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Israel and the apartheid analogy

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					Israel and the apartheid analogy
The State of Israel's treatment of the Palestinians has been compared by United Nations
investigators, human rights groups and critics of Israeli policy to South Africa's treatment of
non-whites during its apartheid era. Israel has also been accused of committing the crime of
apartheid.[1][2][ Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery



] Critics of Israeli policy say that "a system of control" in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, including
Jewish-only settlements, separate roads, military checkpoints, discriminatory marriage law, the
West Bank barrier, use of Palestinians as cheap labour, Palestinian West Bank enclaves, inequities
in infrastructure, legal rights, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery
and access to land and resources between Palestinians and Israeli residents in the
Israeli-occupied territories resembles some aspects of the South African apartheid regime, and
that elements of Israel's occupation constitute forms of colonialism and of apartheid, which are
contrary to international law.[4] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31J/S Battery
   Some commentators extend the analogy, or accusation, to include Arab citizens of Israel,
describing their citizenship status as second-class. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery

Opponents of the analogy state that the West Bank and Gaza are not part of sovereign Israel and
are governed by the Palestinian Authority, so cannot be compared to the internal policies of
apartheid South Africa, and that restrictions are only imposed on those territories by Israel for
reasons of security.[12][13] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery
   In regards to the situation within Israel itself, critics of the analogy argue that Israel cannot
accurately be called an apartheid state because Israeli law guarantees Arab citizens of Israel the
same rights as other Israeli citizens without distinction of race, creed or sex.[14][15][16][17][18]
They also note that Israel's Arab citizens can and do run in elections and become ministers in the
Israeli government.[19] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S Battery
   Some critics consider the analogy defamatory and reflecting a double standard when applied
to Israel and not neighboring Arab countries, whose policies towards their own Palestinian
minority have been described as discriminatory.[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27] Some opponents
of the analogy say it is a manifestation of anti-semitism.[15][28] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

In 1973 the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of
Apartheid (ICSPCA) was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.[29] The ICSPCA
defines the crime of apartheid as "inhuman acts committed for the purpose of establishing and
maintaining domination by one racial group Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery
... over another racial group ... and systematically oppressing them."[30] In 2002 the crime of
apartheid was further defined by Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal
Court as encompassing inhumane acts such as torture, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery
    murder, forcible transfer, imprisonment, or persecution of an identifiable group on political,
racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, or other grounds, "committed in the context of an
institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group over any
racial group or groups and committed with the intention of maintaining that regime."[31] Sony
Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery

In a 2007 report, United Nations Special Rapporteur for Palestine John Dugard stated that
"elements of the Israeli occupation constitute forms of colonialism and of apartheid, which are
contrary to international law" and suggested that the "legal consequences of a prolonged
occupation with features of colonialism and apartheid" be put to the International Court of
Justice.[32] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery
In 2009 South Africa's statutory research agency the Human Sciences Research Council (HSRC)
published a report stating that "the State of Israel exercises control in the [Occupied Palestinian
Territories] with the purpose of maintaining a system of domination by Jews over Palestinians
and that this system constitutes a breach of the prohibition of apartheid."[33] Sony Vaio
VGN-NR38S/S Battery
The report was written by a team of international law experts and scholars and does not
represent an official position of the HSRC.[34] In 2010 United Nations Special Rapporteur for
Palestine Richard A. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery
Falk reported that criminal apartheid features of the Israeli occupation had been entrenched in
the three years since the report of his predecessor, John Dugard.[35] In March 2011, Falk said,
Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery
"The continued pattern of settlement expansion in East Jerusalem combined with the forcible
eviction of long-residing Palestinians is creating an intolerable situation … *and+ can only be
described in its cumulative impact as a form of ethnic cleansing."[36] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S
Battery
   The question of whether Israelis and Palestinians can be said to constitute "racial groups" has
 been a point of contention in regard to the applicability of the ICSPCA and Article 7 of the Rome
   Statute. Political writer Ronald Bruce St John has argued that in regards to the ICSPCA "Israeli
   policy in the West Bank cannot technically be defined as apartheid because it lacks the racial
                                   component".Sony VAIO VGN-NR21E/S Battery
 However he then states that with the 2002 introduction of the Rome Statute of the International
     Criminal Court "the emphasis shifts to an identifiable national, ethnic or cultural group, as
   opposed to a racial group," in which case "Israeli policy in the West Bank clearly constitutes a
  form of apartheid with an effect on the Palestinian people much the same as apartheid had on
                the non-White population in South Africa."[29] Sony VAIO VGN-NR21J/S Battery
 The HSRC's 2009 report states that in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, Jewish and Palestinian
    identities are "socially constructed as groups distinguished by ancestry or descent as well as
                       nationality, ethnicity, and religion." Sony VAIO VGN-NR21S/S Battery
     On this basis, the study concludes that Israeli Jews and Palestinian Arabs can be considered
   "racial groups" for the purposes of the definition of apartheid in international law.[33] Sony VAIO
                                           VGN-NR21S/T Battery

Activists for Palestinian rights have also accused Israel of committing the crime of apartheid.[37]
For example, in 2006, at the UN-sponsored International Conference of Civil Society in Support of
  the Palestinian People, Phyllis Bennis, co-chair of the International Coordinating Network on
                                  Palestine alleged that "Once again,
                                       Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/T Battery
the crime of apartheid [is] being committed by a United Nations Member State [Israel]."[38] Zahir
  Kolliah has written that "In South Africa and in Palestine the indigenous populations live under
     apartheid regimes 'settler colonies' as described by the International Convention on the
        Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid".[39] Sony VAIO VGN-NR11Z/S Battery

[edit]Marriage law as example of apartheid

 The Citizenship and Entry into Israel Law[40] was passed by the Knesset on 31 July 2003, during
 the second Palestinian uprising. The law does not enable the acquisition of Israeli citizenship or
  residency by a Palestinian from the West Bank or Gaza Strip via marriage.[41] Sony VAIO VGN-NR11S/S
                                                  Battery

The law does allow children from such marriages to live in Israel until age 12, at which age they
are required to emigrate.[4 Sony VAIO VGN-NR11M/S Battery
] This applies equally to a Palestinian spouse of any Israeli citizen, whether Arab or Jewish, but in
practice more Israeli Arabs than Israeli Jews marry Palestinians. The law was originally intended
to be temporary but has since been extended annually.[43] [44] Sony Vaio VGN-CR31E/P Battery
In formulating the law, the government cited security concerns "that the terrorist organizations
try to enlist Palestinians who have already received or will receive Israeli documentation and that
the security services have a hard time distinguishing between Palestinians who might help the
terrorists and those who will not [45] Sony Vaio VGN-CR31E/L Battery
A representative for the State, said in court that "In the past two years, 27 people who had
applied for permission to join their spouses in Israel were directly involved in attempted or actual
attacks." [43] Sony Vaio VGN-CR31Z/R Battery
In the Israeli Supreme Court decision on this matter, Deputy Chief Justice Mishael Cheshin argued
  that, "Israeli citizens [do not] enjoy a constitutional right to bring a foreign national into Israel...
                               and it is the right—moreover, Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery
it is the duty—of the state, of any state, to protect its residents from those wishing to harm them.
  And it derives from this that the state is entitled to prevent the immigration of enemy nationals
 into it—even if they are spouses of Israeli citizens—while it is waging an armed conflict with that
                                      same enemy."[46] Sony VGP-BPS9A Battery

   The law was upheld in May 2006, by the Supreme Court of Israel on a six to five vote. Israel's
Chief Justice, Aharon Barak, sided with the minority on the bench, declaring: "This violation of
rights is directed against Arab citizens of Israel. Sony VGP-BPS9B Battery
  As a result, therefore, the law is a violation of the right of Arab citizens in Israel to equality."[47]
Zehava Gal-On, one of the founders of B'Tselem and a Knesset member with the Meretz-Yachad
party, stated that with the ruling "The Supreme Court could have taken a braver decision and not
relegated us to the level of an apartheid state."[48Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery

] The law was also criticized by Amnesty International[49] and Human Rights Watch.[50] In 2007,
the restriction was expanded to citizens of Iran, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.[43] Sony VAIO VGN-SR11MR
Battery



Heribert Adam and Kogila Moodley cite the marriage law as an example of how Arab Israelis
"resemble in many ways 'Colored' and Indian South Africans."[6] They write: "Both Israeli
Palestinians and Colored and Indian South Africans are restricted to second-class citizen status
when another ethnic group monopolizes state power, treats the minorities as intrinsically
suspect,

Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery and legally prohibits their access to land or allocates civil service
positions or per capita expenditure on education differentially between dominant and minority
citizens." Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
In June 2008 after the law was renewed, Amos Schocken, the publisher of the Israeli daily
Ha'aretz, wrote that the law "severely discriminates when comparing the rights of young Israeli
Jewish citizens and young Israeli Arab citizens" who marry, and that "Its existence in the law
books turns Israel into an apartheid state."[51]
Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery




Ilan Tzion, a lawyer for Fence for Life, explained his support for the law to a reporter for the
BBC."If the law is overturned, eventually Israel will become 'a Muslim state', he says, 'the Jewish
people will become a minority in their own country', Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
   and thus be 'exterminated'. 'Israel is not like any other country; it was founded on the idea that
it will be place for all the Jews in the world as a refuge place.'" Danny Danon, a Likud member of
the Knesset, said "I don't think it's a racist law. But we have to make sure Israel stays a Jewish
democratic country."[43] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery

[edit]Political rights, voting and representation, judiciary

[edit]In Israel
See also: Arab citizens of Israel and List of Arab members of the Knesset
Israel's Declaration of Independence called for the establishment of a Jewish state with equality
of social and political rights, Sony VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery
   irrespective of religion, race, or sex.[52] The rights of citizens are guaranteed by a set of basic
laws (Israel does not have a written constitution).[53] Although this set of laws does not explicitly
include the term "right to equality",Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery
   the Israeli Supreme Court has consistently interpreted "Basic Law: Human Dignity and
Liberty"[54] and "Basic Law: Freedom of Occupation (1994)"[55] as guaranteeing equal rights for
all Israeli citizens.[56] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
According to the 2010 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for
Israel and the Occupied Territories, Israeli law prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, and
the government effectively enforced these prohibitions.[57] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery

The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs states that "Arab Israelis are citizens of Israel with equal
rights" and states that the "only legal distinction between Arab and Jewish citizens is not one of
rights, but rather of civic duty". Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/W Battery
However a number of official sources acknowledge that Arab citizens of Israel experience
systematic discrimination in many aspects of life. Israeli High Court Justice (Ret.) Theodor Or
chaired the Or Commission, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery
which noted that discrimination against the country's Arab citizens had been documented in a
large number of professional surveys and studies, had been confirmed in court judgments and
government resolutions, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W Battery and had also found expression in reports
by the state comptroller and in other official documents. Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
criticised in 2008 what he called "deliberate and insufferable" discrimination against Arabs at the
hands of the Israeli establishment.[58] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M/H Battery

According to the 2004 U.S. State Department Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for
Israel and the Occupied Territories, Israel maintained the full range of normal equal rights found
in Western liberal democracies, and in specific issues "generally respected the human rights of its
citizens; however, Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S/B Battery
there were problems in some areas," and the government had done "little to reduce institutional,
legal, and societal discrimination against the country's Arab citizens."[59] Reports of subsequent
years also identified discrimination against Arab citizens as a problem area for Israel, but did not
repeat the assertion that Israel had done little to reduce discrimination.[60] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B
Battery

Before 2004, too, there had been some significant improvements in Israeli Arab rights. For
example, there has been a steady extension of Israeli Arab rights to lease or purchase land
formerly restricted to Jewish applicants, such as that owned by the Jewish National Fund or the
Jewish Agency. These groups, Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZS/B Battery
established by Jews during the Ottoman period to aid in building up a viable Jewish community in
Ottoman Palestine, purchased land, including arid desert and swamps, that could be reclaimed,
leased to and farmed by Jews, thus encouraging Jewish immigration. After the establishment of
the state of Israel, Sony Vaio VGN-AW41ZF/H Battery
the Israel Lands Authority oversaw the administration of these properties. On March 8, 2000, the
Israeli Supreme Court ruled that Israeli Arabs, too, had an equal right to purchase long-term
leases of such land, even inside previously solely Jewish communities and villages. Sony Vaio
VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery

The court ruled that the government may not allocate land based on religion or ethnicity and
may not prevent Arab citizens from living wherever they choose: "The principle of equality
prohibits the state from distinguishing between its citizens on the basis of religion or nationality,"
Chief Justice Aharon Barak wrote. Sony Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H Battery
"The principle also applies to the allocation of state land. ... The Jewish character of the state
does not permit Israel to discriminate between its citizens." [61] Commenting on this ruling, the
British philosopher Bernard Harrison has written, in a book chapter dealing with the "apartheid
Israel" accusation: Sony Vaio VGN-AW41JF/H Battery
   "No doubt much more needs to be done. But we are discussing, remember, the question of
whether Israel is, or is not, an "apartheid state." It is not merely hard, but impossible, to imagine
the South African Supreme Court, Sony Vaio VGN-AW31M/H Battery
under the premiership of Hendrik Verwoerd, say, delivering an analogous decision, because to
have done so would have struck at the root of the entire system of apartheid, which was nothing
if not a system for separating the races by separating the areas they were permitted to
occupy."[62] Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S Battery
Some observers have accused Israeli officials of partiality, for example being more lenient on
Jews who kill Arabs in Israel, as compared to Israeli Arabs who kill Jews in Israel.[63] Sony Vaio
VGN-AW21M Battery



[edit]In Gaza and the West Bank
Arabs living in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, areas occupied by Israel in the 1967 Six Day War
and deemed to be occupied territory under international law, have never been offered Israeli
citizenship (except the Arabs of East Jerusalem).[ Sony Vaio VGN-AW11ZR/B Battery
citation needed] In the West Bank, Palestinians are under the civil control of the Palestinian
Authority, but in some areas, they are under Israeli security control. In the Gaza Strip, Palestinians
are under the full civil and security control of Hamas, which governs the area as an autonomous
entity, although Israel controls its airspace and waters. In East Jerusalem, which Israel officially
annexed, Sony Vaio VGN-AW11Z/B Battery
[citation needed] Palestinian residents have permanent residency rights in the city.[64] They
carry Palestinian identity cards issued by the Palestinian Authority and elect members of the
Palestinian Authority. Sony Vaio VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery
They are entitled to social and health benefits, and are eligible for Israeli citizenship. Those that
become Israeli citizens can vote in municipal elections.[citation needed] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11SR/B
Battery

In the occupied territories, Palestinians and Israeli settlers are subject to different criminal laws
leading to prolonged detention and harsher punishments for Palestinians than for Israelis for the
same offenses.[65] Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery
  Amnesty International has reported that in the West Bank, Israeli settlers and soldiers who
engage in abuses against Palestinians, including unlawful killings, enjoy "impunity" from
punishment and are rarely prosecuted. However Palestinians detained by Israeli security forces
may be imprisoned for prolonged periods of time, and reports of their torture and other
ill-treatment are not credibly investigated.[66][67][68] Sony Vaio VGN-NS10E/S Battery



John Dugard has compared Israeli imprisonment of Palestinians to policies of Apartheid-era
South Africa, saying "Apartheid's security police practiced torture on a large scale. So do the
Israeli security forces. There were many political prisoners on Robben Island but there are more
Palestinian political prisoners in Israeli jails." [69] Sony Vaio VGN-NS10L/S Battery
  [edit]Segregation of Arabs and Jews in Israel

According to Amnon Be'eri Sulitzeanu, director of the Abraham Fund Initiatives, several gated
communities in the Negev and the Galilee were founded by the Jewish Agency and the Jewish
National Fund for the purpose of "Judaizing" the areas. Sony Vaio VGN-NS11J/S Battery

Sony VGP-BPS21A/b Battery

He stated that some of these communities have established bylaws effectively barring Arabs from
moving in. In 2010 the Knesset's Constitution, Law and Justice Committee finalized a bill intended
to bypass previous rulings of the High Court of Justice which had ordered acceptance committees
of communal villages of Katzir Sony Vaio VGN-NS20E/P Battery
and Rakefet to accept Arab citizens of Israel as members. Sulitzeanu says that the amendment
would give committees of communal villages the authority to limit residency in their towns
exclusively to Jews, Sony Vaio VGN-NS20J/P Battery
and it will not be possible to describe the new legislation as anything other than an apartheid
law[70] Arab lawmakers criticised the proposal, saying it would prevent Arabs from joining Israeli
towns and comparing it to racist laws in Europe during World War II.[71] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20M/S
Battery

The final amendment, approved in 2011, forbids rejection of applicants, on the basis of race,
religion, sex, ethnicity,disability, personal status, age, parenthood,sexual orientation, country of
origin, political views, or political affiliation. Acceptance committees decisions can be appealed to
supervisory committee, appointed by Minister of Housing and Construction.[72] Sony Vaio
VGN-NS30E/S Battery



Within the city of Lod, a three-meter-high wall has been erected to separate Jewish districts from
Arab ones. Arab suburbs have been restricted from growing, while the Israeli government has
encouraged building in Jewish areas. Some municipal services, such as street lighting and rubbish
collection, are only provided to Jewish areas.[73] Sony Vaio VGN-NS30Z/S Battery
Jewish residents claim the Arabs are a security threat, while Arabs describe the Jewish
newcomers as settlers.[73] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/P Battery

 A program designed to halt the increasing rate of crime among Arab residents will receive 10
million NIS. Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu has pledged to prevent the city from becoming a
"Wild West." Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/S Battery
The Israeli government has promised 3 million NIS to support education in Arab neighborhoods,
and the welfare system in the city will be bolstered by 4 million additional Shekels per year. More
Arab-speaking city social workers will be employed.[74] Sony Vaio VGN-NS20EF/W Battery
 [edit]National identification cards

Prior to 2002 Israeli Identity Cards included a reference to the bearer's ethnic group (such as
Jewish, Arab, Druze or Circassian) but the reference was removed in 2002. Since 2002, if the
bearer of the identification card is Jewish the Hebrew calendar birth date is included on the card,
but if the bearer is non-Jewish, it is omitted.[75] Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery

 Chris McGreal, The Guardian's former chief Israel correspondent, reports that the ID system
determines "where [Arabs and Jews] are permitted to live, access to some government welfare
programmes, and how they are likely to be treated by civil servants and policemen."[76] In the
same article McGreal, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/B Battery
also the chief South Africa correspondent during the apartheid years, compared Israel's
Population Registry Law of 1965, which calls for the gathering of ethnic data, to South Africa's
Apartheid-era Population Registration Act.[76][77] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/B Battery

[edit]Land and infrastructure
Yossi Paritzky, a former Israeli minister, has used the apartheid analogy to describe a proposed bill
that banned non-Jewish citizens of Israel from purchasing land privately owned by the JNF.[9]

Sony VGP-BPS21/S BatteryThe   JNF has long insisted that its lands be sold only to Jews, due to the
fact that the land was purchased with money from Jewish donors for the purpose of settling Jews
in Israel. Noam Chomsky, American professor of linguistics and political activist, has stated that "if
you look at the land laws, and decode it all, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/S Battery
what it amounts to is that about ninety percent of the land inside Israel is reserved to what's
called 'people of Jewish race, religion and origin'... That's in the contract between the state of
Israel and the Jewish National Fund, which is a non-Israeli organization, which, however, by
various bureaucratic arrangements, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/S Battery
administers the land... All of this is covered up enough so that nobody can say, "Look, here's an
apartheid law."[78] Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/S Battery

In 2006, Chris McGreal of The Guardian stated that as a result of the government's control over
most of the land in Israel, the vast majority of land in Israel is not available to non-Jews.[76] In
2007 in response to a 2004 petition filed by Adalah, the Legal Center for Arab Minority Rights in
Israel, Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
Attorney General Menachem Mazuz ruled that the policy was discriminatory, it has been ruled
that the JNF must sell land to non-Jews, and will be compensated with other land for any such
land to ensure that the overall amount of Jewish-owned land in Israel remains unchanged.[79]

Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery

Representative of a Palestinian view is that of Leila Farsakh, associate professor of Political
Science at University of Massachusetts Boston, according to whom, after 1977, "the military
government in the West Bank and Gaza Strip (WBGS) expropriated and enclosed Palestinian land
and allowed the transfer of Israeli settlers to the occupied territories: they continued to be
governed by Israeli laws. Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery
The government also enacted different military laws and decrees to regulate the civilian,
economic and legal affairs of Palestinian inhabitants. These strangled the Palestinian economy
and increased its dependence and integration into Israel." Sony VAIO VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery
Farsakh holds that "[m]any view these Israeli policies of territorial integration and societal
separation as apartheid, Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery
even if they were never given such a name."[80] Along similar lines, B'Tselem wrote in 2004 that
"Palestinians are barred from or have restricted access to 450 miles of West Bank roads, a system
with 'clear similarities' to South Africa's former apartheid regime".[81] Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery
Also John Dugard has compared Israel's confiscation of Palestinian farms and land, and
destruction of Palestinian homes, to similar policies of Apartheid-era South Africa.[69] Sony Vaio
VGN-NW21MF Battery



Henry Siegman, a former national director of the American Jewish Congress, has stated that the
network of settlements in the West Bank has created an "irreversible colonial project" aimed to
foreclose the possibility of a viable Palestinian state. According to Siegman, Sony Vaio VGN-NW21EF
Battery
in accomplishing this Israel has "crossed the threshold from "the only democracy in the Middle
East" to the only apartheid regime in the Western world".Sony Vaio VGN-NW21JF Battery
Siegman argues that denial of both self-determination and Israeli citizenship to Palestinians
amounts to a "double disenfranchisement", which when based on ethnicity amounts to racism.
Siegman continues to state that reserving democracy for privileged citizens and keeping others
"behind checkpoints and barbed wire fences" is the opposite of democracy.[82] Sony Vaio
VGN-NW21ZF Battery



In October 2005 the Israel Defense Force stopped Palestinians from driving on Highway 60, as
part of a plan for a separate Road Network for Palestinians and Israelis in the West Bank. The
road had been sealed after the fatal shooting of three settlers near Bethlehem. Sony Vaio
VGN-NW31ZF/S Battery

As of 2005, no private Palestinian cars where permitted on the road although public transport
was still allowed. B'Tselem described this as a first step towards "total 'road apartheid'".[83]
Criticism of Israeli policies on similar grounds has arisen from, among others, Haggai Alon, a
senior defence advisor.[84] Sony Vaio VGN-NW31JF Battery
On December 29, 2009 Israel's High Court of Justice accepted the Association for Civil Rights in
Israel's petition against an IDF order barring Palestinians from driving on Highway 443. The ruling
should come into effect five months after being issued, allowing Palestinians to use the road.[85]

Sony Vaio VGN-NW20SF Battery  According to plans laid out by the Israeli Defence Forces to implement
the court's ruling, Palestinian use of the road is seen to remain limited.[86]
Mustafa Barghouti, a Palestinian legislator and former presidential candidate, said that apartheid
was the only word to describe Israel's creation of separate roads for Palestinians, its
discrimination in allocation of water, Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery
ongoing settlement construction, and differences in per capita income between Israelis (both
Jewish and non-Jewish) and Palestinians. He also asserted that the US-sponsored peace process
gave Israel time to "continue settlements building, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/P Battery
to continue having the checkpoints and restrictions, to continue creating this apartheid
system".[87] The World Bank found in 2009 that Israeli settlements in the West Bank (which
amount to 15% of the population of the West Bank) are given access to over 80% of its fresh
water resources, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/S Battery
despite the fact that the Oslo accords call for "joint" management of such resources. This has
created, according to the Bank, "real water shortages" for the Palestinians.[88] In January 2012,
the Foreign Affairs Committee of the French parliament published a report describing Israel's
water policies in the West Bank as "a weapon serving the new apartheid". Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF/W
Battery

The report noted that the 450,000 Israeli settlers used more water than the 2.3 million
Palestinians, "in contravention of international law", that Palestinians are not allowed to use the
underground aquifers, Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/T Battery
Sony Vaio VGN-NW11Z/S Battery

and that Israel was deliberately destroying wells, reservoirs and water purification plants. Israeli
Foreign Ministry spokesman Yigal Palmor said the report was "loaded with the language of
vicious propaganda, far removed from any professional criticism with which one could argue
intelligently."[89] A report by The Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies concludes that Israel
has fulfilled the water agreements it has made with the Palestinians, and the author has
commented that the situation is "just the opposite of apartheid" as Israel has provided water
infrastructure to more than 700 Palestinian villages.[90][91] Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/T Battery
The Association for Civil Rights in Israel concluded in 2008 that a segregated road network in the
West Bank, expansion of Jewish settlements, restriction of the growth of Palestinian towns and
discriminatory granting of services, Sony Vaio VGN-NW11S/S Battery
budgets and access to natural resources are "a blatant violation of the principle of equality and in
many ways reminiscent of the Apartheid regime in South Africa". The group reversed its previous
reluctance to use the comparison to South Africa because “things are getting worse rather than
better”, according to spokeswoman Melanie Takefman.[92] Sony Vaio VGN-NW31EF Battery

[edit]Travel and movement

See also: Palestinian freedom of movement
Palestinians living in the non-annexed portions of the West Bank do not have Israeli citizenship or
voting rights in Israel, Sony Vaio VGN-NW20ZF Battery
but are subject to movement restrictions of the Israeli government. Israel has created roads and
checkpoints in the West Bank with the stated purpose of preventing the uninhibited movement
of suicide bombers and militants in the region. Sony Vaio VGN-NW24S Battery
The human rights NGO B'Tselem has indicated that such policies have isolated some Palestinian
communities.[93] The International Court of Justice stated that the fundamental rights of the
Palestinian population of the occupied territories are guaranteed by the International Covenant
on Civil and Political Rights, Sony Vaio VGN-NW26M Battery
and that Israel could not deny them on the grounds of security.[94] Marwan Bishara, a teacher of
international relations at the American University of Paris, has claimed that the restrictions on
the movement of goods between Israel and the West Bank are "a defacto apartheid system".[95]
Sony Vaio VGN-NW20EF Battery

Huwwara Checkpoint, one of many Israeli checkpoints and closures that restrict the movement of
Palestinians in the occupied West Bank and have been compared to the apartheid pass
laws.[96][97] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery

A permit and closure system was introduced in 1990. Leila Farsakh maintains that this system
imposes "on Palestinians similar conditions to those faced by blacks under the pass laws. Like the
pass laws, the permit system controlled population movement according to the settlers’
unilaterally defined considerations." Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
In response to the al-Aqsa intifada, Israel modified the permit system and fragmented the WBGS
[West Bank and Gaza Strip] territorially. "In April 2002 Israel declared that the WBGS would be
cut into eight main areas, outside which Palestinians could not live without a permit."[80] John
Dugard has said these laws "resemble, but in severity go far beyond, apartheid's pass system".[97]
Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery



[edit]West Bank barrier
Main article: West Bank Barrier
In 2003, a year after Operation Defensive Shield, the Israeli government announced a project of
"fences and other physical obstacles" to prevent Palestinians crossing into Israel.[98][99] Several
figures, including Mohammad Sarwar, John Pilger, Mustafa Barghouti and others have described
the resultant West Bank barrier as an "apartheid wall"Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery




The barrier has been called an "apartheid wall"[106] by Palestinian Environmental NGOs Network.
Israeli officials describe the barrier, constructed in 2002, as a security fence, limiting the ability of
Palestinian terrorist organizations to enter Israel and making it difficult for them to carry out
suicide bombings. [107] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery
Supporters of the West Bank barrier consider it to be largely responsible for reducing incidents of
terrorism by 90% from 2002 to 2005.[108][109] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery
Israel's foreign minister, Silvan Shalom, stated in 2004 that the barrier is not a border but a
temporary defensive measure designed to protect Israeli civilians from terrorist infiltration and
attack, and can be dismantled if appropriate.[110] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11J Battery

The Supreme Court of Israel ruled that the barrier is defensive and accepted the government's
position that the route is based on security considerations.[111] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11Z Battery
The International Court of Justice ruled in 2004 in an advisory opinion that the wall is illegal
where it extends beyond the 1967 Green Line into the West Bank. Israel disagreed with the ruling,
but its supreme court subsequently ordered the barrier to be moved in sections where its route
was seen to cause more hardship to Palestinians than security concerns could motivate.[112]
Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZRU Battery



In January 2004, Ahmed Qureia, then the Palestinian Prime Minister, said that the building of the
West Bank barrier, and the associated Israeli absorption of parts of the West Bank, constituted
"an apartheid solution to put the Palestinians in cantons."[113] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZU Battery
Colin Powell, then U.S. Secretary of State, commented on Queria's statements by affirming U.S.
commitment to a two-state solution, while saying, "I don't believe that we can accept a situation
that results in anything that one might characterize as apartheid or Bantuism."[114] Sony VAIO
VGN-FW21J Battery




[edit]Education

See also: Education in Israel



Sign in front of the Galil school, a joint Arab-Jewish primary school in Israel
Separate and unequal education systems were a central part of apartheid in South Africa.[76] The
Israeli Pupils' Rights Law of 2000 prohibits educators from establishing different rights,
obligations and disciplinary standards for students of different religions. Educational institutions
may not discriminate against religious minorities in admissions or expulsion decisions, or when
developing curricula or assigning students to classes.[115] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR Battery
   Israel has Hebrew-language and Arabic-language schools, while some schools are bilingual.
Most Arabs study in Arabic, while a small number of Arab parents choose to enroll their children
in Hebrew schools. Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery
All of Israel's eight universities use Hebrew. The disparities in Israel's education system are not
nearly so great as they were in South Africa, but the gap is wide. In 1992 a government report
concluded that nearly twice as much money was allocated to each Jewish child as to each Arab
pupil.[76] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41E/H Battery

According to DIRASAT, The Arab Center for Law and Policy based in Nazareth, there is a shortfall
of more than 1,000 classrooms for Arab students. Furthermore, roughly 45% of Arab students
applying to higher education are rejected because of their overall lower performance on
matriculation and psychometric entrance exams.[116] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41J/H Battery

A 2005 study by Daphna Golan-Agnon, co-founder of B'Tselem, on school budget allocations
required all school principals in Israel to divulge their school budgets (excluding teachers'
salaries). The findings revealed that for each Jewish student, schools had an average of 4,935 NIS
per year, while for each Palestinian Arab student, schools had only 862 NIS per year.[117]

Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

A 2004 Human Rights Watch report identified "huge disparities in education spending" and
stated that "discrimination against Arab children colours every aspect" of the education system.
Exam pass-rate for Arab pupils were about one-third lower than that for their Jewish
compatriots.[76] Sony VAIO VGN-FW41M/H Battery

A 2007 report of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination noted with "deep
concern", that separate sectors are maintained for Jewish and Arab education. It recommended
that Israel should assess the extent to which maintenance of separate Arab and Jewish "sectors"
may amount to racial segregation, Sony VAIO VGN-FW41ZJ/H Battery
and that mixed Arab-Jewish communities and schools, and intercultural education should be
promoted.[118] In a 2008 report Israel responded that parents are entitled to enroll their
children in the educational institution of their choice, Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery
whether the spoken language is Hebrew, Arabic or bilingual. It also noted that Israel promotes a
variety of programs that promote intercultural cooperation, tolerance and understanding.[119]

Sony VAIO VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

2009 education ministry figures show that 32 per cent of Arab students passed their
matriculation examination in the previous year, compared to 60 per cent of Jewish students. The
pass rate had dramatically dropped from the 50.7 per cent of Arab pupils who matriculated in
2006. [120] Sony VAIO VGN-FW4ZTJ/H Battery
In 2007 the Israeli Education Ministry announced a plan to increase funding for schools in Arab
communities. According to a ministry official, "At the end of the process, a lot of money will be
directed toward schools with students from families with low education and income levels,
mainly in the Arab sector."[121] Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery
 The Education Ministry prepared a five-year plan to close the gaps and raise the number of
students eligible for high school matriculation.[122]
[edit]Impact on the economy

Former director of the Microsoft Israel's R&D center, Moshe Lichtman, has said that the "South
Africanization process" could damage the Israeli economy.[123] Sony Vaio VGN-FW5ZTF/H Battery

[edit]Support for Israeli apartheid analogy

Some commentators including President of the UN General Assembly Miguel d'Escoto
Brockmann,[124] Naomi Klein [125] and UK MP Gerald Kaufman have suggested sanctions
against Israel along the South African model to ultimately improve the situation.[126] Sony Vaio
VGN-SR4MR/P Battery

Clare Short, minister for international aid in Tony Blair's government`said of sanctions against
Israel that "the boycott worked for South Africa, it is time to do it again".[127][128] Sony Vaio
VGN-SR4MR/S Battery



[edit]In relation to the Israeli disengagement plan
See also: Israeli disengagement plan
Israel's unilateral disengagement plan was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon,
enacted in August 2005, to evict all Israelis from the Gaza Strip and from four settlements in the
northern West Bank.[129] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery
A 2005 paper by Professor Oren Yiftachel, Chair of the Geography Department at the Ben Gurion
University of the Negev, predicted that Israel's unilateral disengagement plan will result in
"creeping apartheid" in the West Bank, Gaza, and in Israel itself. Yiftachel argues that, "Needless
to say, the reality of apartheid existed for decades in Israel/Palestine, Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery

  but this is the first time a Prime Minister spells out clearly the strengthening of this reality as a
long-term political platform" and that the plan would entrench a situation that can be described
as "neither two states nor one," separating Israelis from Palestinians without giving Palestinians
true sovereignty.[130] Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

Meron Benvenisti, an Israeli political scientist and the former deputy mayor of Jerusalem,
predicted that the interim disengagement plan would become permanent, with the West Bank
barrier entrenching both the isolation of Palestinian communities and the existence of Israeli
settlements. Sony Vaio VGN-FW56Z Battery
He warned that Israel is moving towards the model of apartheid South Africa through the
creation of "Bantustan" like conditions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[131] Israeli journalist
Akiva Eldar states the Israeli plan for disengagement from Gaza is "amazingly similar" to South
Africa's Bantustans, Sony Vaio VGN-SR57S Battery
in that it releases Israel from responsibility for the inhabitants of the Gaza Strip — except for the
provision of basic services to avoid a humanitarian disaster — while retaining complete control
over the area by controlling international passages.[132] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57V Battery
The Economist, in an article on the debate over withdrawal from the West Bank and Gaza Strip,
asserted that "Keeping the occupied land will force on Israel the impossible choice of being either
an apartheid state, or a binational one with Jews as a minority."[133] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57X Battery

Michael Tarazi, a Palestinian proponent of the binational solution has argued that it is in
Palestine's interest to "make this an argument about apartheid," even to the extent of advocating
Israeli settlement: "The longer they stay out there, the more Israel will appear to the world to be
essentially an apartheid state".[134] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59TH/H Battery

[edit]By notable authors
Geoffrey Wheatcroft has noted that, historically, Israeli officials had mulled the possibility of
adopting the South African apartheid model as one that the state of Israel itself might emulate. In
the late 1970s "(t)hey didn't wish to copy what was once called 'petty apartheid', the everyday
harassment of black South Africans, but 'grand apartheid', Sony Vaio VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
the Nationalists' attempt to conjure away the problem of minority rule by dividing the country
into supposedly autonomous cantons or 'homelands'."[135] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59XG/H Battery

Uri Davis wrote in 1987 that apartheid in Israel is a legal reality, even though it has a different
legal structure than in the Republic of South Africa. He asserts that where the Republic of South
Africa had an official value system of apartheid and made a key legal distinction between "white",
"coloured", "Indian" and "black", Sony Vaio VGN-FW56ZR Battery
Israel has an official value system of Zionism and makes a key legal distinction between "Jew" and
"non-Jew". He suggests that this distinction is made in a two-tier structure that had concealed
Israeli apartheid legislation for "almost four decades" at the time when he wrote.[136] Sony Vaio
VGN-FW56SR Battery

Uri Avnery applies parts of the analogy to "the reality in the occupied Palestinian territories"
which he describes as "in many respects similar to reality under the apartheid regime," but warns
that there are also important differences between the two conflicts.[137] Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VT/H
Battery



According to Hirsh Goodman, David Ben-Gurion said on Israeli radio after the 1967 Arab-Israeli
War that Israel would become an apartheid state if it did not "rid itself of the territories and their
Arab population as soon as possible".[138] Sony Vaio VPCEA2S1E/L Battery

[edit]By Adam and Moodley
Heribert Adam of Simon Fraser University and Kogila Moodley of the University of British
Columbia, in their 2005 book-length study Seeking Mandela: Peacemaking Between Israelis and
Palestinians, apply lessons learned in South Africa to resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
They divide academic and journalistic commentators on the analogy into three groups:[139]

Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22A Battery

"The majority is incensed by the very analogy and deplores what it deems its propagandistic
goals."
"'Israel is Apartheid' advocates include most Palestinians, many Third World academics, and
several Jewish post-Zionists who idealistically predict an ultimate South African solution of a
common or binational state." Sony Vaio VPCEA181 Battery
A third group which sees both similarities and differences, and which looks to South African
history for guidance in bringing resolution to the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.[6]
Sony Vaio VGP-BPS22 Battery



Adam and Moodley also suggest that political actors such as former Israeli Prime Ministers Ariel
Sharon and Ehud Barak used the analogy "self-servingly in their exhortations and
rationalizations" and that such actors "have repeatedly deplored the occupation and seeming
'South Africanization' but have done everything to entrench it."[6] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M Battery

Adam and Moodley argue that notwithstanding universal suffrage within Israel proper "if the
Palestinian territories under more or less permanent Israeli occupation and settler presence are
considered part of the entity under analysis, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery
the comparison between a disenfranchised African population in apartheid South Africa and the
three and a half million stateless Palestinians under Israeli domination gains more validity."[140]
Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ER/S Battery




In part, analysts like Adam and Moodley argue, this controversy over terminology arises because
Israel as a state is unique in the region. Israel is perceived as a Western democracy and is thus
likely to be judged by the standards of such a state. Western commentators, too, may feel "a
greater affinity to a like minded polity than to an autocratic Third World state."[141Sony Vaio
VGN-NR31J/S Battery

] Israel also claims to be a home for the worldwide Jewish diaspora[141] and a strategic outpost
of the Western world which "is heavily bankrolled by U.S. taxpayers" who can be viewed as
sharing a collective responsibility for its behaviors.[141] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31MR/S Battery
Radical Islamists, according to some analysts, "use Israeli policies to mobilize anti-Western
sentiment",[141] leading to a situation in which "(u)nconditional U.S. support for Israeli
expansionism potentially unites Muslim moderates with jihadists."[141] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31S/S Battery
As a result of these factors, according to this analysis, the West Bank Barrier — nicknamed the
"apartheid wall" — has become a critical frontline in the War on Terrorism.[141] Sony Vaio VGN-NR31SR/S
Battery




At the same time, Adam and Moodley note that Jewish historical suffering has imbued Zionism
with a subjective sense of moral validity that the whites ruling South Africa never had: "Afrikaner
moral standing was constantly undermined by exclusion and domination of blacks, even
subconsciously in the minds of its beneficiaries. In contrast, Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/S Battery

                     the similar Israeli dispossession of Palestinians is perceived as self-defense
Sony Vaio VGN-NR31E/S Battery

and therefore not immoral."[142] They also suggest that academic comparisons between Israel
and apartheid South Africa that see both dominant groups as "settler societies" leave
unanswered the question of "when and how settlers become indigenous," Sony Vaio VGN-NR31Z/T Battery
as well as failing to take into account that Israeli's Jewish immigrants view themselves as
returning home.[143] "In their self-concept, Zionists are simply returning to their ancestral
homeland from which they were dispersed two millennia ago. Sony Vaio VGN-NR31ZR/S Battery
Originally most did not intend to exploit native labor and resources, as colonizers do." Adam and
Moodley stress that "because people give meaning to their lives and interpret their worlds
through these diverse ideological prisms, the perceptions are real and have to be taken
seriously."[144] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38E/S Battery

Adam and Moodley also argue that "apartheid ideologues" who justified their rule by claiming
self-defense against "African National Congress(ANC)-led communism" found that excuse
outdated after the collapse of the Soviet Union, whereas "continued Arab hostilities sustain the
Israeli perception of justifiable self-defense."[145] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38M/S Battery

Adam and Moodley contend that the relationship of South African apartheid to the
Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been misinterpreted as "justifying suicide bombing and glorifying
martyrdom." Sony Vaio VGN-NR38S/S Battery
They argue that the ANC "never endorsed terrorism," and stress that "not one suicide has been
committed in the cause of a thirty-year-long armed struggle, although in practice the ANC drifted
increasingly toward violence during the latter years of apartheid."[146] Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/S Battery
  [edit]By David Hirst
David Hirst has documented numereous occurrences of what he refers to as aparthied in his book
The Gun and the Olive Branch: The Roots of Violence in the Middle East ISBN 1560254831. In his
updated historical account, he traces the violent acts of terrorism and prejudices committed by
all sides involved from the year 1880 until 2003. Sony Vaio VGN-NR38Z/T Battery

[edit]By the United Nations
Article 3 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination
[147] says "States Parties particularly condemn racial segregation and apartheid and undertake to
prevent, prohibit and eradicate all practices of this nature in territories under their jurisdiction."
Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/P Battery

A review of Israel's country report by the experts of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial
Discrimination took issue with the establishment of Jewish-only settlements and stated "The
status of the settlements was clearly inconsistent with Article 3 of the Convention which, Sony Vaio
VGN-SR4MR/S Battery

Sony Vaio VGN-SR4MR/W Battery

as noted in the Committee's General Recommendation XIX, prohibited all forms of racial
segregation in all countries. There was a consensus among publicists that the prohibition of racial
discrimination, irrespective of territories, was an imperative norm of international law.[148][149]

                        In 2007 the CERD addressed a number of concerns regarding situations
Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VT/H Battery

involving separation and segregation in Israel and the Occupied Territories and applied article 3
to violations of human rights generated by the construction of the Wall and its associated
regime.[65][150] Sony Vaio VGN-SR4VR/H Battery

Former Special Rapporteur John Dugard described the situation in the West Bank as "an
apartheid regime ... worse than the one that existed in South Africa."[151] In 2007, in advance of
a report from the United Nations Human Rights Council, Dugard wrote that "Israel's laws and
practices in the OPT [occupied Palestinian territories] certainly resemble aspects of apartheid."

                        Referring to Israel's actions in the occupied West Bank, he wrote, "Can it
Sony Vaio VGN-FW56SR Battery

seriously be denied that the purpose [...] is to establish and maintain domination by one racial
group (Jews) over another racial group (Palestinians) and systematically oppressing them? Israel
denies that this is its intention or purpose. But such an intention or purpose may be inferred from
the actions described in this report."[152][153] Sony Vaio VGN-SR49VN/H Battery

In October 2010 Richard A. Falk reported to the General Assembly Third Committee "It is the
opinion of the current Special Rapporteur that the nature of the occupation as of 2010
substantiates earlier allegations of colonialism and apartheid in evidence and law to a greater
extent than was the case even three years ago. Sony Vaio VGN-FW56Z Battery
The entrenching of colonialist and apartheid features of the Israeli occupation has been a
cumulative process. The longer it continues, the more difficult it is to overcome and the more
serious is the abridgement of fundamental Palestinian rights."[35] Sony Vaio VGN-SR57S Battery

President of the United Nations General Assembly at the time Miguel d'Escoto Brockmann,
reported the Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz, "likened Israel's policies toward the Palestinians to
South Africa's treatment of blacks under apartheid. .. Sony Vaio VGN-SR57V Battery
. Brockmann stressed that it was important for the United Nations to use the heavily-charged
term since it was the institution itself that had passed the International Convention against the
crime of apartheid."[ Sony Vaio VGN-SR57X Battery

[edit]By neighboring countries
The Foreign Minister of Jordan, Nasser Judeh, has said Israel's failure to withdraw from the 1967
territories would expose it as an "apartheid" country.[157] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59TH/H Battery
The foreign minister of Egypt, Ahmed Aboul Gheit, said in 2010 that "You have a bi-national state
or you have occupation or apartheid. The ... option which we are all preferring is to have two
states instead of one state based on apartheid".[158] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59VG/H Battery
In a letter to the United Nations Security Council the Syrian government stated that "Zionist
Israeli institutional terrorism" was identical to that of the apartheid regimes in South Africa and
Namibia.[159] Sony Vaio VGN-SR59XG/H Battery
Turkish president Abdullah Gül has also warned that Israel's failure to withdraw from the 1967
territories would make it perceived as "an apartheid island surrounded by an Arab sea of anger
and hostility".[160] Sony Vaio VGN-FW56ZR Battery

[edit]By Palestinians
In his 2011 address to the United Nations General Assembly, Palestinian president Mahmoud
Abbas said that "Our people will continue their popular peaceful resistance to the Israeli
occupation and its settlement and apartheid policies and its construction of the racist annexation
Wall, and they receive support for their resistance, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Battery
 which is consistent with international humanitarian law and international conventions (...) Our
efforts are not aimed at isolating Israel or de-legitimizing it; rather we want to gain legitimacy for
the cause of the people of Palestine. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Battery

We only aim to de-legitimize the settlement activities and the occupation and apartheid and the
logic of ruthless force, and we believe that all the countries of the world stand with us in this
regard".[161] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Battery



[edit]By Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter, former President of the United States, Camp David Accords negotiator, Nobel
Peace Prize winner, and author of the 2006 book entitled Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid,
maintained in that book that Israel's options included a "system of apartheid, with two peoples
occupying the same land but completely separated from each other, Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Battery

with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic
human rights. This is the policy now being followed ..."[162] Carter has also argued that the
Israeli system is in some cases more onerous than that of the apartheid government of South
Africa.[163][164] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery

Carter's use of the term "apartheid" has been calibrated to avoid specific accusations of racism
against the government of Israel, and has been carefully limited to the situation in Gaza and the
West Bank. For instance, in a news release, Carter described discussing his book and his use of
the word "apartheid" with the Board of Rabbis of Greater Phoenix, and noted, Sony VAIO
VGN-FW31J Battery

"I made clear in the book's text and in my response to the rabbis that the system of apartheid in
Palestine is not based on racism but the desire of a minority of Israelis for Palestinian land and
the resulting suppression of protests that involve violence."[165][166] Sony VAIO VGN-FW11ZRU
Battery



President Carter has frequently reiterated the point that his "use of 'apartheid' does not apply to
circumstances within Israel."[166] Regarding the title of his book Carter has said: Sony VAIO
VGN-FW11ZU Battery



"It's not Israel. The book has nothing to do with what's going on inside Israel which is a wonderful
democracy, you know, where everyone has guaranteed equal rights and where, under the law,
Arabs and Jews who are Israelis have the same privileges about Israel. That's been most of the
controversy because people assume it's about Israel. It's not.[167] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ER Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-FW21J Battery



"I've never alleged that the framework of apartheid existed within Israel at all, and that what
does exist in the West Bank is based on trying to take Palestinian land and not on racism. So it
was a very clear distinction."[168] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21ZR
In his review of Carter's book Joseph Lelyveld notes that South Africa's Apartheid policy was also
about land as much as racism, and comments that the use of "apartheid" by Carter is "basically a
slogan, not reasoned argument".[169] Sony VAIO VGN-FW3ZJ Battery

Law professor Alan Dershowitz has also criticised Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, stating that
Carter fails to define apartheid or to offer evidence that Israel practices apartheid. Dershowitz
also accuses Carter of using fraudulent sources, and of having a "hard left" political bias that
leads him to accuse Israel of apartheid while "refusing to apply such labels to countries that
actually deserve it."[170] Sony VAIO VGN-FW46M Battery
Abe Foxman, director of the Anti-Defamation League, argues that the apartheid analogy
presented in the book is incompatible with Carter's later statements that Israeli policy toward the
Palestinians is not motivated by racial hatred.[171] Sony VAIO VGN-FW4ZTJ/H

[edit]By notable academic, political and media figures
Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security Advisor to President Carter, commented that the
absence of a resolution to the Israel-Palestine conflict is likely to produce a situation which de
facto will resemble apartheid.[172] Sony VAIO VGN-FW51 Battery

University of Chicago political science professor John Mearsheimer stated in June 2008 that, "Five,
10 or 15 years ago, it was unthinkable to mention 'apartheid' in relation to Israel. Now [Jimmy]
Carter has used it in the title of his book, Palestine Peace Not Apartheid". Mearsheimer added,
"Israel is, in effect, creating an apartheid state."[173] Sony VAIO VGN-FW51MF/H Battery

Yakov Malik, the Soviet Ambassador to the United Nations accused Israel—an ally of the US in the
Cold War against the Soviets—of promulgating a "racist policy of apartheid against Palestinians"
following the imposition of Israeli rule in the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the Six-Day War of
1967.[174] Israel accused the Soviet Union of publishing anti-Zionist tracts.[175] Sony VAIO
VGN-FW51ZF/H Battery

Raja G. Khouri, a member of the Ontario Human Rights Commission and former president of the
Canadian Arab Federation, supports the apartheid analogy, and holds that the Israeli policies in
question are not motivated by racism.[176] Sony VAIO VGN-FW54M Battery

American academic Norman Finkelstein defends Carter's analysis in Palestine Peace Not
Apartheid as both historically accurate and non-controversial outside the United States: "After
four decades of Israeli occupation, the infrastructure and superstructure of apartheid have been
put in place. Outside the never-never land of mainstream American Jewry and U.S. media[,] this
reality is barely disputed."[177] Sony VGN-CS21S/P Battery



Adrian Guelke, Professor of Comparative Politics at Queen's University Belfast and Director of the
Centre for the Study of Ethnic Conflict wrote that "Comparison of Israel's policies with the South
African policy of apartheid has become a very common theme of Palestinian discourse at both an
analytical and polemical level and, it should be noted, Sony VGN-CS21S/R Battery
use of the analogy is by no means confined to Palestinians." Since the breakdown of the peace
process in 2000, he observed, "the use of this analogy has mushroomed."[178]      Sony VGN-CS21S/T
Battery



An early example of the use of the word is a full-page advertisement placed in The New York
Times in March 1988 by hundreds of intellectuals, academics, and activists declaring Israel to be
"an apartheid state, founded on pillage and predicated on exclusivity".[179] Sony VGN-CS21S/V
Battery



Jamal Dajani of Link TV has asked "How long can Israelis live in this denial and pretend that
apartheid-like conditions do not exist?"[180] Sony VGN-CS21S/W Battery

On 17 October 2010, Lebanese Prime Minister Sa'ad Hariri, compared the Israeli loyalty oath bill
to practices in apartheid-era South Africa.[181] Sony VGN-CS21Z/Q Battery

In 2010 Dr Barry Morgan, Archbishop of Wales, compared circumstances in the Gaza strip to
Israel and concluded that the situation resembled South African apartheid since infrastructure
and educational opportunities in Gaza were substantially inferior to those in Israel.[182] Sony
VGN-CS11S/P Battery



The Ontario wing of Canadian Union of Public Employees unanimously passed a decision to
"support the international campaign of boycott, divestment and sanctions against Israel" citing
"the apartheid nature of the Israeli state" as the reason for the decision.[183] Sony VGN-CS11S/Q
Battery

The Congress of South African Trade Unions joined this boycott, calling Israel an apartheid state
and saying that boycotts by workers against apartheid-era South Africa had "hastened our march
to democracy."[184] Sony VGN-CS11S/W Battery

In November 2010 a group of 100 Norwegian artists and cultural figures published a petition
accusing Israel of apartheid, and calling for an artistic and cultural boycott of Israel.[185]

Sony VGN-CS31Z/Q Battery

Irish peace activist and Nobel peace laureate Máiread Maguire has criticized Israel for "racist and
apartheid policies of siege, occupation and militarization of both Israel and Palestinian villages
and towns". She has called on the US to stop supporting Israel with military aid and to urge Israel
to change its policies regarding the Palestinians.[186] Sony VGN-CS11Z/R Battery

[edit]By notable Jews in diaspora
On 24 November 2010, Mick Davis, chairman of the U.K. Jewish community and executive of the
Jewish Leadership Council, publicly criticizing Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu for the waning
peace talks at the London Jewish Cultural Center speech before 160 attendees, Sony VGN-CS11Z/T
Battery

he stated: "Israel could become an apartheid state unless there was a two-state solution with the
Palestinians, "because we then have the majority going to be governed by the minority".[187]
However, Sony VGN-CS31S/P Battery
at the same meeting he also said explicitly "Israel is not today an apartheid state ... Even though
we have things that are entirely offensive to us passed in the Knesset, those things come from
tactical issues ... and do not represent the mainstream of Israeli society."[188] Sony VGN-CS31S/R
Battery



[edit]By South Africans
[edit]By the government of South Africa
Hendrik Verwoerd, then prime minister of South Africa and the architect of South Africa's
apartheid policies, said in 1961 that "The Jews took Israel from the Arabs after the Arabs had
lived there for a thousand years. Israel, Sony VGN-CS31S/T Battery
like South Africa, is an apartheid state."[76][189][190] Jacobus Johannes Fouché, South African
Minister of Defence during the apartheid era, compared the two states and said that Israel also
practiced apartheid.[2] Sony VGN-CS31S/V Battery
Former deputy mayor of Jerusalem Meron Benvenisti relates in his 1986 book Conflicts and
Contradictions that during the 1970s, an official of the South African apartheid government
compared Israeli-Palestinian relations to South African policy for the Transkei in a meeting. Sony
VGN-CS31S/W Battery

The Israeli officials present expressed shock at the comparison, and the South African official said
"I understand your reaction. But aren't we actually doing the same thing? We are faced with the
same existential problem, therefore we arrive at the same solution. The only difference is that
yours is pragmatic and ours is ideological."[191] SONY VGN-FW41E/H BATTERY



On November 24, 2009, the South African government responded to Israeli plans to expand the
settlement of Gilo in East Jerusalem by condemning it harshly, stating that "We condemn the fact
that Israeli settlement expansion in East Jerusalem is coupled with Israel's campaign to evict and
displace the original Palestinian residents from the City." SONY VGN-FW41J/H BATTERY
SONY VGN-FW41M/H BATTERY

The South African government drew a parallel between Israel's actions in Jerusalem and forced
removals of persons effected as part of the South African apartheid regime.[192] SONY
VGN-FW41ZJ/H BATTERY



On 21 April 2010, the South African government expressed "the greatest concern" over Israeli
Infiltration Order 1650, saying that the order has a broad definition of "infiltrator" and unclear
terms as to which permits would allow a person to reside in the West Bank, as well as how valid
residency might be proven. The South African government said the terms of the order are
"reminiscent of pass laws under apartheid South Africa".[193] Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery

[edit]By South African individuals or organizations
In 2002 Anglican Archbishop and Nobel Peace Prize winner Desmond Tutu wrote a series of
articles in major newspapers,[194] comparing the Israeli occupation of the West Bank to
apartheid South Africa, and calling for the international community to divest support from Israel
until the territories were no longer occupied.[194] Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery
In an April 2010 open letter to the University of Berkeley, Tutu wrote "I have been to the
Occupied Palestinian Territory, Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery
and I have witnessed the racially segregated roads and housing that reminded me so much of the
conditions we experienced in South Africa under the racist system of Apartheid. I have witnessed
the humiliation of Palestinian men, women, Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/W Battery
and children made to wait hours at Israeli military checkpoints routinely when trying to make the
most basic of trips to visit relatives or attend school or college, and this humiliation is familiar to
me and the many black South Africans who were corralled and regularly insulted by the security
forces of the Apartheid government."[195] Sony VAIO VGN-NW21MF/P Battery

Other prominent South African anti-apartheid activists have used apartheid comparisons to
criticize the occupation of the West Bank, and particularly the construction of the separation
barrier. These include Farid Esack, a writer who is currently William Henry Bloomberg Visiting
Professor at Harvard Divinity School,[196] Ronnie Kasrils,[197] Sony VAIO VGN-NW21JF/S Battery
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela,[198] Dennis Goldberg,[199] and Arun Ghandhi,[200]
“ In a letter to the President of the Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE), Ontario,
Willie Madisha, the President of COSATU wrote, "As someone who lived in apartheid South Africa
and who has visited Palestine I say with confidence that Israel is an apartheid state. Sony VAIO
VGN-NW11S/S Battery

In fact, I believe that some of the atrocities committed against the South Africans by the
erstwhile apartheid regime in South Africa pale in comparison to those committed against the
Palestinians."[201] ” Sony VAIO VGN-NW11S/T Battery

On 15 May 2008, 34 leading South African activists published an open letter in The Citizen, under
the heading "We fought apartheid; we see no reason to celebrate it in Israel now!". The
signatories, who included Kasrils and several other government ministers, COSATU General
Secretary Zwelinzima Vavi, Ahmed Kathrada, Sony VAIO VGN-NW11Z/T Battery
Sam Ramsamy and Blade Nzimande, wrote "Apartheid is a crime against humanity. It was when it
was done against South Africans; it is so when it is done against Palestinians!"[202] Sony VAIO
VGN-NW11Z/S Battery



On 6 June 2008, Mr. Kgalema Motlanthe, the Deputy President of South Africa and of the African
National Congress, who had recently visited the Israeli-occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip, Sony
VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/T Battery

told a delegation of Arab Knesset members visiting South Africa to study its democratic
constitution that conditions for Palestinians under occupation were "worse than conditions were
for Blacks under the Apartheid regime."[203] Sony VAIO VGN-NW31JF/S Battery

In 2008 a delegation of ANC veterans visited Israel and the Occupied Territories, and said that in
some respects it was worse than apartheid.[204][205] One member said "The daily indignity to
which the Palestinian population is subjected far outstrips the apartheid regime." Another
member, human rights lawyer Fatima Hassan, Sony VAIO VGN-NW21ZF/S Battery cited the separate
roads, different registration of cars, the indignity of having to produce a permit, and long queues
at checkpoints as worse than what they had experienced during apartheid. But she also thought
the apartheid comparison was a potential "red herring".[206] Sony Vaio VGN-AW41ZF/B Battery

 Andrew Feinstein, a former ANC parliament member, was shocked to see footage of teenagers
heaping abuse on and throwing stones at Palestinian children, especially done in the name of
Judaism. The delegation's final formal statement made no mention of comparisons with
apartheid and Dennis Davis, a high court judge, Sony Vaio VGN-AW41XH/Q Battery
said he thought the use of the term in the Middle East context was "very unhelpful".[204] Davis
also noted that "There's no racial superiority here. There's no pervading ideology that confirms
the inferiority of Palestinians." Sony Vaio VGN-AW41MF/H Battery
and concluded "But I think it's incredibly unhelpful to say you can simply take this to be apartheid
and therefore the South African struggle is the same and the South African solution is the same.
That's a very lazy form of reasoning."[207] Sony Vaio VGN-AW41JF/H Battery
One of the Jewish members of the delegation said that the comparison with apartheid is very
relevant and that the Israelis are even more efficient in implementing the separation-of-races
regime than the South Africans were, and that if he were to say this publicly, he would be
attacked by the members of the Jewish community.[205] Sony Vaio VGN-AW31ZJ/B Battery
In May 2009, The Human Sciences Research Council of South Africa released a legal study with
the findings that Israel is practicing both colonialism and apartheid in the occupied Palestinian
territories. Sony Vaio VGN-AW31S/B Battery

The analysis in this report does not represent an official position of the HSRC.[34] According to
this study, Israel practices the "three pillars" of apartheid in the occupied territories: Sony Vaio
VGN-AW31M/H Battery

The first pillar "derives from Israeli laws and policies that establish Jewish identity for purposes of
law and afford a preferential legal status and material benefits to Jews over non-Jews".Sony Vaio
VGN-AW31XY/Q Battery

The second pillar is reflected in "Israel's 'grand' policy to fragment the OPT [and] ensure that
Palestinians remain confined to the reserves designated for them while Israeli Jews are
prohibited from entering those reserves but enjoy freedom of movement throughout the rest of
the Palestinian territory. Sony Vaio VGN-AW21Z/B Battery
This policy is evidenced by Israel's extensive appropriation of Palestinian land, which continues to
shrink the territorial space available to Palestinians; the hermetic closure and isolation of the
Gaza Strip from the rest of the OPT; Sony Vaio VGN-AW21XY/Q Battery



the deliberate severing of East Jerusalem from the rest of the West Bank; and the appropriation
and construction policies serving to carve up the West Bank into an intricate and well-serviced
network of connected settlements for Jewish-Israelis and an archipelago of besieged and
non-contiguous enclaves for Palestinians".Sony Vaio VGN-AW21S Battery

The third pillar is "Israel's invocation of 'security' to validate sweeping restrictions on Palestinian
freedom of opinion, expression, assembly, association and movement [to] mask a true underlying
intent to suppress dissent to its system of domination and thereby maintain control over
Palestinians as a group." Sony Vaio VGN-AW21M Battery
In July 2011 South Africa’s media watchdog the 'Advertising Standards Agency’ (ASA), dismissed
complaints relating to an advert on 5fm radio that called for a boycott of Israel while comparing
Israel to Apartheid South Africa. The advert aired in February 2011, Sony Vaio VGN-AW11RXU/Q
Battery

when Dave Randall, lead guitarist of the band Faithless, stated: "Twenty years ago I would not
have played in apartheid South Africa; today I refuse to play in Israel. Be on the right side of
history. Don’t entertain apartheid. Join the international boycott of Israel." Sony Vaio VGN-AW11ZR/B
Battery

As a result an official complaint was filed to ASA by the South African Jewish Board of Deputies
(SAJBD), stating that the adverts claim that Israel was an Apartheid State was "untrue, not
supported by any evidence… and contains a lie which amounts to false propaganda." The ASA
dismissed every complaint made by SAJBD against the advert.[208] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11Z/B Battery

In a November 2011 interview Reverend Allan Boesak called Israeli apartheid "more terrifying"
than South Africa ever was. Boesak commented on many pernicious aspects of Israeli apartheid
and said that two separate justice systems exist, one for Palestinians [who are tried in Israeli
military courts] and Israelis [who are tried in civil, not military courts]. Boesak stated: "So in many
ways the Israeli system is worse." [209] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11XU/Q Battery

[edit]By Israelis
Ehud Olmert, then Deputy Prime Minister of Israel, commented in April 2004 that; "More and
more Palestinians are uninterested in a negotiated, two-state solution, because they want to
change the essence of the conflict from an Algerian paradigm to a South African one. From a
struggle against 'occupation,' in their parlance, Sony Vaio VGN-AW11SR/B Battery
   to a struggle for one man, one vote. That is, of course, a much cleaner struggle, a much more
popular struggle – and ultimately a much more powerful one. For us, it would mean the end of
the Jewish state."[210] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11S/B Battery
Olmert made a similar remark in November 2007 as Prime Minister: "If the two-state solution
collapses, and we face a South African-style struggle for equal voting rights, then the State of
Israel is finished."[211][212] Sony Vaio VGN-AW11M/H Battery
When speaking in a national security conference in Israel, Ehud Barak warned that unless Israel
makes peace with the Palestinians it will be faced with either a state with no Jewish -majority or
an "apartheid" regime. "As long as in this territory west of the Jordan river there is only one
political entity called Israel it is going to be either non-Jewish, Sony VAIO VGN-NS10E/S Battery

Sony VAIO VGN-NS38M/W Battery

or non-democratic," Barak said. "If this bloc of millions of -Palestinians cannot vote, that will be
an apartheid state." [213] Sony VAIO VGN-NS10J/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS10L/S Battery



Sony VAIO VGN-NS38M/P Battery

According to former Italian Prime Minister Massimo d'Alema, former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel
Sharon had described to him "at length" that he felt the "bantustan model" was the most
appropriate solution to the conflict in the West Bank.*214+ The term “Bantustan” historically
refers to the separate territorial areas designated as homelands under the South African
apartheid State. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11E/S Battery
Shulamit Aloni, who served as Minister for Education under Yitzhak Rabin, discussed Israeli
practices in the West Bank in an article published in the Israeli daily Yediot Acharonot. Aloni
wrote that "Jewish self-righteousness is taken for granted among ourselves to such an extent that
we fail to see what’s right in front of our eyes. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11ER/S Battery

It’s simply inconceivable that the ultimate victims, the Jews, can carry out evil deeds.
Nevertheless, the state of Israel practises its own, quite violent, form of Apartheid with the native
Palestinian population. The US Jewish Establishment’s onslaught on former President Jimmy
Carter is based on him daring to tell the truth which is known to all: through its army, Sony VAIO
VGN-NS11J/S Battery

the government of Israel practises a brutal form of Apartheid in the territory it occupies."[215]
Jamal Zahalka, an Israeli-Arab member of the Knesset argued that an apartheid system has
already taken shape in that the West Bank and Gaza Strip are separated into "cantons" and Sony
VAIO VGN-NS11L/S Battery

Palestinians are required to carry permits to travel between them.[216] Azmi Bishara, a former
Knesset member, argued that the Palestinian situation had been caused by "colonialist
apartheid."[217] Sony VAIO VGN-NS11S/S Battery
Sony VAIO VGN-NS31S/S Battery

Michael Ben-Yair, attorney-general of Israel from 1993 to 1996 referred to Israel establishing "an
apartheid regime in the occupied territories" in an essay published in Haaretz.[218] Sony VAIO
VGN-NS11SR/S Battery




Some Israelis have compared the separation plan to apartheid, such as political scientist, Meron
Benvenisti,[131] and journalist, Amira Hass.[219] Ami Ayalon, a former admiral, claiming it "ha[d]
some apartheid characteristics."[220] Sony VAIO VGN-NS11Z/S Battery
A major 2002 study of Israeli settlement practices by the Israeli human rights organization
B'Tselem concluded: "Israel has created in the Occupied Territories a regime of separation based
on discrimination, applying two separate systems of law in the same area and basing the rights of
individuals on their nationality. Sony VAIO VGN-NS11ZR/S Battery

This regime is the only one of its kind in the world, and is reminiscent of distasteful regimes from
the past, such as the apartheid regime in South Africa." A more recent B'Tselem publication on
the road system Israel has established in the West Bank concluded that it "bears striking
similarities to the racist Apartheid regime," and even "entails a greater degree of arbitrariness
than was the case with the regime that existed in South Africa."[221] Sony VAIO VGN-NS12M/S Battery
Academic and political activist Uri Davis, an Israeli citizen who describes himself as "a Palestinian
Hebrew national of Jewish origin, anti-Zionist, registered as Muslim and a citizen of an apartheid
state — the State of Israel."[222] has written several books on the subject, including Israel: An
Apartheid State in 1987.[1] Sony VAIO VGN-NS12M/W Battery
Daphna Golan-Agnon, co-founder of B'Tselem and founding director of Bat Shalom writes in her
2002 book Next Year in Jerusalem, "I'm not sure if the use of the term apartheid helps us to
understand the discrimination against Palestinians in Israel or the oppression against Palestinians
in the Occupied Territories. Sony VAIO VGN-NS12S/S Battery
I'm not sure the discussion about how we are like or unlike South Africa helps move us forward to
a solution. But the comparison reminds us that hundreds of laws do not make discrimination just
and that the international community, the same international community we want to belong to,

Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/W Batterydidnot permit the perpetuation of apartheid. And it doesn't matter
how we explain it and how many articles are written by Israeli scholars and lawyers—there are
two groups living in this small piece of land, and one enjoys rights and liberty while the other
does not."[223]

Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/S Battery

In October 2000, a group of Israeli Jews living in London signed a statement, initiated by Moshé
Machover, describing Israel's policies in the occupied territories as apartheid.[224] In a later essay,
Machover, co-founder of Matzpen, Sony VAIO VGN-NS21M/P Battery
the Israeli Socialist Organization and professor of philosophy in London, warned against "an
unthinking use of this misleading analogy between Israeli policy and that of the defunct
apartheid regime in South Africa." Accepting that "the two have many features in common",
Machover concluded that Zionism, which aimed to "eliminate, exterminate or expel" Palestinians,
rather than to exploit them, Sony VAIO VGN-NS21M/W Battery
"is far worse than apartheid. Apartheid can be reversed. Ethnic cleansing is immeasurably harder
to reverse; at least not in the short or medium term."[225] Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/S Battery

Retired Israeli judge and legal commentator for the daily Yedioth Ahronoth Boaz Okon wrote in
June 2010 that events in Israel, when taken together, constituted apartheid and fascism. Okon
used as examples segregated schools and streets, Sony VAIO VGN-NS21S/W Battery
a "minute" proportion of Israeli Arabs employed in the civil service, censorship, limits on foreign
workers having children in Israel and the monitoring of cell phones, email and Internet
usage.[226] Sony VAIO VGN-NS21Z/S Battery



Poster for the 2009 Israeli Apartheid Week, designed by Carlos Latuff.
Danny Rubinstein, a columnist at Ha'aretz reportedly likened Israel to apartheid South Africa
during a United Nations conference at the European Parliament in Brussels on 30 August 2007,
Sony VAIO VGN-NS31M/P Battery

stating: "Israel today was an apartheid State with four different Palestinian groups: those in Gaza,
East Jerusalem, the West Bank and Israeli Palestinians, each of which had a different status."[227]
In an article in Haaretz in October 2010, Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Battery
Israeli journalist and academic Zvi Bar'el wrote that "Israel's apartheid movement is coming out
of the woodwork and is taking on a formal, legal shape. It is moving from voluntary apartheid,
which hides its ugliness through justifications of "cultural differences" and "historic neglect" Sony
VAIO VGN-SR11MR Battery

which only requires a little funding and a couple of more sewage pipes to make everything right
— to a purposeful, open, obligatory apartheid, which no longer requires any justification."[228]

Sony VGP-BPS21/S Battery

Israeli poet, author and journalist Yitzhak Laor wrote in 2009 that Israel had a form of apartheid
with a supporting system "more ruthless" than that seen in South Africa. He argued that the "lie"
of the system being temporary makes it harder to oppose, and that because the existing situation
has the political support of Israeli voters the US government will not oppose it with
conviction.[229] Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Battery
Professor Daniel Blatman[230] of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has said that the aim
legislation passed in the Knesset around 2009-2011 was a gradual establishment of an apartheid
state in Israel, and future separation of Jews and non-Jews "on a racial basis". He drew parallels
to the establishment of the apartheid regime in South Africa, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19XN Battery

and also racial separation laws passed by the Nazis. According to Blatman in all cases, individual
laws were argued for using reasoned arguments but the overall effect of the legislation was
racist.[231] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
In 2011 Alon Liel, former director general of the ministry of foreign affairs of Israel, compared
legislation under consideration in the Knesset to laws of apartheid-era South Africa. The
legislation under consideration would, Sony VAIO VGN-SR21RM/H Battery
if passed, place limits on NGOs operating in Israel, in effect restricting funding from foreign
sources to Israeli human rights groups. According to Liel, this legislation was reminiscent of the
South African "Affected Organisations Act", and was aimed at organizations "fighting to preserve
what remains of Israeli democracy". [232] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Battery
In August 2010, Israeli-born academic Ran Greenstein, based at the University of the
Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, argued that Israel (referring to the single differentiated regime
governing both pre-1967 and post-1967 territories) is a form of 'apartheid of a special type', Sony
VAIO VGN-SR29VN Battery



displaying systematic exclusion of Palestinians on an ethnic - not racial - basis, and yet is different
in some respects from the original South African model of apartheid. The differences have to do
with the use of indigenous labor power by settlers (much more common in South Africa than in
Israel), Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M Battery
and the more rigid identity boundaries between groups in Israel. Consequently, this type of
apartheid displays greater tendency towards physical exclusion of indigenous people (affecting to
varying degrees Palestinian citizens, residents under occupation and refugees) than was the case
for indigenous people under South African apartheid.[233] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Battery
  [edit]By activists
David Haslam has noted seven similarities between the struggle against apartheid and the
current Israeli situation.[234] Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Battery



An Israeli Apartheid Week has been established to draw attention to the analogy and build
support for an international boycott movement against Israel.[235][236][237] The annual event
began in 2005 in Toronto and as of 2011 involved a series of talks, film screenings, parties and
protests in 55 cities and several countries. Israel's supporters stage counter-protests.[238] Sony
VAIO VGN-SR51MF/P Battery



[edit]Criticism of the apartheid analogy

Those who criticize the analogy argue that Israeli policies have little or no resemblance to
apartheid South Africa, and that the motivation and historical context of Israel's policies are
different. It is argued that Israel itself is a democratic and pluralist state, Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MF/W
Battery

while the West Bank and Gaza are not part of sovereign Israel and cannot be compared to the
internal policies of apartheid South Africa. Others critics of the analogy argue that there are
significant differences between the policy of the Israeli government and the apartheid model,
and that the analogy is theoretically false and politically harmful.[225] Sony VAIO VGN-SR51MR
Battery



[edit]Differences between Israeli and South African policies
“ the equivalence simply isn't true. Israel is not an apartheid state. Israel's human rights
record in the occupied territories, its settlement policy, and its firm responses to terror may
sometimes warrant criticism. Sony VGP-BPS13/B Battery
And Prime Minister Ehud Olmert himself recently warned that Israel could face an apartheid-style
struggle if it did not reach a deal with the Palestinians and end the occupation in the West Bank.
But racism and discrimination do not form the rationale for Israel's policies and actions. Arab
citizens of Israel can vote and serve in the Knesset; Sony VGP-BPS13B/B Battery
black South Africans could not vote until 1994. There are no laws in Israel that discriminate
against Arab citizens or separate them from Jews. Unlike the United Kingdom, Greece, and
Norway, Israel has no state religion, and it recognizes Arabic as one of its official languages." ”
Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Battery



—Kadalie, Rhoda and Julia Bertelsmann, black South Africans whose families fought against
apartheid [239][240] Sony VGP-BPS13/S Battery
Sony VGP-BPS13 Batterty



Academic Susie Jacobs states that the apartheid analogy is "inadequate", and that it is a rhetoric
which skims over substantive differences. She points out that Apartheid was a great deal more
than segregation, instead it was a society almost wholly based on racial criteria.[241]

Sony VGP-BPS21A/B Battery

StandWithUs, a pro-Israel advocacy organization, argues that apartheid in the Republic of South
Africa was an official policy of discrimination against blacks enforced through police violence,
based on minority control over a majority population who could not vote. They point out that in
contrast, Israel is a majority-rule democracy with equal rights for all citizens including Arab
citizens of Israel who vote freely. Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery
Israel contends with prejudice in its population as all societies do, but such prejudices are
opposed by law. They also point out that Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza are not
governed by Israel but by the Palestinian Authority.[12] Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Battery

Unlike South Africa, where apartheid prevented Black majority rule, within Israel, even when
including the occupied territories, there are currently more Jews than Palestinians, although Jews
are only 48% of the population as a whole. Moreover, most of the West Bank and all of Gaza are
not expected to be controlled by Israel after a final settlement.[13][242] Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery

Benjamin Pogrund, author and member of the Israeli delegation to the United Nations World
Conference against Racism, has argued that the petty apartheid which characterized
apartheid-era South Africa does not exist within Israel: Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery

"The difference between the current Israeli situation and apartheid South Africa is emphasized at
a very human level: Jewish and Arab babies are born in the same delivery room, with the same
facilities, attended by the same doctors and nurses, with the mothers recovering in adjoining
beds in a ward. Sony VGP-BPS21A Battery
Sony VGP-BPS21B Battery Two years ago I had major surgery in a Jerusalem hospital: the surgeon

was Jewish, the anaesthetist was Arab, the doctors and nurses who looked after me were Jews
and Arabs. Jews and Arabs share meals in restaurants and travel on the same trains, buses and
taxis, and visit each other’s homes. Could any of this possibly have happened under apartheid?
Of course not."[243] Sony VAIO VGN-NW20EF Battery



In response to increasing inequality between the Jewish and Arab populations, the Israeli
government established a committee to consider, among other issues, policies of affirmative
action for housing Arab citizens.[244] Sony VAIO VGN-NW24S Battery
According to Israel advocacy group, Stand With Us, the city of Jerusalem gives Arab residents free
professional advice to assist with the housing permit process and structural regulations, advice
which is not available to Jewish residents on the same terms.[245][246][247] Sony VAIO VGN-NW26M
Battery



[edit]Differences between Israeli and South African motivations
Criticism of the "Israeli apartheid" usage for its inherent implication of racism has been
widespread. In 2003, South Africa's minister for home affairs Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi said
that "The Israeli regime is not apartheid. It is a unique case of democracy".[248] According to
Fred Taub, the President of Boycott Watch, Sony VAIO VGN-NW20ZF Battery
"[t]he assertion ... that Israel is practicing apartheid is not only false, but may be considered
libelous. ... The fact is that it is the Arabs who are discriminating against non-Muslims, especially
Jews."[249] Similarly, in 2004, Sony VAIO VGN-NW20SF Battery Jean-Christophe Rufin, former
vice-president of Médecins Sans Frontières and president of Action Against Hunger,
recommended in a report about anti-Semitism commissioned by French Interior Minister
Dominique de Villepin[250] that charges of apartheid and racism against Israel be criminalized in
France, to the extent they're unjustified.[25][251][252] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11E Battery
He wrote that the "perverse" and "defamatory" use of the charge of racism against the very
people who were victims of racism "to an unparalleled degree" should be penalized. In his view,
the accusations of racism, of apartheid, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11L Akku
of Nazism carry grave moral implications and can put in danger the lives of French Jewish citizens.
He advocated punishment of those who make accusations of racism against groups, utilizing
unjustified comparisons with apartheid or Nazism. He maintained that that political opinions that
are critical of any government are perfectly legitimate.[25] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11M Akku

“ In any event, what is racism? Under apartheid it was skin colour. Applied to Israel that's a
joke: for proof of that, just look at a crowd of Israeli Jews and their gradations in skin-colour from
the "blackest" to the "whitest"...Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11S Akku
   Occupation is brutalising and corrupting both Palestinians and Israelis... [b]ut it is not
apartheid. Palestinians are not oppressed on racial grounds as Arabs, but, rather, as competitors
— until now, at the losing end — in a national/religious conflict for land. ” Sony VAIO VGN-FZ11Z Akku

—Benjamin Pogrund[243]
“ Israel...lacks the features of an apartheid state. The Palestinian, Druze and other minorities
in Israel are guaranteed equal rights under the Basic Laws. All citizens of Israel vote in elections
on an equal basis. There are no legal restrictions on movement, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ140E Akku
employment or sexual or marital relations. The universities are integrated. Opponents of Zionism
have free speech and assembly and may form political organizations. ”
—John Strawson, professor of international law at the University of East London [253] Sony VAIO
VGN-FZ21E Akku




Michael Kinsley's article "It's Not Apartheid", published in Slate and the Washington Post, states
that Carter "makes no attempt to explain [the use of the word 'apartheid']" and refers to Carter's
usage of the term as "a foolish and unfair comparison, unworthy of the man who won – and
deserved – the Nobel Peace Prize..."[14] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21J Akku

“ Israel has always had Arab citizens.... No doubt many Israelis have racist attitudes toward
Arabs, but the official philosophy of the government is quite the opposite, and sincere efforts are
made to, for example, instill humanitarian and egalitarian attitudes in children."   ” Sony VAIO
VGN-FZ21M Akku




—Michael Kinsley,"It's Not Apartheid" [254][255]
“ Calling Israel an 'apartheid state' is absolute nonsense. You might have structures that look
like apartheid, but they're not. The barrier fence has nothing to do with apartheid and everything
to do with Israel's self-defense. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21S Akku
There was no such barrier until the second intifada, when people were being murdered on the
highways. And the country does not dehumanize its minority in the sense of apartheid. The
issues are totally different." ” Sony VAIO VGN-FZ21Z Akku

—Malcolm Hedding, a South African minister and fighter against South African apartheid [256]
“ Do Israel's Arab citizens suffer from disadvantage? You better believe it. Do African
Americans 10 minutes from the Berkeley campus suffer from disadvantage – you better believe it,
too. So should we launch a Berkeley Apartheid Week, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ38M Akku
or should we seek real ways to better our societies and make opportunity more
available...Vilification and false labeling is a blind alley that is unjust and takes us nowhere...You
deny Israel the fundamental right of every society to defend itself. Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31E Akku
..Your criticism is willfully hypocritical....You are betraying the moderate Muslims and Jews who
are working to achieve peace...To the organizers of Israel Apartheid Week I would like to say: If
Israel were an apartheid state, I would not have been appointed here, nor would I have chosen to
take upon myself this duty. ” Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31J Akku
—Ishmael Khaldi, US Pacific Northwest deputy consul of Israel, and Bedouin Muslim, in response
to Israel Apartheid Week[257] Sony VAIO VGN-FZ31M Akku

The idea that "Israeli apartheid" implies a policy of racial or other discrimination against Arabs or
Muslims has been rejected by other figures. In 2004's The Trouble with Islam Today, Irshad Manji
argues that the allegation of apartheid in Israel is deeply misleading, noting that there are in
Israel several Arab political parties; Sony VAIO VGN-CR21Z Akku
that Arab-Muslim legislators have veto powers; and that Arab parties have overturned
disqualifications. She also points to Arabs like Emile Habibi, who have been awarded prestigious
prizes. She also observes that Israel has a free Arab press; that road signs bear Arabic
translations;
and that Arabs live and study alongside Jews. She also claims that Palestinans commuting from
the West Bank are entitled to state benefits and legal protections.[258] Sony VAIO VGN-CR31E Akku

Former US Ambassador to the United Nations (June 1975 - February 1976), Daniel Patrick
Moynihan[259] voiced the strong disagreement of the United States with the General Assembly's
resolution declaring that "Zionism is a form of racism and racial discrimination" in 1975 stated
that unlike apartheid, Sony VAIO VGN-CR31S Akku
Zionism is clearly is not a racist ideology. He said that racist ideologies such as apartheid favor
discrimination on the grounds of alleged biological differences, yet few people are as biologically
heterogeneous as the Jews.[260] Sony VAIO VGN-CR31SR Akku
,

    AKKU Sony VGP-BPS9

In an op-ed for the Jerusalem Post, Gerald Steinberg, Professor of Political Studies at Bar Ilan
University, argued that "Ethno-national disputes, occupation, and charges of discrimination
against minorities are also part of the conflicts in Northern Ireland, Cyprus, Kosovo and Bosnia,
Sri Lanka, India/Pakistan, etc., Sony VAIO VGN-CR31Z Akku
,

    AKKU Sony VGP-BPS9/B

AKKU Sony VGP-BPS9A/Bbut the demonization campaign is unique to Israel. ... Indeed, the racism and

denial of legitimacy characteristic of apartheid are actually applicable to Arab and Islamic
rejection of Jewish rights." Among those rights is the right to self-defense, including passive
methods such as the security fence. Sony VAIO VGN-CR31ZR Akku
"The 'Zionism is apartheid' propaganda is also used to justify Palestinian terrorist attacks and the
efforts to deny Israelis the basic human right of self-defense against being ripped apart in bus and
cafe bombings. ... Sony VAIO VGN-CR41S Akku
  By screaming 'apartheid' at every opportunity, the leaders of this campaign have succeeded in
burying data showing that [the security] barrier has saved the lives of many Israelis. In today's
immoral political doublespeak, protecting Israelis from terror has become 'apartheid."[261] Sony
VAIO VGN-CR41SR Akku




Gideon Shimoni, professor emeritus of Hebrew University, has said that while apartheid was
characterized by racially based legal inequality and exploitation of Black Africans by the dominant
Whites within a common society, the Israel-Palestinian conflict reflects "separate nationalisms,"
Sony VAIO VGN-CR41Z Akku

in which Israel refuses exploitation of Palestinians and on the contrary seeks separation and
"divorce" from Palestinians for legitimate self-defense reasons.[262] Alon Liel, former Israeli
Ambassador to South Africa and former Director General of the Israel Foreign Ministry, Sony VAIO
VGN-CR41ZR Akku

argues that Israel is presently both Jewish and democratic but that ongoing demographic trends,
if occurring within a single state embracing both peoples, would create a future situation in
which a Jewish minority would rule over a Palestinian majority, Sony VAIO VGN-CR41S Akku
as in political apartheid, so this explains and justifies the security fence separating the two
peoples physically, and the desire by Israel for two separate states with firm borders.[263] Sony VAIO
VGN-CR42Z Akku




[edit]Delegitimization of Israel as a motivation for the apartheid analogy
Some critics of the apartheid analogy state that it is intended to delegitimize and demonize Israel
and Zionism, applying a higher standard of behaviour to the Jewish state than to other nations or
to the Palestinian Authority in order to justify the boycotting, ostracism, or elimination of the
State of Israel. AKKU Sony VGP-BPS9/S,
Critics say that much more obviously "apartheid"-like treatment of Palestinian refugees in the
Palestinian Authority territory, Jordan and Lebanon, are ignored and are not the subject of
delegitimization campaigns, exemplifying double standards. AKKU Sony VGP-BPS9A/S
Irwin Cotler, a Jewish Canadian MP and anti-apartheid activist who was once a lawyer for Nelson
Mandela said "The second manifestation [of anti-semitism] is the indictment of Israel as an
apartheid state [which involves] more than the simple indictment of Israel as an apartheid state.

Sony VAIO VGN-FW11 Akku

                      It involves a call for dismantling Israel" He links this to other forms of
Sony VAIO VGN-FW11E Akku

delegitimization of the Jewish state by Palestinians, such as their attempt to deny any Jewish
historical or religious links to the Holy Land as such, and especially to Jerusalem itself.[272Sony
VGP-BPl13 Akku,,




Benny Morris, an Israeli historian of the Arab-Israeli conflict, has said that those that equate
Israeli efforts to separate the two populations to apartheid are effectively trying to undermine
the legitimacy of any peace agreement based on a two-state solution.[273] Sony VGP-BPS13A/B Akku,
, Sony VGP-BPS13A/S Akku,

,
]

Canadian political scientist Anne Bayefsky has written that the apartheid label was used by Arab
states at the Durban World Conference on Racism in 2001 as part of a campaign to delegitimize
Israel and to legitimize violence against Israeli citizens.[274]
Sony VGP-BPS13B/S Akku,

        ,

[edit]Criticism by South Africans
Judge Richard Goldstone, writing in The New York Times in October 2011, said that while there
exists a degree of separation between Israeli Jews and Arabs, "in Israel, there is no apartheid.
Nothing there comes close to the definition of apartheid under the 1998 Rome Statute".
Concerning the West Bank, Sony VGP-BPS13S Akku,
            ,

Goldstone wrote that the situation "is more complex. But here too there is no intent to maintain
“an institutionalized regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial group.”" *275+
Malcolm Hedding, a South African minister who worked against South African apartheid and
Executive Director of the Christian Zionist organisation 'International Christian Embassy in
Jerusalem', Sony VGP-BPS13 Akku,
,

 believes the barrier fence has nothing to do with apartheid and everything to do with Israel's
self-defense. He said that Israel has proven its desire to reach an accommodation with the
Palestinians while granting political rights to its own Arab citizens within a liberal democratic
system, but that the Palestinians remain committed to Israel's destruction. By contrast, he says,
Sony VGP-BPS13A/Q Akku,

    ,

it was a tiny minority in South Africa that held power and once democracy came, the National
Party that had dominated the masses disappeared. Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Akku,
    , Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Akku,




South African academics Julia I. Bertelsmann and Rhoda Kadalie disagree with the analogy, and
believe it is motivated by politics. They say that Israel has been ranked "free" consistently in
Freedom House's Freedom in the World rankings, unlike South Africa was during
apartheid.[278][279] Akku Sony VGP-BPS21A
Former President of apartheid-era South Africa F.W. de Klerk, who with Nelson Mandela, helped
end apartheid, when asked in an interview with France24 about apartheid South Africa being
compared to Israel and the Palestinian territories, answered "I think comparisons are odious. I
think it’s dangerous. It’s not a direct parallel, Akku Sony VGP-BPS21B
Akku Sony VGP-BPS21/S




but there are some parallels to be drawn. Why did the old vision of so many separate states in
South Africa fail? Because the whites wanted to keep too much land for themselves. Why will it
fail, if it fails in Israel and Palestine? Because Palestine is maybe not offered an attractive enough
geographical area to say 'this is the country of Palestine'".[280] Akku Sony VGP-BPS21A/B
Chief Rabbi of South Africa, Warren Goldstein, in "An Open Letter to Tutu," deplored the
"outrageous falsehood" of the apartheid accusation, and listed the key laws and practices that
were characteristic of South African apartheid, Sony VAIO PCG-FW Series Akku
none of which are found in Israel: "In the State of Israel all citizens – Jew and Arab – are equal
before the law. Israel has no Population Registration Act, no Group Areas Act, no Mixed
Marriages and Immorality Act, no Separate Representation of Voters Act, no Separate Amenities
Act, no pass laws or any of the myriad apartheid laws. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21E Akku
Israel is a vibrant liberal democracy with a free press and independent judiciary, and accords full
political, religious and other human rights to all its people, including its more than 1 million Arab
citizens

                   many of whom hold positions of authority including that of cabinet minister,
Sony VAIO VGN-FW11M Akku

member of parliament and judge at every level — including that of the Supreme Court. All
citizens vote on the same roll in regular, multiparty elections; there are Arab parties and Arab
members of other parties in Israel’s parliament. , Sony VAIO VGN-FW21I Akku
Arabs and Jews share all public facilities, including hospitals and malls, buses, cinemas and parks.
And, archbishop, that includes universities and opera houses."[281] Sony VAIO VGN-FW21L Akku

Sony VAIO VGN-FW Akku

[edit]Criticism by Arab citizens of Israel
In the Durban Review Conference of 2009, the Israeli-Arab journalist Khaled Abu Toameh
criticized Arab Knesset members for supporting extremism and calling Israel a "state of
apartheid" rather than fighting for the rights of Arab citizens of Israel. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21Z Akku

And then they come here to tell us that Israel is a state of apartheid? Excuse me. What kind of
hypocrisy is this? What then are you doing in the Knesset? If you are living in an apartheid system,
why were you allowed, as an Arab, to run in the election? What are you talking about? We do
have problems as Arabs with the establishment here. Sony VAIO VGN-FW21M Akku
But to come and say that Israel is an apartheid state is a big exaggeration. I am not here to defend
Israel, but I think that Knesset members like this gentleman are doing huge damage to the cause
of Israeli Arabs. I want to see the Knesset member sitting in the Knesset, in Jerusalem, and
fighting for the rights of Arabs over there.[282] Sony VAIO VGN-FW31M Akku

He continued by stating, "Israel is a wonderful place to live and we are happy to be there. Israel is
a free and open country. If I were given the choice, I would rather live in Israel as a second class
citizen than as a first class citizen in Cairo, Gaza, Amman or Ramallah."[282][283][284] Sony VAIO
VGN-FW31E Akku




Dr. Mohammed Wattad, an Arab citizen of Israel and a member of Scholars for Peace in the
Middle East, criticized the analogy in a 2010 interview, saying: Sony VAIO VGN-FW31J Akku

“As an Israeli citizen, I belong to a political entity... I have no other home than the State of Israel.
I am a proud Israeli citizen but that doesn’t mean I can’t criticize it... At the same time I am a
proud Arab national ... Sony VAIO VGN-FW31Z Akku

“Is there discrimination in Israel? Yes — there is discrimination against women, elderly, Arabs,
Russian Jews, Christians,... But the same goes for Canada. Is it good — No? But it means we have
to deal with the problem from within.... The existence of discrimination in a state does not mean
it is an apartheid state...There is a big difference between apartheid and discrimination,” Sony VAIO
VGN-FW31ZJ Akku

Sony VAIO VGN-FW32J Akku

“In an apartheid regime, there is no possibility of judicial review, because the judges are
appointed by the regime and all serve one ideology. This is not the case in Israel ... There is a very
strong, independent Supreme Court in Israel. In an apartheid regime [unlike in Israel] there is no
place to go to argue against the government,”*285+ Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M/R Akku



[edit]Criticism by African American students
The African-American student organization Vanguard Leadership Group, a group which has
developed ties to the American Israel Public Affairs Committee,[286][287][288Sony VAIO VGN-SR11M Akku
] published an ad in April 2011 requesting that the Students for Justice in Palestine group
"immediately stop referring to Israel as an apartheid society and to acknowledge that the Arab
minority in Israel enjoys full citizenship with voting rights and representation in the government."

                       And that "It is highly objectionable to those who know the truth about the
Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/W Akku

Israelis' record on human rights and how it so clearly contrasts with South Africa's." Vanguard
Leadership maintains that Students for Justice in Palestine "has chosen to manipulate rather than
inform with this illegitimate analogy," and that "Decency, Sony VAIO VGN-SR19VN Akku
justice, and the hope of peace and reconciliation in the Middle East compel us to demand an
immediate cessation to the deliberate mischaracterizations of Israel."[289] Sony VAIO VGN-SR21M/S Akku

In October 2011, Jarrod Jordan, executive director of the Vanguard Leadership Group, said that
SJP's holding a conference about Israel and apartheid is like "the Ku Klux Klan holding a
conference at Morehouse College in Atlanta, a total affront to Jewish culture and identity.” Sony VAIO
VGN-SR29VN/S Akku

In addition, Jordan said that the use of the word 'apartheid' in referring to Israel is "patently false
and deeply offensive to all who feel a connection to the State of Israel." The Columbia Spectator
refused to publish a full-page ad paid for by VLG because it was "judged it to be political."[290]
Sony VAIO VGN-SR31M/S Akku




[edit]Criticism by others
British journalist Melanie Phillips has criticized Desmond Tutu for comparing Israel to Apartheid
South Africa. Having made the comparison in an article for The Guardian in 2002, Tutu stated that
people are scared to say the "Jewish lobby" in the U.S. is powerful. "So what?" he asked. "The
apartheid government was very powerful, Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/P Akku
but today it no longer exists. Hitler, Mussolini, Stalin, Pinochet, Milosevic and Idi Amin were all
powerful, but in the end they bit the dust."[291] Phillips wrote of Tutu's article: "I never thought
that I would see brazenly printed in a reputable British newspaper not only a repetition of the lie
of Jewish power but the comparison of that power with Hitler, Sony VAIO VGN-SR41M/S Akku Stalin and
other tyrants. I never thought I would see such a thing issuing from a Christian archbishop ... How
can Christians maintain a virtual silence about the persecution of their fellow worshippers by
Muslims across the world, while denouncing the Israelis who are in the front line against
precisely this terror?"[292] HP Pavilion DV4T Battery

In December, 2006, Maurice Ostroff of the Jerusalem Post criticized Tutu for being
well-intentioned, but ultimately misguided: "If he took the opportunity during his forthcoming
visit to impartially examine all the facts, he would discover –HP Pavilion DV5 Battery
to his pleasant surprise – that accusations of Israeli apartheid are mean-spirited and
wrong-headed... He would find that whereas the apartheid of the old South Africa was
entrenched in law, Israel's Declaration of Independence absolutely ensures complete equality of
social and political rights to all inhabitants, irrespective of religion, race, or gender.[293]

HP Pavilion G60-420SA Battery
Sudanese human rights activist Simon Deng has also criticized Tutu for referring to Israel as an
apartheid state, stating that Arabs in Israel enjoy a variety of rights that blacks in apartheid-era
South Africa did not, including the right to vote, HP Pavilion DV5T Battery

HP Pavilion G60-415SA Battery and that Palestinians are only stopped at checkpoints to
prevent attacks. Deng asks why Tutu criticizes Israel for apartheid policies it does not have, but
ignores actual apartheid practices in other countries such as Iran, Saudi Arabia, and especially his
own country Sudan.[294] HP Pavilion DV7 Battery

Ian Buruma has argued that even though there is social discrimination against Arabs in Israel and
that "the ideal of a Jewish state smacks of racism", the analogy is "intellectually lazy, morally
questionable and possibly even mendacious",HP Pavilion DV6 Battery
as "[n]on-Jews, mostly Arab Muslims, make up 20% of the Israeli population, and they enjoy full
citizen's rights" and "[i]nside the state of Israel, there is no apartheid".[295]
Fifty-three Stanford University faculty from various fields other than Middle East, Palestine or
Israel studies, HP Pavilion DV6T Battery
as well as staff from Stanford's conservative think tank, the Hoover Institution signed a letter
expressing the view that "Israel is not an Apartheid State" and that "the State of Israel has
nothing in common with apartheid";HP Pavilion DV6Z Battery
that within its national territory Israel is a liberal democracy in which Arab citizens of Israel enjoy
civil, religious, social, and political equality. They alleged that likening Israel to apartheid South
Africa was a "smear," part of a campaign of "malicious propaganda."[296] HP Pavilion DV6-1100
Battery
In March 2011, Toronto Mayor Rob Ford has said that he will not allow city funding for the 2011
Toronto Pride Parade if organizers allow the controversial group Queers Against Israeli Apartheid
(QuAIA) march again this year. “Taxpayers dollars should not go toward funding hate speech,”
Ford said.[297] However, in April 2011, HP Pavilion DV6-2000 Battery
 the city manager reported to the city's executive committee that the use of the phrase ‘Israeli
apartheid’ does not violate the City’s Anti-discrimination policy, nor does it constitute
discrimination under the Canadian Criminal Code or the Ontario Human Rights Code[298]

HP Pavilion G60-410SA Battery
Also in March 2011, professor Denis MacEoin, a senior editor of the Middle East Forum's Middle
East Quarterly, wrote an open letter to the Edinburgh University Students' Association. It was
prompted by 270 students at Edinburgh University voting in favour of a motion which described
Israel as an apartheid state and called for a boycott of goods. HP Pavilion DV6-1120SA Battery

HP Pavilion G60-406SA Battery In part he expressed the opinion that a "University is supposed
to be about learning to use your brain, to think rationally, to examine evidence, to reach
conclusions based on solid evidence, to compare sources, to weigh up one view against one or
more others. If the best Edinburgh can now produce are students who have no idea how to do
any of these things, HP Pavilion DV6-1210SA Battery
then the future is bleak."[299][unreliable source?] Subsequently the Edinburgh University
Students’ Association has confirmed a proposed boycott of Israeli products will not be
enforced.[300] HP Pavilion DV6-2018AX Battery

American rabbi Yitzchok Adlerstein has written of a "multifaceted campaign demonizing Israel by
rebranding her as an evil apartheid regime". He describes this as "the big lie", stating that Israeli
Arabs enjoy political freedoms that are unknown in the Arab world.[301] HP Pavilion
DV6-2019AX Battery

[edit]Other comments on the apartheid analogy

Sasha Polakow-Suransky addresses the Israeli apartheid analogy in the epilogue of his book, The
Unspoken Alliance: Israel's Secret Relationship with Apartheid South Africa (2010).
Polakow-Suransky argues that some aspects of apartheid in South Africa are "ominously similar"
to developments in contemporary Israel, HP Pavilion DV6-2019ER Battery

HP Pavilion G60-401SA Battery but that the analogy is nonetheless an imperfect one. He notes
that Israel's labour policies are very different those of apartheid-era South Africa, that Israel has
never enacted miscegenation laws, and that liberation movements in South Africa and Palestine
have had different "aspirations and tactics."[302] HP Pavilion DV6-2020AX Battery
This notwithstanding, he argues that the apartheid analogy is likely to gain further legitimacy in
upcoming years unless Israel moves to dismantle West Bank settlements and create a viable
Palestinian state.[303] HP Pavilion DV6-2020CA Battery

Polakow-Suransky also writes that the response of Israel's defenders to the analogy since 2007
has been "knee-jerk" and based on "vitriol and recycled propaganda" rather than an honest
assessment of the situation. HP Pavilion DV6-2020EC Battery
He notes that public discourse on the subject has been far more "nuanced and thoughtful" in
Israel than in America, drawing particular attention to the reviews of Jimmy Carter's Palestine
Peace Not Apartheid in both countries.[304] HP Pavilion DV6-2021EL Battery

In June 2011, Canadian politician and scholar Irwin Cotler was interviewed by Israeli television on
the concept of "new antisemitism." In the course of the interview, he argued that labelling Israel
as an apartheid state, while in his view "distasteful," nonetheless falls "within the boundaries of
argument" and is not inherently antisemitic. HP Pavilion DV6-2022ER Battery
HP Pavilion DV6-2023EC Battery
"It's where you say, because it's an apartheid state, it has to be dismantled - then [you've]
crossed the line into a racist argument, or an anti-Jewish argument," he said.[305] HP Pavilion
G50 Battery
HP Pavilion G60 Battery

				
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