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Peace and Security through DISARMAMENT (PowerPoint)

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					Peace and Security through

DISARMAMENT
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“Let us at least make sure that the next
generation understands, better than
ours has done, or at least mine has
done, that human security is as much
governance, human rights, and social
justice, as it is about arsenals.”
            Kofi Annan, United Nations Secretary-General
                                         November 2000
THE NUCLEAR
THREAT
continues today…
THE MILLENIUM SUMMIT
of the General Assembly resolved “to strive for the elimination of
weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons…”
                                      HIROSHIMA,
                                      1945

“The need for a more human-
centred approach to security is
reinforced by the continuing
dangers that weapons of mass
destruction, most notably
nuclear weapons, pose to
humanity.”
                        Kofi Annan,
               UN Secretary-General
Banning
NUCLEAR TEST
EXPLOSIONS
                                     Forever
 OVER 2000 NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS
 worldwide were registered in the 51 years between
 the first nuclear explosive test on 16 July 1945 and
 the adoption of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-
 Ban Treaty on 24 September 1996.
Banning and Destroying
CHEMICAL AND
BIOLOGICAL
WEAPONS
 “Whereas the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous
 or other gases… has been justly condemned by the
 general opinion of the civilized world.”
                          From the preamble of the 1925 Geneva
                     Protocol banning the use in war of chemical
                          and bacteriological methods of warfare
 CONVENTION
 AL WEAPONS
 Fighting Today’s Wars
OVERSUPPLIES OF CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS

• Make war more likely and more deadly • Encourage
violence • Prolong conflicts • Hamper humanitarian aid
• Threaten peace agreements • Endanger peacekeepers
• Destabilize Governments • Hinder economic development
The Heavy Toll of
SMALL ARMS
In recent conflicts around the world, small arms
and light weapons have been the cause of four out
of five casualties. The vast majority of victims have
been non-combattants. Most are women and
children.
Modern arms are light, easy
to carry and hide, require
little maintenance and little or
no training. They can make
every farmer, every office
worker, even every school
child, a potential soldier.
LANDMINES
Don’t Walk Here
Today, 80% of landmine victims are civilians,
killed or injured after wars and conflicts have
ended. One third of the nations of the earth are
affected by mine and unexploded ordinance
(UXO) contamination.
A landmine can
cost as little as US
$3 to manufacture.
Finding and
removing it can
cost as much as US
$1,000.
 DISARMAMENT SOLUTIONS
• REDUCING NUCLEAR DANGERS
• INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM
  FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR
  TESTING
• WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL
  AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
• DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL
  WEAPONS
• FIVE PILLARS OF THE UN MINE ACTION
 REDUCING NUCLEAR DANGERS
At the height of the cold war, more than
  70,000 nuclear weapons existed.
Much has been achieved:
  –To reduce, dismantle and eliminate nuclear
  weapons
  –To stop the spread of nuclear weapons
  –To monitor material from dismantled nuclear
  weapons
  –To stop the testing of nuclear weapons
  –To create nuclear-weapon-free zones
    REDUCING NUCLEAR DANGERS

                       Much still needs to be done
                       As we start the millennium,
                        more than 30,000 nuclear
                        weapons remain. Many are
Torching Nuclear        on high alert and ready to be
Arms: Nuclear           launched on warning.
missile dismantling,
1998 (US
Department of
Energy
INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM
FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING

Moratoriums on nuclear test explosions have
 been declared by all five nuclear-weapon
 States pending entry into force of the
 Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty….

                Seismic monitors help scientists
                distinguish between a nuclear
                explosion and an earthquake.
INTERNATIONAL MONITORING SYSTEM
FOR GLOBAL BAN ON NUCLEAR TESTING

Infrasound monitors detect acoustic waves
  generated from distant sources, such as
  chemical and nuclear explosions.
Hydroacoustic monitors register sound signals
  deep in the ocean.
Radionuclide monitors measure air samples
  for the presence of radioactive material.
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL
   AND BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical
  Weapons (OPCW) was established to achieve the
  goals and objectives of the first globally verifiable
  multilateral disarmament treaty, the Chemical
  Weapons Convention, to completely prohibit the
  use, development, production, and stockpiling of
  chemical weapons, as well as the destruction of
  existing stocks.
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND
      BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS

                   Through routine inspections,
                     challenge inspections and
                     investigations of alleged use, the
                     OPCW
                      – Ensures the implementation of
Chemical weapons        the conventions provisions
inspectors. French    – Monitors implementation
troops in Kuwait,     – Provides a forum for
1991                    consultation and cooperation
                        among States Parties.
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND
      BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS


 Biological Weapons Convention

 To ensure compliance with the provisions of
  the Biological Weapons Convention, the
  need for global, cooperative compliance and
  verification measures has become much
  more acute.
WORKING TO ELIMINATE CHEMICAL AND
      BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
Biological Weapons Convention
To bolster confidence in the effectiveness of the
  Convention, the States parties to the Convention
  currently exchange information on:
     • Research centres and laboratories;
     • National biological defense research and
       development programmes;
     • Infectious disease outbreaks;
     • Relevant legislation;
     • Vaccine production
     DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL
              WEAPONS
                      The first UN Conference on the
                      Illicit Trade in Small Arms and
                      Light Weapons in All its Aspects
                      adopted in July 2001 a forward-
                      looking programme of action that
                      committed nations, regions and the
“Flame of Peace”; a   international Community
ceremonial            collectively to:
destruction of        •Help to prevent, combat and
weapons collected     eradicate the illicit trade in small
from rebels,          arms.
Timbuktu, Mali
    DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL
             WEAPONS
                        • Enhance cooperation among
                          states to end illegal transfers
                          and sales.
                        • Reduce the accumulation of
                          small arms and light weapons
                          around the world.
Actor Michael Douglas   • Encourage the collection and
destroying arms in a      destruction of excess weapons
UN/UNDP pilot “arms
for development”
                          in exchange for development
project.                  incentives.
Gramsh, Albania.
October 1999.
 DISARMAMENT OF CONVENTIONAL
          WEAPONS
United Nations Register of Conventional Arms
 promotes trust and confidence through
 transparency.
More than 90 member states report to the United
 Nations, other Governments, and to the people
 every year regarding their imports and exports of
 major weapons systems.
More than 95% of the trade in tanks, armoured
 vehicles, combat aircraft, large-caliber artillery,
 attack helicopters, warships, missiles and missile
 launchers is covered by the register.
      FIVE PILLARS OF MINE ACTION
 The UN works in close partnership with Governments,
 civil society, business and individuals to tackle the
 landmine crisis.
                     MINE AWARENESS: Populations at
                       risk must be educated and local
                       authorities trained to deal with
                       landmine problems.
                     CLEARING A PATH -- DEMINING:
                       Finding and disposing of these
                       devices is time-consuming, difficult
Digging for
landmines,             and expensive.
Cambodia
        FIVE PILLARS OF MINE ACTION
                  VICTIM ASSISTANCE: Rehabilitation
                    of and care for thousands of maimed,
                    blinded and crippled victims of
                    landmine explosions.
                  ADVOCACY FOR GLOBAL BAN:
                    Making the ban effective and
Learning about      universal.
landmines,
Mozambique, 1994, STOCKPILE REDUCTION: Keeping to
UN Mine Action      treaty commitments and building
Service             confidence in the Convention
                    Banning Landmines.
24 January 1946
First Resolution of the General Assembly
seeks ways to eliminate atomic weapons
from national armaments
                                               TIMELINE OF HISTORIC
                                             TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS
29 July 1957
International Atomic Energy Agency
established.


1 December 1959
The Antarctic Treaty demilitarizes the
                                               24 January 1946
                                                 March 1963
                                               29 July 19571959
                                               1 August 1970
                                               5 December
continent, bans the testing of any kind of
weapons and prohibits nuclear explosions
and the disposal of radioactive waste          Nuclear Non-Proliferation
                                               Partial Test-Ban Treaty
                                               First Resolution of the
                                               The Antarctic Treaty
                                               International Atomic
material.
                                               bans nuclear the continent,
                                               demilitarizes weapons tests
                                               Energycommits nuclear
                                               GeneralAgency established.
                                               Treaty Assembly seeks
5 August 1963                                  ways theeliminatestates kind
                                               and atmosphere, in outer
                                               bansnon-nuclearofatomic
                                               in theto testing any to
Partial Test-Ban Treaty bans nuclear
weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer      of weapons and prohibits
                                               space and underwater
                                               nuclear non-proliferation,
                                               weapons from national
space and underwater
                                               armaments
                                                       disarmament and
                                               nuclear explosions and the
5 March 1970
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty commits
                                               disposal of radioactive
                                               the peaceful uses of energy
nuclear and non-nuclear states to nuclear
non-proliferation, nuclear disarmament and
                                               waste material.
the peaceful uses of energy
11 February 1971
The Sea-Bed Treaty bans the emplacement
of nuclear weapons or other weapons of
mass destruction on the ocean floor and its
                                                 TIMELINE OF HISTORIC
subsoil
                                               TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS
10 April 1972
Biological Weapons Convention bans
bacteriological and biological warfare
                                               10 April 1981
                                                 10 April1972
                                                 11 February 1971
                                                 26 May 1979
                                                 18 June Certain
                                               Convention on1972
26 May 1972
SALT I and ABM Treaty Agreement limit
strategic offensive arms and anti-ballistic
                                               Conventional Weapons bans
missile systems between the USSR and US
                                                  Biological Weapons
                                                          II further limits
                                                  SALT I and ABM Treaty
                                                  The Sea-Bed Treaty bans
                                               weapons which explode fragments
18 June 1979                                      Conventionlimit of nuclear
                                                  the emplacementstrategic
                                                  Agreement bans arms
                                                  strategic offensive
                                               that are by X-ray undetectable
SALT II further limits strategic offensive
arms between USSR and US                          bacteriological and US
                                                  offensive or other weapons
                                                  between arms
                                                  weapons USSR and anti-
                                               within the human body, limits the
10 April 1981                                     ballistic missile systems
                                                   of certain warfare
                                                  biological types of mines the
                                               useof mass destruction on and
Convention on Certain Conventional
Weapons bans weapons which explode                ocean floor USSR and US
                                                  between bans incendiary
                                               booby traps, theand its subsoil
fragments that are by X-ray undetectable
within the human body, limits the use of       weapons designed to set fire to
certain types of mines and booby traps, bans
incendiary weapons designed to set fire to     targets and bans the use of blinding
targets and bans the use of blinding laser
weapons                                        laser weapons
8 December 1987
INF Treaty eliminates entire category of
intermediate and shorter-range nuclear
weapons of the USSR and US
                                              TIMELINE OF HISTORIC
                                            TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS
19 November 1990
CFE Treaty curtails conventional weapons
systems in Europe from the Atlantic Ocean
to the Ural Mountains
                                              23 May 1992
                                              31 July 1991
                                              19 November 1990
                                              8 December 1987
                                              3 January 1993
31 July 1991
START I Treaty reduces strategic nuclear
                                              ChemicalIWeapons
                                              INF Treaty eliminates
                                              Lisbon Treaty reduces
                                              CFE Treaty curtails
                                              STARTProtocol Belarus,
weapons to 6,000 for USSR and US              Convention prohibits chemical
                                              conventional Russian
                                              strategic nuclear
                                              Kazakhstan, weapons
                                              entire category ofweapons
23 May 1992                                   Federation USSR for
                                              warfare andEurope and US
                                              systems in providesfrom the
                                              to 6,000 for and Ukraine --
                                              intermediate and shorter-
                                              destruction of all stocks
Lisbon Protocol Belarus, Kazakhstan,
Russian Federation and Ukraine --
                                              range nuclear weapons of --
                                              Atlantic Ocean to the Ural
                                              successor states to USSR
successor states to USSR -- accede to
START I                                       accede to and US
                                              Mountains
                                              the USSRSTART I
3 January 1993
Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits
chemical warfare and provides for
destruction of all stocks
24 September 1996
Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
bans all nuclear test explosions in all
environments for all time
                                               TIMELINE OF HISTORIC
                                             TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS
2-4 December 1997
Mine Ban Convention bans all anti-
personnel landmines and provides for their
destruction

                                               24 September 1996
                                               2-4 December 1997
                                               Mine Ban Convention bans
                                               Comprehensive Nuclear-
                                               all anti-personnel
                                               Test-Ban Treaty bans all
                                               nuclear test explosions in
                                               landmines and provides for
                                               their destruction
                                               all environments for all
                                               time
The 1959 Antarctic Treaty
demilitarizes the continent and bans the          KEEPING THE WORLD
testing of nuclear devices and the placement
of radioactive waste.                               -- OUTER SPACE --
The 1967 Outer Space Treaty                    FREE OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS
mandates that nuclear weapons not be
placed or tested in outer space or on the
moon.
                                                 The 1959 TreatySpace
                                                     1986 Outer of
                                                 The 1967 Antarctic
                                                     1996 Pelindaba
                                                     1997 Bangkok
                                                      1967 Treaty of
                                                 In 1998, the General
The 1967 Treaty of Tlatelolco
prohibits nuclear weapons in Latin America
and the Caribbean
                                                 Treaty mandates that
                                                 Assembly recognizes
                                                 Rarotonga prohibitsthe
                                                 Tlatelolco declares
                                                                 Southeast
                                                        demilitarizes
                                                        declares the
The 1986 Treaty of Rarotonga
                                                 Mongolia’s declaration
                                                 continent anda nuclear-of
                                                 nuclear weapons notLatin
                                                 African continent in be
                                                  nuclear weapons a
                                                 Asia a nuclear-weapon-free
                                                 South Pacific bans the
declares the South Pacific a nuclear-free
zone
                                                 free zone tested in zone
                                                 placed of nuclear outer
                                                 testing or and the devices
                                                  America
                                                 nuclear-weapon-free
                                                 zone
                                                 its nuclear-weapon-free
The 1996 Pelindaba Treaty declares
                                                 space or on the moon.
                                                  Caribbean
                                                 status.
                                                 and the placement of
the African continent a nuclear-weapon-free
zone
                                                  -
                                                 radioactive waste.
The 1997 Bangkok Treaty declares
Southeast Asia a nuclear-weapon-free zone

In 1998, the General Assembly recognizes
Mongolia’s declaration of its nuclear-
weapon-free status.
   GLOBAL PRIORITIES
    Stabilize Population $ 10.5 BILLION
Provide Safe, Clean Water $ 10 BILLION
         Prevent Acid Rain $ 8 BILLION
  Prevent Global Warming $ 8 BILLION
Eliminate Nuclear Weapons $ 7 BILLION
        Stop Deforestation $ 7 BILLION
     Stop Ozone Depletion $ 5 BILLION
            Refugee Relief $ 5 BILLION
        Eliminate Illiteracy $ 5 BILLION
         Build Democracy $ 2 BILLION
      Remove Land Mines $ 2 BILLION
             GLOBAL PRIORITIES
                    Annual World
                Military Expenditures
                    $ 800 BILLION
         Provide Clean, Safe Energy $ 50 BILLION
     Retire Developing Nations’ Debt $ 30 BILLION
               Prevent Soil Erosion $ 24 BILLION
Provide Health Care and AIDS Control $ 21 BILLION
                    Provide Shelter $ 21 BILLION
Eliminate Starvation and Malnutrition $ 19 BILLION
    GLOBAL                                  Annual World
  PRIORITIES                                   Military             OVERSPENDING
                                            Expenditures             ON WEAPONS
                                            $ 800 BILLION                     vs people


Provide Clean, Safe Energy $ 50 BILLION
                                                            $ 30 BILLION Retire Developing Nations’ Debt
      Prevent Soil Erosion $ 24 BILLION
                                                            $ 21 BILLION Provide Health Care and AIDS Control
          Provide Shelter $ 21 BILLION
                                                            $ 19 BILLION Eliminate Starvation and Malnutrition
    Stabilize Population $ 10.5 BILLION
                                                            $ 10 BILLION Provide Clean, Safe Water
          Prevent Acid Rain $ 8 BILLION
                                                            $ 8 BILLION Prevent Global Warming
Eliminate Nuclear Weapons $ 7 BILLION
                                                            $ 7 BILLION Stop Deforestation
      Stop Ozone Depletion $ 5 BILLION
                                                            $ 5 BILLION Refugee Relief
         Eliminate Illiteracy $ 5 BILLION
                                                            $ 2 BILLION Build Democracy
        Remove Landmines $ 2 BILLION
Peace and Security through
 DISARMAMENT

For more information please visit the
United Nations Disarmament Website
http://disarmament.un.org
enquiries by email: ddaweb@un.org

				
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