Digital Re-print - January | February 2012
Bulk Storage & Handling
Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of
©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form
or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
www.gfmt.co.uk NEXT PAGE
by Alf Croston, Managing Director
Croston Engineering, UK
CLASSIC STYLE CC-HD
SUPER EUROBUCKET ™
s with most things in life, the system, and discharging into a screw or chain procedure should be in place to shut down I The most specified style in I Direct interchange and replace-
basics remain the same type conveyor which may, if wished, be fitted when not in use. North America. ment of existing pressed steel
although they may become with a variable speed drive so that the intake A rotary drum pre-cleaner located at the buckets.
more sophisticated, or complicated, rate may be varied to suit the characteristics top of the Mill to remove foreign matter I Straight sides provide direct
dependent on one’s viewpoint. of the particular material being dealt with in prior to the material being conveyed to raw and compact discharge pattern. I Safer – Nonmetallic materials
order to prevent overloading subsequent material bins will protect subsequent equip-
I Designed to discharge over the eliminate possible sparking from
And so it is with this overview covering equipment. ment from being damaged. bent and torn steel buckets.
the bulk storage and handling of materials in The conveyor should be fitted with rota- The conveyors feeding silos and bins widest range of speeds and
the animal feed and human food industries, tion control and overfeed detection. will have multiple outlets and the electri- pulley diameters. I Equal or greater carrying
from the intake of raw materials through to The intake bucket elevator, as with all cal control system must be designed so
I Easily modified to the low profile capacities of steel buckets.
the discharge of finished products. similar units in the mill, must incorporate that only one slide is open at a time in
It is barely 60 years since a very high explosion relief panels at prescribed intervals, order to prevent the propagation of an configuration for high throughput I Thick walls provide superior
proportion of the milling industry was located electrically linked to shut down the plant in explosion from one bin to another. As elevators. impact strength and long life.
at the major ports with raw materials in sacks the event of an explosion occurring. with the intake conveyor, all conveyors
being transported from the docks by horse and Because of their inherent design, bucket should incorporate overfeed detection
I All sizes available in polyethylene, I Popular sizes in stock for
cart and then hoisted up to the various floor elevators have a built-in explosion risk and rotation sensing. nylon and urethane. immediate shipment.
levels for storage there to be cut and tipped factor and, if located within a building, To cater for dust laden air displacement
into process bins as and when required. the explosion panels should be ducted to at transfer points, small dust units with built-
Gradually, as more home grown grain atmosphere. Elevators should also incor- in exhaust fans at convenient locations will
became available, together with the advent of porate tensioning gear at the boot, anti- ensure a clean atmosphere.
purpose-built bulk vehicles and an improved runback device to cater for a choke or
road network, there was a move to country Storing different materials
mills more conveniently located to service The number, location and holding capac-
the farming community by buying grain ity of new material bins is determined by
locally, processing it into feed and selling the site conditions and the particular require-
resultant product back to the farmer. ments of individual clients, bearing in mind
The use of computers and automation the large number of different materials to
throughout the milling process has reduced be handled and stored in the feed industry.
Serving the World by Design
what was a labour intensive industry to one Ranging from free flowing grains to a variety
controlled by a few technically proficient of meals and moisture content, the bins and
operators, but to whom the basics of mate- discharge equipment should be designed to
rial handling must still apply, as do health and cater for those with the worst flow char- Now available, only from Tapco, For North American style Whatever you want, wherever you In stock worldwide, and ready
safety requirements, adherence to DSEAR/ acteristics to ensure maximum flexibility so the two most popular bucket elevators: the classic CC-HD need it, there’s a Tapco bucket. to ship. Contact us today for
ATEX Explosion Regulations, plus health and that individual bins can be used for the stor- designs in the world! These design. For European style information on getting the
hygiene control. Hence this résumé. age of any ingredients should the need arise. 900,000 buckets in 93 sizes
incredible buckets will fit your elevators: the Super 15 million bolts, 6 styles most from your elevator. Or
Level probes are required to prevent
Interruptions in production overfilling, as are policed explosion panels. elevator no matter where in the EuroBucket. Fasteners, liners & accessories visit www.tapcoinc.com and
The interconnection of process plant Provision will be required for minerals world you operate your facility. tap into a world of experience.
is designed to be fail-safe and so prevent and other ingredients that are delivered
chokes and interruption to production. power failure, rotation sensor to indicate by bulk tanker and pneumatically conveyed
Intake capacity from bulk tankers has if the belt is slipping and side alignment to dedicated bins utilising either a blower ELEVATOR BUCKETS - ELEVATOR BOLTS
greatly increased over the years and is indication. mounted on the tanker chassis or, in some St. Louis, Missouri U.S.A.
normally well in excess of 100 tonnes/hour Intake points are frequently out of sight cases, by coupling up from a land-based www.tapcoinc.com
via an intake hopper with safety grid located of the control room so, to avoid being blower. To prevent static electricity causing
under cover plus an efficient dust extraction allowed to run empty for long periods, and a a spark, the tanker will be connected to an Tel.: +1 314 739 9191 • +1 800 AT TAPCO (+1 800 288 2726) • Fax: +1 314 739 5880 • Email: email@example.com
The color blue, when used in connection with elevator buckets, is a U.S. registered trademark owned by Tapco Inc. Super EuroBucket ™ is a registered trademark of
Tapco Inc. © 2012 Tapco Inc.® All rights reserved.
12 | January - february 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
earthing point prior to starting remit covering bulk complies or can be economically altered to
the discharge process. Care is handling it is a matter comply.
needed to ensure that the tank- that requires attention Good housekeeping, regular inspection
er only couples up to the correct whether it is for con- and maintenance, plus an awareness of
intake line feeding the designat- ditioning of mashes for potentially hazardous processes or areas, are
ed bin and that intake lines are direct sales or for pel- a requisite for trouble free operation. The
of correct diameter, earthed and leting. The three essen- Directives combine these aspirations into
routed with minimum horizontal tials being moisture, requirements and apply not only to the sup-
length and number of bends in temperature and time, pliers of equipment but, in particular, to the
order to reduce the pressure whilst bearing in mind users themselves.
needed to carry out the convey- the heat sensitivity of
ing operation. some ingredients. For Dust classification
As referred to earlier, the configuration pelleting, correct conditioning is necessary to It is the obligation of the user to sat-
of hopper design and type of discharge is ensure starch gelatinisation and pellet quality. isfy himself as to the class or classes of the
all-important in ensuring the free flow of An efficient cooling system is essential materials to be handled and to provide this
materials from the bins to the blending prior to finished products being conveyed to information to the designer or manufacturer
operation. For accuracy this will include one packing or bulk out loading bins, the latter of equipment.
or more main weigh hoppers, a small weigh discharging either directly to bulk vehicle or These are defined under four Kst classifi-
hopper for minerals, and a smaller one for via a travelling weigher. cations (K staube = Class of dust), and relate
micro ingredients. Most of the materials processed in the to rate of pressure rise.
animal feed, pet and fish food, North America
grain, flour, bakery, sugar,
Kst. 0 = Non-explosive
starch and fertiliser industries
Kst. 1 = Weak to moderate
are subject to the DSEAR/
Kst. 2 = Strong
ATEX Explosion Regulations
Kst. 3 = Very strong
that came into operation on
July 1, 2003. There are many
misconceptions and confusion Most materials used in feed mills are
as to the requirements of the covered under Kst. 1 but there are a few to
Directives. It is timely to reiter- which Kst. 2 could apply.
ate the general principles relat- Asia Europe
ing to the regulations, particu- Zoning
larly for those who have only In addition to dust classification, the
recently become involved in user is required to carry out a survey and
one or other of the industries to designate plant and buildings into zones
in which potentially explosive which will be appropriately signed at points
The blended batch is fed to the grinding
plant preceded by a screen to allow meals
materials are handled. of entry. Zones 20, 21 and 22 are the most
likely to apply to feed milling and associated Silo Construction & Engineering
and minerals to bypass the grinder before The Directives industries.
Modular square bins
re-joining the ground materials and passing The Directives apply from July 1, 2003, Zone 20 covers an area in which an explo-
to a three tier mixing assembly consisting of to all new equipment and any existing that sive atmosphere consisting of combustible
pre-mix bin, mixer and dump bin. Molasses is modified or relocated after this date. This dust in air is present frequently for long
and fats are added at the mixer. has particular relevance in ensuring that, if periods or continuously.
Although heat treatment is outside this purchasing any second-hand equipment, it Zone 21 is where an explosive atmosphere
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Systems Engineering and Design
SCE is a partner with
P.O. Box 792, 450 Desautels Street Winnipeg,
feed & food industries • Manitoba, Canada R3C 2N5 Tel: (204) 233-7133
Bin Sweep consultancy & engineering firms •
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Fax: (204) 235-0796 firstname.lastname@example.org
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14 | January - february 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy &feed millinG technoloGy
Grain 21589 Westeel International 2012 G&FMT.indd 1 January - february 2012 | 15 5:03:02 PM
Westeel: International 2012
Publication Grain & Feed Milling Techniques: 90 mm x 270 mm"
is likely to occur occasionally in normal Very often a primary explosion in itself the following may be found helpful as an “aide
operation. is not dangerous but the vibration it sets memoire” towards good housekeeping;
Zone 22 is where an explosive atmosphere up disturbs any dust lying on floors, beams, • Enforce a strict no-smoking rule, on pain
would not normally occur but, if it does, it rafters, into the atmosphere. If a source of of dismissal.
would only be for a short period. ignition is present it can result in a secondary • Ensure that all electrical equipment,
Obviously it is the duty of manage- and devastating explosion. So, cleanliness cabling and control panels conform to
ment to ensure that standards of operation throughout the plant is of first priority with relevant standards and regulations, and
and cleanliness are maintained to meet the particular attention being paid to “out of are kept free of dust.
requirements of Zone 22 as far as is practical. sight” areas and cleaning up spillages imme- • Use only totally enclosed, fan-cooled
In carrying out risk assessments it is diately – using one of a variety of vacuum motors, ensuring they are adequately
natural to concentrate on major processing cleaning systems available. Brushing up is earthed.
equipment such as silos, grinders, elevators, definitely out – it only disperses the dust • Ensure light fittings are dust-proof.
dust collectors, etc., and to overlook the elsewhere. • Test cables and wiring regularly.
myriad range of smaller ancillary items that Despite taking all precautions that one • Locate switchgear and process control
also need to be checked. Typical items can think of, it is sod’s law that incidents still panels in dust-free rooms under light
include lighting, electrical fittings, motors, take place – thankfully not too often in view negative pressure.
level indicators, solenoid valves, control of increased awareness of the dangers that • Inspect liquid lines regularly for leaks.
panels. In fact, anything that can generate are always present. Ensure that insulation, if used, has not
a spark. become impregnated, as this could be
It is well known that three elements are Examples ignited by electrical trace heating.
required to cause an explosion – dust in Three examples illustrate the variety of • Bund walls around main storage tanks
suspension at a critical level, oxygen, and a incidents that can happen. should be sized to suit.
spark or hot surface. The first two are always The first resulted from smoulder- • Check that bearings, particularly those
there, so it is against the third item that every ing material entering a bin, setting off fitted to elevators and grinders, are not
precaution must be taken, including satisfac- a primary explosion which ruptured the over-heating.
tory earthing throughout the plant. explosion panel as it was designed to do. • Detect belt slip and misalignment on
Bear in mind that dust in suspension Unfortunately the escaping gases caused a elevators – a major source of fires – by
appearing as a light fog provides the condi- secondary explosion which devastated the rotation and side alignment sensing, and
tion in which a spark can cause an explosion. top floor of the building. As it was impracti- anti-run-back protection.
The finer the dust particles the greater the cal to vent every bin to atmosphere it was • Check for possible temperature rise in
danger because of the increased surface area subsequently agreed with HSE that the top stored bulk materials, which could result
exposed to atmosphere. floor over the bins would in future be a “no in spontaneous combustion.
The duties of the user having been go” area whilst the plant was in production • Inspect bin interiors using only battery-
described in general terms, what about the and for ten minutes afterwards. A lockable operated, non-glass, flameproof
supplier of the equipment? Firstly, he has to gate was fitted to the access stairs and a inspection lamps, which are suitably
satisfy himself that the user has provided him warning notice affixed. secured and never allowed to be in
with all the necessary details concerning clas- The second resulted from a hot spot due contact with the product. (In the past
sifications of materials to be processed and to a malfunction in the motor of a dust unit it was not unusual for naked electric
the areas in which equipment is to be located, fitted on top of a grinder expansion hop- bulbs to be lowered into bins – at best
Heat Recovery Dryer
together with any other relevant information. per. The explosion panel ruptured but had protected with a wire guard).
The supplier then has to ensure that the not been vented to atmosphere through a • Ensure hot work is carried out only on
equipment he supplies is designed, manufac- nearby wall. isolated, cleaned-out plant, against Work
tured and installed to satisfy requirements Unfortunately, two employees were Permit issued by management, and
by taking all precautions to prevent an standing nearby at the time and were badly provision of fire blankets, extinguishers, etc.
explosion but also, and most importantly, to burned. It was interesting to note that a Many fires have occurred during periods
mitigate against an explosion should such an choke had been fitted to the bin discharger of repair, renovation or plant modification Up to
event occur. beneath the expansion hopper and pre- (as in the case of Windsor Castle a few
Equipment can be manufactured in such
heavy construction that an explosion would
be contained but this is so expensive as to be
vented the explosive gases passing into
a subsequent elevator and storage bins,
otherwise the result would have been even
years ago). During these special periods, in
addition to taking fire precautions, it is advis-
able to inspect the area closely for at least an
impractical. The alternative is to fit a certi- more serious. hour at the end of each working day. With our Heat Recovery Dryer you get the
fied explosion panel vented to atmosphere The third was caused by welding being Adherence to these principles will ensure
lowest energy consumption on the market.
through a nearby wall or roof. carried out on the side of a silo, one of not only a pleasant environment in which to
Due to the location of plant within a build- several such accidents over the years, in work but also one that is as intrinsically safe TORNUM Grain Coolers – The eco-friendly
ing venting may not be practical and so the which the operator was injured. In this as possible. way of preserving grain quality.
fitting of expensive flame quenching or explo- case it was not the result of negligence.
sion suppression equipment may be required. The silo had been isolated from its feeding
To prevent the propagation of an explo- conveyor, cleaned down internally and the
sion, items of equipment should be isolated subject of a work permit. Unfortunately, About the author:
from each other. An example being to incor- a small amount of material had remained Mr Alf Croston is managing director
porate valves or slides so that only one bin in an inaccessible spot and on being of Croston Engineering, at Tarvin, near
can be filled and exhausted at a time. Bin disturbed created the conditions for an Chester, which was founded in 1976.
dischargers and screw conveyors can be explosion to take place. His company specialises in the design
designed with chokes incorporated. The foregoing describes in broad outline and building of bulk storage, handling
The installation of a rubble separator on the rationale behind the ATEX Directives. and process plants throughout the UK
the intake system and magnets at appropri- Many of the requirements are common sense, and Ireland for many household names TORNUM AB Box 100, SE-535 22 Kvänum, SwEdEn
ate points throughout the plant are obvious but common sense has to be backed up with in industry. Phone +46 (0)512–291 00 E-mail: email@example.com
precautions. documentation in this day and age. However, www.tornum.com
16 | January - february 2012 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy &feed millinG technoloGy
Grain January - february 2012 | 17
News ewspetfood ingredient processors
N512031Grain_Feed_190x58gb_4c:Dammann Services 23.12.2011 15:34 Uhr Seite 1
January - February 2012 NEWS January - February 2012 NEWS
t A F I A’s Pe t F o od from third-party food safety program to help ‘raise the bar’ certification program, Safe
Conference in Atlanta, experts. for their own industry.” Feed / S afe Food progr am,
Efficiency, productivity and safety increase through
Ga, AFIA announced These two programs build The PFMF and PFIF certification addressing the needs of the
a new third-par t y facilit y upon AFIA’s domestic Safe programs were designed to feed industry. And then in 2010
the use of automation systems
designed Feed/Safe bulk goods handling, dust-extraction and exceed the International Safe Feed /
certification program ... Follow the leader inFood program and meet and in some partsventilation plants
specifically for manufacturing are designed to monitor the the requirements of Design
The QUICK CONNECT pull-ring makes the acclaimed Original Quality to a Modular
the Food Safe Food program ewas! addedRequ ogue
- As many as 215 automation companies to exhibit at IPACK-IMA
p e t f o o d a n d p e tJacobomodular pipe systemcontrolseconomical • Straight afet y lipped-end pipes and components. to provide a toolcat tline or at
f o d process even more specifically S welded, Modernisation Act
for installation. In new plants manufacturing•of 60 mm to ø 800 mm in a standard range.
related to the for animal feed, ø regulations.
that wish to +meet-p9ipthems.eu
49 (0 cob es
pet food. AFIA is seeking FDA recognition requirements. ww
pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food, glass, semi- • Larger diameters / special requirements upon request.
AFIA’s petfood and quality “AFIA sees this as a model of these programs and is “ N ow t o d ay,Jacob Söhne iGmbH & Co.h e ad d n g t KG
conductors or environmental technology as • Larger than ø 350 mm also available with flange connection. Fr.
committees developed the as for upgrading existingentire user- • Powder coated steel or hot-dipped galvanised steel as well h at Food Facility +49 PAC K-
he exhibition features program for the
well layouts petfood encouraged by FDA tr use Petstainless s c h o se n program
organized that majormay ade t
Pe t F o o d M a n u meetings industry,” according to Joel 1 associations.
technologicalf a c t u r i n gfriendly system installation becomes precise •G - 3 mm wall thicknesses.
these programs in their risk to the family of venue to
IMA 2012 as www.jacob-pipesystems.eu
assessment h pipesF industry for meet the specialist public is
( t of and components n certification program makes
Facility Certification Program andNewman, the great versatility of and A N I E certified e the e d e r a t i oavailable.
and seminars promoted easy due to AFIA’s president • Shock-explosion
by the industry’s representative mass-produced pipe components.
(PFMFCP) and the Pet Food CEO. sense not (Italian Automation
representingdispatched electro -fromANIPLA only for our members,
ø 400 mm normally the
• Up to inspection priorities. immediately stock.
a n d e l e c t ro the but for the petfood meeting
trade associations Certification “ I commend the pet food t e c h n i c a lAFIA launched n i c Association) with aindustry,”
Ingredient Facility “In 2004
EUROPE’S NO. 1 IN MODULAR PIPEWORK SYSTEMShold a – Used in all industrial sectors
Program (PFIFCP) with input committee for developing this companies in Italy) will facility focused Newman.
first third-party feed says Mr on next-generation
Technologies for packaging, seminar intended for all industry t e c h n o l o g y t o i m p r o v e
proce ssing and indust ri al p r o f e s s i o n a l s , d e s i g n e r s , efficiency and productivity
VIBRAFLOOR AUTOMATIC RECLAIMER logistics, the three pillars of
IPACK-IMA 2012, all have a
manufacturers and assemblers ( sc h e d u l e d fo r T h u r sd ay
titled “Electrical Cabinet for March 1st): “Automation in the
high degree of automation as Human Interfaces Machines: Packaging: from innovation to
Vibrator under Proofing their common characteristic. the interest of the vast majority design, application and energy Efficiency”.
TYPICAL VIBRATING MODULE dustproof cover
he reclaiming of bulk products from membrane The upcoming edition of the of professionals visiting the efficiency”. The meetings (on L a s t l y, t h e o b j e c t i ve o f
silos, bulk carriers, railroad cars, exhibition on schedule from event. schedule for Friday March increasingly comprehensive,
Steel plate Steel
hoppers, etc … is made easy by frame February 28th to March 3rd at The increase in eff iciency, 2nd) will discuss requirements w i d e l y a c c e p t e d g l o b a l
Vibrafloor, says the company. Fiera Milano will host over 200 p r o d u c t i v i t y a n d s a f e t y and features of in-field control standards will be discussed
exhibitors active in the industry s t a n d a rd s f o r m a c h i n e r y panels and will provide an during a specific meeting on
“This proven technology is ideally suited of automation systems and and equipment is largely the outline of the main national and Friday March 2nd organized by
for either new-build or retrofitted storage components. 215 companies result of innovations brought international regulations, the PLCopen, a global association
structures,” it adds. representing a sector capable about by manufacturers of materials employed according of manufacturers and vendors
Vibrafloor performs the recovery and thickness of creating strong synergies au t om at ion sys te m s . The to different uses as well as of automation systems aiming
clean-up of residual piles on slightly with the ten exhibition areas latest advances showcased specific applications and the at becoming global leader in
inclined floors, typically 8 to 12°. Most 2210mm width and nine business communities at IPACK- IMA go hand in legislation connected to them. the regulation of automation
commodities can be efficiently handled, of IPACK-IMA, thus attracting hand with technical meetings Another prestigious association control systems.
such as cereals, meals, sugar, flour, fish
feed, cotton seed, sulphur prills, wood • Extreme simplicity, no heavy machinery • No degradation of the product Grain &feed millinG technoloGy January - february 2012 | 7
chips, wood pellets, saw dust, ores and • Total clean-up when required • Negligible operating cost
aggregate. • No personnel required inside the Look for
Vibrafloor is made of independent vibrating storage, not even for final clean-up The Vibrafloor Company can mastermind
&feed millinG technoloGy solution
GFMT12.01.indd 7 02/02/2012 10:12
modules, customised to suit the shape and • No maintenance the bulk reclaiming process of any Grain INFRANeO January - february 2012 | 27
dimensions of the storage. Modules are • Very low power intake storage structures from beginning to end. JUNIOR
laid side-by-side and end-to-end to cover • No dust generated by the reclaiming process From the design, plant manufacturing, that best matches your needs
a given area. • Complete automation site installation and commissioning, its
GFMT12.01.indd 27 02/02/2012 10:13
Modules are typically 2.2m wide, 3m to 4m • Very high reclaim rates achievable engineers and technicians will provide
y Measure chemical composition as soon as you
long and 50mm thick. They can also be of • Totally safe for the structure and the their unique expertise, within schedule
trapezoidal shapes into a conical design. A personnel and budget. receive your raw materials.
three-phase electric y Estimate technical values of flours, semolinas, grits, glutens,
vibrator of 700W starches (and other powders products).
unit power powers y Moisture, protein, ash content, zeleny, hydration*.
each module. silos ships (* choose from over 60 calibrations available)
Lower modules INFRANeO Junior can also analyse whole grains.
are triggered first, THE UTMOST
to destabilize and BULK RECLAIMER
piles into a central wITh
conveying system SIMPLe NO OPeRATOR COST SAvINg
or a central INFLUeNCe
h o p p e r. T h e n
simple, maintenance free, automatic, efficient on most bulk products*, unbeatable reclaim rates
upwards rows or
* cereals, oil seeds, sugar, flour, soya bean meal, wood pellets, wood chips, fly ash, cement, sulphur, charcoal, RDF etc…
circles of modules
are triggered VIBRAFLOOR F-71680 Givry +33(0)385 440 678 +33(0)680 964 144 firstname.lastname@example.org
wagons domes containers
bottom to top, FAST ACCURATe
clean up of
the storage is
Advantages for 20, avenue Marcellin Berthelot • 92396 Villeneuve-la-Garenne • FRANCE
operators include: Tél. : + 33 1 41 47 50 29 • Fax : + 33 1 41 21 07 10 • Mail : email@example.com • www.chopin.fr
Photo credits : www.istockphoto.fr-© Elena Elisseeva-© Kristian Septimius Krogh-© Srdjan Stefanovic-© Dr. Heinz Linke-© Stratesigns, Inc.-© Kaupo Kikkas.
infraneo_junior_GB_190x132mm.indd 1 24/02/2011 14:24:49
Grain &feed millinG technoloGy January - february 2012 | 9 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy January - february 2012 | 11
This digital Re-print is part of the January | February 2012 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine.
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January - February 2012
• See the full issue
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handling • Visit the GFMT website
In this issue:
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Energy saving in flour milling storage
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Global grain &
Preservatives are a recurring
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A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891
GFMT12.01.indd 1 02/02/2012 10:12
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