Working Safely With Chemicals by jianghongl


									Working Safely With Chemicals
Environmental Health & Safety Department
           6 Eisenhower Parking Deck

Let No Harm Be Done
Environmental Health and Safety Department
    Asbestos Abatement
    Biological Safety
    Emergency Planning: Oil & hazardous materials
    Environmental Assessments
    Ergonomic Assessments
    Fire Safety
    Hazardous Material & Oil Storage Management
    Indoor Air Quality
    Laboratory Safety Radiation Safety
    Radiation Safety
    Waste Management: radioactive, hazardous and biological

EHS Safety Policy (SY01):
Responsibilities: Supervisor:
        All supervisors are familiar with policies and rules and provide for the health and safety of those supervised.
         They are in a key position in the organizational structure to carry out the department's safety policies and to
         prevent injuries to their employees.

        Ensure that required safety equipment, devices and personal protective equipment and apparel are provided
         and maintained, and are properly used by individuals working in their operations.

        Provide employees and students with instruction and assistance in the proper operation of equipment or
         materials involved in any operation which may be potentially hazardous. Provide for health and safety

        Take prompt corrective action when unsafe conditions, practices or equipment are reported or observed.
         Encourage reporting of concerns.

        Promptly conduct a thorough investigation in all work-related injuries, illnesses and accidents, submit
         appropriate recommendations on all accident reports, including the Employer's Reports of Occupational Injury
         or Illness (page 4.19) or theIncident Report (page 8.05), as appropriate, and follow through to ensure
         corrective measures have been implemented.

        Coordinate or conduct inspections to maintain safe and healthful conditions, and address any deficiencies
         that are identified.

    EHS Safety Policy (SY01): cont’d
    Responsibilities: Employee/Student
   Comply with applicable environmental health and safety policies, standards, rules, regulations and procedures. These include
    safety-related signs, posters, warnings and written/oral directions when performing tasks.

   Do not perform any function or operation which is considered hazardous, or is known to be hazardous without proper
    instructions and authorization.

   Only use equipment and materials approved or provided by the supervisor or instructor and for which instruction has been
    provided by this or other experience.

   Become thoroughly knowledgeable about potential hazards associated with the work area; knowing where information on these
    hazards is maintained and how to use this information when needed.

   Wear or use prescribed protective equipment.

   Report all unsafe conditions, practices, or equipment to the supervisor, instructor or safety officer whenever deficiencies are

   Inform the supervisor or instructor immediately of all work-related injuries or accidents and obtain prompt medical attention when

   Provide information necessary for the supervisor or safety officer to adequately and thoroughly complete the Employer's Report
    of Occupational Injury and Illness and any other associated accident/illness reports
Working Safely with Chemicals
    Chemical Safety Concepts
    Safe Use and Storage
    Disposal
    Emergencies
    Radiation Safety

Chemical Safety
    TOXICITY -- the ability of a chemical substance to
     cause harm
    HAZARD -- likelihood a material will cause harm
     under the conditions of use
       With proper handling, even highly toxic
        chemicals can be used safely
       Less toxic chemicals can be extremely
        hazardous if handled improperly.

Exposure to Toxic Chemicals
   Exposure to toxic agents can have severe
    consequences, including death
   These injuries can occur in any area where toxic
    chemicals are handled
   Most chemical injuries could have been avoided
       If these people had had the proper equipment, if they
        had been using the proper techniques and if they had
        had adequate knowledge, such as exposures probably
        would not have occurred.

Chemical Safety
    Keep worker’s exposure below the Permissible
     Exposure Limit (PEL)
        PEL’s are regulatory limits set by OSHA on the amount or concentration
         of a substance in the air.

    Plan in advance for potential hazards
    Designate a person to manage chemical safety
    Train and inform workers
    Label ALL chemical containers
    Keep file of MSDS for all chemicals used (EHS)
Have a Plan that includes:
    Standard operating procedures (SOP)
    Exposure control measures
    Fume hood & personal protective equipment
    Information & Training
    Chemicals that require prior planning & approval
    Working with Particularly hazardous substances
    Emergencies

Key to Working Safely …..
 Understand the Hazards!
    Know and prepare for hazards in advance
    Review Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
        Physical and Health Hazards
        Exposure signs and symptoms
        Protective measures
        Emergency procedures
    Read all labels
    Know your protocol / procedures
    Remember, some chemicals may have delayed toxic
     effects on the body
Physical Hazard …..
    Hazards due to physical characteristics of a chemical
   Flammable - catches fire easily and burns rapidly
   Combustible - will burn under most conditions
   Explosive - will explode / detonate releasing hot gases
   Oxidizer - yields oxygen to enhance combustion, may cause ignition
    of combustibles with no external source
   Organic peroxide - uniquely hazardous, potentially explosive
   Unstable - tends to decompose during normal handling and storage
   Water reactive - reacts with water to release flammable gas,
    causes fire or presents a health hazard
Health Hazard ……
 Produces acute or chronic effects in exposed workers
    Carcinogen - cause cancer or suspected to cause cancer
    Toxic Agent - poisonous / cause acute or chronic effects
    Reproductive toxin (teratogen) - could have harmful
     effect on male or female reproductive system or on
     developing fetus
    Irritant - can cause inflammation of skin or eyes
    Corrosive - cause irreversible damage to living tissue
    Sensitizer - cause exposed person to develop allergies to
     the substance
    Target organ-specific agents - hazardous to specific
     organs in body (e.g., lungs, liver, blood, kidneys, nervous   13
Route of Entry….
For a chemical to have an effect on a worker, s/he must be
exposed to it and some of it must get into his/her system
    Inhalation / breathing - most common route, gases / vapors
     can pass to blood, solid particles inhaled into lungs
    Absorption through the skin - many solids, liquids, vapors and
     gases can be absorbed through the skin
    Ingestion / swallowing - while not intentional, failure to wash
     hands, eating in contaminated lab, etc.
    Injection - accidents handling glass, sharps, etc.
    Eye Contact - either physical damage or absorption

      The route of entry dictates selection of protective
                           equipment                                   14
Signs & Symptoms ….
How will you know if you have been exposed?
    Dose - Amount of chemical absorbed depends upon chemical
     strength / concentration, exposure duration, frequency of exposure
       In general, the greater the dose, the more severe the health
    Acute effects - occurs rapidly following brief exposure (e.g., acid
    Chronic effect - develops/recurs slowly, over long period
     following repeated, long-term, low-level exposure (e.g., benzidine
     linked to bladder cancer)
    Individual variability - not all people exhibit the same signs
     and symptoms (especially to chronic effects)
Working Safely with Chemicals
    Chemical Safety Concepts
    Safe Use and Storage
    Disposal of Chemicals
    Emergencies
    Radiation Safety

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
    Always wear PPE:
       Good lab practice

           Eye protection for workers

           Wear enclosed goggles or face shield over safety glasses if
             chance of splashing or shattering
       Shoes, lab coat, long pants (gives protection from falling objects and
       Plastic/rubber apron for caustics/corrosives

       Correct gloves for chemical

       Never reach into liquids, use tongs for retrieval

(Chemical) Fume Hood

    Ventilated enclosure that protects you from being
     exposed to chemical fumes, gases and aerosols
     generated within the hood
    Room air drawn into the hood is vented out the stack
    Hood should always be ON during use
    Lower sash to marked (< sash level >) position

Fume Hood Inspection Program

    Regular inspection
    Tested for adequate flow
    Results labeled on hood
    Safe sash level marked
       (< sash level >)

                                Never use an unsafe fume hood

Fume Hood Considerations
    Turbulence caused by:
        Rapid hand movements in / out of hood
        Obstructions at airfoil
        Persons walking by creating disturbance
    Limit Sash Area
        Performance improves as sash opening decreases
        Keep at or below the “safe” (< sash level>) level


Labels                       Health

    NFPA Diamond -
     used by fire / rescue

                               Special hazard

Chemical Storage Considerations …..
    Dry Chemical Storage
        Keep organic and inorganic separated

    Liquid Chemical Storage
        Determine major storage groups (acid, base, etc.)
        Designate separate storage for highly toxic chemicals
        Store only cleaning materials under sink

Chemical storage requirements
    Inventory chemicals annually (see SY24)
    Dispose of old and unused chemicals
     through EHS following chemical waste
    Segregate chemicals according to hazard,
     i.e. flammables separate from oxidizers,
     acids separate from bases

Chemical Storage cont’d
    Keep containers closed unless you are
     working with container - do not store
     waste containers open with funnels in
     opening, do not evaporate solvents as a
     means of disposal.
    Ensure all containers are labeled - no
     abbreviations or formulae

Safe Storage ….
    Flammable Liquids
    Corrosive Materials
    Reactive (Oxidizers and Reducers)
    Cryogenics
    Gas Cylinders

Flammable Liquid Storage …..
    Keep quantities below allowable storage
     limits (SY08 Storage, Dispensing and Use of
     Flammable Liquids)
    UL-approved safety cans
    Store flammable liquids in an approved
     storage cabinet (combined total volume of
     liquids not greater than 120 gallons with no
     more than 60 gallons of Class I or II).
    No more than 3 storage cabinets per fire
Corrosive Material Storage …..
    DO NOT store acids and bases together
    Material should be stored in cabinets
    Store heavy containers on lower shelves
    Store on shelves with raised edges
    Do not store liquids above eye level
    Glacial acetic acid has special storage
     requirements-store with flammable liquids

Reactive ….
  Chemicals that react with other substances; can result in
   fire or explosion
  Oxidizers supply oxygen to a fire

  Chemicals that react with water, water vapor or moist air

  Produces a flammable or toxic gas

  Chemicals that ignite on contact with air

  Flame may often be invisible
Reactive Storage ….
      Acids from Bases
      Acids and bases from flammables
      Pyrophoric compounds from flammables
      Perchloric acid from reducing agents
      Water from water reactive chemicals
         Sodium/phosphorus   & aqueous material - fire
         Acid with cyanide compounds - toxic gas

         Chlorine & ammonia - toxic chloramines

      Store thermally unstable materials in approved refrigerator
Chemicals Requiring Special Precautions….
 For chemicals with high degree of acute toxicity, select
   carcinogens & reproductive toxins:
  Establish designated area

  Proper storage and management

  Use engineering controls (e.g., fume hood)

  Use appropriate PPE

  Waste removal

  Decontamination procedures

  Emergency planning and response
Cyrogenic Materials …..
    Cold (e.g., Ar (-302oF), H2 (-423oF), N2 (-320oF), O2 (-
     297oF)) vapors can rapidly freeze human tissue
    Produces large volumes of gas that can displace
     breathable oxygen
    Materials can be embrittled
    Boiling/splashing occurs when charging or filling a
     warm container
    Wear face shields during transfers, loose fitting, dry
     leather or cryogenic gloves and long pants w/o cuffs
Gas Cylinders ….(SY30)
    Chain or strap cylinder to wall/bench
    Always use a cart & safety chain when transporting
    Store flammable gas lecture bottles in flammable
     storage cabinet
    Keep non-compatible gases separate
    Store multiple cylinders by “nesting”
    Store oxidizers 20 ft. from flammable gases

Electrical Safety
 Fires are often caused by damaged electrical equipment and the
    misuse of such equipment.
  check all equipment for damaged and worn insulation on wiring

  connect ground wires to clean metal

  keep wires and other electrical equipment away from water & hot
  avoid use of extension cords,(designed for temporary use only)

  avoid homemade/makeshift wiring (use approved wiring methods)

  never touch a switch/outlet with wet hands

  do not use electrical equipment in a flammable atmosphere (I.e.
    electrical plug strip in a fume hood)
Pollution Prevention
 Buy Less, Use Less, Store Less!
    keep volatile chemical containers capped.
    store chemicals in vented cabinet, don’t use fume hood for
    keep waste solvent containers capped when not using
    substitute less hazardous chemicals
    avoid mercury, EHS exchanges thermometers
    redistribute surplus chemicals through EHS
    Provide secondary containment for 55 gallon drums of potentially
     polluting materials that are located in areas where they could leak
     into a drain or escape to the environment.
Working Safely with Chemicals
    Chemical Safety Concepts
    Safe Use and Storage
    Disposal of Chemicals
    Emergencies
    Radiation Safety

Disposal of Unwanted Chemicals …..
 Chemical Disposal Methods….
    In-Lab Chemical management

    On-Site Hazardous Materials Management -
    Redistribution of Unwanted Chemicals -

                  ITS FREE!!!!

In-Lab Chemical Management
        Flushing down the sanitary sewer (limited to
         chemicals on drain disposal guideline SYG01)
       Neutralization

       Normal Trash

    If you have questions or are uncomfortable with steps
     outlined for in-lab management, please call EHS at

Acid Neutralization
(hydrochloric, phosphoric, sulfuric, [<50%] acids)
 Use fume hood & wear PPE
    Dilute acid with cold water to 1:10 (always add
      acid to water)
    Slowly add sodium carbonate or calcium
      carbonate until pH between 5 & 10
    Allow solids to settle

    Decant solution to drain with at least 50 times the
      volume of water
    Allow solid to dry and package for disposal in
      normal trash
On-Site Hazardous Materials Management
    Annual review of chemicals
    Removal of surplus chemicals and chemical waste
    Evaluate gas cylinders, unknowns & potential
    Laboratory and Stockroom cleanouts

       Request a chemical waste pick-up by contacting

Chemical Disposal
    Complete Chemical p-u request prior to pick up
       Download from web:

    All containers must be labeled with red tags
    Mixtures, solutions and powders must be in
     chemically compatible containers
    No beakers, flasks, leaking containers or bottles
     without caps.
    It’s free!!!!
Waste accumulation cont’d
    Labeling - each container of
     waste must be labeled with a
     red tag (supplied by EHS)
    Waste accumulation areas must
     be under the oversight of
     someone who works in that area

Oversight requirements
    Check area once a week
    sign and date check list
    back-up overseer for times of
     illness or vacation
    post accumulation area with

   Date Checked


                                                                          Waste Accumulation Area

                                              Chemical Waste Review Log

Not Leaking

in Place

55 Gal
Storage Limit
Not Exceeded
                  Signature of Lab Overseer
Designated waste accumulation area or
    Where should I put waste before you pick it up?
   An area close to the point of generation and
    under the oversight of the person generating the
   Secondary containment must be used for waste
    storage - EHS provides 2 sizes of containment
    bins: one large enough for 5 gallon containers
    and one for smaller bottle sizes.

                                            Please Post

  Do you know your responsibilities for proper handling of hazardous

  Please review the following requirements to ensure that you comply with
          environmental regulations and safe handling procedures.

  TRAINING: Environmental regulations require training of people who generate or
  handle hazardous waste. Training must take place within 90 days of date-of-hire; and
  annually thereafter.

  Training is offered on a regular schedule by Environmental Health and Safety (EHS). Check EHS for available dates and times.

  CONTAINER LABELING: All hazardous waste containers must have a red waste
  tag at the time waste is first placed into the container. The red Chemical Disposal Label
  must accurately identify the content of the container.

  EHS supplies secondary containers and red tags. Call EHS if you need
  supplies or additional instructions.

  CONTAINER CLOSURE: Hazardous waste containers must be closed at all times
  during storage, except when waste is being added or removed.

  Keep containers closed. Regulations do not permit open funnels in waste

  STORAGE: For safety and environmental reasons, hazardous waste must be stored in a
  designated "Satellite Accumulation Area". These areas must be inspected weekly for
  container leakage, labeling, chemical compatibility and to determine that total volume
  does not exceed 55 gallons. Closed, properly labeled containers that are partially filled may
  remain in a Satellite Accumulation Area indefinitely.

  If you have full waste containers, please fill out a Chemical Manifest form available
  on our web page,
Where does chemical waste go when it
leaves my area?
    Fill out Chemical Waste pick-up request
     form on web (
    EHS staff picks up waste in less than a
    Waste is stored at central facility for less
     than 90 days and picked up by
     Hazardous waste Company

Internal Audit
    Audit your waste program once
     a year to verify compliance
    Supervisor and Dept. head must
     sign audit


_____Designated Chemical Accumulation area, room and bldg.

_____Names of accumulation area overseer and principle investigator

_____Chemical accumulation review log readily available

       _____updated weekly with signature
       _____chemicals labeled
       _____chemicals segregated
       _____chemicals not leaking
       _____total vol. does not exceed 55 gal.

_____Laboratory chemical review SOP available

_____Laboratory chemicals are reviewed annually as per SOP

_____All persons handling chemicals trained within 90 days of hire.

_____Training records available in lab.

_____Training records sent to Department Head.

Name of Principal Investigator (print)     Signature of Principal Investigator

Date of Audit

Name of Department Head (print)             Signature of Department Head
    Waste Management Manual
     available on web,
    Manual must contain
        location of accumulation area
        form documenting waste area
        form documenting annual inventory
         of chemicals
        copies of training records
        audit form                          56
Wastes with added precautions...
    Toxic - lead acetate, mercuric chloride, mixtures
     containing > 0.5 ppm benzene
    Reactive - sodium metal, extremely dry picric acid,
     some organic peroxides
    Corrosive (pH < 2 > 12.5) - nitric acid, aqueous
     sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid
    Ignitable (flashpoints <140o) - acetone, xylene, and
    Dioxins, PCBs, etc.
Laboratory & Stockroom Cleanouts
    Call EHS to do walk through if PI is leaving
    Someone from area must assist
       EHS will sort, categorize, sewer, bulk &
       Remaining chemicals entered on p-u request

Redistribution of Surplus Chemicals
 Sealed Containers                Unsealed Containers
 Expiration Date                    Usable by Others
 Good Shape                         Past History
 Usable by Others                   Quality not Assured
 Pure Products
      If you would like to get on our mailing list or have
   questions, please contact Kevin Myers at 814-865-6391

Disposition of Wastes …..
    Halogens, flammables, bulked into 55-gallon
     drums and shipped
    Waste Chemicals - packaged and shipped for
    Surplus Chemicals - labeled, put on shelves,
     advertised for redistribution

    ~$250,000 annual disposal costs

What is a Sharp?
   Device that can cut or easily puncture the skin
   Unused, disinfected/contaminated: hypodermic needles, razor
    blades, scalpel blades, lancets, syringes and Pasteur pipettes
   Other contaminated infectious wastes: broken glass vials, lab slides
    or fragile glass

Disposable Lab Glass?
   empty bottles, test tubes, uncontaminated broken glassware,
    uncontaminated glass pipettes, other plastic labware

Sharps Disposal ….
    Segregate from other wastes
    Place in rigid plastic boxes with tight-fitting lids
       maroon 5 gallon barrels for non hazardous
         glass. Sharps containers for infectious
    Fill container only 3/4 full
    Materials must be autoclaved
    User/Lab takes infectious material containers to
     building’s collection site (autoclave room)
Infectious Wastes ….
 Nothing that contains pathogens/human blood can
   go to a landfill!!!!
     Infectious or biologically contaminated material

     Materials that have been used for recombinant
      DNA work
 2 Disposal Methods:
    1. Autoclave and place in infectious waste barrel
    2. For liquids, add bleach to 10% of total volume,
      incubate 1 hour and pour down drain
Hazardous Glass Disposal ...
    Disinfect ALL infectious waste
    Empty any hazardous chemicals/drain
    Dispose in glass disposal maroon barrel.

Working Safely with Chemicals
    Chemical Safety Concepts
    Safe Use and Storage
    Disposal of Chemicals
    Emergencies
    Radiation Safety

Chemical Emergencies
     Simple Spill -- one which you
      can safely clean up yourself
     Major Emergency or High
      Hazard Spill -- one which you
      can not safely clean up

Chemical Emergency Response
 To Clean Up a Simple Spill
  Notify your fellow workers and supervisor

  Control Access to the area, prevent contact or
   spread of spill
  Call EHS for advice and to report as soon as

          EXAMPLE: 500 ml of a dilute acid

Chemical Emergency Response
 Major Emergency
 Call 911 for
  Fires (even if you extinguish it yourself)

  Explosions

  Injuries

  Unknown vapors, fumes or smoke

  Spills that threaten human health or the environment

  Incidents which you can not deal with safely
        Contact EHS as soon as emergency has been addressed.
911 Emergency Information
 Provide the following:
     Name
     Building and Room number
     Address
     Type of Emergency (i.e, Fire, Spill,
    Any Injuries
               DO NOT HANG UP!!!!!!

Emergency Eyewash / Safety Shower
    Keep area around safety equipment clutter free
    Portable squeeze bottles are NOT acceptable
    Flush affected area for at least 15 minutes
    For spill on clothing / skin:
        Remove clothes
        Wash with soap and water
        Follow info on MSDS for decon steps
        Seek medical advice

Prepare for Chemical Emergencies
    Know where fire extinguishers, emergency showers
     and eyewash stations are located and how to use
    Your unit should :
        have reviewed MSDS Sheet prior to beginning work
        have PPE (I.e, gloves, goggles) for spill cleanup
        Have updated Emergency phone numbers posted

    Preparedness Prevention and
     Contingency Plan:
       25 Pennsylvania Code and
        Guidelines for the
        Development and
        Implementation of the
        Environmental Emergency
        Response Plans.

    The PPC plan is intended to serve as a tool for planning to
     prevent a hazardous materials or oil release through training
     and contingency planning. It also provides information on
     what to do, who to call and responsibilities of those people
     working with large quantities of hazardous materials if there is
     a release.
    There are 21 locations that store large quantities of single
     chemicals on the University Park campus that are covered by
     the plan and a separate plan for each non-University Park

Fire Safety
    Utilize Fire Prevention Measures at all times
    If a fire occurs:
       FIRST!! Pull fire alarm or Call 911
       Evacuate the building if you are not trained in
         fire extinguisher use or are unable to otherwise
         extinguish the fire.
       Report all fires no matter how minor
    Know locations and types of fire extinguishers!
        Class ABC - normal combustibles, flammable liquids,
         electrical fires
        Class D - Combustible metals                          74
Fire Safety ….
 Fire Extinguisher Training
      Free to PSU Employees

      $ cost for refilling fire
      On-Site “How To” demos

       Steve Triebold 814-865-6391

Working Safely With Chemicals
    Chemical Safety Concepts
    Safe Use and Storage
    Disposal of Chemicals
    Emergencies
    Radiation Safety

Radiation Safety

   Radioactive material may only be used
    in rooms posted with Caution signs
   No food or drinks allowed in posted
   PIs must have University Isotopes
    Committee approval prior to use
   Persons working with radioactive
    material or x-rays must have additional
    EHS training

Radiation Safety
    Do not handle items labeled as
     radioactive or move containers
     labeled as containing
     radioactive material without
     proper training
    Security Requirements:
       Do not let people in whom
        you don’t know
       If you go through a locked
        door, lock it behind you

Safety Department Contacts ….
                        Director: Maurine Claver
Chemical Safety
Kate Lumley-Sapanski, Manager Environmental Protection & Health
Kevin Myers, Hazardous Materials Program Manager
Nate Black, Environmental Health and Safety Specialist
Les Gordon, Special Waste Technician
Radiation Safety
Eric Boeldt, Manager Radiation Protection
Mark Linsley, Assoc. Radiation Safety Officer
Dave Bertocchi, Health Physicists
Greg Herman, Health Physicists
James Wiggins, Health Physicist Specialist
Suzanne Morlang, Health Physicist Assistant                       79
Safety Department Contacts ….
Biological Safety                       Occupational Safety
   Curt Speaker - Biosafety Officer     Steve Triebold   - Fire Protection
Environmental Protection                Bill Dreibelbis - Industrial Hygienist
   Lysa Holland - Compliance Engineer

Asbestos / Lead Abatement
  Mike Burke - Industrial Hygienist


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