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Soviet and Post-Soviet Foreign Policy

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					  SOVIET AND
 POST-SOVIET
FOREIGN POLICY

  In Search of Stalin
  TODAY’S AGENDA

 Administrative
 Web  Site of the Day
 News
 Soviet Foreign Policy under Stalin
        ADMINISTRATIVE
 Apology
 Thanks  for the Essays
 Do Your Readings!
 Office and Office hours…
 Upcoming Exam (5/1)
  – How to use the study guide
 Seeme after class to sign-up for
 lunches
  – Voluntary
  – TNSTAAFL
  – Wexner
   WEB SITE OF THE DAY
 The Central Intelligence Agency
 http://www.odci.gov
 Especially the “World Factbook”
  – Maps- by country plus one of “CIS”
  – Background information
     To   include major religion and capitals
  – Use it for first exam!!!
The World Factbook
        AND IN THE NEWS...
   President and Patriarch celebrate Paschal Liturgy
    – Putin; “The Orthodox Church has played a special role in
      the history of Russia, in the establishment and
      consolidation of the state.”
    – Patriarch congratulated those fighting in Chechnya
   Open Skies Treaty
    – transparency
   US Criticizes Attacks on Free Press
    – Let’s look at each side’s “frame”
    – Are these frames determined by ideology or pragmatism
      (realism vs. “ideas”)
          What is the goal of our position?
          What are the costs and benefits of our position?
          Goal and costs of their position?
   The Perils of Volunteer Work
    – Not to mention fishing, doing science, or serving in
      military
IDEOLOGY, MISCALCULATION, OR PURE GENIUS
   Ideology: world revolution was inevitable
   Bolsheviks Divided on WWI Strategy
    – 1917 Decree of Peace
           Olive Branch to Germany (devil)
           Play for time (why?)
           German’s had the better hand
    – Trotsky’s “No War No Peace”
           German called their bluff and moved East
           Gave support to Lenin’s pragmatism
    – Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
           Russians gave up tons of land, humiliated, more pragmatic,
            defensive, and bitter
           Realized need to consolidate power at home while moving for
            revolution abroad.
           Consolidated Lenin’s control over party
   The Polish Fiasco: “Revolution from Without”
   Three factors resulting from formative years:
    – Revolutionary Internationalism (isolation, COMINTERN)
    – The new pillar of the revolution: the RKKA
    – Tactical Flexibility (read summary on page 36)
              ACCOMMODATION OR RETREAT?
   Huge Army: No longer necessary
    – Move to dual standing/militia formulation
   War Communism: no longer useful
    – Switch to NEP (Which one was Lenin’s true preference?)
   Adversarial Relationship w/West no longer useful
    – Needed hold out until world revolution (Lenin’s preference?)
    – Double strategy: formal friendship while undermining friends
      (COMINTERN)
    – Increased economic ties, but still uneasy about West
    – The answer? Align with Germany
   Treaty of Rapallo: true pragmatism (16 April 1922)
    –   Full diplomatic relations
    –   Mutual most-favored nation status
    –   Mutual renunciation of war damages
    –   Served many purposes
            Security: alliance with a major Western power
            Took advantage of Western divisions and prevented anti-Soviet
             alliance: maintained balance of power
            Secret protocols: military cooperation
          STALIN COMES IN
   1922: Treaty of Rapallo
    – W/ Germany
 Lenin dies in 1924
 Stalin’s Rise to Power
    – He, Zinoviev and Kamenev vs. Trotski (left)
    – Then shifting alliances to consolidate power
    – Then ZKT vs. Stalin, Bukharin et al (right): won
      in 1927
    – But NEP became unpopular… so Stalin vs.
      Bukharin and rise of 5 year plans
 How did Stalin do it?
 Socialism in One Country
    – Necessity is the mother of invention…
                 STALIN COMES IN
   Soviet Situation in 30’s
    – State of Economy? 5 year plans imposed
      short term losses
    – State of military? (purges etc.)
    – State of relations/accommodation?
      Deteriorating
   In Europe: Collective Security
    (Litvinov)
    – Doomed from the get go?
    – Worried about war, knew they MUST have
      peace
           Rise of Hitler in ’33
           Japanese troops on Eastern border          Military Purge
             – German/Japanese anti COMINTERN union    Rank       Killed/Total
             – Luckily, Japan attacked China instead   Marshals      3/5
           Joined League of Nations (after Germany    Army COs     13/15
            and Japan left)                            Corp Cos     50/57
                                                       Div Cos     154/186
   At Home: build industry and modernize              Colonels    401/456
    army
    TRYING TO AVOID WWII
   1938 and CZ: Stalin out in the Cold
   Stalin new war was coming…
    – The Western Powers dragged their feet…
    – Litvinov (Mr. Collective Security) sacked
   August 23, 1939: Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact
    – “No War, No Peace”- Revisited?
    – Goodbye for good collective security!!!
    – Why did they do this? What were the benefits? Time?
   August 30, 1939: Molotov defends pact
   September 1, 1939: Germany -> Poland
    – WWII Begins
   1940 Stalin Gets Greedy
    – Finland, Bulgaria, Turkey, Bessarabia
    – Treaty of Neutrality with Japan
    – Continued appeasement of Germany
   And Pays for it!!! (22 June 1941)
          COMING UP
 TUESDAY      (4/24)
 – WWII and the COLD WAR
 THURSDAY       (4/26)
 – The decline of the Soviet Union
    Perhaps   a movie on Afghanistan
 TUESDAY      (5/1)
 – EXAM
    Contact   me if you have questions!!!!
        THE WAR ENDS
 May8, 1945: Germany Surrenders
 August 6: Hiroshima
 August 8: Soviets vs. Japan
 August 14: Japan Gives Up (9/2/45)
         THE IRON CURTAIN
 February,   1947: USSR Expands
  – Annexation, treaties, coalitions, etc.
 Why Expansionism?
 The Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan
 Soviet Consolidation
              KOREA
 Russia’s  Interest and Strategy
 August 15, 1945: 38th Parallel
 June 25, 1950 Invasion
 UN/US Reaction and Results
 July 1953 Armistice
 Stalin in Retrospect
QUESTIONS???

				
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posted:2/1/2012
language:English
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