
environment , space or anywhere else
you can think of .
In groups , carry out your designing , you
can consider these followings :
1 What does your robot look like ?
2 What can your robot do ? Are there any
laws for him to obey ?
3 Draw your robot and have one member
explain your design .
4 After discussion ,every group write a
paragraph describing your robot and make
the company convinces that your designing
is the best .
Acting
Every group please make up one play
  between your designed robot . You
  can :
1 decide who will play each characters
2 plan what the characters will say
3 plan the actions of each character
4 show how the characters are feeling
  by using suitable gestures , facial
  expressions ,words and actions
5 perform your play before the class

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:11
posted:2/3/2012
language:English
pages:33