Media Effects by ewghwehws

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									   Chapter 14

  Media Effects and
Cultural Approaches to
       Research
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 Should Life Imitate Culture?

  “Since the emergence of popular
music, movies, television, and video
 games as influential mass media,
   the relationship between make-
believe stories and real-life imitation
      has drawn a great deal of
              attention.”
          Media Effects Research
   Attempts to understand, explain, and
    predict the effects of mass media on
    individuals and society

   Cultural studies focuses on how
    people make meaning, comprehend
    reality, articulate values, and arrange
    experiences through cultural
    symbols.
    Early Media Research Methods
   Propaganda analysis

   Public opinion research

   Social psychology

   Marketing research
           Research on Media Effects
   Hypodermic-needle model
       Media shoots effects directly into
        unsuspecting victims.
   Minimal-effects model
       Rise of empirical research techniques
       Selective exposure leads to reinforcement
        of existing beliefs.
   Uses and gratifications model
       Contests notion of audience passivity
       Why do people use media?
    Conducting Media Effects Research
   Hypotheses
       Must be worded so that they are testable
   Experimental design
       Tests whether hypothesis is true
   Survey research
       Collecting and measuring data
   Content analysis
       Studies the messages of print and visual
        media
    Contemporary Media Effects
            Theories
   Social learning theory
       Attention
       Retention
       Motor reproduction
       Motivation

   Agenda-setting
       Media set the agenda for major topics
        of discussion, neglecting other
        important topics.
    Contemporary Media Effects
         Theories (cont.)

   Cultivation effect
       Heavy viewing of television leads
        individuals to perceive reality in ways
        consistent with portrayals on television.


   Spiral of silence
       Those whose views are in the minority
        will keep their views to themselves for
        fear of social isolation.
           Cultural Approaches
            to Media Research
   Cultural Studies
       Challenged mainstream media effects theory
       Attempted to make everyday culture the
        centerpiece of media studies

   Textual analysis
       Close reading and interpretation of cultural
        messages

   Audience studies
       Subject being researched is the audience for the
        text

   Political economy studies
       Examines interconnections among economic
        interests, political power, and how that power is
        used
    Cultural Studies’ Theoretical
            Perspectives
   The public sphere
       A space for critical public debate
       Advanced by German philosopher Jürgen
        Habermas
       Society in England and France in late
        seventeenth century and eighteenth
        century created spaces (coffeehouses,
        pubs) for public discourse.
      Media Research and Democracy
   Academics in media studies charged
    with increased specialization, use of
    jargon


   Public intellectuals based on
    campuses must work to help carry on
    the conversations of society and
    culture, serving as models for how to
    participate in public life.

								
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