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UNDERSTANDING SOCIALIZATION

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UNDERSTANDING SOCIALIZATION Powered By Docstoc
					UNDERSTANDING
SOCIALIZATION
Socialization is a complex, lifelong process.
The following slides highlight the work of six
researchers who made lasting contributions to
our understanding of human development.
Sigmund Freud
   1856 – 1939              90
   Vienna, Austria          80
                             70
   Lived during a time      60
    when most Europeans      50
                                                    East
    believed human           40                     West
    behavior was based on    30                     North
    biology/ was             20
    “biologically fixed”     10
                              0
   Trained as a physician        1st 2nd 3rd 4th
   Studied personality           Qtr Qtr Qtr Qtr
Freud’s Model of Personality
   Merged mankind’s basic needs with the
    influence of society….*different/ unique as it
    considered the role of / impact of society
    rather than just biology/ biological factors
   Identified 3 components
       Id
       Ego
       Superego
ID
   Represents the human’s basic drives which
    are unconscious and demand immediate
    satisfaction
   Is present at birth: making the newborn a
    “bundle of demands” (feed me, burp me,
    change me, where’s my binky? etc.)
   Noteworthy: society opposes the self-
    centered “id” – which is why one of the first
    words a child learns is no!
EGO
   A person’s conscious efforts to balance innate
    pleasure seeking drives with the demands of
    society.
   Is a learned status that one matures / develops
    into…
       “You can’t always get your way!”
       “The world doesn’t revolve around you!”
SUPEREGO
   The cultural values and norms internalized by
    an individual.
   Acts as our conscience, telling us why we
    can’t have everything we want.
       Provides a moral sense of right and wrong
     Forces people to look beyond themselves by
        repressing selfish demands
    Is in constant conflict with the id*
Sublimation
   Freud’s term for the compromise that results
    between the competing demands of self of
    society
   Redirects selfish drives into socially
    acceptable behavior.
       Sexual urges may lead to marriage
       Aggression may give rise to competitive sports
           Mike Tyson & Boxing, remember him?
Sociologists applaud Freud…
   While a psychologist, Freud’s recognition of
    the impact of childhood experiences on our
    personalities is fundamental sociological fact!
Jean Piaget
   1896 – 1980
   Swiss psychologist
   Studied cognition
       “how people think”
   Personal Passion: to
    discover not what you
    knows but instead how
    you know it: the
    acquisition of
    knowledge
Jean Piaget: Cognitive Development
   Identified four stages of cognitive
    development
       Sensorimotor
       Preoperational
       Concrete Operational
       Formal Operational
            The First Stage
   Sensorimotor: level of human development at which
    individuals experience the world only through their
    senses.
       Birth to two years of age
       Infant knows the world only through the five senses:
        touching, tasting, smelling, looking, listening
       “Knowing to children” = direct, sensory experience
       Examples: “Choking Hazard Toys”
            Why? => sensorimotor stage
        Second Stage
   Preoperational: the level of human development at
    which individuals first use language and other
    symbols.
       Lacks abstract concepts
       Preop kids cannot judge size, weight, or volume
           The famous glass experiment
           Today is Friday. => No, it’s my birthday.
           He’s not a hero. => He’s a fireman.
   Begins at approximately 2 years of age to about 6
    years
        Third Stage
   Concrete Operational: the level of human
    development at which individuals first
    perceive causal connections in their
    surroundings.
       Can attach more than one symbol to a particular
        event or object
           Today is Friday. => Yes, and it is my birthday, too!
   Ages 7 – 11
Fourth Stage
   Formal Operational: level of human
    development at which individuals think
    abstractly and critically
       Can fully embrace symbolism
       Understands metaphors:
           “a penny for your thoughts”
           “hold your tongue”
            other examples?
        Begins around the age of 12…
How’d you do?
   Cold as ice…
   Flat as a pancake…
   (It’s a) piece of cake…
   It’s raining cats and dogs…
   Take a walk in my shoes… / you’ve got big
    shoes to fill…
   Protect the family jewels…
Summary of Piaget…
   DIFFERED WITH FREUD:
       While Freud saw biology and culture (society) as
        antagonistic to the human experience, Piaget saw the
        human mind as both active and creative thereby able to
        evolve over time and with experience.
       These stages of development result due to both biological
        maturation AND social experience.
        (a complimentary, not antagonistic, co-existance)
   Interestingly, perhaps as many as 30% of people
    never reach the formal operational stage….
FROM PIAGET TO KOHLBERG
A study of what is it is to be human: “the moral mind”
    What about morality?
LAWRENCE KOHLBERG:
     MORAL DEVELOPMENT
   HEAVILY INFLUENCED BY PIAGET
   BUILT ON PIAGET’S WORK IN
    STUDYING MORAL REASONING, THE
    WAYS IN WHICH INVIDUALS JUDGE
    SITUATIONS AS RIGHT OR WRONG
   CONCLUDED THAT MORAL REASONING,
    LIKE COGNITION, DEVELOPED IN
    STAGES…
MORAL REASONING
   THE FIRST STAGE: PRECONVENTIONAL
       COINCIDES WITH PIAGET’S
        SENSORIMOTOR STAGE - BIRTH TO 2 YRS.
       “RIGHTNESS” =
           “WHAT FEELS GOOD TO ME”
            “WHAT I WANT”
           “THE WORLD REVOLVES AROUND ME”
           “IT’S RIGHT CAUSE I WANT IT TO BE RIGHT.”
MORAL REASONING
   The Second Stage: CONVENTIONAL
       Coincides with Piaget’s final, FORMAL
        OPERATIONAL STAGE – TEENAGE YRS. +
       Understands, has been socialized, to understand
        parental expectations/ sense of right and wrong as
        well as overall societal expectations regarding
        morality
       Children want to follow rules in order to get
        approval.
MORAL REASONING
   The third & final stage: POSTCONVENTIONAL
       WHERE SCENARIOS ARE ANALYZED SUCH AS
        “WHAT IS LEGAL MAY NOT BE RIGHT…”
       HIGHER LEVEL THINKING APPLIED TO ISSUES OF
        MORALITY – NOT what society/ mom & dad teaches
        but what you think!
       THE INDIVIDUAL IS MORE FLEXIBLE & THINKS
        IN TERMS OF WHAT’S PERSONALLY IMPORTANT
        TO THEM – only a small proportion reach this final stage
Summary of Kohlberg
   Like Piaget, development occurs in distinct stages
   Many people apparently never reach the postconventional
    (highest-level) of moral reasoning.




   A MAJOR PROBLEM WITH KOHLBERG’S WORK: A
    RESEARCH ERROR OF ONLY STUDYING BOYS &
    THEN GENERALIZING THE RESULTS OF MALE
    SUBJECTS TO ALL PEOPLE. A MAJOR NO – NO!
HOW ONE MAN’S ERROR FED
ONE WOMAN’S CURIOUSITY
THEREBY TRIGGERING A
PASSION FOR GENDER STUDY….
   THE KOHLBERG – GILLIGAN
    CONNECTION
CAROL GILLIGAN: UP CLOSE

   AN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGIST AT
    HARVARD UNIVERSITY
   HER WORK EXPOSED THE GENDER BIAS OF
    KOHLBERG’S RESEARCH AND OTHERS WHO
    ONLY CONSIDERED BOYS
   A PIONEER IN RECOGNIZING THE
    IMPORTANCE OF GENDER IN RESEARCH…..
    (PLEASE NOTE THIS IS NOT JUST A SOCIOLOGY – RESEARCH – ONLY
    CONCERN…. BIG PROBLEMS ABOUND REGARDING MEDICAL STUDIES AS
    WELL!!!!!!!!!!!!!)
GILLIGAN: By ignoring gender, we end up
with an incomplete view of human behavior.
   Compared the moral development of girls &
    boys and concluded that the two sexes use
    different strategies in making moral decisions.
    (1982, 1990)
       Claims that males have a justice perspective,
        relying on formal rules to define right and wrong.
       Claims that females have a care and
        responsibility perspective, judging a situation
        with an eye toward personal relationships.
Carol Gilligan: the gender factor
   Differing perspectives regarding morality:
       the stealing scenario
           Boys: stealing is wrong because it breaks the law.
            Illegal = wrongness
           Girls: stealing might be wrong – tended to inquire
            why someone would steal and to be sympathetic who
            steals to feed a hungry child or other similar situation
Carol Gilligan:
the effect of gender on self-esteem
   Research team interviewed more than 2,000 girls,
    ages 6 – 18, over a five year period.
   Pattern appeared:
       Young girls start out eager and confident, but their self-
        esteem erodes through adolescence.
           Eager to please – lots of role models w/ elementary teachers (
            How about it? Who was your kindergarten teacher, first grade,
            second grade, third grade, etc.?)
           Teenage years: self-doubt, more male authority figures, image
            issues, “drama” & “mean girls”
           Eventual come-back in adulthood:
               “You’re not really a woman until you are 40.” Oprah Winfrey
        A GILLIGAN TIME-OUT!
   WHAT DO YOU THINK?
       How does Gilligan’s research show the
        importance of gender in understanding society?
       How does her work show that socialization may
        NOT be a direct and linear progression?
       Do you think that boys are subject to some of the
        same pressures and difficulties as girls? How?
Gilligan: A Summary
   Sharpens our understanding of human development
    AND gender issues
   What accounts for the differences she documents
    between males and females? Nature or nurture?
   According to Gilligan, it’s nurture!
        Cultural conditioning is at work.
       As women continue to pervade the workplace, the moral
        reasoning of women and men will become increasingly
        similar.
        George Herbert Mead:
             The Social Self

   Mead (1863 – 1931)
   Developed the theory of SOCIAL
    BEHAVIORISM to explain how social
    experience creates individual personality/
    thinking process.
George Herbert Mead
   It is said that Mead’s genius was in seeing the self as
    the product of social experience.
   The Self
       The part of an individual’s personality composed of self-
        awareness and self-image.
       Develops with social experience.
       Is NOT part of the body.
       Does NOT exist at birth.
       Develops only as the individual interacts with others.
The Self (con’t.)
   Social interaction is key!
       Supported by social isolation cases
       Genie’s body grew but there was no “self” / no
        personality at the time of her discovery…
   Social interaction involves seeing ourselves as
    others see us – a process called taking the role
    of the other…
The Looking Glass Self
   A self-image based on how we think others
    see us!
   “I am not who I think I am. I am not who you
    think I am. I am what I think you think I am!”

				
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