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					    Wireless Sensor Network
                                          EE400 Term Project


                                       Prepared by,
                                  Khaled Al-Omar 211805
                                  Fahad Al-Jabarti 241980


References
 [1] Yingshu Li, My T.Thai, Weili Wu, “Wireless Sensor Networks and Applications”, 2008.

 [2] Kazem S., Daniel M., Taieb Z., “Wireless Sensor Networks: Technology, Protocols and Applications”, 2007.

 [3] Carlos Pomalaza-Ráez , “ Wireless Sensor Networks”, University of Oulu, Finland, 2004.

 [4] Mikio Takaziwa, “Survey: Wireless Sensor Network (WS)”, Senior Capstone Seminar, 2008.
 [5] Katia Obraczka, “Toturial: WSN”, University of California, May 2006

 [6] Matthias Handy, “Routing in Wireless Sensor Network”, University of Rostock




                                                                                                                1
                Motivation
Monitor some phenomena in a far away location ?

Monitor some event in a highly dangerous location ?




                                                      2
    Solution

Wireless Sensor Network
       (WSN)




      Source [3]          3
                        Outline
1   Sensor Nodes
       - Components
2   Communication Architecture
       - Layered or Clustered
3   Physical Layer
       - Different Wireless Technologies
4   MAC Layer
       - SMAC and TMAC
5   Network Layer
       - Hierarchical Vs. Location-Based
6   Applications


                                           4
                Sensor Node

Sensor nodes components:
1) Sensing Unit

2) CPU

3) Transceiver

4) Battery



     Low-Power & Low-Cost



                              Source [3]



                                           5
        Communication Architectures
There are two types of communications architectures depending on application:

                    Layered                               Clustered




                                        Source [5]                              6
                Physical Layer
•   Use available Wireless Protocols:




•   Radio Frequency : ISM Band 433MHz to 2.4GHz
•   Modulation : Phase-Shift Keying
    • BPSK or MPSK



•   Data Rate : 0.25 Mbps to 54 Mbps




                         Source [2]               7
                       Data Link Layer
Medium Access Control (MAC) Protocols:

  - Sensor-MAC (SMAC):
       - periodic listen & sleep
       - collision avoidance

  - Timeout-MAC (TMAC):
       - enhance the energy savings in SMAC




                                              Source [1]   8
               Network Layer
Two Types of Routing Algorithms:

1) Hirarchical Routing Protocols:
  Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH)


2) Location-Based Routing Protocols:
  Geographical Adaptive Fidelity (GAF)




                        Source [2]                   9
                          Applications
                             Many Fields




Healthcare Applications        Military Purposes   Environmental
      Monitoring




                                                                   10
Big Picture of WSN




       Source [4]




       Thank you

                     11

				
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