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					             Backup Data for
A Case Study of the Adaptive Rehabilitation
                    of
          Buildings 705 and 706

          Norfolk Naval Shipyard
Backup Data for
A Case Study of the Adaptive Rehabilitation of
Buildings 705 and 706

Norfolk Naval Shipyard




Prepared For:

United States Navy
NAVFAC MIDLANT
N40085-10-D-9426


Prepared By:

DUTTON + ASSOCIATES, LLC
812 Moorefield Park Drive, Suite 126
Richmond, Virginia 23236

May 2011
THIS PAGE LEFT INTENTIONALLY BLANK
                                                                                                                 Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                                                                    Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                                                                   Norfolk Naval Shipyard

                                                    TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 1
  Purpose and Scope ...................................................................................................................... 1
  Project Location .......................................................................................................................... 3
REHABILITATION SUMMARY ................................................................................................. 4
  Development Schedule ............................................................................................................... 4
  Key Stakeholders ........................................................................................................................ 4
PROJECT BACKGROUND .......................................................................................................... 5
  Building Selection....................................................................................................................... 5
SHIPYARD HISTORY .................................................................................................................. 6
  The Beginning (1767-1826)........................................................................................................ 6
  Growth and Development (1827-1860) ...................................................................................... 7
  The Civil War (1861-1865) ........................................................................................................ 8
  Post War Quiet (1865-1880)....................................................................................................... 8
  Formative Years (1881-1915)..................................................................................................... 9
  Growth of the Modern Navy (1916-1940).................................................................................. 9
  Boom and Recession (1932-1950s) .......................................................................................... 10
  Nuclear Age (1960s-Present).................................................................................................... 11
BUILDING HISTORY................................................................................................................. 12
  Building 705.............................................................................................................................. 12
  Building 706.............................................................................................................................. 13
PRE-PROJECT CONDITIONS.................................................................................................... 14
PLANNING AND CONSULTATION......................................................................................... 16
  Design-Bid-Build...................................................................................................................... 16
  Funding Information ................................................................................................................. 16
PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION................................................................................................. 17
  Design Process .......................................................................................................................... 17
  Secretary of the Interior’s Standards......................................................................................... 17
  Critical Design Elements .......................................................................................................... 18
  SHPO Coordination .................................................................................................................. 19
PHYSICAL RENOVATION........................................................................................................ 22
  SITE AND LANDSCAPING ................................................................................................... 22
    ATFP issues .......................................................................................................................... 22
    Grading issues....................................................................................................................... 23
    Parking .................................................................................................................................. 23
    Landscaping .......................................................................................................................... 24
    Archaeology.......................................................................................................................... 24
  ABATEMENT ISSUES/CLEAN-UP STRATEGY................................................................. 25
    Asbestos ................................................................................................................................ 25
    Lead....................................................................................................................................... 25
    Spores.................................................................................................................................... 25
    Animal................................................................................................................................... 25
  ARCHITECTURAL ................................................................................................................. 27
    Structural Systems ................................................................................................................ 27


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                                                                                                                 Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                                                                    Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                                                                   Norfolk Naval Shipyard

        Foundation ........................................................................................................................ 27
        Walls ................................................................................................................................. 27
        Framing ............................................................................................................................. 27
        Porches/Additions ............................................................................................................. 28
     Exterior ................................................................................................................................. 28
        Walls ................................................................................................................................. 28
        Porches.............................................................................................................................. 29
        Fenestration....................................................................................................................... 29
        Embellishments................................................................................................................. 30
        Roof................................................................................................................................... 30
        Additions........................................................................................................................... 30
     Interior................................................................................................................................... 36
        Layout ............................................................................................................................... 36
        Floors ................................................................................................................................ 36
        Ceilings ............................................................................................................................. 36
        Doors and Windows.......................................................................................................... 37
        Built-ins............................................................................................................................. 37
        Embellishments................................................................................................................. 38
  SYSTEMS................................................................................................................................. 40
     Fire suppression .................................................................................................................... 40
     HVAC ................................................................................................................................... 40
     Plumbing ............................................................................................................................... 40
     Electrical ............................................................................................................................... 40
     FFE........................................................................................................................................ 41
COST ANALYSIS........................................................................................................................ 43
SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES............................................................................................ 45
  Building Selection..................................................................................................................... 45
  Budget ....................................................................................................................................... 46
  Bid Process................................................................................................................................ 46
  Site Planning ............................................................................................................................. 47
  Architectural Design ................................................................................................................. 50
  Preservation Design .................................................................................................................. 52
  Construction/Site Work ............................................................................................................ 52
  Preservation Specific ................................................................................................................ 53
LESSONS LEARNED AND CONCLUSIONS........................................................................... 55




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                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard



INTRODUCTION                                       Support Activity, Norfolk Naval Shipyard,
                                                   Portsmouth, Virginia.
In 2008, Naval Facilities Engineering
Command,         Mid-Atlantic      (NAVFAC         According to Stipulation 1.B., the scope of
MIDLANT) awarded Defense Base Closure              this report should include the following:
and Realignment Commission (BRAC)
project P-214V which involved adaptive                1. Detailed description of the
rehabilitation of two historic buildings at the          before and after conditions of
Norfolk Naval Shipyard (NNSY) in                         Buildings 705 and 706.
Portsmouth, Virginia. The project consisted           2. Before, during, and after
of renovating Quarters D&E and G&H                       photographs of Buildings 705
(Building 705 and 706) to convert them                   and 706.
from vacant residential buildings into usable         3. A discussion of any specific
office space. Renovations took place over a              preservation challenges faced
period of two years, and the buildings were              by             COMNAVREG
completed and put into operation in July                 MIDLANT          during      the
2010.                                                    rehabilitation of Buildings
                                                         705 and 706 and how these
Purpose and Scope                                        challenges were addressed.
                                                      4. A discussion as to how
The purpose of this report is to summarize               COMNAVREG MIDLANT
the rehabilitation, from the initial planning            implemented “The Secretary
stages through completion, and to discuss                of the Interior’s Standards for
the lessons learned from the project. It will            Rehabilitation”       on     the
briefly outline the background, processes,               project.
and events that led to the rehabilitation and         5. A discussion on any instances
highlight the successes and challenges                   where the Standards could
encountered. The primary intent is to assess             not be fully incorporated into
the    project     to    determine      whether          the design, to include an
rehabilitation of historic buildings is a viable         explanation as to why and
option for the Navy in the future, and if so,            what     design      solution(s)
how the process can be made more efficient.              was/were implemented.
                                                      6. A description of what lessons
This report was prepared in fulfillment of               COMNAVREG MIDLANT
Stipulation 1.B. in the Memorandum of                    learned during the project and
Agreement (MOA) between the Department                   what, if anything, it would do
of the Navy, Commander, Navy Region,                     differently and why.
Mid-Atlantic (COMNAVREG MIDLANT),                     7. A plan to disseminate the
and the Commonwealth of Virginia, State                  report     to    other     Navy
Historic Preservation Office (SHPO),                     Commands that may find it
Regarding the proposed Demolition of                     useful.
Buildings 117, 118, 178, and 703, Naval




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Adaptive Rehabilitation of
   Buildings 705 and 706
  Norfolk Naval Shipyard




                        2
                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Project Location                                many of the installation’s oldest buildings.
                                                This section of the shipyard follows the
Buildings 705 and 706 are located at NNSY,      gridded layout pattern of the city of
in the City of Portsmouth, Virginia (Figure     Portsmouth to the north. These two
1). The NNSY is set on the west side of the     buildings are adjacent to one another on the
Elizabeth River just south of downtown          north side of Berrien Street, west of its
Portsmouth. The buildings are contributing      intersection with Renshaw Avenue, facing
resources to the Gosport Yard precinct of       the Gosport Wall, which serves as the
the NNSY Historic District. The Gosport         shipyard boundary at this location (Figure
yard precinct encompasses the original core     2).
of development at the shipyard and includes




                                                         Building 705


                 Building 706




                                                   Project
                                                   Area




                   Figure 2: Aerial Photograph of Buildings 705 and 706,
                       Taken 2007 Prior to Project Commencement


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                                                                     Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                        Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                       Norfolk Naval Shipyard



REHABILITATION SUMMARY                         selected until they were move-in ready. Five
                                               firms employing dozens of people working
The completion of a historic rehabilitation    on the project were required to allow the
project of this size and scale requires an     project to take place, in addition to the
extended period of time and many people        numerous Navy staff that assisted with the
working together. This project lasted nearly   project, as well as SHPO personnel.
five years from the date the buildings were


Development Schedule
                                               Architectural and Engineering
BRAC Report Issued: May 2005                   HBA Architecture & Interior Design, Inc.
Navy notifies SHPO of potential use for        One Columbus Center, Suite 1000
BRAC relocated commands: July 2005             Virginia Beach, Virginia 23462
Funding approved: January 2007
Navy initiates consultation with SHPO:         Structural Engineers
March 2007                                     Stroud, Pence, and Associates, Ltd.
Navy consults with SHPO on project design:     5032 Rouse Drive, Suite 200
July 2007 – May 2008                           Virginia Beach, VA 23462
Design Completed: April 2008
Memorandum of Agreement between Navy           Mechanical Engineers
and SHPO executed: Jun 2008                    Bowman, Foster & Associates, PC
General Contractor Hired: Sep. 2008            6379 Center Drive
Construction initiated: Nov. 2008              Norfolk, VA 23502
Construction completed: June 2010
Ribbon Cutting: July 2010                      Civil Engineers
                                               Hoggard-Eure Associates, PC
Key Stakeholders                               901 Port Centre Parkway, Suite 5
                                               Portsmouth, VA 23704
Building Tenant
US Navy, Naval Sea Systems Command             General Contractor
1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, SE                     John C. Grimberg Company, Inc.
Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376-1080            3200 Tower Oaks Blvd., Suite 300
                                               Rockville, Maryland 20852-4216
Building Owner
Commander Navy Region Mid-Atlantic             State Historic Preservation Office
1510 Gilbert St.                               Virginia Department of Historic Resources
Norfolk VA 23511                               2801 Kensington Avenue
                                               Richmond, Virginia 23221
Design & Construction Agent
NAVFAC MIDLANT
9742 Maryland Ave.
Norfolk VA 23511



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                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

PROJECT BACKGROUND                               reoccupation because of the lack of family
                                                 housing needs at the shipyard. The Navy
In 2000, NAVFAC MIDLANT, initiated               claimed they were not in the position to
consultation with the Virginia Department        make a long-term preservation and
of Historic Resources, State Historic            rehabilitation commitment on any of the
Preservation Office (SHPO) regarding the         buildings at the time, but they would place
Navy’s intention to demolish a group of          these resources in caretaker (mothball)
historic quarters (Quarters P-Z) at the NNSY     status for a period of five years. SHPO
which were considered contributing               accepted the mitigation, however urged the
resources to the National Register of            Navy to continue to explore options to retain
Historic Places (NRHP)-eligible Norfolk          the historic quarters.
Naval Shipyard Historic District. According
to the nationwide Programmatic Agreement         Building Selection
(PA) for historic family housing prepared by
the Navy, these buildings had been assigned      The 2005 Defense Base Closure and
Category II ratings. The PA defines              Realignment        (BRAC)       Commission
Category II buildings as “….those units that     recommended the relocation of two offices
possess sufficient significance, continuing or   from Naval Station Annapolis and Navy
adaptive reuse potential or other value to       Philadelphia Business Center to the NNSY.
merit     consideration      for     long-term   The shipyard would therefore need to
preservation.” The demolition of these           provide office space for approximately 60
buildings therefore created an Adverse           new employees, requiring 22,464 square
Effect to the historic district, and SHPO        feet. A review of potential facilities by
recommended that the ensuing MOA                 shipyard staff determined that Building 703
include a firm commitment by the Navy to         would not work for this project however
the retention and rehabilitation of the other    identified Buildings 705 and 706 as viable
historic residential quarters at the shipyard    candidates for the needed space. The
in addition to other mitigation measures.        combined square footage within them was
                                                 approximately the same as the space needed.
In response, the Navy provided a summary         Further, these were two of the vacant
of the status and likelihood for retention of    historic quarters that the shipyard had not
other historic quarters at the shipyard. They    found a use for up to that time, and the
noted that three resources, Quarters A, B,       adaptive rehabilitation of them showed that
and C, were already listed in the NRHP and       the Navy was indeed making a good-faith
protected as such. Quarters I&K were             effort to utilize and retain their historic
occupied at the time with no foreseeable         residential buildings. The PWD Portsmouth
consideration for demolition. They stated        planning staff developed a DD Form 1391
that Quarters D&E, G&H, L&N, and M-1             for the project which defined the project
were all (or soon would be) vacant, and          scope and provided an estimated cost.
were not considered candidates for




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                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

SHIPYARD HISTORY




                                    "Navy Yard, Gosport"
                    From an engraving by J. O. Montalant, published 1845 in
                          Howe's "Historical Collections of Virginia"

The Beginning (1767-1826)                          forces quickly captured the shipyard,
The origins of the Norfolk Naval Shipyard          recognizing the importance of the facility.
date to 1767 when a small ship building and
outfitting facility was established just south     For several years, Virginia used Gosport to
of the Town of Portsmouth on the Elizabeth         build war vessels, however throughout the
River by a Scottish immigrant, Andrew              war, neither the Continental Congress, nor
Sprowle. Gosport Yard as the facility was          the individual colonies were able to maintain
known quickly gained a reputation as one of        a standing Navy. The few ships the Colonial
the finest shipyard in the colonies, and           forces had proved no match for the British
Sprowle was appointed as an Agent by the           Navy, who in 1779 was able to land in
British Navy. There were plans to expand           Portsmouth with the objective of stopping
Gosport into a larger Naval Station; however       the flow of supplies from Hampton Roads to
the American Revolution began before the           the Continental Army, and also to reclaim
plans could be realized, and American              the Gosport Yard. According to the British
                                                   Commander in charge of the assault,


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                                                                          Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                             Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                            Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Admiral Sir George Collier, Gosport was            showed that this approach was not sufficient
“the most considerable [shipyard] in               and in 1816, an act was passed allowing for
America….large          and        extremely       the gradual increase in naval force in which
convenient…and contained five thousand             the existing shipyards would play an
loads of fine seasoned oak-knees for               essential role. A large ship construction
shipbuilding, an infinite quantity of plank,       program was initiated that called for
masts, cordage, and numbers of beautiful           hundreds of ships to be built at the various
ships of war on the stocks.” Colonial forces       yards. Despite Gosport’s healthy share of
were determined to not allow the facility to       ship construction during this time period,
fall into the hands of the British Navy and        there was little development and
be used against them, so prior to abandoning       construction to the yard itself. This changed
the yard, all of the buildings and supplies        however in 1827 when the Act for the
left behind were burned.                           Gradual Improvement of the Navy of the
                                                   United States replaced the earlier act, and
With the ratification of the United States         provided the Navy with $500,000 per year
Constitution in 1789, a new initiative was         for six years to upgrade its facilities.
undertaken to establish and maintain a Navy
capable of defending the new nation’s              Growth and Development (1827-1860)
maritime commerce. President Washington            1827 essentially marks the beginning of the
and Secretary of War Knox approved                 shipyard as it remains today. Over the next
construction of six frigates, and decided that     two years, Gosport Yard was greatly
they should be built by government agents          expanded by the purchase of numerous
in leased shipyards along the Atlantic Coast.      adjacent properties and town lots and
Gosport Yard was one of the facilities             building construction began in earnest. The
chosen, in addition to facilities in               new funding allowed for construction of the
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, Boston, New             first dry dock in the country, Dry Dock No.
York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. In 1798,        1, a vital component necessary for large-
the Department of the Navy was created             scale, effective ship building. By the 1833,
with Benjamin Stoddert acting as Secretary.        other buildings had also been constructed,
Stoddert was influential in expanding and          including residential Quarters A, B, C, D,
strengthening the young Navy in its                and E, as well as several industrial and
formative years, and was insisted that the         storage buildings and portions of the brick
government not simply lease shipyard               wall that surround the historic core of
facilities for naval construction, but that they   Gosport Yard.
acquire them permanently. As such, Gosport
Yard was purchased from the State of
Virginia for $12,000 in 1801 and became
one of the first US Naval installations.

Development through the first several
decades of nineteenth century was slow as
President Jefferson and the Republicans
favored maintaining a smaller navy, capable
only of passive defense of the coast rather
than a full sea-going force. The War of 1812


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                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

                                                  ship construction and outfitting, Dry Dock
                                                  No. 1, remained nearly undamaged.

                                                  One of the most famous, or would-become
                                                  famous ships left at Gosport was the USS
                                                  Merrimack. Slightly damaged from fire, the
                                                  Confederate Navy devised a plan to refit the
                                                  ship as a blockage breaker by covering the
                                                  ship in three inches of armor. Renamed the
                                                  CSS Virginia, it took part a year later in
                                                  what became one of the most influential
                                                  naval battles of all time, with the USS
               Dry Dock No. 1
                                                  Monitor at the battle of Hampton Roads.
The advent of steam-powered ships fueled
even more construction and development at
the yard and in 1843, the Elizabeth River
was dredged to deepen the river, and the fill
was used to build up low land into usable
space. The yard grew rapidly throughout the
1840s and 1850s with numerous buildings
being constructed and by 1860, nearly 1,000
people were employed there.

The Civil War (1861-1865)                          The Sinking of the “Cumberland” by the
When the Civil War erupted in 1861, both          Ironclad “Merrimack” Off Newport News,
sides recognized the importance of Gosport        Va, March 8th, 1862. Lithograph by Currier
Yard, being the only shipyard located within                    and Ives, 1862
the southern states. Numerous ships were
stationed there although only one was ready       The battle was ultimately indecisive though,
for action. The shipyard contained all the        and Union forces captured Portsmouth in
resources though to maintain an active fleet;     May 1862. Being abandoning Gosport,
a dry dock for outfitting, a foundry, a boiler,   Confederate forces once again attempted to
large quantities of supplies, and guns and        destroy the facilities, this time with more
ammunition. Tricked into believing the            success. Only Dry Dock No. 1, the Officers’
Virginia Militia was more prepared to             Quarters (Quarters D and E), foundry, and
capture the base than they really were, the       boiler shop remained in usable condition.
yard’s commander, Commodore Charles S             Under union control, Gosport was renamed
McCawley ordered the yard be destroyed so         US Navy Yard, Norfolk, Virginia, however
that it could not be used by Confederate          remained largely in a ruinous condition the
military. During the demolition, several          remainder of the war.
charges did not detonate, and when the
Virginia Militia did assume control of the        Post War Quiet (1865-1880)
yard, they found it badly damaged, but            The two decades following the Civil War
usable. The most important component for          were a relatively quiet time for the Norfolk


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                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Yard and the Navy as a whole. Ship
construction in particular, came almost to a
halt. Between 1865 and 1873, Congress
authorized the construction of only seven
new vessels. The majority of work
performed at the Norfolk Yard during this
time period was building reconstruction to
replace structures damaged and destroyed
during the war. Some new buildings were                         USS Texas
also put up during the post Civil War                Postcard by Enrique Muller, 1907
decades including mostly industrial and
workshop facilities, however a second           Building construction and development
residential quarters (Quarters G and H) were    continued to occur at Norfolk throughout the
also constructed. Basically, Norfolk            1890s as well and its third Dry Dock was
functioned solely as a small repair plant       built in the first decade of the twentieth
rather than a major ship-building facility      century under the Theodore Roosevelt
throughout the reconstruction-era.              administration. Advancing into the twentieth
                                                century, ship construction at the shipyard
Formative Years (1881-1915)                     slowed again, as facilities became outdated
The creation of a Statutory Board of officers   with technological improvements. In 1904,
in 1881 and a second in 1883 marked a           the shipyard acquired the Schmoele Tract, a
change in direction for the Navy with more      large parcel of adjacent land that marked the
emphasis put on modernization and               first increase in size to the facility since the
maintenance of a world-power fleet.             1820s, however it remained largely
Congress funded the construction of several     undeveloped until World War I.
steel cruisers, although this influx in
development did not immediately affect the      Growth of the Modern Navy (1916-1940)
naval yards as construction was contracted      The outbreak of World War I did not
out to private builders. Privatization proved   immediately impact naval development or
slow and ineffective so the new Secretary of    construction at the Norfolk Yard as the
the Navy, William C. Whitney elected in         United States attempted to remain neutral
1885 to return construction of naval vessels    throughout the early years of the conflict.
to the government yards. Updating was           Increased threats from German submarines
required first however, so two new Dry          and sinking of private vessels however
Docks were built, one in New York and one       eventually forced President Wilson to call
in Norfolk. Under this program, the Norfolk     for more naval preparedness. The Navy
Yard constructed two important ships in the     Board proposed the construction of 156 new
development of the new Navy, the USS            ships including battleships, destroyers,
Raleigh, the first steel cruiser in 1892; and   cruisers, and submarines which was enacted
the USS Texas, the first Battleship, in 1892.   by the Naval Act of 1916. The act also
                                                provided the nation’s shipyards with the
                                                much-needed funds to overhaul and expand
                                                their shipbuilding capabilities. Nearly 100
                                                new buildings and structures were
                                                constructed at Norfolk, which finally


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                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

expanded onto the large Schmoele Tract.           Boom and Recession (1932-1950s)
Most of the development followed the              The inactivity for the Navy did not last long
earlier grid pattern of construction and used     though; a new period of development was
the “Type Plan” designed by the Board for         initiated in the 1930s by President Roosevelt
the Development of Navy Yard Plans that           who had served as Assistant Secretary Navy
promoted efficient wartime construction           prior to his election. One part of Roosevelt’s
with a prescribed set of necessary facilities     New Deal program included increased
and components. This plan was an important        funding for ship construction and shore
step in military planning, and although           facility improvements. Expansion continued
utilized at all naval yards, was first put into   to increase in the mid-1930s when Japan
practice at Norfolk.                              announced they were ending their adherence
                                                  to Naval limitations and military tensions in
The end of World War I once again brought         Europe began to rise. The Emergency
a period of decline for the shipyard and the      Mobilization Period of 1939-1941 followed
Navy in general. The atrocities of the war        by the United States’ official entry into
caused most Americans to favor returning to       World War II marked the largest period of
a passive stance with less emphasis on            growth and development for the Navy as a
military funding. Several treaties signed         whole and for the Norfolk Naval Shipyard.
throughout the 1920s limited the number of        During the World War II period at the
vessels that the three largest world navies       Norfolk Yard, 101 new ships were built,
could have, and therefore many American           over 6,000 were repaired, and employment
ships were decommissioned during this             peaked at 43,000. The size of the shipyard
time. The role of the Norfolk Yard was            nearly doubled during this period with the
limited to repair and overhaul and the            acquisition of adjacent property, and one of
number of employees dropped from 11,000           the most important facilities present, the
to just over 2,000 by 1923. The only major        Hammerhead Crane, was built during this
construction that took place at the yard          time. By 1945, there were 685 buildings and
during the 1920s was the conversion of the        structures at the shipyard which controlled
USS Jupiter into the first American aircraft      almost five miles of waterfront.
carrier.




                                                  The post-war years leading into the Cold
                                                  War were yet another period of downsizing
 USS Langley Renamed from USS Jupiter,            and inactivity at the shipyard, officially


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                                                                           Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                              Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                             Norfolk Naval Shipyard

renamed the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in              Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the base
1945. Once again, ship repair and                  continued to evolve to keep up with the most
maintenance      became       its    principle     technologically advanced ships in the Navy.
responsibility with only a few new-ship
construction orders as part of the Korean          By 1992, Norfolk was capable of working
War in the early 1950s. These in fact were         on every type of vessel in the fleet and could
the final ships actually built at the Norfolk      house and feed the entire crew of those ships
Naval Shipyard which ceased construction           docked at the facility for repair. It is
permanently later in the 1950s.                    currently the largest ship storage, repair, and
                                                   distribution center on the East Coast and
Nuclear Age (1960s-Present)                        performs roughly $650 million worth of
The 1960s however brought drastic changes          work on the Atlantic Fleet annually.
to the facility and its operation by means of
nuclear technology. The US Navy was the
first to embrace nuclear power for its vessels
and the Norfolk Naval Shipyard became an
important facility for the repair and overhaul
of the Atlantic Fleet.




                     Aircraft Carrier in Dry Dock at Norfolk Naval Shipyard




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                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard



BUILDING HISTORY                                 Asher Benjamin’s The American Builder’s
                                                 Companion, published in 1827.
Buildings 705 and 706 are significant
components of the NNSY and Historic              The main building is rectangular in plan, six
District. Building 705 (Quarters D&E), was       bays wide by three bays deep. The brick
one of the four original residential buildings   structural system is laid in a Flemish Bond
constructed at the yard in its earliest period   and is two-stories tall set on a raised
of development and Building 706 (Quarters        basement. The building is covered by a low-
G&H) was one of only several buildings,          pitched hipped roof interrupted by two
and the only residence, constructed at the       central chimney stacks and a pair of
yard      during    the    post-Civil     War    louvered gable dormers. A granite boxed
Reconstruction-era. Both buildings are           cornice embellishes the roofline. The main
located in the Gosport Yard precinct of the      entrances are located in the outermost bays
shipyard and represent two of only three         on the front façade and are sheltered by
remaining historic duplexes in this section.     single-bay porticos. The portico on Quarters
Gosport Yard comprises the initial core of       D has a cantilevered hipped roof supported
the shipyard and as such, represents an          by decorative brackets while the portico on
important aspect of the growth and               Quarters E has a gabled roof supported by
development of the installation. Both            Tuscan columns. Fenestration consists of
buildings were constructed as officers           double-hung sash windows with six-over-six
housing, giving them important associations      light configurations and feature granite
to the command and operation at the              lintels and sills.
shipyard, and both are excellent examples of
their particular architectural styles as well.   A one bay by one bay addition with a
For these reasons, both Building 705 and         projecting bay window was attached to the
706 are considered contributing resources to     east side of Quarters D circa 1880 and a
the National Register of Historic Places-        two-bay by two-bay addition was attached to
eligible Norfolk Naval Shipyard Historic         the west side of Quarters E in 1895. Both
District, and are considered worthy of           additions are constructed of brick laid in an
continued preservation.                          American Bond, feature front porches with
                                                 wrought iron railings and supports, and have
Building 705                                     double-hung sash windows with two-over-
                                                 two light configurations. They are similar in
Building 705, also known as Quarters D&E,        design; however each varies slightly in
was constructed in 1842 to serve as Junior       detail. The east addition is covered by a flat
Officer’s quarters. Following military           roof with a wood boxed cornice, while the
etiquette, Quarters A, B, C were built as        west addition has a hipped roof with a
single-family residences to house the            corbelled brick cornice. The east addition
Commander of the Shipyard and his two            has a projecting clipped bay, while the entire
Senior Staff Officers. Junior Officers were      mass of the west addition has clipped
to be housed in Quarters D&E, “a double-         corners.
house of above-average quality.” The home
was constructed in a transitional Federal to     A series of wood-frame porches were also
Greek Revival style with influences from         appended to the rear and sides of the


                                                                                               12
                                                                           Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                              Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                             Norfolk Naval Shipyard

building throughout the nineteenth and             by a low-pitched hipped roof interrupted by
twentieth centuries. All the porches were all      five central chimney stacks and a pair of
supported by iron columns cast in the form         louvered gable dormers. A paneled frieze
of upright cannons. Over time, many of             and compound cornice with paired brackets
these porches were enlarged or enclosed            embellish the roofline. The main entrances
with various windows.                              are located in the outermost bays of the front
                                                   façade and are set back under two-story
The interior of each unit has a double-pile        integral-roof porches supported at the
plan with a side passage, and an additional        ground level by iron columns cast in the
room to the side created by the additions.         form of upright cannons. Fenestration
Stylistically, the interior is reflective of the   consists of double-hung sash windows with
building’s construction date with various          two-over-two light configurations and
Federal and Greek Revival embellishments.          feature granite lintels and sills.
The grandest interior elements are the
matching cantilevered circular stairways in        At some point in time, the two front porches
both units with molded handrails, turned           were extended to each side and enclosed
balusters, and brackets with a carved Greek        with continuous bands of windows. A
Key pattern. All door and window                   continuous one-story porch with a wide
architraves have Greek Revival style               band of windows was also appended to the
moldings with corner blocks adorned by oak         rear of the building and partially wraps
leaf and acorns. The doors and windows             around each side. This porch is supported by
have paneled jambs as well with paneled            cast iron cannon columns as well. A second
wainscoting below. All fireplaces feature          story addition was appended over the rear
black marble mantels.                              porch on Quarters H.

Building 706                                       The interior of each unit is organized around
                                                   L-shaped hallway with two rooms inside the
Building 706, also known as Quarters G&H,          angle and one above. Stylistically, the
was constructed in 1881 to serve as Junior         interior is reflective of its construction date
Officer’s quarters. G&H was the only               with various Victorian embellishments. A
residential building constructed at the            curved stairway is located in the corner of
shipyard     in     the    post-Civil War          each hallway with a heavy newel post and
Reconstruction period and follows the              turned balustrade. A second stairway is
earlier pattern of being constructed as a          located at the rear of each hallway. The most
double-house. It is constructed with a             ornate spaces in the building are the two
combination of Italianate and Renaissance          front parlors which feature black marble
Revival stylistic influences.                      mantels, plaster crown molding, and ceiling
                                                   medallions. Other interior embellishments
The main building is rectangular in plan,          include heavy molded door and window
four bays wide by six bays deep, with              surrounds, molded picture rails, transoms
hexagonal projecting bays on the front             above first floor doorways, and built-in
façade. The brick structural system is laid in     cabinetry.
a combination of Common Bond and
American Bond and is two-stories tall set on
a raised basement. The building is covered


                                                                                                  13
                                                                            Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                               Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                              Norfolk Naval Shipyard

PRE-PROJECT CONDITIONS

Buildings 705 and 706 ceased to function as         animal infestation and damage. Fortunately,
residential quarters in 1999, and became            even in their deteriorated state, the “bones”
vacant at that time. Over the next decade,          of both buildings were still intact, and most
the buildings were allowed to succumb to            of the significant historic details were
deterioration and fall into a severe state of       salvageable. Following the site inspection
disrepair.                                          and assessment, it was possible to begin
                                                    planning for the level of effort needed to
An inspection of the buildings by the project       rehabilitate the buildings, and requests for
team prior to the design process revealed           proposals could be released.
extensive moisture damage to both the
exterior and interior of the buildings. Gutters
and drains had become clogged creating
standing pools of water against the
foundation at ground level, and on flat
portions of the roof. Water from the roof had
leaked in causing damage to interior features
such as the plaster ceilings and walls, wood
trim, doors, windows, and sections of floor.
The numerous wood frame porches and
additions that were not constructed as
sturdily in the first place were especially
deteriorated. Conditions were worsened by
.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
     

     
     
     
     
     
     

          Representative photographs of the building interiors at the time of inspection



                                                                                                   14
                                                                 Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                    Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                   Norfolk Naval Shipyard

        
        
        
        
        




Representative photographs of the building exteriors at the time of inspection




                                                                                        15
                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

PLANNING AND CONSULTATION                       executed under a         single,     fixed-price
                                                contract-to-budget.
Design-Bid-Build
                                                Funding Information
The Navy utilized a conventional Design-
Bid-Build process for this project. Design-     Securing funding is typically one of the
Bid-Build is a project delivery method in       most challenging parts of development
which the agency or owner contracts with        projects, especially within the Navy, where
separate firms for the design and               funding requests for renovations and
construction portions of a project. For this    improvements to administrative space
project, the Architectural/Engineering Firm     typically receive less priority than for piers,
(AE) was hired and worked closely with the      security, and other operational measures.
Navy to produce a conceptual or schematic
design that incorporated the necessary space    Funding for this project was provided by the
requirements for the prospective tenants,       Defense Base Closure and Realignment
while respecting and preserving as much         Commission (BRAC). BRAC funds are
historic character as possible. The AE          separate from regular operations and
summoned other specialty firms such as          maintenance       (O&M)        or      military
Mechanical, Structural, and Civil Engineers,    construction (MCON) funds. In its 2005
to assist with those aspects of the buildings   report, BRAC recommended that two
design. Once completed, the design was          departments be relocated from Naval Station
released to General Contractors (GC) for        Annapolis and Navy Philadelphia Business
bidding. The Navy then reviewed each GC         Center, to the NNSY and therefore provided
and ranked them, evaluating cost,               the necessary funding. The commission
qualifications, relevant experience, and        provided funding for the acquisition and
workload. In this case, qualifications and      preparation of the appropriate amount of
familiarity to Historic Preservation were top   office space at the shipyard, in this case, the
priorities, and the prospective GC that met     complete rehabilitation of both buildings.
these standards with the lowest bid was
awarded the project. All work was to be




                                                                                               16
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION
                        
Secretary of the Interior’s Standards                A property shall be used for its
                                                      historic purpose or be placed in a
In order to avoid adverse effects on the              new use that requires minimal
Buildings 705 and 706 which are                       change to the defining characteristics
contributing to the NRHP-eligible Norfolk             of the building and its site and
Naval Shipyard Historic District, all project         environment.
work had to conform to the Secretary of the          The historic character of a property
Interior Standards, Guidelines for the                shall be retained and preserved. The
Rehabilitation of Historic Properties.                removal of historic materials or
                                                      alteration of features and spaces that
Rehabilitation is defined as "the process of          characterize a property shall be
returning a property to a state of utility,           avoided.
through repair or alteration, which makes            Distinctive features, finishes, and
possible an efficient contemporary use while          construction techniques or examples
preserving those portions and features of the         of craftsmanship that characterize a
property which are significant to its historic,       property shall be preserved.
architectural, and cultural values." As              Deteriorated historic features shall be
stated in the definition, the treatment               repaired rather than replaced. Where
"rehabilitation" assumes that at least some           the severity of deterioration requires
repair or alteration of the historic building         replacement of a distinctive feature,
will be needed in order to provide for an             the new feature shall match the old
efficient contemporary use; however, these            in design, color, texture, and other
repairs and alterations must not damage or            visual qualities and, where possible,
destroy materials, features or finishes that          materials. Replacement of missing
are important in defining the building's              features shall be substantiated by
historic character. The Standards are to be           documentary, physical, or pictorial
applied to specific rehabilitation projects in        evidence.
a reasonable manner, taking into                     Chemical or physical treatments,
consideration economic and technical                  such as sandblasting, that cause
feasibility. Their application in this project        damage to historic materials shall not
is discussed below.                                   be used. The surface cleaning of
                                                      structures, if appropriate, shall be
      Each property shall be recognized as           undertaken using the gentlest means
       a physical record of its time, place,          possible.
       and use. Changes that create a false          Significant archeological resources
       sense of historical development, such          affected by a project shall be
       as adding conjectural features or              protected and preserved. If such
       architectural elements from other              resources must be disturbed,
       buildings, shall not be undertaken.            mitigation measures shall be
      Most properties change over time;              undertaken.
       those changes that have acquired              New additions, exterior alterations,
       historic significance in their own             or related new construction shall not
       right shall be retained and preserved.         destroy historic materials that


                                                                                             17
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

       characterize the property. The new        Critical Design Elements
       work shall be differentiated from the
       old and shall be compatible with the      In order to facilitate the treatment and
       massing,       size,     scale,    and    management of historic resources within the
       architectural features to protect the     NNSY, the proposed Amendment #1 to the
       historic integrity of the property and    regional PA divides the shipyard into three
       its environment.                          planning precincts; the Gosport Yard, the
      New additions and adjacent or             Industrial Area, and the Support and Supply
       related new construction shall be         Area. These precincts correspond to distinct
       undertaken in such a manner that if       areas that vary in significance, architectural
       removed in the future, the essential      value, and integrity. Each of the three
       form and integrity of the historic        precincts has been assigned an overall
       property and its environment would        Preservation Priority Rating, and each
       be unimpaired.                            building within has been given a Treatment
                                                 Category. Buildings 705 and 706 are located
Design Process                                   in the Gosport Yard Precinct which is the
                                                 only precinct at the shipyard to be rated
The overall project goals entailed the           Category      I   and    have     outstanding
following:                                       significance.

      Convert existing historic family          The PA goes onto list the Critical Design
       housing (Buildings 705 & 706) to          Elements encountered in the Gosport Yard
       engineering office space and perform      Precinct that characterize and identify the
       renovations       and       alterations   area and the buildings within. These
       throughout as necessary for the           elements include:
       adaptive reuse of the buildings
      Add elevators to Buildings 705 &             Scale:      Medium-scale           buildings
       706 to meet ADAAG                             predominate with smaller service
      Implement life safety improvements            buildings increasing site density.
      Implement needed structural repairs          Massing: Quarters have pitched roofs
       and strengthening to existing                 and most are two-and-a-half stories on
       buildings                                     raised basements.
      Abate asbestos, lead paint and other         Setback: Residences all have at least
       hazardous materials                           one face tight to the street grid.
      Provide new utilities at site as             Edges: The ante bellum wall along the
       required by new use                           northern and western boundaries of the
      Demolish the existing garages                 north yard as far south as Portsmouth
       (Buildings 133, 136 & 460)                    Boulevard presents an unmistakable
      Provide parking for privately owned           edge to the district. Quarters constructed
       vehicles (POVs) in proximity to               along this edge create a functional
       offices                                       continuity as well.
      Secure the perimeter of adjacent Port        Spacing: At the precinct’s core
       center Parking lot and provide access         nineteenth century buildings are sited in
       through existing perimeter brick wall         a consistent grid pattern, creating a



                                                                                                18
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    discernable rhythm of buildings, streets,     During the initial design, the Navy and
    and sidewalks                                 SHPO identified the following as key items:
   Materials: The pervasive use of brick
    and stone, couple with repetitive             1. Repair vs. Replace
    massing provides the historic precinct             Windows shall be repaired wherever
    with its unmistakable character.                     possible. In cases where the glazing
   Unique Features: (Specific to Quarters)              and/or glass are beyond repair, a new
    All interiors with the exception of                  window will be fabricated to match
    kitchens and bathrooms. Interior                     the existing conditions. Glazing on
    trimwork at A, B, C, D, and E, including             many exterior windows, particularly
    oak-leaf rosettes and plaster ceiling                on the enclosed porches, has tested
    medallions. Exterior iron work at D & E,             positive for asbestos. If this glazing
    including cast-iron balconies. Wrought               is not intact, it must either be abated
    iron railings and marble stairs at A, B, C,          or the entire window replaced.
    D, and E. Exterior gun-barrel columns at           Storm windows shall be mounted on
    all quarters except L & N. Quarters D &              the interior side to preserve the
    E and G & H assigned Treatment                       character of the building exterior.
    Category 1 in PA.                                  Doors shall be treated similarly. To
                                                         the greatest extent possible, all doors
It was therefore crucial that the                        will be replaced in the original
rehabilitation respect these characteristics in          doorways and tagged back so as to
addition to following the Secretary of the               not interfere with the floor layout.
Interior’s      Standards      during       the        Rod iron work on Building 705 shall
rehabilitation. To accomplish this, the                  remain, however structure above
design team had to perform an assessment of              shall be removed.
significant and character defining features of         Where ever possible, all hardwood
the buildings from site visits, previous                 floors are to remain. Floors damaged
historic research and documentation efforts,             beyond repair shall be replaced in
and consultation with SHPO.                              kind.
                                                       The existing slate roof on Building
SHPO Coordination                                        705 does not need to be replaced.
                                                         However, it is recommended that the
Prior to the design charrette, NAVFAC met                asphalt shingle roof on Building 706
with the AE team and SHPO to establish                   be replaced in kind.
pertinent preservation issues and identify a
list of preferred treatment options to be         2. Lead-Based Paint Abatement
incorporated into the design plan. Because             All paint samples have tested
the project included demolition of the                   positive for lead, cadmium, and
quarters’ garages which constituted an                   chromium. Surfaces which are
adverse effect, an MOA was prepared by the               cracking or pealing will need to be
Navy and accepted by SHPO that provided                  scraped to the substrate. This is done
various requirements for the project such as             either by hand (if the paint is pealing
design and construction guidelines, the                  always) or by using chemical gel.
qualifications of contractors, and other                 Walls with fully intact paint may be
pertinent issues.                                        left along and painted over.


                                                                                                19
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

      Much of the pipe insulation tested        5. Provision of New HVAC, Fire Sprinkler,
       positive for asbestos. Since the          Lighting, Power, and Telecom Systems to
       piping will not be re-used, it may be     Suite the Use as Offices.
       cut away and bagged as hazardous               Power and telecom systems shall be
       material.                                         let into the wall and patched. In some
      Floor tile in several areas that tested           cases the systems may be best suited
       positive for asbestos may remain in               to go into the floor.
       place if they are not to be disturbed;         Existing lighting elements, such as
       however it is recommended that it be              chandeliers, shall be retained. New
       removed.                                          lighting shall be pendants of period
                                                         style but discernibly new.
3. Structural Repairs and Modifications               HVAC shall be supplied to the
Necessitated by Conditions, Criteria, and                working space from the attic and
Change of Occupancy.                                     basement using floor and ceiling
    Structural analysis may reveal that it              diffusers. Closets or chimney flues
       is more economically feasible to                  may be used as duct chases.
       replace portions of the buildings              Fire suppression piping shall be
       versus upgrading the structure                    concealed      above     the    ceiling
       components to current standards. In               wherever possible.
       this case, a cost analysis is an               In general, plaster moldings in the
       important criterion for making such a             ceilings and walls are to be avoided.
       decision. However, it should be
       recognized that there may be              6. Enclosure of Existing Stairs and/or
       acceptable cost trade-offs for            Provision of New Stairs for Fire Egress and
       retaining      original     elements.     Life Safety.
       Demolition and replacement is least            If an additional egress stair is
       preferred.                                       necessary and an exception to the
    Any repair of brick mortar is to                   building code is not possible, the
       match the existing in color and                  most preferred method is to co-locate
       tooling.                                         the stairs with the elevator shaft. The
                                                        least preferred method is to enclose
4. Removal of Interior Walls, Doors, and                the existing stairs as a fire-rated
Other Elements to Accommodate the New                   space.
Office Tenants and their Program.
    Breach of interior walls, as discussed      7. Additions and Partial Reconstruction of
       for circulation (such as between the      Areas to Accommodate New Elevators for
       duplex units) is acceptable. Doors        Handicapped Accessibility.
       are to remain (or be put back) on             Changes in floor elevations shall be
       their hinges and tagged back.                    accommodated by building up to
    Where egress requires a widening of                meet the floor heights in the original
       doorways, all other “passive” means              buildings. This usually occurs in
       of accommodating the required                    spaces converted from porches to
       width shall be exhausted before                  interior rooms such as kitchens.
       physically altering the building.



                                                                                                20
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

      Transitions will be required at               The enclosed porches, particularly
       thresholds with hardwood flooring to           on the first floors of both buildings,
       meet accessibility requirements.               are of more significant architectural
                                                      value and require more careful
8. Demolition of Portions of Later Additions          consideration.
to the Main Buildings, Particularly Those
that were Poorly Designed or Constructed.      As the design work progressed, and building
     Discernable additions may be             and site conditions were better documented,
       removed if the space is unusable and    some changes to the initial plans became
       it restores the character of the        necessary. Some original materials had to
       buildings.                              be replaced in-kind because of their
                                               deteriorated condition or structural concerns.
                                               The SHPO was kept informed of these
                                               changes throughout the process.




                                                                                             21
                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

PHYSICAL RENOVATION

The following descriptions of renovation         The biggest ATFP issue related to site and
work are included to provide a summary of        landscaping is the 33 feet “clear zone”
the types of and level of effort required        required around the perimeter of each
during the construction process to stabilize,    building. The required clear zone affects the
repair, and upgrade the buildings to their       planning and layout of the entire project site
new use. It is not intended to be a              from parking, to landscaping, and building
comprehensive list of every construction         components.
detail, but rather to give examples of various
renovation components to provide an overall      One aspect of ATFP compliance for this
representation of the construction process.      project site was the redistribution of parking
                                                 in the vicinity. According to ATFP code,
                                                 unrestricted parking must be at least 82 feet
                                                 from the building. Because Portsmouth
                                                 Boulevard and an existing parking lot were
                                                 located immediately across the Gosport
                                                 Wall from the buildings, the road and
                                                 several rows of parking had to be eliminated
                                                 and a hardened fence installed in the parking
                                                 lot at this distance. New parking to the rear
                                                 of the buildings is within the shipyard
                                                 boundaries and restricted, and therefore had
                                                 to be 33 feet from the buildings.




                                                    Abandoned portion of parking lot and
SITE AND LANDSCAPING
                                                           Portsmouth Avenue
ATFP issues
                                                 A second aspect of site work related to
                                                 ATFP issues was the removal of existing
Because Buildings 705 and 706 were
                                                 vegetation which had become overgrown.
converted into office space with multiple
                                                 ATFP code requires that no plantings greater
employees, they had to conform to Anti-
                                                 than six inches in diameter be within the 33
Terrorist and Force Protection (ATFP)
                                                 feet clear zone. Because of the overgrown
requirements in all aspects of the design.


                                                                                               22
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

condition and the amount of other work         water level. While the site is now dry, the
needed, the entire site was cleared, and new   land was not graded properly to allow
landscaping that meets ATFP guidelines was     adequate draining away from the buildings,
applied to the site following construction.    and during periods of heavy rain, runoff
                                               would drain directly towards the building
                                               foundations, especially to their rear. This
                                               was corrected by bringing in additional fill
                                               to slope ground away from the structures.
                                               Because fill could not be placed
                                               immediately up to the buildings’
                                               foundations because of doors and windows
                                               at ground level, a retaining wall had to be
                                               built around the perimeter of the rear of the
                                               buildings to place fill against. The area
                                               between the knee walls and the buildings
                                               was then paved with drain systems installed.

 Overgrown vegetation around project site

A final aspect of the project site planning
related to ATFP requirements was the
location of HVAC equipment and buildings
systems. These systems had to be installed
in open areas adjacent to the buildings with
no enclosures.



                                                 Retaining wall around the perimeter of
                                                             Building 705

                                               Parking

                                               NNSY code requires new parking spots for
                                               70% of the total staff of 66 plus two
                                               handicapped and 10 visitor parking spaces.
                                               This meant the two buildings required an
          New HVAC equipment                   additional 60 parking spaces, although this
                                               was compounded by the loss of 55 existing
Grading issues                                 spaces in the large parking lot outside the
                                               brick wall because of ATFP requirements.
Geotechnical testing revealed that the         Therefore the new parking constructed as
project site has already been built up with    part of this project had to hold at least 115
subsequent layers of fill to raise the         parking spots. Fortunately there was plenty
historically low and wet ground to above the   of room to the rear to permit a lot of this


                                                                                             23
                                                                       Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                          Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                         Norfolk Naval Shipyard

size, however could be an issue for other
projects where site space is limited.




                                                Appropriate landscaping at the project site

New Parking lot to the rear of the buildings    Archaeology

Landscaping                                     A Phase I Reconnaissance and subsequent
                                                Phase II Evaluation identified potentially
All of the existing landscaping was removed     NRHP-eligible archaeological features to the
at the outset of the project. The majority of   rear of the buildings. Avoidance of this area
vegetation was overgrown and causing            was not possible so data recovery ensued to
problems to the buildings themselves and        fully excavate, record, and document the
would not meet ATFP requirements. Most          archaeological features. Before any soil
of the brick walkways and trench drains had     disturbance could occur in this area, the
settled unevenly and were trip-hazards in       Archaeological Data Recovery had to take
addition to preventing access to existing and   place and end of fieldwork report had to be
proposed underground utilities. Following       approved by the SHPO.             Excavations
grading, utility installation, and other site   revealed the remains of a brick planter and
work, new walkways were installed using         associated construction trench, a brick and
salvaged bricks and appropriate vegetation      mortar foundation, a shell and sand drainage
was planted. The trench drains were not         field, a brick drain, and various 19th century
reinstalled because they were no longer         artifacts. These features provided infor-
necessary with proper grading.                  mation on landscaping and water control
                                                alterations that occurred over the years.




                                                                                              24
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

ABATEMENT ISSUES/CLEAN-UP                       varied as well. Loose and chipping paint
STRATEGY                                        were scraped down to solid surfaces, while
                                                abrasives and blasting were used to
As with most historic buildings, hazardous      mechanically remove lead paint from areas
material clean-up was an important aspect of    where continual wear such as inside door
the project. A complete abatement of all        and window jambs could loosen paint dust.
toxic materials was not necessary and not       All surfaces were then covered and sealed
performed. Instead, the intent was to remove    with a protective layer of new paint.
those hazardous materials that were exposed
or could become exposed in the future.          Spores

Asbestos                                        Excessive mold and mildew growth caused
                                                by moisture infiltration was present and had
One material that was completely abated         to be abated from both buildings. Correction
from both buildings was asbestos. Asbestos      involved sealing the roofs and ventilating
was found in pipe insulation, floor tile,       the basements to decrease future moisture
window glazing, and roof tar. Fortunately,      levels.
many of these elements were being removed
from the buildings anyways so the
abatement did not cause significant
increases in time or money.




Numerous lead and asbestos pipes beneath                   Moisture infiltration
               porches                                     with mold and mildew

Lead                                            Animal

Testing showed that paint throughout both       Animal and pest infestation was also a
buildings on interior and exterior surfaces     problem that required abatement. Animal
contained lead, cadmium and above               remains were present at the project site and
established action levels. The existing paint   in the buildings and had to be safely
conditions varied substantially throughout      removed.
the buildings, so abatement techniques


                                                                                             25
Adaptive Rehabilitation of
   Buildings 705 and 706
  Norfolk Naval Shipyard




                       26
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

ARCHITECTURAL

Structural Systems
 
Various repairs were required to address
deteriorated building elements and upgrade
the structural systems to allow for the
increased loads required for the proposed
new use. The existing structural system first
had to be stabilized and then additional
strengthening and reinforcement could be
applied to meet current codes.

Foundation                                                  Section of repaired
                                                            and repointed brick
The first step in structural repairs was the
grading of the sites away from the buildings    Framing
to prevent further moisture damage to the
building foundations. During excavations it     The interior structure of the building
was discovered that Building 705 had not        required repair as many of wooden joists,
been constructed with foundation footings at    beams, girders, and studs showed signs of
the rear corners. Although the building did     termite and moisture damage. Additionally,
not show any severe structural damage           many of these elements had to be reinforced
caused by this; underpinning was installed to   and strengthened to meet current code
ensure long-term stability.                     requirements. The floor framing had to be
                                                strengthened and upgraded from 40 pounds
Walls                                           per square foot (psf) to 50 psf live load to
                                                support the added weight of modern office
Repairs were also made to the above-ground      equipment.
brick structural system to correct shifting
and cracking bricks and repoint sections of
soft and crumbly mortar. Many of the
wooden door and window lintels were
deteriorated and required repair to ensure
that no additional brick movement could
occur.




                                                New “Sister” bracing against party wall in
                                                                  attic




                                                                                             27
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Exterior

The exteriors of both buildings were            replacement posts were reinforced by the
severely deteriorated, and required cleaning,   addition of hidden solid steel posts.
repair, and restoration to bring them back to
a usable and aesthetically pleasing
condition. All elements that could be
repaired and retained were and materials that
were too far deteriorated were replaced in
kind. In cases where replacement had to be
made, portions that could be salvaged were
separated, and will be curated by the
shipyard and utilized in future projects
where historic materials are needed.

Porches/Additions
                                                     New masonry piers under porches
The porches and later additions to the
                                                Walls
buildings showed the greatest signs of
structural compromise. In most cases, these
                                                Portions of the exterior brick walls,
portions of the buildings were not
                                                particularly those on the raised basement
constructed well to begin with, and were
                                                level and those that had been encapsulated
prone to moisture damage and deterioration.
                                                within rear additions had been painted and
Nearly all of the additions to the buildings
                                                required cleaning to restore the original
were to be removed as part of the project
                                                exposed brick. Various methods including
anyway, so structural repairs to these
                                                scraping, chemical, and blasting were used
elements were not required.
                                                depending on the tenacity of the paint.
                                                Sections of wall that had not been painted
The front porches on both buildings did
                                                were only cleaned. Tuck pointing was only
require reinforcement however. The historic
                                                done on damaged sections of mortar and
cast iron columns supporting these porches
                                                was done using similar color and tooling as
were determined to be too deteriorated to
                                                the original sections.
support the increased load from the project
and were not designed for lateral forces.
                                                Several of the exterior brick chimneys
These columns therefore were removed and
                                                showed signs of damage and needed to be
replaced with masonry columns that were
                                                repaired as well. Rather than adding bracing
properly bolted to both the foundation and
                                                that would be visible or a complete
porch above. The wrought iron railings and
                                                demolition and reconstruction the chimneys
posts supporting the roof over the porches
                                                were plugged and retrofitted with concrete
on Building 705 were also determined to be
                                                from the inside so that the visual character
unstable and had to be replaced. It was
                                                of the chimneys would not be compromised.
determined that the intricate ironwork posts
and railings alone were not capable of
supporting the roof system so the



                                                                                             28
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

                                              Fenestration

                                              Nearly all of the historic windows on both
                                              buildings were in need of repair, but not too
                                              far deteriorated to warrant replacement.
                                              Only two windows per building had to be
                                              replaced due to condition. In these cases,
                                              replacements that match the originals in
                                              size, style, and light configuration were
                                              used. The original plan was to install interior
  Section of cleaned brick where previous     storm windows; however, exterior storm
           addition was removed               windows with protective laminate film were
                                              installed on of all windows to meet ATFP
Porches                                       requirements and done so in a manner
                                              consistent with the Secretary of the
Most of the porches attached to both          Interior’s Standards. All windows were
buildings were non-original and in poor       made operable to allow ventilation.
condition, and therefore removed as part of
the renovations. Porches that were retained
include the small one-story porches with
ironwork on the front of Building 705 and
the enclosed two-story porches near the
front of Building 706. New structural
supports had to be provided for all of the
retained porches, and new similar iron
railings replaced those on Building 705.



                                                     Replaced window (bottom left)

                                              The original front doors on both buildings
                                              were repaired and retained in place. This
                                              includes paneled doors on Building 705 and
                                              intricately carved solid Mahogany doors on
                                              Building 706. Non-historic storm doors were
                                              removed from Building 705. Several
                                              window openings on the rear and sides of
                                              the building had previously been enlarged
                                              and made into doorways to provide access to
                                              the numerous porches and additions on the
                                              buildings. Several of these openings were
                                              restored to window openings following the
       Replaced wrought iron porch            demolition of the porches and additions.
          railings and supports


                                                                                             29
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Embellishments                                 Additions

Most exterior detailing on the buildings was   Similar additions were appended to the rear
in repairable condition and was retained. A    of both buildings to increase usable space,
portion of cornice and several brackets on     and accommodate modern amenities that
Building 706 were determined to be too far     could not be placed within the historic
deteriorated to preserve and were thus         buildings. These additions are wood frame
replaced with reproductions that blend         covered with hardiboard siding and topped
seamlessly with the original materials.        by raised-seam metal roofing to blend with
                                               the character of the buildings, but be
                                               differentiable and conspicuously new.




  Section of replaced cornice and bracket

Roof                                             New addition to the rear of Building 705

The poor condition of the roofs was largely    These additions allowed for kitchens and
responsible for the majority of moisture       bathrooms to be installed while not intruding
damage to both buildings and was a priority    into the historic core of the buildings, as
in the renovation. The asphalt shingle roof    well as allowed for fire escape stairwells and
on Building 706 was severely deteriorated      ADA access as well.
and in need of replacement. Additionally, it
was determined during the design process       Fire code requires there to be two means of
that the slate tile roof on Building 705 was   egress from a building separated from
deteriorated and required replacement.         occupied space by a one-hour rated firewall.
Synthetic slate tile roofs were applied to     Additionally, these means have to be located
both buildings, while all additions and        in such a way that either is accessible
porches were covered with standing-seam        without having to pass by the other. To
metal roofs to help differentiate them from    accommodate this requirement, two exterior
the original building masses. Several          stairwells were attached to the rear additions
dormers were also added to the roofs to        of each building.
allow for increased ventilation of the HVAC
systems in the attics.




                                                                                             30
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard




     New exterior fire egress stairway                  Wheelchair lift on rear deck

To meet ADA requirements, handicapped            interior layout, it was determined that
accesses had to be incorporated and were         providing access only to the primary floor
integrated into the rear additions. Because of   was required which meant exterior lifts as
the historic nature of the building and the      opposed to full elevators could be used.




                                                                                             31
                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard




           Building 705:
Pre-Rehabilitation First Floor Layout




                                                               32
                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard




           Building 706:
Pre-Rehabilitation First Floor Layout


                                                               33
                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard




           Building 705:
Post-Rehabilitation First Floor Layout




                                                                34
                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard




           Building 706:
Post-Rehabilitation First Floor Layout



                                                                35
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Interior                                          plumbing and electrical work done inside
                                                  the original buildings. The basements in
As the interiors of both buildings were           both buildings were converted into systems
considered significant by the PA, preserving      space.
their historic character was a priority for the
rehabilitation. Maintaining their original        Floors
configurations, keeping historic materials,
fixtures, and finishes, and blending new          The wood floors were in varying conditions
elements in with the old were all important       throughout both buildings, although most
considerations     in    the    design     and    were in good enough condition to save.
construction.                                     Damaged planks were removed and replaced
                                                  with matching boards and the entire floor
Layout                                            was sanded and refinished. In several rooms,
                                                  especially former bathrooms and closets, as
Very few changes were made to the floor           well as in additions, the entire floor had to
plans of the original buildings. The largest      be replaced. In these cases, wood flooring
modification to the layouts was the               that matches the original in wood species,
breaching of the central walls in one place       plank-width, and finish were used and
on each floor of both buildings to convert        blended at the seams with historic portions.
the former duplexes into single spaces. In
Building 705, the wall breaches were placed       Ceilings
within closets that were also opened to
create a central break room area on each          The original plaster ceilings were one
floor, while in Building 706, the breaches        historic element that had to be sacrificed in
are simply openings cut between the               both buildings. In order to make repairs to
hallways in each side of the building.            and increase structural components, as well
                                                  as run new utilities without damaging walls
                                                  or floors, the original ceilings had to be
                                                  removed and replaced with lowered drywall
                                                  ceilings.

                                                  The lowered ceilings permitted the
                                                  installation of electrical wiring and HVAC
                                                  ductwork, as well as audio-visual
                                                  equipment. Small hatches had to be
                                                  provided in the ceiling of each room to
                                                  permit access to the systems and utilities
                                                  above; however these doors were designed
 Breach between two sides of Building 706
                                                  to be flush with the ceiling and blend in. The
                                                  decorative plaster medallions in formal
The majority of rooms in both buildings
                                                  rooms of Building 706 were safely removed
became general office space, while a formal
                                                  from the original ceilings and reinstalled on
parlor in each was made into a conference
                                                  the new drywall ceilings.
room. Kitchens and bathrooms were all
placed in the rear additions to minimize the


                                                                                                36
                                                                       Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                          Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                         Norfolk Naval Shipyard

                                                The majority of original windows were also
                                                retained and all were made operable to
                                                ensure better ventilation and pleasant
                                                conditions. In some cases, pockets had to be
                                                used on the dropped ceilings to allow for the
                                                windows and their surrounds to remain
                                                intact and full-height.




      Access hatch in lowered ceiling

Doors and Windows
                                                 Window pocket to allow original lintel to
While most doors were off their hinges in
                                                                 show
both buildings at the time of initial
inspection, many were able to be reinstalled.
                                                Built-ins
Missing and damaged doors were replaced
with reproductions that match the originals
                                                All built-ins throughout the building were
in construction and appearance. Every
                                                retained and repaired. Many of these were
historic door and doorway was accounted
                                                non-original but historic, and determined to
for and retained in the final design because
                                                be a significant part of the evolution of the
of good design. Most are still operable; only
                                                buildings. Some examples were built-in
a few had to be tied-back to allow for
                                                wardrobes and drawers in formers
furniture. Most large openings were also
                                                bedrooms, pantries in closets and hallways,
retained, less one on the first floor of
                                                and shelving in the parlors.
Building 705 which had to be partially
infilled.




 Partially infilled opening in Building 705


                                                                                              37
                                                                     Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                        Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                       Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Embellishments

The majority of historic moldings
throughout both buildings, including
baseboards, chair rails, wainscoting, picture
molding, and surrounds were retained.

Crown moldings which were present only in
Building 706 were lost due to the lowering
of ceilings. Despite the historic plaster
ceilings being lost, plaster medallions were
removed and repaired, and then reinstalled
on the drywall replacement ceilings. All
fireplaces and mantels were also retained
and preserved, although none are operable.
                                                Original medallions reinstalled on drywall
                                                                 ceiling




   Original fireplace and mantel retained




                                                                                            38
Adaptive Rehabilitation of
   Buildings 705 and 706
  Norfolk Naval Shipyard




                       39
                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

SYSTEMS                                         placed in the basements and attics. Four
                                                HVAC zones were created in each building
Fire suppression                                to allow regulation and even temperature
                                                throughout.
A new fire alarm and fire suppression
system was installed throughout both
buildings. Sprinkler heads were placed in
every room and all piping was concealed in
ceiling cavities and within closets. A new
pump had to be installed for the system due
to tests at the nearby hydrant revealing
insufficient pressure.




                                                Ductwork and piping installed in basement

                                                Plumbing

                                                The majority of plumbing installation was
                                                limited to the new additions on each
                                                building. All kitchens and bathrooms were
                                                placed in these additions so as to not
                                                interrupt the historic character of the original
                                                buildings. Some new piping did need to be
                                                installed within the original buildings to feed
                                                the sprinklers and fire suppression
                                                equipment, and this piping was placed in the
       Sprinkler pump hidden in closet          cavities between the floors and ceilings.

Portable fire extinguishers also had to be      It was also discovered that that ground level
located throughout the buildings according      in the basements of both building was below
to NFPA 10.                                     the 100-year flood plain level, so sump
                                                pumps had to be installed in the basements
HVAC                                            to prevent potential flooding.

Both buildings required complete HVAC           Electrical
systems to replace the radiant heat and
window-unit air conditioning previously         The buildings had a mixture of old and new
utilized.                                       wiring, much of which would not meet
                                                current code or the increased power needs.
Ducts were run through closets, ceilings, and   Therefore, all new electrical systems and
other concealed areas to screen them from       wiring harnesses were installed in both
visibility. Major system components were


                                                                                               40
                                                                          Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                             Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                            Norfolk Naval Shipyard

buildings. Exterior lighting and lighting for    and flow of the buildings were respected.
the parking lot to the rear were also needed.    Historic embellishments such as woodwork,
                                                 built-ins, fireplace mantels, and doors were
The building feeds were tied into the            not blocked whenever possible. The tall
existing shipyard power supply through their     ceilings ensure the rooms still have an open
basements. New wiring was then strung            feel despite the large amount of furniture.
throughout the wall and ceiling cavities,
causing as little damage as possible to the
historic walls. A flexible approach was used
for outlets allowing both floor- and wall-
mounted boxes to decrease the need for
cutting the historic plaster or brick. Brick
channeling was avoided wherever possible,
instead relocating switch boxes to adjacent
wood frame walls.



                                                     Open floor plan with cubicle furniture to
                                                                      side

                                                 New light fixtures were installed throughout
                                                 the buildings to provide adequate
                                                 illumination for the tenants. Most of the
                                                 historic lighting could not be reused due to
                                                 code, so appropriate style replacements were
                                                 found. Chandeliers were hung from the
                                                 ceilings in larger rooms while wall-mounted
                                                 pendant lights were installed throughout
                                                 smaller spaces and hallways. Historic
                                                 sconces found throughout the buildings prior
                                                 to the renovations were replaced with
   Floor-mounted register and outlet box         similar, non-functional units.
                                                  
FFE

A variety of furniture, fixtures, and
equipment had to be incorporated into the
buildings to convert them from their original
residential use to modern and functional
office space.

Standard cubicle style office furniture was
set up throughout the buildings and                                                                     
organized in a way that the historic character            New pendant style light fixture


                                                                                                 41
                                                                      Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                         Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                        Norfolk Naval Shipyard



Other assorted equipment had to be            A mass notification system to provide
incorporated throughout the buildings to      emergency alerts to the building occupants
provide        modern         technology,     was required by ATFP code and installed
communications, and security as well.         throughout. These LCD “smart signs” are
Conference rooms were fitted with state of    located at each point of exit in addition to
the art audiovisual equipment including       the traditional illuminated exit signs, and are
ceiling-mounted projectors and drop-down      connected to the shipyard wide notification
screens.                                      system.




                                                                                        
       Drop-down projection screen                  LCD Smart Sign with traditional
         incorporated into ceiling                       exit sign at doorway 
                                                      
Network plugs and power outlets were                  
installed beneath the conference tables for    
easy computer connections and a secure
NMCI (Navy/Marine Corps Intranet) server
room was placed in each building.




                                                                                             42
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard



COST ANALYSIS                                     additional abatement and removal fees.
                                                  Demolition of just the historic garages and
While it would be nice to assume that             building additions cost nearly $1 million.
historic rehabilitation is a viable option for    Hazardous Material abatement on these
any future development; in the real world,        elements cost roughly $1.2 million. Should
money is the determining factor. There are        the entire buildings been demolished and
many who believe that renovating an               abated, the additional cost would have
existing structure, particularly when historic    approached nearly another $1 million
preservation is involved, costs more than
new construction. This is augmented for the       Because the buildings contribute to the
Navy and other Federal agencies by the fact       historic district, mitigation and associated
there is little financial incentive to do         costs would have been required as well.
rehabilitation, because unlike in the private     While not a huge expense relative to other
sector, there are no tax credits or cost          project costs, these expenditures can add up.
reducers available. It is important therefore     New construction would also require
to assess all associated costs and consider all   additional site work and planning,
factors to determine whether rehabilitation is    infrastructure and utility expansion, and
a good option.                                    possibly additional property acquisition.
                                                  Most of these types of extra expenses are
It is true, that when the numbers are added       often not considered in cost comparisons,
up, this project did end up costing slightly      but can reduce the differential between new
more than new construction might have for         construction and rehabilitation.         Not
the same amount of space, however there are       counting these additional costs, current
additional costs associated with new              estimates for constructing new space of this
construction that should be taken into            size at a secure facility can run any where
consideration as well. Had these buildings        from $5.5 to $6.5 million.
continued to sit vacant, eventually they
would have had to be demolished, requiring




                                                                                                43
                                                                                Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                                   Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                                  Norfolk Naval Shipyard



Cost Breakdown                                           The initial estimate by shipyard staff to
                                                         complete this project was over $12 million,
One of the most significant aspects of                   which was almost to a level that would make
determining the feasibility of a rehabilitation          the project cost-prohibitive. However, once
project is estimating the potential cost and             a formal project estimate and funding
then staying within budget once the project              request was completed, the total estimated
commences. This can be difficult because of              cost was reduced to $9.5 million, and the
the many unforeseen issues that can arise                final authorized amount was closer to $8.4
when working with a historic building.                   million. A breakdown of approximate
                                                         project costs is provided below.

                                                                Rehab          New Construction
Design Production                                               $400,000        $375,000
Construction Costs*
Site Work
    Site Preparations:                                          $131,000         $131,000
    Paving and Site Improvements:                               $144,000         $144,000

Demolition**
   Garages and Building Additions                               $891,000         $891,000
   BLDGS 705 &706                                                      $0      $1,000,000
   (including Hazardous Material Disposal

ATFP (Site and Architecture)                                    $84,000           $84,000
Land Acquisition (ATFP Requirement)                             $122,000         $122,000
Building Construction Costs
   Hazardous Materials Abatement
   of BLDGS 705 & 706                          $1,268,000
   Systems
       Mechanical:                                 $326,000
       Electrical:                                $1,306,000
       Built-in Equipment (Lifts, Etc):            $214,000
       Information Technology:                     $296,000

Construction                                   $3,168,000
(General Cost Excluding Systems)

Total Building Costs                                            $6,578,000     $6,000,000***
                                                                $293/SF        $267/SF
TOTAL CONSTRUCTION COST                                         $7,950,000     $8,372,000

*      Furniture and equipment specific to the tenants’ needs was funded for by separate sources.
**     Demolition costs can range considerably depending on the individual property and unique
       requirements. These figures represent the upper end of that range.
***    Based on estimates to construct equivalent new square footage.




                                                                                                       44
                                                                       Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                          Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                         Norfolk Naval Shipyard



SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES                        the two buildings. Space for new
                                                construction is limited at the shipyard,
As with any renovation, the rehabilitation of   increasing the push for utilizing existing
Buildings 705 and 706 had both successes        facilities, and the fact that the Navy had
and challenges along the way. Some project      made a commitment to SHPO to make an
components went exactly according to plan       effort to preserve the remaining historic
while others posed difficulties and setbacks.   residential quarters at the shipyard provided
This section addresses various project          the final justification.
components and which aspects went well
and which could have gone better. A             Successes:
comparison of the initial design plan with          Using these buildings for the project
the actual outcomes is provided, as well as            ensured that they would be
how preservation goals were met. The                   preserved. Until they were selected
majority of the information stems from                 for this use, the buildings were
interviews with individuals and firms that             sitting vacant and falling into
took part in the project. This includes Navy           disrepair. Had they continued to sit
representatives, design team members and               vacant, they could have become too
consultants, contractors, and SHPO.                    far deteriorated and had to be
                                                       demolished, which would have
Building Selection                                     required additional mitigation

The process in which Buildings 705 and 706      Challenges:
were selected for the project was somewhat          A hurdle in the selection process was
atypical, however worked well in this case.            convincing many stake holders that
Buildings 705 and 706 had both been vacant             rehabilitating historic buildings was
for several years with no foreseeable future           worthwhile.       Concerns       were
use when the BRAC report recommended                   expressed that there are too many
the relocation of two outside Naval offices            contingencies      associated     with
to the shipyard. Coincidently, the amount of           historic rehabilitation, and that the
space needed by the two offices was                    project would cost more and take
approximately the amount of space within               longer than new construction.
 




                                                                                              45
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard



Budget                                            Bid Process
 
Securing financing usually is one of the          A Design-Bid-Build method was chosen for
most challenging parts of any development         this project to ensure a good design that
project. Typically, the shipyard would have       incorporated the new tenants needs while
to compete region-wide for Military               respecting the historic character of the
Construction (MILCON) money, which is             buildings was provided while not cutting
especially difficult to obtain for renovation     corners for budget.        Because of the
projects involving administrative space. A        preservation priority in this project, an AE
BRAC realignment action generated the             firm and GC that had experience with, and a
need for additional administrative space at       general interest in historic buildings were
NNSY, and therefore, BRAC dollars were            selected. They were then better able to select
used to fund the project.                         sub-consultants and contractors which they
                                                  knew had experience with historic properties
Successes:                                        to ensure that both project and preservation
    This project was fortunate in that           goals were met. The SHPO was provided an
       BRAC funding was available since           opportunity to comment on the proposed
       funding for renovations associated         design at both the 35% and 90% design
       with administrative use is extremely       submittals.
       limited. The MILCON scoring
       system gives preference to directly        For renovation of historic buildings, the
       military-related projects such as piers    Design-Bid-Build process is preferable to
       and runways over administrative            Design Build contracts since design issues
       projects.                                  can be resolved with the SHPO before the
                                                  actual award of the construction contract.

Challenges:                                       Successes:
    It      is     common       belief    that       Preservation criteria were included in
       rehabilitation costs more than new                the bid evaluation process to aid in
       construction and is thus difficult to             the selection of an architect and
       justify for obtaining funding.                    general contractor with experience-in
    MILCON money is difficult to                        and interest-in historic buildings.
       obtain for any renovation work,                By using the Design-Bid-Build
       especially for historic rehabilitation.           method, all work was able to be done
    While BRAC money is easier to                       under a single, fixed-price contract-
       obtain for renovation work, it is very            to-budget which came in under the
       specific on what the money may be                 authorized       amount         without
       used for, so there are limitations to             sacrificing quality.
       project components that are not seen           The General Contractor physically
       as necessary to make the building                 moved many of its employees to the
       usable.                                           area ensuring a more efficient work
                                                         schedule with experienced workers.




                                                                                                46
                                                                          Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                             Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                            Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Challenges:                                              required which would have increased
    While preservation criteria were                    time, cost, and need for planning
       included in the bid evaluation
       process, it would have been                Challenges:
       beneficial to have had coordination            Because the NNSY has been
       with the SHPO or another                          occupied and developed for over two
       preservation specialist before a                  centuries, the ground is laden with
       request for proposals was released to             buried issues. In this case a Phase I
       ensure that all critical issues were              Archaeological survey identified
       incorporated into the selection and               domestic and architectural features
       award process.                                    and recommended further evaluation.
                                                         Phase II survey revealed features that
Site Planning                                            were NRHP-eligible and would
                                                         require mitigation if disturbed. This
Planning and civil engineering can be a                  area at first was marked for
challenge anytime a developed property is                avoidance, but to make room for
used. The existing conditions can provide                parking, the Navy chose to undertake
limitations, especially in the case of a                 a Phase III data recovery. This
historic rehabilitation where the goal is to             cleared the area for development,
preserve as much of the existing conditions              however the whole process took
as      possible.      Providing     utilities,          extra time and money that was not
infrastructure, and other site work can be               originally planned for.
made more difficult by the high probability           In addition to archaeological
of unforeseen issues that arise once site                features, old utility lines crisscrossed
work is initiated. ATFP issues, which are                the site and had to be dealt with. The
relatively new in the planning process,                  Civil Engineer was charged with
provide a whole other set of considerations.             locating utilities so that the
                                                         contractor did not hit any, however
Successes:                                               existing maps did not show many of
    Utilizing an already developed                      the pipes, wires, and trenches that
       property can have benefits such as                were found, so additional work had
       existing infrastructure and utilities to          to be conducted to determine
       tie into. In this case, roads, sewers,            whether any of these utilities were
       telephone, electric, and plumbing                 still in use or not.
       were all already in the vicinity and           ATFP requires a clear zone around
       easier to hook into than having to                non-residential buildings which
       bring these systems to a new                      posed a challenge for this project, as
       development site.                                 the two buildings are located
    As the buildings were already                       adjacent to the shipyard boundaries.
       located in and owned by the                       Therefore the road on the other side
       shipyard, no property acquisition                 of the shipyard wall had to be
       was required. Open space is rare at               purchased by the Navy and closed.
       the shipyard and had existing space            The largest issue regarding ATFP as
       not been available, acquisition of                it related to site and landscape
       nearby property may have been                     planning was the proximity of


                                                                                                 47
                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

unsecured parking outside of the        perimeter. Many of the parking spaces
brick wall (shipyard boundary). This    had to be abandoned and blocked off,
issue was caused by the density of      which meant additional secured parking
the shipyard’s layout and the fact      had to be constructed as part of the
these    buildings    are     located   project.
immediately adjacent to the base




                                                                                48
Adaptive Rehabilitation of
   Buildings 705 and 706
  Norfolk Naval Shipyard




                       49
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard




   Buried utilities discovered at the site           Proximity of Portsmouth Avenue and
                                                        Parking lot to the project site
Architectural Design                                     reminisce of the former porches that
                                                         were removed.
The biggest issue with the overall design of            The additions include the mandatory
this project was to create a modern space                fire egress stairs, ADA access,
that respects the historic character of the              kitchens, and bathrooms so that none
buildings. This was made more difficult by               of these potentially historic-character
the fact the buildings had to be converted               compromising elements needed to be
from a residential use and layout, to                    within the historic massing.
functional office space. It was also                    While      BRAC        projects     and
necessary to meet current code requirements              renovations are typically tailored to a
for structural loads, fire egress, ATFP, and             specific tenant, in this case the space
ADA issues, as well as provide adequate                  ended up being designed in such a
plumbing,       electrical,   HVAC,       and            way that is flexible and could easily
telecommunications equipment; all within                 be used for other needs as they arise.
the existing structures. To facilitate meeting          Providing breaches between the
these objectives, additions were appended to             center walls on each floor of both
the rear of both buildings that incorporated             buildings converted them from
many of the necessary elements. The attics               duplexes into single units. This
and basements were also utilized for many                worked well in that the spaces could
of the systems to minimize intrusion into the            be shared by multiple tenants or used
historic interiors to the greatest degree                by a single tenant in the future. It
possible.                                                also assisted with meeting fire egress
                                                         because of the availability to utilize
Successes:                                               the additional staircases on each side
    The additions to both buildings were                of the building.
       designed in such a way that they are       
       conspicuously new, so as to not           Challenges:
       confuse with the historic buildings.          The original intent was to design the
       They blend with the scale and                    renovations in a way in which the
       massing of the buildings well, and               buildings would be LEED-certified,


                                                                                                50
                                                                  Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                     Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                    Norfolk Naval Shipyard

    however it became apparent that this         Having two tenants share the space
    was not possible without severely             in one of the buildings made it
    compromising the historic character           difficult to provide for separate
    by altering the building envelopes.           bathrooms, kitchens, workrooms,
   Designers and particularly engineers          conference rooms, etc. Fortunately in
    like specificity when working on a            this case, the tenants were able to
    project, which is tough to obtain             work together and agree on sharing
    when renovating an existing                   various spaces.
    building, because of the likelihood          It was difficult to design a
    for unknown issues arising.                   mechanical systems layout due to
   Meeting ATFP code is a big                    having to keep the habitable space as
    challenge for renovation. It can be           unchanged as possible. This meant
    difficult to address all of the               the majority of systems needed to be
    necessary requirements on any                 placed in the attic or basement, and
    project, whether new construction or          that piping, wiring, and ductwork
    renovation, although is particularly          needed to run through these spaces
    challenging         with       historic       as well or within the narrow space
    rehabilitation because of the                 between the existing floor and
    limitations on what can and cant be           lowered ceilings. All vertical runs
    done without compromising the                 had to be in closets or flues so as to
    historic character.                           not be seen from the primary
        o Example: At first the                   habitable spaces.
            buildings were going to be                o Example: High velocity ducts
            considered three-story which                  with smaller piping which
            would have upgraded the                       would have facilitated the
            progressive           collapse                installation could not be used
            requirements for the building.                because they are not very
            Extensive bracing would                       efficient and have poor
            have been needed to meet the                  performance for a space this
            requirements which could not                  size.
            have been installed without               o Example: The systems in the
            seriously compromising the                    basement had to be raised off
            historic character of the                     the floor by more than a foot
            buildings and jeopardizing                    due to the 100 year flood
            the economic feasibility of the               plain being at that level. This
            project. Fortunately, they                    decreased available space
            were ultimately determined to                 and made it more challenging
            only be two-stories.                          to install.




                                                                                         51
                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard



Preservation Design                                     In some cases, the design could not
                                                         incorporate SHPO’s preservation
In addition to designing the buildings to                recommendations because of code
meet necessary code requirements and the                 requirements or budget restraints.
needs of the prospective tenants in terms of                 o Examples: Replacing the
space and layout, the design had to preserve                    historic wrought iron porch
as much of the historic character as possible.                  railings     and      supports,
This meant respecting the original layout                       replacing the cast-iron porch
and configuration, preserving historic and                      columns, removing plaster
original materials, and hiding new updates                      ceilings and replacing them
and equipment.                                                  with lowered drywall, using a
                                                                synthetic slate roof in place
Successes:                                                      of repairing the original, and
    Representatives from the Navy and                          placing storm windows on
       the Design Team were able to meet                        the exterior of the building.
       with SHPO to develop a list of             
       pertinent preservation-related issues     Construction/Site Work
       and goals before the design charrette
       which allowed potential problems to       On-site renovation and construction
       be worked out early.                      activities began with clean-up and
    This allowed the additions to both          abatement to prep the site and buildings for
       buildings to be designed in such a        renovation work. Work then proceeded to
       way that they are conspicuously new       demolition, grading and site improvements,
       so as to not confuse with the historic    and then building construction and repair.
       buildings, but blend with the scale       Lastly, landscaping and final clean-up was
       and massing of the buildings.             done to get the buildings ready for ribbon-
    The additions include the mandatory         cutting and tenant move-ins.
       fire egress stairs, ADA access,
       kitchens, and bathrooms so that none      Successes:
       of these potentially historic-character       The buildings are located next to
       compromising elements needed to be               each other which facilitated work
       within the historic massing.                     and allowed construction to progress
                                                        on both buildings simultaneously.
Challenges:                                          Site access and pass office issues
    The          historic      preservation            were dealt with by a representative
       coordination and review process can              from the general contractor being at
       provide challenges to timelines and              the pass office every morning to
       budget because of the 30-day review              expedite the process. This is a
       period.                                          standard part of the routine when
    Designers and engineers like                       working for the military.
       specificity in their plans which can          Site clean-up and abatement went
       be difficult to incorporate while                according to plan without a problem.
       trying to take into account                      The greatest amount of abatement
       recommendations from SHPO.                       issues were located in the non-


                                                                                               52
                                                                        Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                           Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                          Norfolk Naval Shipyard

       original rear porches, which were               Sometimes field decisions and
       being demolished anyway. In other                change orders had to be made
       cases, such as with lead paint, sound            quickly, and did not always allow
       surfaces were painted over instead of            time for input or comment from the
       requiring a complete abatement. This             Navy’s historic resource team or the
       saved time and minimized the cost                SHPO.
       and generation of hazardous waste         
       disposal.                                Preservation Specific
      All requests for information (RFIs)       
       from the construction team went to       The historic nature of the project and the
       the Navy’s construction manager          need to preserve as many of the character-
       where either a field decision could be   defining elements and materials in the
       made, or were forwarded to the           buildings as possible to meet the Secretary
       architect. In almost all cases,          of the Interior’s Standards required special
       response times from both team            consideration be given to construction
       members were prompt which                practices and techniques. The project was
       allowed construction to stay on          fortunate in that the general contractor, and
       schedule.                                specifically the construction superintendant,
      Many unforeseen issues that arose        had a keen sense historic preservation and
       during construction were able to be      was able to ensure project goals were met.
       resolved through creative responses       
       by team members without causing          Successes:
       loss of time or increased costs.             The project was able to use synthetic
                                                       materials in place of their
Challenges:                                            historically-available counterparts.
    Some materials and building features              This provided significant cost
       were beyond a condition they would              savings and can easily be installed,
       normally be repaired, but the historic          while still meeting preservation
       preservation goals of this project              standards and respecting the historic
       mandated that special attention be              character.
       given to preserving them.                           o Example: Hardiboard siding
           o Example: Several chimneys                         which has a longer lifespan
               on the buildings were                           and is easier to maintain, but
               collapsing and typically                        still gives the appearance of
               would have been demolished                      true clapboard was utilized
               and rebuilt. This was not an                    on the building additions.
               option for this project, and                o Example: Synthetic slate
               standard       reinforcement                    shingles were installed on the
               would have caused a visual                      roofs of both buildings,
               impact.                                         providing a significant cost
    Still some materials and elements                         savings while still giving the
       were beyond repair and could not be                     appearance of true slate.
       retained despite the best efforts to         Local craftsman and mills were able
       save them.                                      to replicate many of the damaged
                                                       building components.


                                                                                               53
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard

           o Example: Portions of the                            close the opening, but retain
             Exterior cornice and carved                         the original architrave within
             brackets were produced and                          the plaster. This option best
             blended seamlessly with                             matches preservation
             original sections.                                  standards in that it allows the
           o Example: Curved pieces of                           original configuration to be
             base shoe had to be crafted to                      seen.
             fit on rounded corners inside              Once construction commenced, it
             Building 706.                               became apparent that some of the
                                                         historic materials and features
Challenges:                                              originally planned to be retained
    Working with and preserving many                    were in worse condition than
       of the historic materials and elements            expected and alternate plans had to
       posed difficulties for the construction           be made.
       team not typically encountered on                     o Example: It was originally
       renovation jobs.                                          thought the slate roof on
           o Example: It was important to                        Building 705 could be
               safely remove the plaster                         repaired, however once
               ceiling medallions so they                        construction started, it was
               could be reattached to the                        determined the tiles were too
               lowered drywall ceilings.                         brittle, additionally, the
    During construction, there were                             lighter weight of the synthetic
       several cases where actual conditions                     slate eliminated the need for
       did not match predictions, and design                     additional structural bracing
       changes had to be made to                                 of the roof. The addition of
       accommodate preservation goals.                           several dormers necessary
           o Example: Ceiling pockets                            for HVAC ventilation on the
               were needed in rear hallways                      roof would require many tiles
               to maintain full-height                           to be removed and reapplied,
               windows because raising roof                      likely causing too much stress
               would interfere with the                          on the slate. Further, the tiles
               historic exterior cornice.                        that would not need to be
           o Example: It was realized that                       removed were only held down
               the addition of a NMCI room                       by gravity and not sealed,
               in Building 705 would                             which could permit future
               require that a portion of a                       moisture infiltration. It was
               large double-opening                              therefore decided to replace
               between two rooms would                           the roof with a synthetic slate
               need to be infilled. One                          material. This also allowed
               option was to reduce the                          the buildings to match, as the
               entire opening and construct                      same synthetic roof was used
               a new and similar architrave                      to replace the asphalt roof on
               to go around it, the second                       Building 706.
               choice, which was ultimately       
               selected, was to partially


                                                                                                54
                                                                         Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                            Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                           Norfolk Naval Shipyard



LESSONS LEARNED AND                              of the building will be following the
CONCLUSIONS                                      rehabilitation and determine whether the
                                                 building’s location, size, and layout lend
While there were challenges along the way,       themselves well to that use. It is also vital to
the rehabilitation of Building 705 and 706 at    understand what makes that particular
the Norfolk Naval Shipyard is heralded a         building historically significant and what
successful project. Two vacant historic          preservation issues are likely to arise. This
buildings threatened with demolition were        will allow the design and construction
preserved, the tenants’ needs were               processes to proceed quicker. Discussion
accounted for, and preservation goals were       and coordination should take place with the
met; all completed under budget. Everyone        agency’s Historic Preservation Officer, a
involved with the project from the initial       Cultural Resource Management Firm, or
planning, implementation, to completion, is      SHPO early to assist with this. Another
happy with the results and came away from        important aspect to not overlook in the
the project with a positive experience. The      planning stage is whether or not there is a
general contractor plans to use the project as   presence of archaeological features at the
a model of historic rehabilitation for future    project site. Late discoveries of this nature
clients. The prospective tenants are thrilled    can create significant delays and increase the
with the space and could not wait to move        project cost substantially.
in. The SHPO warrants that the historic
character of the buildings was well respected    Over the last decade, the emergence of
and commends the Navy on the project.            ATFP has also made it important to
Many shipyard personnel say that they            understand what issues these requirements
would like to have an office in one of the       may generate during a rehabilitation and
buildings.                                       whether the selected building will have any
                                                 inherent hardships with meeting them.
Even with all the successes of the project,      Buildings      located     near     installation
there were challenges and difficulties along     boundaries provide extra challenges because
the way. Therefore, it is important to           of the clear zone required to be around them.
recognize what lessons were learned so that      Buildings three or more stories tall have to
future historic rehabilitations can be           meet progressive collapse requirements for
performed by the Navy and other Federal          ATFP which can be difficult for historic
agencies quicker, cheaper, and more              buildings. Buildings that will hold more than
efficiently.                                     49 employees have even stricter sets of
                                                 ATFP requirements. While these issues
Lessons Learned                                  should not forbid the selection of buildings
                                                 that fit any of these criteria; ways to resolve
The first step to undertaking a successful       the issues should be taken into consideration
historic rehabilitation is selecting a good      at an early stage. It should be noted that
candidate building(s). Choosing the right        buildings to be used for residential purposes
building to renovate can make huge               following rehabilitation do not need to meet
differences in the amount of time, money,        ATFP requirements.
and effort needed to carry out the project. It
is important to know what the intended use


                                                                                                55
                                                                          Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                             Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                            Norfolk Naval Shipyard

Once a building has been selected for reuse,      will be evaluated on. Particular emphasis
an architect must be summoned to prepare          should be given to previous experience with
the rehabilitation design. Some architecture      historic preservation. Time should be taken
firms have their own staff engineers to           to check references and the reputation of the
prepare the electrical, plumbing, systems,        contractors. It is also important to find out
civil and other similar design, and               whom the Project Superintendent will be
sometimes they outsource to specialized           and what their qualifications and experience
consultants. It is important to find an           with historic rehabilitation are. A selection
architect with experience in historic             process that ranks potential contractors on
preservation and rehabilitation so that a         their experience and knowledge of
sensitive design can be produced that meets       preservation first, and on bid price second, is
both project goals and the Secretary of the       advisable.
Interior’s Standards. It is also important to
ensure that if the architect does outsource       Once construction commences, open and
the engineering work, that the selected           active communication between team
consultants have experience with and an           members becomes pivotal once again.
understanding of historic rehabilitation as       Because of the guarantee for unforeseen
well. A design-bid-build method of delivery       issues arising when working on historic
is preferred for rehabilitation.                  buildings, it is important that workers bring
                                                  these issues to the attention of the
At this point in the project, open and active     superintendent or construction manager so
communication between the owner,                  that informed decisions can be made in the
consultants, and the SHPO is critical. A lot      field, or passed on to the architect or SHPO
of time and money can be lost if the project      if needed. To know when issues warrant
gets too far into the design process without      discussion or consultation is a challenge,
SHPO consultation, only to later find out         especially      to   those      workers     or
that it does not meet with approval. It is        subcontractors who are not familiar with
extremely beneficial to hold a meeting with       historic preservation or the Secretary of the
the architect and SHPO as soon as an initial      Interior’s Standards. Therefore it may be
design has been developed to discuss and          worthwhile to provide a quick briefing on
work out potential issues before final plans      basic preservation principles at the outset of
are established.       It would also be           the project to anyone involved at the project
advantageous to establish an agreement with       site. An intensive lesson on Historic
SHPO during this initial preservation             Preservation Theory is not necessary and
guidance and consultation to develop a            would cause undue loss of time and money.
review process with less than the standard        Rather a quick presentation followed by a
30-day turnaround.                                Q&A session would likely suffice. This
                                                  could be given by the agency’s Historic
Once the design is complete, assembling a         Preservation Officer, a representative from
good construction team is the next vital step     SHPO, or even the construction manager if
in the rehabilitation process. In preparing the   they have already been briefed on the topic.
request for bids, it is necessary to formulate
specific factors that the potential contractors




                                                                                                 56
                                                                          Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                             Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                            Norfolk Naval Shipyard



Key Points:                                               because of the preservation goals,
                                                          and are therefore encouraged to ask
One of the biggest overall issues to                      questions before making uninformed
remember when conducting a historic                       decisions.
rehabilitation is to expect unforeseen issues.
It is vital to be prepared for them to arise       Conclusion
and have budgeted time and money for
them.                                              This project worked well for a number of
      One of the most important ways a            reasons. The Navy had made an informal
         rehabilitation project can be             agreement to try and preserve the two
         facilitated is by maintaining open        buildings used if possible, however had not
         and active communication from the         found a use for them. When the 2005 BRAC
         beginning to completion.                  report recommended the relocation of two
      It is crucial to have a thorough            outside departments to the shipyard,
         understanding of ATFP requirements        additional office space was needed to house
         and how they will relate to the           them, and the combined square footage in
         subject building.                         the two buildings was almost exactly the
      It can be extremely advantageous to         amount necessary. The funding for the
         work with SHPO early so that issues       project was somewhat unusual as it came
         they see as important can be              from BRAC. Had BRAC not provided the
         incorporated into the design before       funding for the project, the rehabilitation of
         the process advances too far.             these two buildings would likely have not
      Quick decisions are critical to keep        been possible since MILCON money is so
         projects on time and on budget.           limited and generally focused on mission
         Therefore it is important that those      driven projects. The buildings likely would
         parties who are responsible for           have been destined for demolition.
         making field decisions have an
         understanding of preservation goals       With the buildings selected and funding in
         and the Secretary of the Interior’s       place, the Navy was able to summon the
         Standards.                                services of an AE firm with previous
      Establishing a decision-making              experience in historic rehabilitation who
         framework/tree with the necessary         were able to prepare a sensitive design for
         stakeholders that includes agreed         the building. A poor design could have
         upon response timeframes is critical      resulted in wasted time and money spent and
         to keeping projects on schedule and       disapproval from SHPO; instead upfront
         budget.                                   coordination with SHPO taking place at a
      Assembling a qualified and                  face-to-face meeting allowed issues to be
         experienced Development Team is           discussed and worked out early. Having
         an important way to ensure that           good plans established upfront permitted
         everyone is working together with         potential General Contractors to submit
         similar goals.                            more accurate proposals to the Navy who
      Making sure everyone involved,              was then able to select the best possible
         particularly at the project site, knows   candidate. The selected contractor had a
         what limitations may be imposed           great deal of past experience in historic


                                                                                                 57
                                                                    Adaptive Rehabilitation of
                                                                       Buildings 705 and 706
                                                                      Norfolk Naval Shipyard

rehabilitation which allowed them to            reasons; some chance such as building
complete the project in a timely and cost       availability and funding, some through
effective manor while successfully adhering     careful planning and hard work, but most
to the preservation guidelines established by   importantly, as a result of open
the SHPO at the project outset. In summary,     communication between a project team
this project was successful for a number of     dedicated to historic preservation.




                                                                                           58

				
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