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					   A Demographic Profile of Nueces County Texas:
          Focus on Teenage Pregnancy


                         By

                  Rebecca Shirley
              AA Graduate in Sociology
                  Del Mar College


                         &


                   Russ Long
           Department of Social Sciences
                Sociology Program
                 Del Mar College
              Corpus Christi, Texas


                    April 5, 2007




Presented to the Southwest Social Science Association
     Albuquerque New Mexico, March 15, 2007
                                        Abstract

       The immediate goal of this project is to debunk local myth associated with
       the “extraordinary local accounts” of the teenage pregnancy rate in Nueces
       County. Although teenage pregnancy rates are quite high in comparison to
       other counties in Texas, they do not attain the levels depicted in local lore.
       The following analysis attempts to explore explanations for Nueces
       County’s higher-than-average teenage pregnancy rates.

                                    I. Introduction
Teenage pregnancy rates are associated with severe social dislocation for those who
begin having babies early in their lives. According to Long (1986), infant death is twice as
high for women who become pregnant as teenagers as compared with first-time mothers
who are 20 years old or older when they have their first child. Marital disruption is three
times as likely. Teenagers who have babies are seven times as likely to be poor. One half
of all AFDC payments go to women who first gave birth as teenagers. Women who start
having children as teenagers will have 50% more children. Clearly, teenage pregnancy is
associated with some rather bleak prospects.

The origins of this project lie in what is almost a legendary local myth that claims Nueces
County has (or has had) the highest teen pregnancy rate in Texas. When the subject of
teenage pregnancy is raised in Nueces County, the casual person-in-the-street will
inevitably comment on how Nueces ranks number 1 in Texas. This false impression is
reinforced in the media (See Caller-Times, 2003, 2004). Some reports go so far as to
suggest that Nueces County has one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the
United States. The extreme accounts of Nueces County’s teenage pregnancy rate can
be quickly dispelled. Nonetheless, the data will show that Nueces County has a
higher-than-average teenage pregnancy rate compared to other counties in Texas and
Texas does have one of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the United States. Few
local sources speculate as to why Nueces County has such high teenage pregnancy
rates.

The paper begins with a brief discussion of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Any
analysis of teenage pregnancy rates, whether in the United States, Texas, or Nueces
County has to acknowledge that teen pregnancy rates are falling in nearly every sector of
the country and for nearly all social groups. The paper next explores the incidence of
teenage pregnancies in Nueces County Texas through comparisons with other counties
in Texas over a 10-year period. Finally, the paper investigates social and demographic
variables that might explain why Nueces County teenage pregnancy rates are higher than
average.


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                                             2
                                II. Literature Review

United States

The United States has long had one of the highest adolescent pregnancy rates in the
world. Singh and Darroch’s (2000:16) survey of trends in 46 developed countries found
that, in 1996, only Armenia surpassed the United States for number of births per 1000
women aged 15-19. The birthrate for women aged 15-17 was higher than 20 per 1,000
only in the United States and Georgia (Singh and Darroch, 2000:17). Despite these
dismal figures, teen pregnancy rates are, in fact, declining across the developed world. A
study by Ventura, Curtis and Matthews in 2000 found that the U.S. has observed a drop in
rates of births to teens of all ages and racial groups since 1990 (Scafetta et al, 2003:1).

Texas

Texas has also seen a decline in teenage birthrates over the last decade, but still claims
an adolescent pregnancy rate higher than the national average and ranks fifth in the
nation in number of teenage pregnancies (Allan Guttmacher Institute, 2003 in Scafetta et
al, 2003:17). Of the almost 80,000 adolescent pregnancies each year in Texas, an
estimated 65% result in live birth, 20% result in abortion, and 15% result in miscarriages

Social and Demographic Factors

Several social and demographic factors can influence teenage pregnancy rates. Among
them are size of population, income levels, poverty levels, nativity, sex ratios, age, race
and ethnicity, the percentage of the population that is rural, unemployment rates, and
levels of education. Previous research uses racial identity as a primary variable for
explaining teenage pregnancy rates. Many of those studies focus on a black/white
dichotomy with little or no mention of Hispanic teens. In general, high teenage pregnancy
rates in the United States are often associated with the country’s large minority
population. Other studies, like Singh and Darroch (2000:21), found that while pregnancy
rates among racial and ethnic groups do vary greatly, studies in the early 1980's showed
that even the rates for white teens in the United States were among the highest in the
world when compared with other industrial nations.




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                                            3
Race and Ethnicity

In a study based solely on Texas, Hispanic and African-American teens experience a
birth rate much higher than that of their White counterparts (Scafetta et al, 2003:8).
However, White and higher socioeconomic status (SES) girls who become pregnant
have abortions more often than lower SES and minority girls, so birthrates may
exaggerate these effects on adolescent pregnancy reporting (Robbins et al, 1985:568).
In a study that included both teens and older women, Rindfuss and St. John (1983) found
that, on average, African-American women have their first child approximately four-fifths
of a year before White women. African-American women are more likely at each age
level to become pregnant earlier than White or Hispanic women (Robbins et al,
1985:578). All other factors being equal, African-American women are more likely than
White women to experience early nonmarital pregnancy, and Hispanic women are less
likely to experience early nonmarital pregnancy (Robbins et al, 1985:578).

Socioeconomic Status

Much of the racial disparity, however, may be credited to socioeconomic status.
African-American and Hispanic teens are much more likely than White teenagers to live
in low-income families. Lower SES is a strong predictor of early sexual activity,
pregnancy, and childbearing (Singh and Darroch, 2000:21; Xie et al, 2001:491; Young et
al, 2004; Robbins et al, 1985:579). Parental education, particularly mothers’ education,
may be one of the most consistent determinants of the socioeconomic status of the
household and has been shown to impact their children’s sexual behavior through
delaying of intercourse and contraceptive use. Teens of less educated parents are more
likely to become pregnant (Hayward et al, 1992:765; Young et al, 2004:363). Low
socioeconomic status has been found to be significantly related to pregnancies in early
and middle adolescence (Robbins et al, 1985:578). There is a strong correlation between
family socioeconomic status and living arrangements. Teens living with both natural
parents at the age of 14 were at lower risk of becoming pregnant (Coverdill and Kraft,
1996). Teens living in father-absent families and/or with a larger number of siblings are
more likely to become pregnant (Robbins et al, 1985:581).

Geography

Another variable seldom acknowledged in teen pregnancy research is the matter of
geography. A previous study of eight Southeastern states found the teenage birthrate to
be higher in rural than in metropolitan areas, except among African-American women
aged 15-17 (Bennett et al, 1997). African-American 15-17-year-olds in metropolitan
areas had a higher pregnancy rate than those in rural counties, though the pregnancy
rate for White women was similar in both rural and urban environments. The rate of


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                                           4
abortions for all groups was higher in metro than rural areas (Bennett et al, 1997). A
different study found that, overall, teens living in rural areas adjacent to large cities exhibit
the highest risk of pregnancy (Hayward et al, 1992:765). McManus and Newacheck (In
Bennett, 1997) conclude that rural youth are more likely than urban youth to be living in
poverty, but are less likely covered by public assistance.

Sex Ratio

Barber (2004, 2001, 2001a, 2000) contends that sex ratio plays a role in teenage
pregnancy. Barber argues that areas that have a higher proportion of women to men will
have a higher teenage pregnancy rate. His explanation suggests that “early child bearing
can be seen as an adaptive response to poor marital opportunity” Barber, 2000:26) and
to “diminished prospects for parental investment” (Barber, 2001:263).

Education

Education is one factor generally agreed by all to affect the number (and resolution) of
premarital teenage pregnancies. In 1988, Joyce (in Coverdill and Kraft, 1996) argued,
“Reducing welfare payments might impact on pregnancy resolution, but it would have
much less effect on unwanted pregnancies. A less punitive and potentially more effective
policy would be to expand the educational and employment opportunities available to
adolescents so that pregnancy as well as childbearing have less appeal.”

Current enrollment alone, however, does not necessarily predict number of premarital
pregnancies. Yamaguchi and Kandel’s 1987 study (in Coverdill and Kraft, 1996) of 706
women who attended New York State public high schools showed that enrollment does
not significantly lower the hazard of a premarital conception. Coverdill and Kraft, in a
subsequent study (1996), found that it was educational aspirations and not school
enrollment that emerged as a significant predictor of the likelihood of conception. “In
short, the higher the education aspirations, the lower the risk of premarital pregnancy.”

Rindfuss et al (1980) determined, in their analysis of the implications of education on
fertility patterns, that higher educational attainment had a negative effect on age at first
birth. They found that each additional year of schooling resulted in the delay of first birth
by approximately three quarters of a year, although they did not find the anticipated
opposite effect of first birth on education. Early pregnancy is frequently given as the
reason for a high number of high school dropouts. However, it is often unclear whether
pregnancy causes girls to drop out, or if dropping out is a factor in their becoming
pregnant. Of the women Rindfuss and his associates studied, more than 40% who had a
first birth before age 17 had dropped out of school at least a year prior to becoming a
mother, a statistic which indicates that even at very young ages the fertility process is
being affected by the educational process (Rindfuss et al, 1980).


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                                               5
Employment

Education is generally linked with employment when considering possible antecedents of
premarital pregnancy. Cooksey (1990) reported an increasingly common finding (in
Coverdill and Kraft, 1996): “Women who are able to make it in the labor market might be
less likely to become premaritally pregnant and bear children.” In a study that included
both teens and older women, Coverdill and Kraft (1996) found that employment continuity
of more than one year and higher wages lower the risk of premarital pregnancy.
                                  III. Methodology

This study utilizes existing data. Teenage pregnancy data for the U.S. come from the
Allan Guttmacher Institute (2004). The national rates describe pregnancies for women
per 1000 women age 15 to 19. Teenage pregnancy data for Texas and Texas counties
come from Texas Department of Health - Bureau of Vital Statistics (various years) and
defines teen pregnancy as pregnancies per 1000 teenage women between the ages of
13 to 17. County-level demographic data come from the Texas State Data Center and
Office of the State Demographer (2004).

The following data tables provide data for Texas and Nueces County. They also rank
Nueces County Texas in relation to other counties in Texas, with 1 being the highest rank
in a category and 254 being the lowest ranked county in Texas. For example, Table 3
shows that Nueces County has the 70th highest teen pregnancy rate in Texas and ranks
9th in terms of numbers of pregnancies in Texas. In other words, 69 counties in Texas
have high rates of teenage pregnancies while only eight other counties have a higher
number of teenage pregnancies.

While pursuing this report, the researchers encountered an array of methodological
dilemmas on issues as basic as the definition of a teen pregnancy rate. Some studies use
births to teenagers as a surrogate measure for teenage pregnancy. Not all pregnancies
lead to births. Presumably, if a young woman does not see her pregnancy through birth,
then she does not experience the social dislocation experienced by young women who
give birth as a teenager. National teenage pregnancy data are collected at different levels
compared with Texas data (from Texas Vital Statistics). National data explore
pregnancies for young women 15 to 19. Sometimes it is broken down into 15 to 17 and
18 and 19 year olds. Texas county data use as their population young women 13 to17.

Another dilemma in this research involves the martial status of the teenagers who
become pregnant. One would like to make a distinction between intended and
unintended pregnancies. U.S. and Texas data make no such distinction concerning
marital status.



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                                            6
            IV. Trends in Teen Pregnancy in the United States:
                           A Historic Overview

Nearly all studies in teenage pregnancy call attention to the steadily declining pregnancy
rates for teenagers (Allan Guttmacher Institute, 2004). Allan Guttmacher Institute (2004)
data show that teenage pregnancy rates fell from 40.7 for teens between the ages of 15
and 17 in 1950 to 24.7 teen pregnancies per 1000 teens in 2001 (See Table 1).


                                      Table 1
                       Historic Trends in Teenage Pregnancy
                            United States, 1950 to 2001

                                         Women         Women
                                         Ages          Ages
                                         15-17         18-19

                           1950          40.7          132.7
                           1960          43.9          166.7
                           1970          38.8          114.7
                           1980          32.5           82.1
                           1985          31.0           79.6
                           1990          37.5           88.6
                           1995          35.5           87.7
                           1996          33.3           84.7
                           1997          31.4           85.1
                           1998          29.9           80.9
                           1999          28.2           79.1
                           2000          26.9           78.1
                           2001          24.7           76.1

Source: Allan Guttmacher Institute (2004)


                    V. Nueces County Compared to Texas

Table 2 shows that teenage pregnancy rates in Texas and in Nueces County generally
follow the trends seen nationwide. Teenage pregnancy rates in Texas declined by nearly
a third from 41.5 teenage pregnancies per 1000 teenagers in 1994 to 27.6 pregnancies
per 1000 teenagers in 2003. Table 2 also includes data for the county with the highest
teenage pregnancy rate in Texas. The initial impetus for this project centered on a local


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                                            7
myth that Nueces County had the highest rates in Texas. Clearly, Anderson County,
Potter County, Webb County, and Starr County all had teenage pregnancy rates higher
than Nueces Co. Nueces County was, on average, 14 points lower than the counties with
the highest teenage pregnancy rate. Further, teenage pregnancy rates in Nueces County
followed the national trends in that they fell for nearly all years from 1994 to 2003.


                                      Table 2
                        Historic Teenage Pregnancy Rates
                            Nueces County and Texas
                                    Year = 2000

                          Texas        Nueces Co. Highest Rate *

             1994         41.5         50.4         66.9   (Anderson CO. Texas)
             1995         41.2         54.8         70.7   (Potter CO. Texas)
             1996         40.3         50.2         72.1   (Potter CO. Texas)
             1997         37.9         49.3         56.9   (Potter CO. Texas)
             1998         36.2         44.8         61.4   (Potter CO. Texas)
             1999         35.4         43.1         55.1   (Potter CO. Texas)
             2000         33.1         38.1         54.4   (Webb CO. Texas)
             2001         29.5         30.6         49.4   (Webb CO. Texas)
             2002         28.5         31.5         51.6   (Webb CO. Texas)
             2003         27.6         27.9         50.2   (Starr CO. Texas)

* (Counties with 100 or more pregnancies for 13 to 17 year old women.)

Sources:
Texas Department of Health (1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002,
2003)




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                                          8
Chart 1 demonstrates the relative position of Nueces County with the counties
possessing the highest teenage pregnancy rate. All rates show a steady decline. Of
note, between 2001 and 2003, Nueces County’s teenage pregnancy rates were roughly
equal to the state average.


                                                  Chart 1
                                    Historic Teenage Pregnancy Rates
                                  Nueces County and Texas, Year = 2000
     Teen Pregnancy Rate




                           80
                           70
                           60                                                                           Texas
                                                                                                        Nueces Co.
                           50                                                                           Highest Rate *

                           40
                           30
                           20
                                  1994

                                         1995

                                                1996

                                                       1997

                                                              1998

                                                                     1999

                                                                            2000

                                                                                   2001

                                                                                          2002

                                                                                                 2003
                                VI. Demographic and Social Profile of Nueces County
                                                   Year = 2000

Although teenage pregnancy rates in Nueces County show a slow, but steady decline,
the rates are still higher than the average found in the State of Texas. Further, Texas has
one of the highest rates in the United States. The remainder of the paper explores
possible explanations for the high rates of teenage pregnancy found in Nueces County.
The following material provides an overview of the demographic and social context within
which Nueces County teens live.

A.                         Pregnancies, Live Births, Fetal Deaths, and Abortions to Women 13 to 17
                           Years of Age

In the year 2000, Nueces County had a teenage pregnancy rate of 38.1 pregnancies per
1000 teenagers between the ages of 13 and 17 (see Table 3). This figure was five more
than the teenage pregnancy rate for Texas. In 2000, 459 teenagers became pregnant.
Of those pregnancies, 378 resulted in live births. One fetus died and 80 were aborted.




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                                                                       9
                                      Table 3
               Pregnancies, Live Births, Fetal Deaths and Abortions
                             to Women Ages 13 to 17

                                              Texas         Nueces Co.

                   Pregnancy Rate                 33.1        38.1
                                                         Rank 70

                   Total Pregnancies           24,665           459
                                                         Rank   9

                          Live Births          20,730           378

                          Fetal Deaths            133             1

                          Abortions             3,802            80

             Female Population Age 13-17      745,166       12,060

Source: Texas Department of Health (2000)


B.    Total Population

Nueces County had 313,645 residents in 2000. Of those, 280,000 live in Corpus Christi.
Nueces County is the 12th most populous county in Texas (See Table 4).




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                                         10
                                      Table 4
                                  Total Population

                          Texas                 Nueces Co.

                          20,851,820         313,645
                                        Rank 12

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 3)


C.    Income

The literature indicates that lower SES is associated with higher teen pregnancy rates.
The median family income for Nueces County is $41,066 which is more than $4000 less
that the median for the State of Texas where median family income stands at $45,861.
While Nueces County is one of the largest metropolitan areas in the State of Texas, it
ranks only 74th on median family income (See Table 5).

Per capita income (PCI) offers a similar story. Nueces County PCI is $17,036 compared
to the state average of $19,617. Compared to other counties in Texas, Nueces County
PCI levels rank 86th.


                                     Table 5
                       Income: Median Family and Per Capita

                                        Texas        Nueces Co.

      Median Family Income              45861        41066
                                                Rank 74

      Per Capita Income                 19617        17036
                                                Rank 86

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 93)




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                                          11
D.     Poverty

Nueces County has a poverty rate nearly three points higher than Texas. Nueces
County’s poverty rate is 18.2 while the poverty rate for the state is 15.4. Although poorer
than the state average, Nueces County is by no means the poorest. Nueces County
ranks 88th in the state out of 254 counties (see Table 6).

Regarding child poverty, Nueces County’s poverty rate is 24.5, which is four points higher
that the state’s child poverty rate of 20.5. Once again, however, Nueces County is a long
way from having the highest proportion of children living in poverty. Like the overall
poverty rate, Nueces County ranks 88th.


                                       Table 6
                       Poverty: Percent Below the Poverty Line
                     and Percent Children Below the Poverty Line

                                                                Texas         Nueces Co.

              Percent Population Below the Poverty Line         15.4         18.2
                                                                        Rank 88

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 29)

              Percent Children Below the Poverty Line           20.5         24.5
                                                                        Rank 88

                   Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 31)


E.     Nativity: Percent Foreign Born

Nueces County has only half the foreign born residents as does Texas. Only 6.5% of
Nueces County residents were born outside the United States, compared to nearly 14%
of residents in Texas who were born outside the United States. Although Nueces
County’s percent of foreign-born citizens is half the state average, it still ranks above the
median for the state. Nueces County ranks 93rd among the 254 counties in Texas (See
Table 7).




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                                             12
                                        Table 7
                            Nativity: Percent Foreign Born

                                         Texas         Nueces Co.

             Percent Foreign Born        13.9         6.5
                                                 Rank 93

                   Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 11)


F.    Sex Ratio

Nueces County has a greater number of women than men in its population than the State
of Texas. The sex ratio for the State of Texas is 98.6 while the sex ratio for Nueces
County is 95.8. The explanation for Nueces County’s lower sex ratio may be related to
it’s older than average population. The literature suggests that a low sex ratio should be
negatively correlated with teenage pregnancy (See Table 8).


                                        Table 8
                                       Sex Ratios

                                         Texas         Nueces Co.

      Sex Ratio (male/female)            98.61        95.83
                                                 Rank 162

                   Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 1)


G.    Age

Nueces County residents are slightly older than are people in Texas. In terms of median
age, Nueces County residents are one year older than are the average Texas residents.
The median age of Texans is 32.3 while the median age for Nueces County residents is
33.3.

On the other hand, Nueces County has a slightly higher percentage of persons below age
20 than does Texas. Nueces County has 31.7% of its population under age 20 while the

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                                           13
figure for the state stands at 31.4%. Nueces County also has a greater proportion of its
population age 65 and over than does Texas. Slightly more than 11% of Nueces County
residents are 65 and over compared to 9.9% for the state in general. Statewide, as the
percent of residents below age 20 (as a proportion of total population) increases, so do
teenage pregnancy rates.


                                      Table 9
                 Age: Median Age, Percent of Population Below 20,
                      and Percent of Population 65 and Above

                                                Texas        Nueces Co.

      Median Age                                32.3         33.3
                                                        Rank 196

      Percent of Population Below Age 20        31.4         31.7
                                                        Rank 75

      Percent of Population 65 and Above         9.9         11.2
                                                        Rank 20

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 2)


H.    Race and Ethnicity

Nueces County has fewer White and African-American residents than the State of Texas
(see Table 10). On the other hand, it has a far greater proportion of Hispanic citizens
than does Texas. While Texas residents are 53% White, Nueces County’s population is
slightly more that 38% White. African-Americans make up nearly 12% of the Texas
population, but only 4.2% of Nueces County residents are African-American. Thirty-two
percent of the Texas population is Hispanic, while Nueces County has nearly 56% of its
citizens claiming Hispanic origin. Nueces County has the 28th largest Hispanic population
as a proportion of all residents. Nueces County’s African-American population ranks 121
in the state. Nueces County ranks 227 out of 254 counties in the size of its White
population.




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                                           14
                                      Table 10
                                  Race and Ethnicity

                                                 Texas        Nueces Co.

             White - % of Total                  53.1         38.3
                                                         Rank 227

             African American - % of Total       11.6         4.2
                                                         Rank 121

             Hispanic - % of Total               32.0         55.8
                                                         Rank 28

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 3)


I.    Urban/Rural

Nueces County is more urban than most other counties in Texas. Table 11 shows that
94.4% of all Nueces County residents live in urban areas, primarily Corpus Christi.
Nueces is the sixth most urban county in the State of Texas. While the literature
suggests that teenage pregnancy is higher in rural populations, the opposite appears to
be the case in Texas.


                                        Table 11
                                     Urban and Rural

                                         Texas           Nueces Co.

                    Percent Urban        82.5         94.4
                                                 Rank 6

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 1a)


J.    Unemployment


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                                           15
The literature indicates that employment status and aspirations for employment have an
impact on rates of teen pregnancy. Nueces County in the year 2000 had higher rates of
unemployment than the rest of Texas. The unemployment rate in Texas is 3.8 while the
unemployment rate in Nueces County is 4.6. Nueces County had the 35th highest
unemployment rate compared to other counties in Texas (see Table 12).


                                     Table 12
                                   Unemployment

                                        Texas         Nueces Co.

             Percent Unemployed         3.8          4.6
                                                Rank 35

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 17)


K.    Education

The literature indicates that education is related to teenage pregnancy such that as
education levels decline, teenage pregnancy rates increase; however, Nueces County’s
percentage of persons over 25 with less than a high school education is not much greater
than the state average. Table 13 notes that Nueces County has more than a quarter of its
citizens over age 25 possessing less than a high school education (25.6%). Statewide
the percentage is 24.3%. Nueces County ranks 160 out of 254 counties in educational
attainment.




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                                          16
                                      Table 13
                            Education: Population Over 25

                                   Texas                Nueces Co.

Total Pop. 25 and Over             12.790,893           191.848

Population with Less                3,114,561            49,180
Than HS Degree

Percent with Less                  24.3%                   25.6%
Than HS Degree                                   Rank     160

Source: Texas State Data Center (2004, Table 12-1)


                            VII. Summary of Findings
This project achieves its early goal of dispelling some of the extreme speculations
concerning teenage pregnancy rates found in Nueces County Texas. Although Nueces
County has teenage pregnancy rates that are higher than the state average, they are not
now nor were they ever the highest in Texas.

The paper looked at several possible explanations for Nueces County’s
higher-than-average teen pregnancy rates.

      Those demographic and social variables that may have influence on Nueces
       County’s teen pregnancy rate include the lower-than-average median family
       income and per capita income. Thus, poverty rates are higher.

      Nueces County also has a large Hispanic population. It is the 28 th largest Hispanic
       population in the state as a proportion of its total population. Large minority
       populations are associated with higher rates of teen pregnancy. One should be
       cautious, however, of attributing higher rates of pregnancy to ethnicity. Hispanics
       also have higher rates of poverty and lower incomes than the state average.

      The literature indicates that low levels of education and high levels of
       unemployment are associated with higher rates of teenage pregnancy. Nueces
       County has slightly higher levels of unemployment and slightly lower levels of

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                                            17
      educational achievement compared to the rest of the state. One might speculate
      that these variables might help to explain the higher teenage pregnancy rate in
      Nueces County. However, the literature also indicates that it is not participation in
      education and employment that reduces teenage pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy
      is related to aspirations for success rather than simply being in the system. This
      paper cannot speculate on the aspirations of those in the labor market and
      education system.

The data used in this project looked at county demographics of the entire population.
Future research might attempt to explore the demographics of the teen population under
question as well as their immediate families.




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                                           18
                                VIII. Bibliography

Allan Guttmacher Institute. 2004. “U.S. Teenage Pregnancy Statistics: Overall Trends,
    Trends by Race and Ethnicity, and State by State Information.” Guttmacher Institute.
    New York & Washington: February 19, 2004. Www.guttmacher.com

Araiza, Andres. 2006. “Teen pregnancy rates down.” KRISTV.COM.” January 20, 2006.

Barber, Nigel. 2004. Reduced Female Marriage Opportunity and History of Single
   Parenthood. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. November, 2004. 35(6):
   648-651.
_____. 2001. Marital Opportunity, Parental Investment, and Teen Birth Rates of Blacks
   and Whites in American States. Cross-Cultural Research. August. 35(3): 263-279.
_____. 2001a. On the Relationship Between Marital Opportunity and Teen Pregnancy:
   The Sex Ratio Question. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. May 2001. 32(3):
   259-267.
_____. 2000. “On the Relationship Between Country Sex Ratios and Teen Pregnancy
   Rates: A Replication.” Cross-Cultural Research. 34(1): 26-37. February.

Bennett, Trude and Julia De Clerque Skatrud, Priscilla Guild, Frank Loda, Lorraine V.
  Klerman. 1997. "Rural Adolescent Pregnancy: A View from the South." Family
  Planning Perspectives. 29(6): 256-260.

Corpus Christi Caller-Times. 2004. “Teen pregnancy rate continues to decline. February
   24, 2004.
_____. 2003. “Report: Teen pregnancy problem worse in Valley.” December 29, 2003.
_____. 2003a. “Fewer Nueces teens get pregnant.” January 29, 2003.
_____. 2002. “Teen pregnancy rate declines.” March 24, 2002.

Coverdill, James E and Jean Marie Kraft. 1996. "Enrollment, Employment, and the Risk
  and Resolution of a First Premarital Pregnancy" Social Science Quarterly.
  77(1):43-59.

Hayward, Mark D. and William R. Grady, John O. G. Billy. 1992. “The Influence of
  Socioeconomic Status on Adolescent Pregnancy.” Social Science Quarterly.
  73(4):750-772.

Long, Russell L. 1986. "Poverty in the United States and El Paso: 1960 - 1985."
   Unpublished Thesis, University of Texas at El Paso.

Rindfuss, Ronald R and Larry Bumpass and Craig St. John. 1980. "Education and


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   Fertility: Implications for the Roles Women Occupy" American Sociological Review.
   45(June):431-447.

Rindfuss, Ronald R and Craig St. John. 1983. "Social Determinants of Age at First Birth"
   Journal of Marriage and Family. 45(3):553-565.

Robbins, Cynthis and Howard B. Kaplan, Steven S. Martin. 1985. “Antecedents of
  Pregnancy Among Unmarried Adolescents.” Journal of Marriage and the Family.
  47(3):567-583.

Scafetta, N. and E. Restrapo, B.J. West. 2003. "Seasonality of Birth and Conception to
   Teenagers in Texas." Social Biology. 50(½):1-22.

Singh, Susheela and Jacquline E. Darroch. 2000. "Adolescent Pregnancy and
   Childbearing: Levels and Trends in Developed Countries." Family Planning
   Perspectives. 32(1): 14-23.

Texas Department of Health (source for teenage pregnancy data)
_____. 2003. Texas Department of State Health Services, Vital Statistics 2003 Annual
   Report, Table 14B Reported Pregnancies, Births, Fetal Deaths, and Abortions by
   County of Residence for Women Age 13-17. Texas, 2003.
_____. 2002. Texas Department of Health - Bureau of Vital Statistics. Table 14b -
   Reported Pregnancies, Births, Fetal Deaths, And Abortions, Women Age 13-17.
   Texas 2002.
_____. 2000. Texas Department of Health - Bureau of Vital Statistics. Table 14b -
   Reported Pregnancies, Births, Fetal Deaths, And Abortions, Women Age 13-17.
   Texas 2000.

Texas State Data Center (source for demographic data except teenage pregnancy)
_____. 2004. Texas State Data Center and Office of the State Demographer. Texas
   Population Estimates Program (online), http://txsdc.utsa.edu/tpepp/txpopest.php,
   San Antonio, TX: Texas State Data Center and Office of the State Demographer,
   Institute for Demographic and Socioeconomic Research, The University of Texas at
   San Antonio, January 23, 2004.
_____. For Median Income, Per Capita Income. Table 93: Median Household Income,
   Median Family Income and Per Capita Income for the State of Texas and Counties in
   Texas with Numeric and Percent Change, 1989 and 1999 - Ranked by 1999 Median
   Household Income. http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp2_4/county/tab-093.txt
_____. For Poverty Rates. Table 29: Number and Percent of Individuals Below Poverty
   Level for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas with Numeric and Percent
   Change, 1989 and 1999.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp2_4/county/tab-029.txt


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                                          20
_____. For Child Poverty. Table 31: Number and Percent of Children, Population Under
   18 Years of Age, Below Poverty Level for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas
   with Numeric and Percent Change, 1989 and 1999.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp2_4/county/tab-031.txt
_____. For Education. Table 12-1: Educational Attainment by Gender and Level of
   Education Among Population 25 Years of Age or Older for the State of Texas and
   Counties in Texas with Percent Educational Attainment by Gender, 2000.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/sf3/desctab/county/tab-012-1_.txt
_____. For Percent Foreign Born. Table 11: Number and Percent of Native and Foreign
   Born Population for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas, 1990 and 2000, with
   Numeric and Percent Change, 1990 to 2000.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp2_4/county/tab-011.txt
_____. For Sex Ratios. Table 1: Number of Persons by Sex and Sex Ratios for the State
   of Texas and Counties in Texas, 1990 and 2000.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp1/county/cntab-1.txt
_____. For Median Age, Population Under 20, Population 65 and Over. Table 2: Number
   and Percent of Persons by Age Group for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas,
   1990 and 2000. http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp1/county/cntab-2.txt
_____. For Population Totals, Population by Race and Ethnicity. Table 3: Population
   1990 and 2000, Numerical and Percent Change in Population from 1990 to 2000 by
   Race/Ethnicity for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/redistrict/pl94-171/desctab/re_tab3.txt
_____. For Percent Urban. Table 1a: Number and Percent of Urban and Rural Population
   for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas, 2000.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/sf3/desctab/county/tab-001.txt
_____. For Unemployment. Table 17: Employment Status of the Population 16 Years of
   Age and Older by Gender for the State of Texas and Counties in Texas with Numeric
   and Percent Change, 1990 and 2000.
   http://txsdc.utsa.edu/data/census/2000/dp2_4/county/tab-017.txt

Young, Tamara and Jean Turner and George Denny and Michael Young. 2004.
   "Examining External and Internal Poverty as Antecedents of Teen Pregnancy"
   American Journal of Health Behavior. 28(4):361-373.

Xie, Hongling and Beverley D Cairns and Robert B Cairns. 2001. "Predicting Teen
   Motherhood and Teen Fatherhood: Individual Characteristics and Peer Affiliations"
   Social Development. 10(4):488-511.




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