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SAN _Storage Area Network_

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					SAN (Storage Area Network)

           Laurent Prud’homme (1740307)
           Christopher Tremblay (1730728)

                          March 02, 2002


"This report was prepared for Professor L. Orozco-Barbosa in partial fulfillment of
                the requirements for the course ELG/CEG 4183”
          SAN (Storage Area Network)


          Overview
What is it? Example of usage
Key Components
SAN Interconnectors
Data transfers
FC and iFCP
Benefits
Future trends
           SAN (Storage Area Network)


         What is it?
“A Storage Area Network is a
dedicated, centrally managed, secure
information infrastructure, which
enables any-to-any interconnection of
servers and storage systems.”IBM
           SAN (Storage Area Network)


   Example of usage?
The government, having incredible
loads of information (location of Bin
Laden on satellite maps for example)

Windows XP users’ actions recorded
and stored by Microsoft Corp.
   SAN (Storage Area Network)


Key Components
                          Clients

                          Servers

                          Interconnectors

                          Storage Devices
              SAN (Storage Area Network)


  SAN Interconnectors
Cables (copper and fiber optic)
Gigabit Interface converters               (copper 
fiber)
Gigabit Link Model       (generic fiber channel
         transceiver with intergrated key functions)
Extenders (retransmits the signal)
Multiplexers (conbining inputs into one stream)
Hubs, Routers, Bridges, Gateways and
Switches
                SAN (Storage Area Network)


      Network Topology
Point-to-point
   When only 2 nodes participate in an
    exchange
Loop
   Every node is connected to their neighbor.
    (i.e.hub)
Switched
   Routing the information to the requesting
    node.
              SAN (Storage Area Network)


         Data transfers
Storage-to-storage
   Common in systems when backups are
    needed.
Server-to-server
   Useful for sharing processed data.
Server-to-storage
   Connection allowing servers to treat raw
    data.
           SAN (Storage Area Network)


FC-Layered Architecture
Fiber Channels is the transmission
standard between computer devices.
It supports IP, IPI, FCP and other such
protocols.
Implemented in layers based on the OSI
7 layer model (similar to TCP/IP).
              SAN (Storage Area Network)


      Layers (physical)
Layer 1 (FC-0)
   Responsible for the physical characteristics
    and the media. (ex: cable)
Layer 2 (FC-1)
   Defines how data is encoded and the
    transmission protocol.
Layer 3 (FC-2)
   Determines the Class of service.
              SAN (Storage Area Network)


         Layers (upper)
Layer 4 (FC-3)
   Defines the service, which is known by all
    nodes. (ex: striping definition)
Layer 5 (FC-4)
 Specifies mapping of higher layers.
 Encapsulates protocols such as IP, FICON,
  FCP, etc.
                 SAN (Storage Area Network)


       Class of Services
Dedicated Line
   A connection-based transmission which delivers
    frames with ACK in the same order as transmitted.
Partially Dedicated
   A connection-based transmission which delivers
    frames with ACK in the same order as transmitted.
Multiple Dedicated Line
   Similar to Dedicated Line, but with multicasting.
                SAN (Storage Area Network)


      Class of Services
Multiplexed Connectionless
   Multiplexes frames (with ACK) and doesn’t
    guarantee the frame order.


Unacknowledged Multiplexed Connectionless
   Multiplexes frames (without ACK) and doesn’t
    guarantee the frame order.
             SAN (Storage Area Network)


                   iFCP
    (Internet Fibre Channel Protocol)

Replaces the FC-2 with an IP network.
It provides a serial SCSI interface to the OS.
Allows the FC to be addressed as standard
SCSI to the OS.
Addresses from domains are mapped onto
others through the Gateway architecture.
Frames from the IP domain are mapped to
Fibre Channel port_ID addresses which are
passed to the upper layers used by FC
devices.
        SAN (Storage Area Network)


              iFCP
(Internet Fibre Channel Protocol)
      SAN (Storage Area Network)


iFCP outbound mapping
      SAN (Storage Area Network)


iFCP inbound mapping
 SAN (Storage Area Network)


iFCP header
 SAN (Storage Area Network)


iFCP vs FCP
                 SAN (Storage Area Network)


       Benefits of SANs
Data Availability
   Data is separated from the application.
Centralized Data
   Makes it scalable and the flexible.
Backup
   Serverless backup process.
Offload
   Application has more processing power.
Management
   Provides a single window into the storage entity.
           SAN (Storage Area Network)


              Future
Tests are currently underway for bring
the fiber channels’ data rate up to 200
and 400 Mb/sec (compared to the 100
Mb/sec of today)
                    SAN (Storage Area Network)


   Possible Questions
     All the answers are contained in one slide of this presentation




What is SAN and what does it mean?
What are the benefits of using a SAN?
Give example situations where SAN could be
useful
What kind of data transfer is there?
How is a SAN device diffrent from a non-SAN
device
SAN stands for Secure Area Network [T/F]
What topologies can be used with a SAN
              SAN (Storage Area Network)


            Reference
IBM (+ redbook)
   http://www.storage.ibm.com/ibmsan/
NetworkComputing
   http://www.storage.ibm.com/ibmsan/san_b
    asics.htm

				
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