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Management of ODS Banks”End of Life” ODS

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					     Management of
ODS Banks/”End of Life” ODS
 English Speaking Caribbean Ozone Officers
         Regional Network Meeting
              Antigua Barbuda
               March 2, 2011

                R.J. Cooke
     Man-West Environmental Group Ltd.
              Presentation Scope

•   ODS Banks/ “EOL” ODS in context of ozone
    layer protection and the MP
•   Nature of the EOL ODS issue
•   EOL ODS mgt. steps and technologies
     Capture
     Destruction
     Validation
•   Barriers to EOL ODS management
•   Options to address barriers
•   Approach for the Caribbean Region
                ODS Bank and EOL ODS

•   The ODS Bank is what is in productive use that has
    potential for atmospheric release (“consumption not
    yet emitted”).
•   EOL ODS is no longer in productive use and without the
    prospect thereof (ODS that is now subject to
    atmospheric release).
•   By definition EOL ODS excludes ODS that is
    recovered/reclaimed for future productive use.
•   EOL ODS is a “waste” whose default management option
    results in global environmental damage.
•   Essentially a “hazardous waste” requiring
    environmentally sound management (ESM) but generally
    without a local environmental/health risk.
        ODS Bank/EOL ODS: Global Context
•   ESM of the global ODS Bank and EOL ODS is one of the
    remaining ozone layer threats to be addressed by the MP.
•   Capture and environmentally sound destruction of the
    global ODS Bank could theoretically have significant
    accelerating effect on ozone layer recovery.
•   Parallel climate change impacts
•   In practice the actual potential benefits of EOL ODS mgt.
    is much less due to practical limits on timing, ability and
    cost effectiveness of capture/destruction (CTC an
    exception)
•   Unlike actual ODS phase out, management of ODS banks
    and EOL ODS is not subject to direct control measures
    under the MP.
              Sources/Types of EOL ODS
•   Refrigerants
     CFC-12, HCFC-22, HCFC blends
     Domestic/commercial appliances, large refrigeration & A/C
      equipment
•   Retained in Foams
     CFC-11, HCFC-141b, HCFC-22, HCFC-142b
     Domestic/commercial appliances, building materials,
      packaging
•   Fire protection systems
     Halon 1211, 1301,2402
     Decommissioned systems
•   Redundant/obsolete stocks, confiscations – MB
•   Excess production/ by-products - CTC
    Factors in Prioritizing EOL ODS Management
•   Volume - CFCs (near term), HCFCs
•   ODP – CFCs, halons
•   GWP – CFC-12, HCFCs
•   Availability in quantity
     GDP
     Population
     Originating sources
•   Sector Accessibility
     Commercial/domestic refrigerants
     Halons
•   Cost of capture/processing/destruction
     Form available
     Existing capture infrastructure/institutions
     Access to destruction capacity
           EOL ODS Management Process
         Capture   Destruction   Validation

      EOL ODS Capture -Refrigerant/Halons
   Removal from equipment
   Decision on future productive use (is it a
    waste?)
   Consolidation/secure storage
   Ownership/care and custody arrangements
   Documentation/analysis
   Base on existing service infrastructure
    upgraded for secure storage arrangements
          EOL ODS Management Process
        Capture      Destruction    Validation
            EOL ODS Capture -Foam
 Removal from equipment/application
 Process option 1:
   Size reduce
   Package for destruction
   Consolidation/secure temporary storage
 Process Option 2
   Blowing agent extraction
   Potential integration with destruction
 Ownership/care and custody arrangements
 Tracking/Documentation of origin/analysis
                EOL ODS Management Process
             Capture         Destruction         Validation

                        EOL ODS Destruction
•   Menu of technologies available – combustion and non-combustion (all
    have a thermal element), future potential for chemical dechlorination

•   Practical Options
     High temperature incineration
     Co-disposal in industrial combustion facilities
     Pyrolysis/plasma arc
•   Environmental performance requirements
     Destruction efficiency/destruction removal efficiency
      (>99.99%)
     Unintended release emissions (PCDD/PCDF < 0.1 ng
      TEQ/Nm3) )
•   Documentation/due diligence safeguards to provide assurance of
    destruction and environmental performance
         UNDP Demonstration Destruction Projects

•   Original Concept - Demonstration of a
    range of destruction options

•   Cuba:
     Capture capacity pre-established
     Cement kiln

•   Columbia
     Incremental capture capability
      (consolidation/storage)
     Export or regional specialty facilities
        UNDP Demonstration Destruction Projects (2)


•   Ghana:
     Incremental capture capability
      (consolidation/storage)
     Test small local destruction versus export

•   Brazil:
     Link to emerging appliance de-manufacturing
      program
     Utilization of existing HW Mgt infrastructure or/and
      or integrated de-manufacturing processing and
      destruction


 Overall Conclusion: Using existing HW
    infrastructure has significant cost advantage
      Barriers to EOL ODS Management
 Technology/infrastructure/operational
  barriers relatively minor
 Major practical barriers are:
  • Creditable institutional arrangements for
    ownership care and custody
  • Regulatory controls to stimulate capture of
    sufficient quantities to have any impact
      Emission bans
      EOL ODS a regulated hazardous waste
      Enforcement and meaningful penalties
  • Financing a high cost of the EOL mgt. process
  Financial Mechanisms to Support EOL ODS
                    Mgt.

• Public assumption of financial liability
• Environmental stewardship charges
• Voluntary producer responsibility
• Energy efficiency incentives for retirement
• Carbon finance
• Convention based financing (MLF)
  Potential Action in the Caribbean Region
• Characterized by:
      Low volume potential
      Widely distributed
      Absence of policy/regulatory/economic drivers
      Basic capture capacity available
• Action should focus on capture for future destruction
• Development of collective/regional capacity
• Coordination of policy and regulatory action
• Collective care and custody mechanism
• Destruction in the region unlikely
• Destruction likely financed by carbon finance/grants
                    Conclusions

 Globally the amount of EOL ODS actually destroyed
  will be modest
 Priority targets are CFC-12 and halons with CFC-12
  having a narrow window over the next 5-10 years
 High consuming countries (developed/developing) is
  where the impact can be maximized

 EOL ODS needs to be regulated and managed as a
  hazardous waste

 Initial focus should be on capture
                Conclusions (2)

 EOL ODS destruction not limited by
  technology

 Limitations are
  institutional/regulatory/financial

 LVC’s need to act collectively

 Final destruction integrated with ESM HW
  management generally and carbon finance
  as this matures.
  Thank You
  Questions?
          Rick Cooke
rickcooke1@compuserve.com
      Skype: manwestrjc

				
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