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Global cooling effect, Causes, Consequences, Action plane and Control

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									                         Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (3), 46-54


                                                                                                 ISSN:2249-5347
                                                                                                           IJSID
                        International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries                  An International peer
                                                                                                 Review Journal for Science


Review Article                                                      Available online through www.ijsidonline.info

                         CAUSES, QUANSEQUENCES OF GLOBAL COOLING EFFECT

                      Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar*, Rajput PR and Jirapure SC
   Dhamangaon Education Society, college of engineering & Technology Dhamangaon rly, affiliated to Sant Gadge
                                      Baba Amravati University Amravati.


                                                                      ABSTRACT
                                            Due to the industrializations, deforestation, traditional agriculture,

Received:   10.09.2011              burning of fossils fuels and celebration of traditional festival all over the world,
                                    the concentration of green house gases such as co2, Oxide of Sulphur, Oxide of
Modified:   16.10.2011
                                    Nitrogen in atmosphere increase; which causes increase in temperature of the
Published: 29.12.2011
                                    globe which is called as “Global warming effect”. Due to the global warming
*Corresponding Author
                                    effect temperature of the earth is increase. If the temperature of the earth is
                                    increase by one degree Celsius then the rate of evaporation of water from sea,
                                    ocean, ponds, rivers are increases and pattern of cloud formation is change
                                    which causes untimely rain and strong statics instability in the lower
                                    atmosphere. Dry air advection and strong thermal advection due to this there
                                    was strong convergence and divergence of wind fields on sea surface and
                                    upper level (3km), this indicating the existence of convective rolls in clouds.
                                    The main energy source of convection was sensible heat flux and the main
                                    moisture source was convection. Radiative cooling in the cloud layer
Name:                                             INTRODUCTION
Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar          intensified the static instability in lower atmosphere which causes excessive
Place:
                                    snow fall due to which overall temperature on the surface of the earth
Dhamangaon rly,
Amravati, Maharashtra, India        decrease is called as “global cooling effect” it’s consequences are on living life,
E-mail:
gamrut_reddy@rediffmail.com         plant, animal and the number of heart patient increases. It can be control by
                                    action plane of environmental pollution.
                                                 INTRODUCTION
                                    Keywords:
                                    Global cooling effect, Causes, Consequences, Action plane and Control


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                      Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (3), 46-54
                                                 INTRODUCTION
       Less noticeable locally and less widely known, are other signs of climatic turmoil-increasing Arctic snow
cover; more tornadoes, often in unaccustomed places; increasing incidences of flooding, heat waves, and drought.
Some of these phenomena appear contradictory. Heat waves and drought seem "warm", in contrast to indications
of cooling. Surprisingly, evidence suggests the interlink age of all these phenomena in a single, consistent pattern of
causation. It follows an "in depth" weather report, describing a new hypothesis which links climatic deterioration
to larger events in the history of the biosphere. A spate of science journal articles warned that CO2 release by fossil
fuel burning might over warm the climate. But overlooked all along was the degree to which photosynthetic
activity may have depleted its atmospheric CO2 resources in the very process which laid down the fossil fuels in the
first place. The photosynthetic metabolism of the biosphere itself may have precipitated the ice ages, by taking
globally-tropical-climate-maintaining atmospheric CO2 concentrations below a threshold where the Milankovitch
cycle could trigger, not just minor moderations of that global tropical climate, but cooling to the point where
continental ice accumulation could begin its high-alb do-amplified self-acceleration.
       Much evidence points to a marked scarcity of CO2 in today's atmosphere relative to that of past ages, and a
resulting fall in the general rate of photosynthesis. Many plant varieties grow more rapidly and luxuriantly in an
artificial atmosphere enriched with five to ten times the present ambient CO2 concentration. In terms of the Earth's
photosynthesis-based biomass primary self-productivity, in the biosphere. In the past, the biosphere had relied on
fermentation by its bacterial decomposer stratum to return organic carbon to the atmosphere as CO2. Many
climatologists believed that the great "human ferment" of the industrial revolution, with its tremendous releases of
heat and CO2 from fuel burning, caused this climatic improvement. But circa 1940, the gathering Milankovitch
momentum for cooling may have overtaken the warming effects of even rising rates of anthropogenic CO2
enrichment.
Objectives
       The temperature of the earth’s surface is maintained by the energy balance of the sun’s rays that strike the
earth and the heat that radiated back by the earth into the outer space.
       If the concentration of the gases such as CO2, NO, N2O, CH4, O3 etc increases in atmosphere these gases act
like the glass panels of a green house or the window glass of a closed car, they allow the sun rays to freely enter
through them to the earth but prevent the longer wave length radiations coming from the earth to escape into the
outer space.
       Because more energy is radiated back to the earth by the above gases due to their increased concentration
and their blanketing effect. The temperature of the earth increases. This phenomenon is called as global warming
or green house effect. Higher concentration of these gases in the atmosphere more is the infrared radiation trapped
by these gases which is reflected back to the earth surfaces and more is the global warming. Large amount of CO2
gets introduced into the environment from furnaces of power plants, vehicular exhaust, fossil fuel burning, forest

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                         Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (3), 46-54
fire, cutting of forest, and emission of Freon, all these factors contribute to the global warming. The gases which are
responsible for green house effect or global warming are called as green house gases such as CO2, NO; N2O, CH4.H-
2O,   CFC-Chore- fluoro carbon etc are green house gases. In 1990 there was 7000 million hectors land was under
forest but in 2011 it is only 2890 hectors land is under forest due to population explosion, day by day forest area is
decreasing which contribute to the global warming. Due to depletion of ozone layer high intensity harmful U.V and
IR radiation rich to the surface of the earth which contribute to the global warming. Due to population explosion
number of refrigerator increases and living standard of the people increased the number of air conditioner and
number of aeroplane increased which causes depletion of ozone layer which is also responsible for global
warming.
Sources of greenhouse gases:-
1. The sources of CO2 are burning of firewood, deforestation, automobile, exhaust, industrial gases, agricultural
      waste burning, forest fire, deforestation, traditional festival in India such as “Holi”, “Dipavali” and
      “Vijayadashami”. In every village of India, on occasion of “Holi” people burned one thousand tone woods which
      emit various gases in to the atmosphere.
2. CH4 and H2O vapour are produced during various natural and manmade activities
3. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) is released during the operation and maintenance of equipment in which CFC is used
      as a coolant such as air conditioners, airplanes etc

                      Table 1 indicates Year wise Global temperature in both hemispheres and snow fall in cm
                Year              Global Temp.           N-Hem Temp.            S-Hem. Temp.          Snow Fall (cm)
             1881-1890                -28.5                   -32                   -24.6                  889
             1891-1900                -22.4                  -23.2                  -21.9                 914.4
             1901-1910                -28.6                  -27.2                   -30                 929.64
             1911-1920                -26.1                  -27.6                  -24.7                937.26
             1921-1930                -16.6                   -8.3                  -24.8                 965.2
             1931-1940                 -3.1                     6                    -12                  965.2
             1941-1950                  1.5                    9.6                   -6.6                970.28
             1951-1960                 -0.6                   -6.4                   -7.4                1320.8
             1961-1970                  -1                     -2                    -1.9                1577.34
             1971-1980                 -3.9                   -6.3                    9.4                1897.38
             1981-1990                19.3                   17.9                    20.5                2059.94
             1991-2000                  31                   38.4                    23.6                2087.88
             2001-2010                54.6                   69.7                    39.3                2473.96

Control of greenhouse gases:-
The global cooling effect can be controlled by taking the following precautions
1)     To reduce the level of carbon dioxide on the earth’s atmosphere, one must increases the number of sinks to
         absorb carbon dioxide plants absorbs a major portion of the carbon dioxide therefore, more plants trees or
         forests should be grown.


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                       Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (3), 46-54
2)   By decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum. This can be possible by using non-
      bio-gas energies or renewable energy source etc.
3)   Ban on CFCS and nuclear explosions.
4)   Decreasing in the use of automobile. The more efficient clean and green technology in automobile field is
      developing through research etc.
5) Effective check on population growth or by controlling population
6) By imparting non formal and formal environmental education.
7)   By ban on burning of “Holi”, ban on burning of cracker on occasion of “Diwali” festival. And ban on celebration
      of “Vijayadashami”.
8)   By using alternate fuel instead of fossil fuels.
9)   By using the solar energy and renewable energy sources.
10) By using plasma technology in the generation of power instead of coal, nuclear fuels etc.
11) Developing effective techniques in the mining industries which control the emission of green house gases.
12) Reduction of sulphur, Nitrogen content of the fuel by desulphurization and de-nitrification respectively.
13) By using Agronomical techniques in the field of agriculture, reduces the emission of green houses gases.
14) By using eco-friendly materials in the industry, reduces green houses gases.
15) Add some more precautions for healthy weather and give info/instructions for normal person




                 Figure 1 indicates Yearly Global Temp., N Hem Temp. & S. Hem Tem Distribution




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                    Figure 2 indicates Year wise Global Temperature Distribution




                   Figure 3 indicates Year wise N Hem. Temperature Distribution




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               Amrut Gunwantrao Gaddamwar et al., IJSID 2011, 1 (3), 46-54
               Figure 4 indicates Year wise Southern Hem. Temperature Distribution




                           Figure 5 indicates snow fall in cm every 10 years




                        Figure 6 indicates snowfall in the Northern hemisphere




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                               Figure 7 indicates snowfall in the Southern hemisphere
                                                    DISCUSSION
        Due to increase in intensity of global warming the rate of temperature of the earth are increases day by day
because of various reasons. The formation convergence and divergence is increase and which affect on the pattern
of formation of clouds in the sky which causes snow fall rate changes and decreases overall temperature of earth
which is called as global cooling effect.
                                                   CONCLUSION
        From the interpretations of data it is clear that global warming is responsible for the global cooling effects
and it can control by controlling global warming effect. Overall increases in temperature of the earth is called as
global warming effect, due to global warming the rate of evaporation water is increases and change the pattern of
clouds formation which causes snow fall and increases rate of snow fall in both southern and northern hemisphere
which decrease the overall temperature of the earth is called as global cooling effect. Since from 1981 to 2011 the
snow fall in the both hemisphere increases with the increase in temperature of the earth.
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