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					                                                                                     Introduction
    1.        OSI Reference Model via TCP/IP Reference Model
    1.1            OSI (Open System Interconnection) Reference Model.
                  The OSI model is shown is figure below:

          7 Application                           Application protocol                  Application
                          Interface
          6    Presentation                       Presentation protocol                 Presentation
                           Interface
          5   Session                              Session protocol                      Session


          4    Transport                           Transport protocol                    Transport
                                              Communication subnet boundary
          3 Network                           Network            Network                 Network
                                                       Internal subnet protocol
          2    Data Link                  Data Link              Data Link               Data Link


          1    Physical                   Physical               Physical                Physical
               Host A                         Router               Router                Host B
                                              Network layer host-router protocol
                                              Data link layer host-router protocol
                                              Physical layer host-router protocol


               This model deals with connecting open systems – that is, systems that are open
          for communication with other systems. Note that the OSI model itself is not a network
          architecture because it does not specify the exact services & protocols to be used in
          each layer. However, common standards were produced by ISO (International
          Standards Organization) for each layer:
1.1.1                        Physical Layer
                 The physical layer is concerned with transmitting raw bits over communication
              channel under assumption , that it is 100% reliable.
                  1.1.2 Data Link Layer
                 The data link layer takes a raw transmission facility and transforms it into a
              line that appears free of undetected transmission errors to the network layer. This
            task is accomplished by using data & acknowledgment frames and error detection
            algorithms (like code Humming).
1.1.3                     Network Layer
               The network layer is concerned with controlling the operation of the subnet.
            That is routing the packets from the source to destination. Routes can be based on
            static or dynamic routing tables as will be reviewed later. *(This layer is the one
            that we are actually interested in)*.
1.1.4                     Transport Layer
               The transport layer basic function is to accept data from the session layer
            derive it into packet (if necessary) , pass these to the network layer and restore the
            data on the other end.


            The session , presentation & application layers are less interesting for us,
         however you can find their reviews in “Computer Network” of Andrew Tanenbaum (3-d
         edition).


   1.2               TCP/IP Reference Model
            This model was developed on the base of first computer networks (like
         ARPANET) and has only 4 layers:
1.2.1                     Internet Layer
               The internet layer is the linchpin that holds the whole architecture together. It
            allows hosts to inject their packets into any network and have them travel
            independently to their destination. This layer defines official protocol called IP.
1.2.2                     Transport Layer
               The transport layer lies above the internet layer and it’s functionality is much
            alike to the same layer in OSI model – it allows peer entities on the source &
            destination hosts to carry on a conversation (2 end-to-end protocols were defined
            here: TCP & UDP).


               There are tow more layers application & host-to-network that less interest us
            (the host-to-network layer plays minor part in TCP/IP protocol, steel being
            significant enough by itself) , you can find further information at the same
            reference as before.
           1.3 OSI via TCP/IP
           Our major interest is in deference’s at the network layer, them we will focus on:
              ~ The OSI model supports both connectionless & connection-oriented
           communication in the network layer , but only connection-oriented communication in
           the transport layer.
              ~ The TCP\IP model has only one mode in the network layer – connectionless, but
           supports both modes in transport layer, giving the user a choice. This choice is
           especially important for simple request-response protocols.


              Generally the OSI model has proven to be exceptionally useful for discussing
           computer networks, but OSI protocols did not become popular .The reverse is true of
           TCP/IP: the model is practically nonexistent , but the protocols are widely used.


      2.      Routing
           2.1 Field of interest.
              So far we have had a surface glance on two major reference models in network:
           OSI & TCP/IP. In this course we are mainly interested in one particular layer – the
           network layer, which is also divided into two approaches:
2.1.1                     connectionless type
2.1.2                     connection – oriented type


              The connection – oriented type refers to such protocols as ATM, telephony and so
           on. This type of connection doesn’t fit the hardware described below (CISCO Router
           2600/11), thus it will not be discussed here.


2.2        Connectionless Routing (general).
                  (any detailed information available at “Computer Networks” Andrew Tanenbaum, chap. 5).
              The independent packets of connectionless organization are called datagrams (in
           analogy with telegrams). In that kind of organization the routing table telling which
           outgoing line to use for each possible destination router is build in every router. Each
           datagram must contain the full destination address. When the packet comes, the router
           looks up the outgoing line to use in the routing table and sends the packet on its way.
        Also , the establishment and release of network or transport layer connections do not
        require any special work on the part of the routers.
2.2.1                  Routing Algorithms.
                   The main function of the network layer is routing packets from source to
               destination. The algorithms that chouse the routes and the data structures that
               they use area major area of network layer design.
                   The routing algorithm is that part of the network layer software
               responsible for deciding which output line an incoming packet should be
               transmitted on. If the subnet uses datagrams internally , this decision must be
               made anew for every arriving data packet since the best route may have
               changed since last time. In the subnet using virtual circuits such decision is
               made ones per session.
                   Routing algorithms can be grouped into two major classes: nonadaptive
               and adaptive.
   1)                       Nonadaptive algorithms do not base their
        routing decisions on measurements or estimates of the current
        traffic and topology. Instead , the choice of the route to use to get
        from I to J is computed in advance , of-line, and downloaded to the
        routers when the network is booted. This procedure is sometimes
        called static routing.
   2)                       Adaptive algorithms ,in contrast, change their
        routing decisions to reflect changes in the topology , and usually
        the traffic as well. Adaptive algorithms differ in where the get their
        information ,when they change the routes , and what metric is used
        for optimization . They are also called dynamic.
2.2.2                  The Optimality Principle
                    To start with algorithm’s overview we should see some helpful theoretical
               explanations. The optimality principle states that if router J is on the optimal
               path from router I to router K, then the optimal path from J to K also falls
               along the same route. As a consequence of that principle, we can see that the
               set of optimal routes from all sources to a given destination form a tree rooted
               at the destination. Such tree is called a sink tree.
                    In the next three sections, we will look at three static routing algorithms,
               subsequently we will move to dynamic ones.
2.2.3          Shortest Path Routing
            The following technique is widely used in many forms, because it is
        simple and easy to understand. The idea is to build a graph of the subnet, with
        each node of the graph representing a router and each arc representing a
        communication line (link).To choose a rout between a given pair of routers ,
        the algorithm just finds the shortest path between them on the graph. The
        shortest path concept includes definition of the way of measuring path length.
        Deferent metrics like number of hops, geographical distance, the mean
        queuing and transmission delay of router can be used. In the most general
        case, the labels on the arcs could be computed as a function of the distance,
        bandwidth, average traffic, communication cost, mean queue length, measured
        delay, and other factors.
            There are several algorithms for computing shortest path between two
        nodes of a graph. One of them due to Dijkstra.
2.2.4          Flooding
            That is another static algorithm, in witch every incoming packet is sent
        out on every outgoing line except the one it arrived on. Flooding generates
        infinite number of duplicate packets unless some measures are taken to damp
        the process.
            One such measure is to have a hop counter in the header of each packet,
        which is decremented at each hop, with the packet being discarded when the
        counter reaches zero. Ideally, the hop counter is initialized to the length of the
        path from source to destination. If the sender does not no the path length, it
        can initialize the counter to the worst case, the full diameter of the subnet.
            An alternative technique is to keep track of which packets have been
        flooded, to avoid sending then out a second time. To achieve this goal the
        source router put a sequence number in each packet it receives from its hosts.
        Then each router needs a list per source router telling which sequence numbers
        originating at that source have already been seen. Any incoming packet that is
        on the list is not flooded. To prevent list form growing, each list should be
        augmented by a counter, k, meaning that all sequence numbers through k have
        been seen.
               A variation of flooding named selective flooding is slightly more
        practical. In this algorithm the routers do not send every incoming packet out
        on every line, but only on those going approximately in the right
        direction.(there is usually little point in sending a westbound packet on an
        eastbound line unless the topology is extremely peculiar).
               Flooding algorithms are rarely used, mostly with distributed systems or
        systems with tremendous robustness requirements at any instance.
2.2.5             Flow-Based Routing
               The algorithms seen above took only topology into account and did not
        consider the load. The following algorithm considers both and is called flow-
        based routing.
               In some networks, the mean data flow between each pair of nodes is
        relatively stable and predictable. Under conditions in which the average traffic
        from i to j is known in advance and to a reasonable approximation ,constant in
        time, it is possible to analyze the flows mathematically to optimize the routing.
               The idea behind the analysis is that for a given line, if the capacity and
        average flow are known, it is possible to compute the mean packet delay on
        that line from queuing theory. From the mean delays on all the lines , it is
        straightforward to calculate a flow-weighted average to get the mean packet
        delay for the whole subnet. The routing problem then reduces to finding the
        routing algorithm that produces the minimum average delay for the subnet.
               This technology demands certain information in advance. First the subnet
        topology, second the traffic matrix, third the capacity matrix and finally a
        routing algorithm (further explanation look at the same reference as above).
2.2.6             Distance Vector Routing
               Modern computer networks generally use dynamic routing algorithms
        rather then static ones described above. Two dynamic algorithms in particular,
        distance vector & link state routing are the most popular. In this section we
        will look at the former algorithm. In the following one we will study the later
        one.
               Distance vector routing algorithms operate by having each router
        maintain a table giving he best known distance to each destination and which
        line to use to get there. These table are updated by exchanging information
        with the neighbors.
                     The distance vector routing algorithm is sometimes called by other names
               including Bellman-Ford or Ford-Fulkerson. It was the original ARPANET
               routing algorithm and was also used in the Internet under the name RIP and in
               early versions of DECnet and Novell’s IPX. AppleTalk & CISCO routers use
               improved distance vector protocols.
                     In that algorithm each router maintains a routing table indexed by and
               containing one entry for each router in the subnet. This entry contains two
               parts: the preferred outgoing line to use for that destination and an estimate of
               the time or distance to that destination. The metric used might be number of
               hops, time delay in milliseconds, total number of packets queued along the
               path or something similar.
                     The router is assumed to know the “distance” to each of its neighbors. In
               the hops metric the distance is one hop, for queue length metrics the router
               examines each queue, for the delay metric the route can measure it directly
               with special ECHO packets that the receiver just timestamps and sends back as
               fast as it can.
                     Distance vector routing works in theory, but has a serious drawback in
               practice: although it converges to the correct answer, it may be done slowly.
               Good news propagates at linear time through the subnet, while bad ones have
               the count-to-infinity problem: no router ever has a value more then one
               higher than the minimum of all its neighbors. Gradually, all the routers work
               their way up to infinity, but the number of exchanges required depends on the
               numerical value used for infinity. One of the solutions to this problem is split
               horizon algorithm that defines the distance to the X router is reported as
               infinity on the line that packets for X are sent on. Under that behavior bad
               news propagate also at linear speed through the subnet.
2.2.7                   Link State Routing
                     The idea behind link state routing is simple and can be stated as five parts.
               Each router must:
   1)                   Discover its neighbors and learn their network
        addresses.
   2)                   Measure the delay or cost to each of its neighbors.
   3)                   Construct a packet telling to all it has just learned.
   4)                   Send the packet to all other routers.
   5)           Compute the shortest path to every other router.
           In effect, the complete topology and all delays re experimentally measured
        and distributed to every router. Then Dijkstra’s algorithm can be used to find
        the shortest path to every other router.
2.2.8           Hierarchical Routing
            As the network grows larger the amount of resources necessary to take
        care or routing table becomes enormous and makes routing impossible. Here
        appears the idea of hierarchical routing that suggests that routers should be
        divided into regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to
        route packets within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal
        structure of other regions.
            Unfortunately the gains in routing table size & CPU time are not free, the
        penalty of increasing path length has to be paid.
            It has been discovered that the optimal number of nested levels for an N
        router subnet is ln N, requiring a total of eln N entries per router.
2.2.9           Routing for Mobile Hosts
            Through the last years more and more people purchase portable computer
        under natural assumption that they can be used all over the world. These
        mobile hosts introduce new complication: to route a packet to a mobile host
        the network first has to find it. Generally that requirement is implemented
        through creation of two new issues in LAN foreign agent and home agent.
            Each time any mobile host connects to the network it collects a foreign
        agent packet or generates a request for foreign agent, as a result they establish
        connection between them and the mobile host supplies the foreign agent with
        it’s home & some security information.
            After that the foreign agent contacts the mobile host’s home agent and
        delivers the information about the mobile host.
            Subsequently the home agent examines the received information and if it
        authorizes the security information of mobile host it allows the foreign agent
        to proceed. As the result the foreign agent enters the mobile host into it’s
        routing table.
            When the packet for the mobile host arrive its home agent it encapsulates
        it and redirects to the foreign agent where the mobile host is hosting. Then it
                   returns encapsulation data to the router that sent the packet so that all next
                   packet would be directly sent to correspondent router (foreign agent).
2.2.10                    Broadcast Routing
                       For some applications ,hosts need to send messages to many or all other
                   hosts. Broadcast routing is used for that purpose. Some deferent methods
                   where proposed for doing that.
   1)                      The source should send the packet to all the necessary
         destinations. One of the problems of this method is that the source has
         to have the complete list of destinations.
   2)                      Flooding routing. As it was discussed before the
         problem of that method is generating duplicate packets.
   3)                      Multidestination routing. In that method each packet
         includes list or a bitmap indicating desired destinations. When a
         packet arrives router checks all the destinations to determine the set of
         output lines that will be needed, generates a new copy of the packet
         for each output line to be used and includes in each packet only those
         destinations that are to use the line. In effect, the destination set is
         partitioned between the lines. After a sufficient number of hops, each
         packet will carry only one destination and can be treated as a normal
         packet.
   4)                      This routing method makes use of spanning tree of
         the subnet. If each router knows which of its lines belong to the
         panning tree, it can copy an incoming broadcast packet onto all the
         spanning tree lines except the one it arrived on. Problem: each router
         has to know the spanning tree.
   5)                      Reverse path-forwarding algorithm at the arrival of
         the packet checks if the line that packet arrived on is the same one
         through which the packets are send to the source, if yes it sends it
         through all other lines, otherwise discards it.
2.2.11                    Multicast Routing
                       Sending messages to well-defined groups that are numerically large in
                   size, but small compared to the network as a whole is called multicasting. To
                   do multicasting, group management is required, but that is not concern of
                   routers. What is of concern is that when a process joins a group, it informs its
host of this fact. It is important that routers know which of their hosts belong
to which group. Either hosts must inform their routers about changes in group
membership, or routers must query their hosts periodically.
    To do multicast routing, each router computes a spanning tree covering all
other routers in the subnet. When a process sends a multicast packet to a
group, the first router examines its spanning tree ad prunes it, removing all
lines that do not lead to hosts that are members of the group.
    The simplest way of pruning the panning tree is under Link State routing
when each router is aware of the complete subnet topology, including which
hosts belong to which groups. Then the spanning tree can be pruned by staring
at the end to each path and working toward the root, removing all routers that
do not belong the group in question.
    A different pruning strategy is followed with distance vector routing,
reverse path forwarding algorithm. Whenever a router with no hosts interested
in a particular group and no connections to other routers receives a multicast
message for that group, it responds with a PRUNE message, telling the sender
not to send it any more multicasts for that group. When a router with no group
members among its own hosts has received such messages on all its lines, it,
too, can respond with a PRUINE message. In this way, the subnet is
recursively pruned.
    One potential disadvantage of this algorithm is that it scales poorly to
large networks.
    An alternative design uses core-base trees. Here a single spanning tree
per group is computed, with the root (the core) near the middle of the group.
To send a multicast message, a host sends it to the core, which then does the
multicast along the spanning tree. Although this tree will not be optimal for all
sources, the reduction in storage costs from m trees to one tree per group is a
major saving.

				
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