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Year 10 Revision Booklet

VIEWS: 21 PAGES: 40

									Year 10 Revision
    Booklet




  GCSE Geography
    Edexcel B

Unit 1 Dynamic Planet
     Exam structure

• The exam will last for 1 hour
• You need to answer ALL
  questions in Section A
• The Coastal Change & Conflicts
  question in Section B
• The Extreme Climates question
  in Section C

DO NOT ANSWER QUESTIONS
  ON RIVER PROCESSES AND
  MANAGEMENT OR OCEANS
       ON THE EDGE.
Section A: Introduction to the
       Dynamic Planet
      1. Restless Earth
What you need to know:
1. Earth’s interior
2. Plates and plate margins
3. Volcanic and earthquake hazards
4. Hazard management
                                       Theory
1. How and Why do the Earth’s tectonic plates move?

You need to be able to label the sections of the Earth. Try labelling this
    diagram and defining the key terms.

What are convection currents? How do they work? Sketch an example and
   label it.

This is a map of the plate boundaries. Below name the 4 different boundaries:
1.

2.

3.

4.

In the boxes below draw each of the 4 boundaries and explain how they work.
     Do they create volcanoes or cause earthquakes?
                               Theory
2. What are the effects and management issues resulting from tectonic
    hazards?

Hazards pose a threat to us, but not all hazardous events are disasters.
    This depends on:
1. The type of hazards
2. The place’s vulnerability to hazards (LEDC, location, distance from
    volcano)
3. The ability or capacity to cope and recover from a hazardous event

Primary Impacts= that place at the time of the event itself and are
    directly caused by it
Secondary Impacts= that follow the event, and are indirectly caused by
    it
Capacity refers to the ability of a community to absorb, and ultimately
    recover from, the effects of a natural hazard.

Hazard Measurement:
Earthquakes are measured by the RICHTER SCALE and the MERCALLI
    SCALE
Volcanoes can be measured using the VEI (VOLCANIC EXPLOSIVITY
    INDEX)

Management:
Remember there are two ways to manage earthquakes this is being
   prepared (being ready for the event) and being able to reduce the
   impact (mitigation).

We can also manage the impact of hazards by the following:
•  Building design (cross bracing, earthquake proof housing etc)
•  Warning systems (especially in Tsunami prone areas and for areas
   with an erupting volcano)
•  Preparation days (such as in Japan)
•  Having a disaster management cycle incorporating RESPONSE and
   RECOVERY techniques.
                               Case Studies

  Here you can make notes on the case studies you have studied. Make
     sure you use the Purple text book for extra examples and to fill out
     your notes. You must be able to say where the case study is
     LOCATED, IMPACTS, RESPONSE, WHY IT HAPPENED, EFFECTS.


  Mauna Loa, Hawaii, a Shield Volcano




Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, a Composite
Volcano
                      Case Studies

Here you could make case study notes on the case-studies you
have done in class.
    2. Climate and Change

What you need to know:
1. Past ‘natural’ change
2. The impacts of past change
3. Present and future change
4. The future challenge
                               Theory

1. How and why has climate changed in the past?

You need to be able to describe how climate has changed over time
      both warm and cold periods have existed on Earth over the last
      100 million years. The last Ice Age was approximately 1.8million
      years a go- this is called the Pleistocene era. The warm period we
      are in now is called the Holocene and this started 10,000 years
      ago..

Natural causes of climate change: make sure you know how these
      cause changes in our climate.
1.    Orbital changes- long-term
2.    Solar Output (sun-spots) - medium-term
3.    Volcanic activity – short-term

THE LITTLE ICE AGE:
What was the little ice age?
How do we know the little ice age happened?
What were the effects of the little ice age?

EXTINCTION OF MEGAFAUNA:
Megafauna are large animals that became extinct at the end of the last
      ice age (Pleistocene). These animals lived in North America and
      Europe (Including the UK). These animals included wolly
      mammoths, sabre-toothed tiger, large wolves and large beavers.
      As many as 135 species became extinct.
                                                                 13%         Chlorofluorocarbons
                                                                       5%




                               Theory
                                                                             Nitrous Oxide
                                                                       10%

                                                           72%               Methane

                                                                             Carbon dioxide




2. What challenges might our future climate present us with?

What are greenhouse gases? Imagine the world to be surrounded by a
   greenhouse. The glass is a mix of the gases: Chlorofluorocarbons,
   Nitrous Oxide, Methane and Carbon dioxide. The gases provide a
   shelter, letting heat in, but preventing most heat from escaping

TASK: make 2 spider diagrams that show the human and natural causes
   of greenhouse gases. How have the levels of greenhouse gases
   changed over time?

The map on the next slide shows countries based on CO2 emissions.
   China and the USA are the biggest countries on the map and its not
   because of population. Why are they so big? Why are Africa,
   Australia and New Zealand so small?
The UK has a small population compared to some European countries-
   why is it so big on this map?
HINT: think about the countries population, industry, development and
   then link to the amount of CO2 they produce.

In 2008, world carbon dioxide concentrations passed 380 ppm (parts
    per million). In 1800, it was just 280 ppm. This figure grows by
    2ppm every year. This is despite efforts made by people and
    governments world wide.
Increased wealth in Asia has seen an increase
In the amount of methane produced.
This is because there is an increasing
Demand for meat and dairy in diets.

The IPCC (intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change) believes that greenhouse
Gases need to be below 550ppm.
Map showing the size of countries in proportion to how
much CO2 (carbon dioxide) they emit as a proportion of
                  the world total.
                         Case Studies


Climate Change in the UK




Climate Change and sea-level rise in LEDC’’s.
    3. Battle for the
        Biosphere
What you need to know:
1. Location of biomes
2. Biomes as a ‘life support’
3. Threats
4. Management
                                Theory

1. What is the value of the biosphere?

You need to be able to describe a minimum of 4 different Biomes: You
    could revise the following but do revise more:
1. Deserts
2. Rainforests
3. Savannah
4. Deciduous

You should be able to LOCATE them geographically, using BOTH longitude
    and latitude, give examples of countries in which they are located and
    describe the CLIMATE and CHARACTERISTICS.
There are a number of different factors that influence where we find
    different Biomes these are….
•   Latitude
•   Continentally
•   Altitude
•   Temperature
•   Precipitation
•   Geology, Relief and Drainage.
•   Identify which are local and which are global

Why do we need to protect the biosphere?
LOCAL FACTORS AFFECTING BIOMES:

How do local factors affect biomes?




The biosphere acts as a life support system for the planet- it regulates
   the composition of the atmosphere, maintaining soil health and
   regulating the hydrological cycle.

The biosphere provides humans with goods and services; complete the
   spider diagram below.
                                Theory



2. How have humans affected the biosphere and how might it be
    conserved?

Few places on earth remain free from human interference. On the next
   page is an in-depth case study of Amazonia. You need to complete
   these parts as part of this question in the specification.

Pollution and climate change bring stress and change:
This includes the deliberate removal of forest to create space for
     agriculture is an example of direct human actions damaging the
     biosphere. How else can humans cause this?

How has the UK changed? You need to be able to discuss temperature
   raises and how the biosphere in the UK has changed over time.
   Think about how the wildlife in the UK has also been affected e.g.
   Bird species decline.

CONSERVATION AT A GLOBAL SCALE: nearly 200 countries in the
   world are needing to sign agreements for conservation at a global-
   scale.
TASK: make a table the shows all the conservation schemes globally
   that says what they aim to do and why.
Why is it important to conserve wetlands and what is the role of the
   Ramsar convention 1971? Answer this in your own word.

CONSERVATION AT A LOCAL SCALE: BIOSPHERE MANAGEMENT:
It is important to sustainably manage all the biomes in the local areas as
     well as globally. This is because if you THINK LOCAL YOU CAN
     ACT GLOBAL. Everything has a knock-on effect. This is where you
     need to discuss a local case study eg management of the Otley
     Chevin.
                   Case Studies




AMAZON RAINFOREST:

location:



destruction:




Soya craze:




people pressure:
                Case Studies

Use this page to make notes on any other case
     studies you have done in class time:
    4. Water World

What you need to know:
1. Hydrological cycle
2. Human interference
3. Threats
4. Managing water resources
                                 Theory

1. Why is water important to the health of the planet?

It is important that you know all the parts of the hydrological cycle and
     about water stores. Go through the key words list that you have in your
     book and make your own hydrological cycle diagram and label as you
     draw.

The hydrosphere is made up of all water stores including oceans, rivers,
   lakes and streams. These interact and link together the atmosphere,
   lithosphere and biosphere. Without one you cant have the others-
   WHY?

UNRELIABLE WATER: CASE STUDIES = ARAL SEA ; THE SAHEL
Flows within the hydrological cycle vary over different time scales these
    are; seasonal variations, longer natural cycles and climate change.

TASK: make a spider diagram that compares both The Sahel region in
   Africa and Australia (from Extreme Climates unit) as places with
   unreliable water. Use different colours to help compare.

CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE WORLD’S WATER SUPPLIES:
Climate change could make places DRIER and experience droughts OR it
    could make places WETTER where more evaporation has taken place...
    Remember what goes up must come down!!

 Your Notes:
                                Theory

2.How can water resources be sustainably managed?

How can water be polluted? Humans put enormous pressure on rivers-
   they are used for transport, industry, drinking and sewerage
   disposal. The three damaging types of pollution are human
   excrement, toxic chemicals, plastic bags..

Water supplies can also be disrupted by human actions:
1. Changing flows deforestation may lead to over-supply of water to
   rivers. This can lead to flooding. Drainpipes in urban areas also can
   lead to accelerated supply to rivers.
2. Changing stores these are naturally recharged when it rains. They
   are essential for human existence. If water is taken from these
   stores too quickly they will not have a chance to re-charge and they
   will dry up. This is called over abstraction.
3. Coca-cola and the Plachimada aquifer an example of over
   abstraction in an LEDC by a trans-national corporation.

Water can be managed on two scales; large and small scale. You need to
   know an example of each scale. You may have also looked at the
   Three Gorges Dam in China and researched a WaterAid project as a
   small-scale water management (eg tube-wells).

You must think about SUSTAINABILITY when you are answering any
    question about management. Does it consider the SOCIAL,
    ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC and POLITICAL aspects?

INTERMEDIATE TECHNOLOGY this is a management strategy that
   can be used in poorer countries. It allows them to install
   appropriate, small-scale practical solutions that local people can
   apply and maintain themselves. This includes: hand pumps, lined wells
   and rain barrels or pumpkin tanks.
                          Case Studies
CHINA’s UNRELIABLE WATER

Where is the Three Gorges Dam?




What have the water management problems been?




What are the impacts of these problems?




What are the solutions?
                          Case Study




Afridev handpump in Tanzania small-scale water management

Location:


Background information:
               Case Studies

Here you need to add in any other case study
            notes from lessons:
  Section B: Small-scale
      Dynamic Planet
Coastal Change and Conflict
 What you need to know:
 1. Geology and landforms
 2. Geomorphology and
    processes
 3. Coastal erosion
 4. Managing the coast
                               Theory
1. How are different coastlines produced by physical processes?

The shape of a coastline can be affected by two main things: geology and
   wave erosion. There are two types of coastline, define what they are
   like below

Concordant Coastline



Discordant Coastline



Coasts can also be formed by erosion: remember the anagram CASH to
    recite the types of erosion (MARINE PROCESSES):
C
A
S
H

In your notes, draw a diagram that shows the landforms that are created
    by this type of erosion.

WAVES  define these key terms in your notes:
• Swash
• Backwash
• Destructive
• Constructive
• Fetch

Coastal landforms can be made by EROSION or by DEPOSITION.

The process of LONGSHORE DRIFT creates depositional features that
   include, beaches, spits, bars and tombolo’s. You need to have NAMED
   examples of each of these features.
                                 Theory
Landforms at the coast can also be caused by cliff retreat. These
    features and landforms include WAVE-CUT NOTCHES AND
    PLATFORMS. At the Seven Sisters in Kent, the cliffs are 160 metres
    high and the wave-cut platform extends 540 metres out to sea!

WEATHERING there are 3 types of weathering also called SUB-
   AERIAL PROCESSES
1. Mechanical weathering salt crystal growth can increase cracks in
   rocks causing stress
2. Chemical weathering CO2 dissolves in water causing acidic water-
   this can react with the minerals in rocks to dissolve it
3. Biological weathering roots of vegetation and burrowing animals can
   cause stress in rock cracks

MASS MOVEMENT there are 2 forms of mass movement at the coast.
   These can dramatically change the coastline even overnight!
1. Rock fall sudden movements, rocks collect at the base
2. Slumping happens when the bottom of a cliff is eroded away by
   waves. The cliff can become weak and slide downwards. This can be
   triggered by heavy rain. This can be a rotational movement.

How else can coastlines be affected? Fill in the notes below:

1. Changing sea levels and storm activity




2. Storms at sea causing coastal flooding
                                Theory

2. Why does conflict occur on the coast, and how can this be managed?

Cliff retreat and the effects it has on people and businesses.

There are many ways to manage coastal erosion and these are split into
    HARD and SOFT (holistic) ENGINEERING.
In your notes create a table the shows the advantages and disadvantages
    of each coastal management strategy.
Examples of each type of engineering include:
HARD sea walls, groyne, rip rap, revetments, off-shore reefs
SOFT or holistic approaches beach replenishment, managed retreat,
    cliff regarding

ICZM Integrated Coastal Zone Management this means treating a
   coastal zone as one managed planned development. Read pg 81 to find
   out more.

In the UK local councils and the Environment Agency pay for coastal
    defences. They choose from the following 4 options:
1. Hold the line use sea defences to stop erosion EXPENSIVE
2. Advance the line use sea defences to move the coast further into
    the sea VERY EXPENSIVE
3. Strategic Retreat gradually let the coast erode and move people
    away from risks. This may involve compensation for some people
4. Do nothing let nature take its course.

You may be asked about these options in the exam and be able to link
    them to a NAMED EXAMPLE. If you are asked about which choice
    might be best or worst you must remember to consider the SOCIAL,
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS AND THEN LINK
    TO sustainability.
You also need to consider any CONFLICTS that might occur here eg
    between a farmer whose coastal land is not going to be protected and
    coastal planners who want to let nature take its course (do nothing).
                                    Case Studies

People and property in Holderness

Answer the following questions to build up a good case study:
•     Where is Holderness located?
•     Describe what Holderness is like
•     What is the erosion rate and why is it so fast?
•     What are the options available to people in Holderness?
•     What has already been lost in Holderness?
•     What are the costs and benefits to managing the coast?
•     What do you think they should do?
    Weblink:
    http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/coastal/coastalmanagementrev3.shtm
    l
    Case study: coastal management in Holderness
    The Holderness coast is in the north east of England. This is one of the most
    vulnerable coastlines in the world and it retreats at a rate of one to two metres
    every year.
    The problem is caused by:
    Strong prevailing winds creating longshore drift that moves material
    south along the coastline.
    The cliffs are made of a soft boulder clay. It will therefore erode quickly,
    especially when saturated.
    The village of Mappleton, perches on a cliff top on the Holderness coast, has
    approximately 50 properties. Due to the erosion of the cliffs, the village is under
    threat.
    In 1991, the decision was taken to protect Mappleton. A coastal management
    scheme costing £2 million was introduced involving two types of hard
    engineering - placing rock armour along the base of the cliff and building two
    rock groynes.
    Mappleton and the cliffs are no longer at great risk from erosion.
    The rock groynes have stopped beach material being moved south from
    Mappleton along the coast. However, this has increased erosion south of
    Mappleton. Benefits in one area might have a negative effect on another.
    The increased threat of sea level rise due to climate change, other places will
    need to consider the sustainability of coastal defence strategies for the future.
                Case Studies

Use this space to add notes on any other case
        studies you have done in class.
 Extreme Climates
Case Study: Australia
Australian Deserts




         Australian desert
         adaptations. Make sure you
         know how the following are
         adapted to the hot arid
         desert environment of the
         Australian outback:
         • Animals (fauna)
         • Plants (flora)
         • People
            Adaptations

• Succulence
• Drought
  tolerance      Desert Spinifex
• Drought
  avoidance

Make sure you
know the
meaning of
each of these
terms and can
name
examples of
plants/animals
which use
these means of
survival.
Nocturnal to                               Doesn’t need
avoid high                                 much water to
temps during
day               The                      survive


                  Bilby




               Burrows underground for
               cool shelter and moisture
     Adapting to an extreme
         environment
• Class Clip: Aboriginal
  survival techniques:
  http://www.bbc.co.uk/l
  earningzone/clips/hu
  man-survival-in-a-hot-
  climate/5512.html
Watch the video
 clip and make
 notes on how
 Aborigines
 have adapted
 to the
 Australian
 desert
 environment.
   Drought in Australia

• Good old Wikipedia has a very
  useful article on drought in
  Australia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Droug
  ht_in_Australia
• Read the article and make
  notes on:
  – Dates and information on recent
    droughts.
  – How Australia is trying to plan for
    increasing problems with water
    shortages in the future.
             Practice Questions
Restless Earth
1.    Using examples, describe some of the hazards of living on
      a destructive plate margin (4) Foundation
2.    Using an example, outline the impact of a major
      earthquake on people and property in the developing world
      (4) Higher
3.    Describe 2 ways in which buildings in developing countries
      can be made more resistant to earthquakes (2)
4.    Explain how preparation and mitigation could reduce
      tectonic hazards (4)
5.    Explain why some areas are more vulnerable than others
      (4)
6.    Explain the role magma plays in shaping shield volcanoes
      (2)
7.    How do tectonic plates move? (2)

Climate and change
1.    Describe two human activities which are increasing the
      amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere (4)
      Foundation
2.    Describe two challenges the UK might face in the future
      due to global warming (4) higher
3.    Explain one possible good and bad effect of global
      warming (4)
4.    What is the enhanced greenhouse effect? (3)
5.    Describe one natural cause of climate change in the past
      (2)
6.    What is megafauna? (2)
Battle for the biosphere
1.    Describe some of the goods and services the biosphere
      provides humans with (4) Foundation
2.    Describe two services the biosphere provides and
      explain why they are important (4) Higher
3.    Describe 2 ways the forests are important to human life
      (4)
4.    Explain how one biome is being threatened by human
      interference (4)
5.    Explain the value of one biome you have studied (4)
6.    Using examples, explain some ways of conserving
      threatened species (4)
7.    Explain how one biome is being threatened by human
      interference (2)

Water world
1.   Describe how deforestation could affect water-cycle
     processes (4) Foundation
2.   Explain how human activity could change the amount of
     infiltration (3) Higher
3.   Name the two largest water stores on earth (2)
4.   Explain why Australia’s water is considered unreliable
     (4)
5.   Describe two ways in which climate change could impact
     on water supplies (4)
6.   Explain why the biosphere and lithosphere are important
     to the hydrological cycle (4)
7.   Using a named example, describe how water schemes in
     LEDC’s improve quality of life. (4)
8.   Describe the causes of river pollution and explain how
     people dealt with it (5)
Coastal change and conflict
1.    Describe the advantages and disadvantages of different hard
      engineering methods used to protect coastlines (6) Foundation
2.    Explain why some cliffs erode more rapidly than others (6)
      Higher
3.    Describe and explain the process of Longshore Drift (6)
4.    What is a concordant coastline? (2)
5.    Describe how changing sea levels can impact coastlines (4)
6.    Using named examples, explain the effects of erosion at the
      coast on people (6)
7.    Using named examples, explain how coastal management choices
      can cause conflict at the coast (6)
8.    Describe how strategic retreat would work as a coastal
      management strategy (4)

Extreme Climates
1.   Using an example, describe the threats facing a hot arid
     climate area. (6) Foundation
2.   Using named examples, explain the threats facing hot arid
     climate areas (6) Higher
3.   Describe the climate of a hot arid climate area (2)
4.   How can a hot arid climate area support human activities? (2)
5.   Describe the human adaptations to living in hot arid climate
     areas (3)
6.   Describe the wildlife adaptions to living in a named hot arid
     area. (4)
7.   Explain how local actions can help protect people against
     climate change in hot arid climate areas. (4)
8.   With reference to an example, explain how global action can
     help to protect a hot arid climate region. (4)

								
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