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Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia

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					         Chapter 1



Theoretical Foundations
     of Multimedia
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1



What is Multimedia?
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia       Chapter 1

Multimedia, one of the hottest buzzwords
in the industry for the last few years, is
just a fancy name for something that
combines the capabilities of technologies
that used to be separate. Multimedia
simply mixes into the PC the functions
of these components, combining
elements like text, graphics, sound, and
still or motion pictures in a smooth way
to present training or information.
        Charles B. Wang, Computer Associates, 1994
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1

Definition of Multimedia for
this book:
An interactive, computer-mediated
presentation that includes at least
two of the following elements: text,
sound, still graphic images, motion
graphics, and animation.
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


This Definition of Multimedia
Encompasses those computer-
  based programs that combine
  text and images and sound in
  a manner that permits the user
  to exercise some measure
  of control over the flow of
  information
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1

    Outline of Chapter 1
• Story Telling, Theater, and Dance
• Combining Music and Drama
• Pictorial Representations of
  Reality and Imagination
• The Many Roles of the Computer
• Current "State-Of-The-Art" Of
  Multimedia Systems
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


History of Multimedia
A multimedia presentation is
  fundamentally no different
  from any other form of
  human communication
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia       Chapter 1


History of Multimedia
“The implementation of multimedia
capabilities in computers is the latest
episode in a long series: cave painting,
hand-crafted manuscripts, the printing
press, radio and television . . .”
                 Glenn Ochsenreiter, 1992
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1



Story Telling
• The oral tradition
• The story teller enhancing
     a story with actions and sounds
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia    Chapter 1


Theater

“The essence of theatre lies in the
impression made on the audience.”
                Richard Southern, 1961

  Note the emphasis on the audience,
     not the actor or the script.
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Theater

Enhancement of the actor via props,
    sets, and costumes
    The actor is no longer merely a person
       telling or dramatizing a story,
           but becomes a part of the story
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Theater

Creating an experience of illusion

    Note the parallel to a multimedia
        production creating an illusion,
             especially via virtual reality
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


The Theater’s Objective:
  To enhance and focus the illusion
   and experience for the audience


    In a multimedia production, the VR
       (illusion) must not become the
       focus, just the believable means
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Dance          (early 1950s - 1970s)
Multimedia
 (without computer interaction)

Alwin Nikolais (1910-1993) employed lights,
 slides, electronic music, and stage props
 to create environments through which
 dancers moved, and more important, into
 which they blended
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


        Combining Music
          and Drama
 The purpose of the inclusion of
 music, as with the addition of any
 other medium, is to enhance the
 effectiveness of the communication
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Combining Music and Drama
• Singing, to express heightened emotion
   on the part of the actors
• Dance music, for movements requiring the
   rhythm of music to keep them together

•Music as a background, designed to
  produce a certain emotional state in the
  audience
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Pictorial Representations
of Reality and Imagination
    • Images
    • Special effects
    • Symbolism
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Images
•   Cave Drawings
•   Sculptures
•   Friezes
•   Paintings
•   Photographs and motion pictures
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Images
•   Calligraphy
•   Illuminated manuscripts
•   Art works with letters (Shahn and Kac)
•   Holography
•   Three-dimensional images
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia          Chapter 1




                    Qu ickTi me™ and a
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            are nee ded to see this picture.




   Holographic image by Eduardo Kac
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Images
•   Various media
•   Various techniques
•   Various styles
•   Theories of form and color
•   Graphic design
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Special Effects
•   Impressionism and other “modern art”
•   Buster Keaton
•   LucasFilm
•   Animation, slow-motion, 3-D, etc.
•   Enhancing the viewers’ experience
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Symbolism
•   Literature
•   Paintings
•   Movies – Sergei Eisenstein
•   Music – Dukas, Sibelius
•   On-screen icons
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


The Many Roles of
Computers in Multimedia
•   Early speculation about AI (Turing Test)
•   First interactive multimedia (IBM 1500)
•   Interactive scientific computing (DEC)
•   Desktop PCs (IBM, Apple)
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


The Many Roles of
Computers in Multimedia
•   Networking
•   Virtual Reality
•   Animation and special effects tools
•   Media control (lighting, sound, etc.)
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Current “State-of-the-Art”
of Multimedia Systems
•   Hardware
•   Development Software
•   Delivery Software
•   Virtual Reality
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1

Applications of
Multimedia Systems
•   Scientific data
•   Instruction
•   Business
•   Entertainment
•   Enabling technology
•   Fine arts and humanities
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Scientific Applications
of Multimedia Systems
•   Data analyses
•   Research and development
•   Experimentation
•   Technical presentations
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Instructional Applications
of Multimedia Systems
 “Almost all teaching is multimedia”
      (Schramm, 1977)
• Teaching children to read
• Teaching history
• Simulations
• Reference materials
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Business Applications
of Multimedia Systems
•   Presentation software
•   Training materials
•   Advertising
•   Kiosks
•   Customer support services
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1



     Business
     Applications




              Courtesy of Video Arts
              Chicago, IL
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Entertainment Through
Multimedia Systems
•   Simulations
•   Interactive games
•   Sports-related products
•   General information products
Screen Image from
Multimedia Dogs CDof Multimedia
    Theoretical Foundations            Chapter 1


    Entertainment Through
    Multimedia Systems
    •   Simulations
    •   Interactive games
    •   Sports-related products
    •   General information products
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Enabling Technologies
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Accessibility of Web-based materials
•   Project EASI
•   Providing adaptive technologies
•   Teaching learning-disabled children
•   Teaching learning-disabled adults
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Enabling Technologies
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Accessibility of Web-based materials
•   Project EASI
•   Providing adaptive technologies
•   Teaching learning-disabled children
•   Teaching learning-disabled adults
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Enabling Technologies
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Accessibility of Web-based materials
•   Project EASI
•   Providing adaptive technologies
•   Teaching learning-disabled children
•   Teaching learning-disabled adults
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Enabling Technologies
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Accessibility of Web-based materials
•   Project EASI
•   Providing adaptive technologies
•   Teaching learning-disabled children
•   Teaching learning-disabled adults
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Fine Arts and Humanities
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Museum tours
•   Art Exhibitions
•   Presentations of literature and poetry
•   Hyperlinked literature
•   Music presentations and instruction
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Fine Arts and Humanities
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Museum tours
•   Art Exhibitions
•   Presentations of literature and poetry
•   Hyperlinked literature
•   Music presentations and instruction
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Fine Arts and Humanities
Via Multimedia Systems
•   Museum tours
•   Art Exhibitions
•   Presentations of literature and poetry
•   Hyperlinked literature
•   Music presentations and instruction
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


      Foreseeable Future
      Multimedia Systems
•   Improved virtual reality
•   Interactive television
•   Improved video telephony
•   More powerful development software
•   Computers will “disappear” into the
     background & maybe become “wearable”
Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia   Chapter 1


Break Time !

				
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