WED 466 Unit 5 by dfhdhdhdhjr

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									              WED 466: Unit 4

             Psychological Foundations
              of Workforce Education



Fall, 2008           WED 466 – Unit 4    1
             General Objective
 Understands the psychological
  foundations of workforce education.




Fall, 2008        WED 466 – Unit 4      2
             Career Development
“… is a lifelong process involving
  psychological, sociological, economic, and
  cultural factors that influence individuals’
  selection of, adjustment to, and
  advancement in the occupations that
  collectively make up their careers.”



Fall, 2008         WED 466 – Unit 4          3
             Good vs. Bad Theories
• Good theories have well-defined terms
  and easily interpreted constructs.
• Good theories explain the career
  development process for all groups.
• Good theories explain why people choose
  careers and become dissatisfied with
  them.
• Good theories are parsimonious.
Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4        4
             Early Theories
• Have limited applicability to special groups
  – women, European men and women.
• Are culturally oppressive because they are
  rooted in Eurocentric beliefs
• Reflect independent, not dependent career
  decision making.



Fall, 2008        WED 466 – Unit 4           5
       Theories with Major Impact on
          Research and Practice
•   Holland (1997)
•   Super (1990)
•   Lofquist & Dawis (1996, 1991)
•   Lent, Brown, & Hackett (1995, 1996, 2002)
•   Gottfredson (1981, 1996)




Fall, 2008         WED 466 – Unit 4         6
   “The Western European worldview is that
     people should act independently when
      they make career decisions… Many
    Native Americans, Asian Americans, and
    Hispanics believe that the welfare of the
      group should be placed ahead of the
            concerns of individuals.”



Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4            7
               Career Choice and
             Development Categories
•   Trait and Factor Theories
•   Developmental Theories
•   Theories Based in Learning Theory
•   Socioeconomic Theories




Fall, 2008           WED 466 – Unit 4   8
        Philosophical Assumptions
• Positivist (modernist)
     – Trait-and-factor theories
     – Developmental theories
     – Theories rooted in learning theory
• Post Modern (phenomenological/ constructivist)




Fall, 2008             WED 466 – Unit 4            9
             Trait-and-Factor Theories
• Holland’s Theory of Vocational Choice
• Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
• Brown’s Value-Based Theory




Fall, 2008            WED 466 – Unit 4    10
             Holland’s Theory of
             Vocational Choice
• Individual personality is the primary factor in
  vocational choice.
• Interest inventories are personality inventories.
• Daydreams about occupations are precursors to
  occupational choice.
• Identify is related to a small number of focused
  vocational goals.
• Career success and satisfaction is related to
  choosing an occupation that is congruent with
  one’s personality.

Fall, 2008           WED 466 – Unit 4             11
 Holland’s Six Personality Types
•   Realistic
•   Investigative
•   Artistic
•   Social
•   Enterprising
•   Conventional


Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4   12
Holland’s Six Work Environments
•   Realistic Environment
•   Investigative Environment
•   Artistic Environment
•   Social Environment
•   Enterprising Environment
•   Conventional Environment


Fall, 2008         WED 466 – Unit 4   13
 Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA)
• People have two types of needs.
     – Biological (survival)
     – Psychological (social acceptance)
• These needs give rise to drive states.
• Work environments have requirements
  that are analogous to individual needs.
• Workers select jobs because of the
  perception that the job will satisfy their
  needs.
Fall, 2008            WED 466 – Unit 4         14
        Predicting Worker Success
              (i.e., worker adjustment)
• Skills
     – Job-related skills
• Aptitudes
     – Potential to develop job-related skills
• Personality
     – Combination of skills and aptitudes


Fall, 2008              WED 466 – Unit 4         15
             Values-Based Theory of
              Occupational Choice
• Values
     – Human nature
     – Person-nature relationship
     – Time orientation
     – Activity
     – Self-control
     – Social relationships
     – Collateral
     – allocentrism
Fall, 2008            WED 466 – Unit 4   16
             How Values Develop
     – Enculturation is the process by which
       individuals incorporate the beliefs and values
       of their cultural group and form a values
       system
     – Most individuals are monocultural
     – Acculturation involves the enculturation of
       beliefs from a culture different from one’s
       own.


Fall, 2008             WED 466 – Unit 4                 17
     Propositions of Brown’s Values-
              Based Theory
1. Highly prioritized work values are the
   most important determinant of career
   choice from people who value
   individualism.
2. Individuals who hold collective social
   values and come from families who hold
   the same values defer to the wishes of
   the family in occupational decision-
   making.

Fall, 2008       WED 466 – Unit 4           18
     Propositions of Brown’s Values-
        Based Theory (continued)
3. When taken individually, cultural values
   regarding activity do not constrain the
   occupational decision-making process.
4. Males, females, and people from
   differing cultural groups enter
   occupations at varying rates.
5. The process of choosing an occupation
   value involves a series of estimates.
Fall, 2008        WED 466 – Unit 4            19
     Propositions of Brown’s Values-
        Based Theory (continued)
6. Occupational success is related to job-related
   skills acquired in formal and informal
   educational settings, job-related aptitudes and
   skills, SES, preparation in the work role, and
   the extent to which discrimination is
   experienced.
7. Occupational tenure os partially the result of
   the match between the cultural and work
   values of worker, supervisors, and colleagues.

Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4             20
             Developmental Theories
• Super’s Life Span, Life Space Theory
• Gottfredson’s Theory of Circumscription
  and Compromise




Fall, 2008           WED 466 – Unit 4       21
        Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
                    Theory
1. People differ in their abilities,
   personalities, needs, values, interests,
   traits, and self-concepts.
2. People are qualified, by virtue of these
   characteristics, each for a number of
   occupations.
3. Each occupation requires a characteristic
   pattern of abilities and personality traits.
Fall, 2008         WED 466 – Unit 4          22
         Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
             Theory (continued)
4. Vocational preferences and competencies
   change with time and experience.
5. The process of change is a series of life
   stages.
     –       Growth Stage
     –       Exploratory Stage
     –       Establishment Stage
     –       Maintenance Stage
     –       Decline Stage

Fall, 2008                  WED 466 – Unit 4   23
        Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
            Theory (continued)
6. The nature of the career pattern is determined
   by the individual’s parental socioeconomic
   level, mental ability, education, skills,
   personality characteristics, career maturity,
   and the opportunity to which he/she is
   exposed.
7. Success in coping with environmental
   demands depends on the readiness of the
   individual to cope (career maturity).
8. Career maturity is a hypothetical construct.

Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4            24
        Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
            Theory (continued)
9. Life stage development can be guided partly
    by the maturing of abilities and interests and
    partly by aiding in reality testing and in the
    development of self concepts.
10. The process of career development is
    developing and implementing occupational
    self-concepts.
11. Several factors influence the process of
    synthesis of or compromise between individual
    and social factors.

Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4             25
        Super’s Life-Span, Life-Space
            Theory (continued)
12. Work satisfaction and life satisfactions depend
    on the extent to which the individuals find
    adequate outlets for abilities, needs, values,
    interests, personality traits, and self-concepts.
13. The degree of satisfaction people attain from
    work is proportional to the degree to which
    they have been able to implement self-
    concepts.
14. Work and occupation provide a focus for
    personality organization.

Fall, 2008            WED 466 – Unit 4              26
         Gottfredson’s Theory of
    Circumscription and Compromise
•      Four assumptions regarding how career
       aspirations develop…
     1. Begin in childhood
     2. Are attempts to implement one’s self-
        concept
     3. Depend on the degree to which the career is
        congruent with self-perceptions
     4. Are guided by occupational stereotypes

Fall, 2008            WED 466 – Unit 4            27
 Cognitive Maps of Occupations
• Are organized along the dimensions of
     – Masculinity/femininity of the occupation
     – Fields of work




Fall, 2008             WED 466 – Unit 4           28
         Gottfredson’s Developmental
                   Stages
•   Ages 3-5: Orientation to size and power
•   Ages 6-8: Orientation to sex roles
•   Ages 9-13: Orientation to social valuation
•   Ages 14+: Choices explored




Fall, 2008          WED 466 – Unit 4             29
                Summary
• Theories of career choice and
  development provide guides to this
  complex phenomenon.
• All theories (except Brown’s) are
  predicated on the belief that the individual
  holds an independence social value and
  will chose his/her own occupation.
• Indiscriminate application of a theory is
  inappropriate and unethical.
Fall, 2008         WED 466 – Unit 4              30

								
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