The President

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					The President
Obama
 • Are individual
   personalities now more
   important than parties?
Bush

       Can the
       President
       control
       public
       discussion?
Clinton, Reagan, Nixon

              Does a president
              have to be ―moral‖
              in order to be a
              good president?
Nixon

   Do Americans need a
   President to have
   trustworthy character?
Eisenhower


        Must the modern
        President always
        be involved in
        everything or
        have a solution for
        everything?
Franklin Delano
   Roosevelt

          What role does
          confidence in the
          President have on
          American morale?
FDR


 Does a lot of action and
 policy creation make a
 President ―great‖?
 Can a President be ―great‖
 if not much is changed
 during their Presidency?
                   Constitutional
                   Requirements
Qualifications
• Art. II
• ―natural-born citizen‖
• 14 years of US residency
• 35 years of age
• THAT’S IT!!!
                     Qualifications of
                       Presidency
• Informal qualifications:
  – Government experience—Congress,
    Governor, VP, cabinet member, etc
  – Military experience
  – Money $$$$$$
     • $33.78 million in primaries & $67.56 million in
       general election on average in modern elections
  – Political beliefs—moderate
  – Personal characteristics and background
                     Take Five
What ―informal‖ characteristics
are required to be President today?
             Duties of the President
• Appointing heads of executive
  departments, federal ct judges etc. (with
  Senate consent)
• Commander in chief
  – Manages a $400 billion defense budget
• Conducting foreign policy
• Lawmaking abilities
• State of the Union address
                     Take Five
What are some of the perks to
being President today?
                 Benefits of Presidency
•   Most powerful man in the free world
•   Salary $400,000 + $100,000 travel allowance
•   Air Force One—planes, trains and automobiles
•   Free medical, dental, health care etc
•   The White House = home!
•   Camp David = vacation
•   Lifetime retirement pension $148,400 per year +
    free office space + free mailing service +
    $96,000 for office support + Presidential Library
    and other honors
Lincoln’s Bedroom & the
    Rosewood Bed
The Red Room &
The China Room
Balancing work and
      home
Oval Office in the 1960’s
Oval Office under
  George W.
Obama’s Oval Office
Camp David
  Malia & Sasha
Obama’s Playhouse
               Constitutional Powers
•    Powers/duties are very limited
•    ―executive power‖ – enact/enforce law
1.   Military Power
2.   Diplomatic Power
3.   Appointment Power
4.   Veto Power
               Presidential Powers
• ―The Executive Power shall be vested in a
  President of the United States of America‖
• Too vague…
                The top 10 BEST
                   Presidents
(1) Abraham Lincoln
(2) Franklin D. Roosevelt
(3) George Washington
(4) Thomas Jefferson
(5) Theodore Roosevelt
(6) Andrew Jackson
(7) Woodrow Wilson
(8) Harry S. Truman
(9) James K. Polk
(10) Dwight D. Eisenhower
                 The top 10 WORST
                     Presidents
(1) James Buchanan
(2) Warren G. Harding
(3) Andrew Johnson
(4) Franklin Pierce
(5) Millard Fillmore
(6) John Tyler
(7) Ulysses S. Grant
(8) William H. Harrison
(9) Herbert Hoover in a tie with
(9) Richard Nixon
(10)Zachary Taylor
              Presidential traditions
• George Washington
  – Mr. President
  – 2 terms and stepping down
  – Salary
• Franklin D. Roosevelt
  – 22nd Amendment
            Strengthening the
               Presidency
• Washington – set precedent for
  future
• Jackson – frequent use of veto
  power
• Lincoln – Commander and Chief to
  new levels of power during the Civil
  War
• FDR – huge influence on policy with
  New Deal, checked by Supreme
  Court
                       Strong executives
• Thomas Jefferson
   – LA Purchase= ―inherit powers‖
• Abraham Lincoln
   – Suspended the writ of habeas corpus & raised an army
• Theodore Roosevelt
   – ―president’s right and duty to do anything that the needs of
     the Nation demanded unless such action was forbidden
     by the Constitution or by the laws‖
• Franklin D. Roosevelt
   – Social welfare programs
• Lyndon Johnson
   – Gulf of Tonkin incident & the blank check
• George W. Bush
   – Homeland security
                       Roles of the President
• Head of State
   – Ceremonial duties—living symbol of the nation
• Chief Executive
   –   Ensures the laws of Congress are carried out
   –   Right to appoint or remove federal officials
   –   Appoints all federal judges and justices of the Supreme Court
   –   Granting Amnesty—group pardon
        • George Washington & the Whiskey Rebellion
   – Issues repreives and pardons
        • Ford pardoned Nixon
        • Clinton pardoned numerous individuals before leaving office
   – Impoundment—refusing to spend money that Congress has authorized
        • Jefferson refused to spend money on gunboats
        • Nixon refused to spend money on social programs
   – Issues exectutive orders
        • Desegregation of armed forces under Truman
                  Roles of the President
• Chief Legislator
  – State of the Union address
  – Influencing Congress for support
     • Political favors
     • Power of veto
     • Line item veto—ruled unconstitutional in Clinton v City of NY
• Economic Planner
  – Council of Economic Advisors
     • Nixon control to freeze prices and wages
     • Prepares the federal budget
• Party Leader
                      Veto Power
• Veto – return the bill to house it originated
(no action within 10 days – bill becomes law)
               Appointment Power
• Power to appoint ambassadors, public
  officers, and Supreme Court Judges with
  Senate approval (advice and consent)
• Civil Service – most gov jobs under
  executive filled based on merit system




John Roberts   Harriet Miers     John Bolton
                  Roles of the President
• Chief Diplomat
  – Directs foreign policy
  – Directs CIA, State Department, Defense Department
    & NSC
  – Power to make treaties (w/ Senate approval)
  – Recognition of foreign governments
     • Wilson refused to recognize the leader of Mexico
     • Kennedy refused to recognize the leader of Cuba
  – Power to make Executive Agreements
     • FDR and G. Britain in WWII
     • Nixon’s secret deal to N. Vietnam
     • Congress makes it illegal in 1972
                  Diplomatic Power
• Create treaties with foreign nations with
  Senate permission, 2/3 Senate approval
  (advice and consent)
• Executive agreement – not permission
  needed, deal between heads of state, not
  binding to next administration
• Diplomatic Recognition – power to officially
  recognize foreign gov as legit
  – Ex. 1917-1933 – USSR not recognized
  – Ex. 1949-1970s – China not recognized
               Roles of the President
• Commander in Chief
  – Power to make war
    • Korea, Vietnam, Gulf War, Panama (overthrow of
      dictator Manuel Noriega) War on Terror—
      Afghanistan & Iraq
  – Military operations and strategy
    • Day to day operations
    • Military backgrounds of Presidents
    • Atomic capabilities
       – Nagasaki and Hiroshima
                       Military Power
• Commander in Chief (civilian control)
• Prez can send armed forces abroad
  – Congress has not declared war since 12/8/1941
  – Korea, Vietnam, Iraq? – all Constitutional
• War Powers Resolution, 1973
  – Prez must report to Congress within 48 hours after
    deployment
  – If Congress does not OK in 60 days, must withdraw
  – Check on president, attempt to limit president
                        Presidential deaths in
                         office (Tecumseh’s
                               curse?)
• 8 Presidents have died in office
   – William Henry Harrison - April 4, 1841, died of pneumonia after giving a
     long inaugural address in the cold and rain.
   – Zachary Taylor - July 9, 1850, died of cholera after eating tainted
     cherries and milk in the middle of the summer.
   – Abraham Lincoln - April 15, 1865, died a few hours after being shot by
     an assassin.
   – James Garfield - September 19, 1881, died of blood poisoning two
     months after being shot by an assassin.
   – William McKinley - September 14, 1901, died eight days after being shot
     by an assassin.
   – Warren G. Harding - August 2, 1923, died of pneumonia.
   – Franklin D. Roosevelt - April 12, 1945, died of a cerebral hemorrhage.
   – John F. Kennedy - November 22, 1963, died a few hours after being
     shot by an assassin.
   – 25th Amendment establishes Presidential Succession
                 Order of Succession…
• Succession Act of 1947 established order of
  succession based on creation of cabinet
  positions
  – VP; Speaker of the House; President Pro Tempore;
    Sec. of State; Sec of Treasury; Sec of Defense….
• First applied in 1973 (Nixon administration)
  –   Spiro Agnew resigned
  –   Gerald Ford becomes newly appointed VP
  –   Richard Nixon resigned
  –   Gerald Ford becomes Pres
  –   Nelson Rockefeller becomes newly appointed VP
                     Take Five
What happens if the President is
NOT dead, but disabled?
                    Presidential disabilities
•   James Garfield
•   Woodrow Wilson
•   Dwight D. Eisenhower
•   Ronald Reagan
•   25th amendment
    – President informs Congress of disability or
    – VP & majority of cabinet informs Congress of
      disability
       • Congress has 21 days to settle disputes in favor of Pres or
         VP by 2/3 vote
               Presidential Disability
                 and Succession
• 22nd Amendment – limited President to 2
  terms, serving no more than 10 years
• 25th Amendment – If the VP office is
  vacated, then the President can select a
  new VP
                 Role of the Vice
                    President
• All qualifications of President apply
• Presides over Senate—tie breaker
• 25th Amendment—waiting for the
  President to die (14 VP’s have become
  President in this fashion)
• Modern day—diplomatic responsibly,
  foreign policy, lawmakers, extension of
  President
                    Vice President
• Preside over the Senate, tie breaking vote
• Takes over the presidency if the President
  cannot finish term
• 12th Amendment – voters choose
  President and VP together
  – Previous to 1804, the losing candidate
    became VP
  – WHAT A DISASTER!!!!
                   Electing the President
• Electoral college
  – Popular vote is actually a vote for either the Democrat
    or Republican electors of each state
  – 538 Electors determine the President
  – State electors = # of HOR + Senators in Congress
     • Wyoming = fewest electoral votes (3)
     • California = largest electoral votes (55)
  – Candidates must win 270 electoral votes to win
  – Maine & Nebraska are exceptions (split the electoral
    vote)
                    Take Five…
• Is the ―winner take all‖ system of the
  electoral college fair? Why or why not?
  What are some possibilities for reforming
  the current system?
                   The role of third party
                        candidates
• Third parties could win enough votes to prevent
  a majority for either party
• Third party candidates then bargain to release
  votes to one side or the other
• In the event the House of Rep. has to decide,
  each state casts 1 vote, the candidate with 26
  votes wins
  – Problems with HOR vote
     • Equal representation
     • States in disagreement lose their vote
     • States with strong third party favorites lose vote
                   The Inauguration
• Shift of power
  – President and President elect ride together to
    the inauguration or ―swearing in‖ ceremony
  – President elect takes the oath of office
  – Current President delivers a speech and
    ceremonies begin
                          The Cabinet
• 15 major executive departments
  – Secretary of State, Sec. of Treasury etc…
• Vice President
• Top officials
• All cabinet members must be approved by the
  Senate
  – Typically has the background, education and
    qualifications for the job, race, and gender also play a
    role
  – Salary: $161,200
                  Role of the Cabinet
•   Depends on the President
•   ―kitchen cabinet‖ & ―brain trust‖
•   Aides & spouses
•   ―inner cabinet‖
•   Party loyalty, special interest groups, etc
•   Secrecy and trust
                 The Executive Office
• Executive office agencies
  – Attorneys, scientists, educators, financial
    advisors, etc
  – 1,500 full time employees
  – Enlarges each administration
     • Ex: Reagan Office of national drug control policy
     • Largest EOP = Office of management & budget
              Executive Office of the
                   President
• National Security Council – advises on
  military and foreign policy
• Office of Management and Budget –
  prepares national budget, largest office
• National Economic Council – advises with
  economic planning
                  Take Five…
• What is a modern day EOP?
                White House Staff
• President appoints w/o Senate approval
• Chief of Staff
• Press Secretary
  – G. Washington = 0
  – F.D.R. = 50
  – Nixon = 600
  – Clinton = 380
                                       The Cabinet
• 15 major department heads advising prez
• ―Inner cabinet‖ – Secretary of State,
  treasury, attorney general, and defense




Hillary Clinton – Secretary of State     Robert Gates – Secretary of Defense
               White House Office
• ―Pyramid‖ model – assistants answer to a
  hierarchy up to a chief of staff (few top
  advisors to prez, prez free but isolated)
• ―Circular‖ model – direct contact with staff
  (many top advisors to prez, prez busy but
  connected)
• Significance: determines what aids have the
  most influence on presidential decisions
                   Take Five…
• How does the President get the mandate –
  popular support—of the people? What
  happens if a President does not receive a
  mandate?
             Mandate of the People
• Mass media, press conferences, leaking
  information
• Opinion polls
  – Nixon—90% of the public wanted to see an
    end to the war in Vietnam
  – Reagan—the ―Great Communicator‖
  – George W.—90% approval rating after
    ―declaring a war on terror‖ in 2001…but
    dropped significantly as the war in Iraq
    continued and Katrina hit
              Limits on Presidential
                     Powers
• Congressional override 2/3 vote to
  override a Presidential veto
• Senate confirmation of appointees
• Congressional power to Impeach
  – Andrew Johnson; Richard Nixon; Bill Clinton
              Limits on Presidential
                     Powers
• Supreme Court has authority to limit the
  President (Executive Branch)
  – Marbury v Madison
  – Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v Sawyer
                Executive privilege
•  The right to privacy of conversation
   between advisors and prez
Why?
1. Separation of powers prevents branches
   from sharing internal workings
2. Privacy is needed for candid advice from
   advisors with out political pressure
                 Executive Privilege
US v. Nixon
- Nixon refused to hand over
  recorded conversations,
  claiming Exec. Privilege
- Court ruled in favor of US
  - EP can’t be used to block the
    function of the federal court
    procedures
                    Impoundment
• Presidential practice of refusing to spend
  money appropriated by Congress.
• Budget Reform and Impoundment Act of
  1974 – president must spend funds
            The President as Morale
                    Builder
• Symbolic importance (FDR – Great
  Depression, Bush – 9/11)
• Unify nation
                  Agenda Setting
The President can control public policy and
  discussion through…
• The media
• State of the Union speech
• Make policy proposals
• Encourage the Congress
                 Executive Orders
• Prez issues executive orders that have
  force of law
• Ex – power to enforce the Constitution,
  treaties, laws, etc.
  – FDR – allowed Japanese internment
  – Truman – integrate military
  – Eisenhower – desegregate public schools
                 Line-Item Veto???
• Should the President be able to veto
  certain parts of a bill, and not other parts?
• Line-Item Veto Act 1996
• Clinton v. City of New York (1997) – law
  found unconstitutional
                         Gridlock
• Divided government – Prez and Congress
  majority represent different political parties
• ―gridlock‖ – the inability to accomplish goals
  – Con – government operation shuts down
  – Pro – slows the decision making process,
    example of check and balance
                    Take Five
Which Presidents have been
Impeached?
                  Impeachment
• House impeaches, Senate tries the prez,
  Chief Justice presides over the trial
• Two presidents impeached, neither
  removed (Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton)

				
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