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									                                                     29.09.2011




      Data Center Consolidation and
      Cloud Computing in Government ICT
                            It is a Matter of Time



John R. Savageau
Los Angeles, California
savageau@pacific-tier.com




 Topics
 •   Data center consolidation
 •   Disaster recovery and business continuity
 •   Introduction to cloud computing
 •   Moldova case study
 •   Government roles in cloud computing




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                                                                                       29.09.2011




     Every Day Dynamics
Urgency

                                                                       Business
                      Data Center
                                                                      Continuity/
                     Consolidation
                                                                   Disaster Recovery


                                             Meeting Point
                                                 For
                                      Cloud Computing Discussion
          Planning




                      Technology                                   Changing/Enabling
                     Refresh Cycles                                   Applications




Government
Data Center
Consolidation
          Not just an issue for
          US – it is a common
          issue for nearly all
             governments




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Data Center Consolidation
         VISION: Create a whole-of-government approach to data centers, disaster
        recovery, and business continuity. Provides standards and integration of the
           government’s ICT infrastructure matching a wide range of government
          information needs in an optimal manner with regard to interoperability,
                   development agility, cost, energy use, and operations.

     • Adopt modern technologies and practices that will improve
       the effectiveness and efficiency of data center use
     • Consolidate data centers in a model that will reduce
       duplication and un-necessary costs for base ICT infrastructure
     • Match national objectives and business needs to ICT utility
       and protection of national data



                                                                                  Australia




    Traditional vs. Cloud in Data Center

        Traditional Data Center                      Cloud Processing Center
•    One user, one cabinet or suite            •   One infrastructure, many
     in data center                                users
•    One application per server or             •   One application per virtual
     cluster                                       server
•    Dedicated storage for a single
     application                               •   Shared processing resource
•    Average utilization <20%                  •   Shared storage resource
•    Separate switching and                    •   Average utilization >75%
     telecom                                   •   Shared switching and telecom
•    Separate/individual licenses              •   Volume licensing



                                                                                       NASCIO




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 Surveys – National ICT Infrastructure
 • Obsolete or
   unsupported h/w, s/w
 • Incompatible systems
 • Old or non-existent
   documentation
 • Loss of skilled or
   experienced staff
 • Inability to meet
   business requirements
 • Data security
   shortfalls
          – Disaster recovery
          – Standard access
            controls




 Data Center Reviews

                              Suitability                                                                 Offsite               Expansion
        Location               to Task        Size   Air Conditioning   Power   UPS   OSS/BSS   Telecom    DR        Security     Plans Comments
Jakarta Kominfo 6th Floor                    Small   Spot                              NMS          1       no      Medium      Yes
Jakarta Kominfo 2nd Floor                    Small   Spot                              NMS          1       no      Medium      Yes       Single use facility
                     Batam                  Medium   Central/Dry                       NMS          1       no      Medium      Yes       Low power
                Samarinda                    Small   Spot                               NO          1       no      Medium      Yes
              Cyber Center                   Large   Chilled Water                    OSS/BMS     >20       no      High        Yes       Best observed - Carrier hotel/IXP/Colo
    Ministry of Agriculture                  Small   Spot                              NMS          1       no      Low         Yes       No power available for expeansion
               PLN Jakarta                  Medium   Central/Dry                       NMS          3       no      Medium      Yes       Moving facility
                IDC Batam                   Medium   Central/Dry                        OSS         5       no      Medium      Yes       Small colo, adequate
  Ministry of Public Works                   Small   Spot                               NO          2       no      Low         Yes       Small , low power, not all on UPS
       Bureau of Statistics                 Medium   Central/Dry                       NMS          1       no      Medium      Yes       Good facility, requires DR
       Ministry of Finance                  Medium   Central/Dry                       NMS          2       no      Medium      Yes       Good facility, moving

           Unsatisfactory                   1
                Marginal                    2
               Adequate                     3
                    Good                    4
             Exceptional                    5




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                                                                                                      29.09.2011




Why Some Resist Consolidation




      Overall, resistance to data center consolidation is
      not a technical issue, it is based on personal reasons.

                                                        NASCIO – National Association of State CIOs




 Disaster Management




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                                                                           29.09.2011




    Disasters do Happen…
•   How well will you be
    prepared when it happens
    to your data center?
•   Is your critical national
    data protected?




    Disaster Recovery Planning
    • International DR/DRC/BCP standards
        – NFPA 1600 (Process and Planning)
        – ISO 24762
        – BS 25999 (UK)           There are good international
        – COBIT/ITIL              standards for disaster recovery and
                                  business continuity, as well as
                                         mature application support. The
    • Main objectives                    problem is getting plans off
        – Safeguard data                 PowerPoint slides and into
                                         implementation.
        – Respond quickly
        – Restore operations




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                                                            29.09.2011




  Intro to Cloud Computing

              It is Just a Matter of Time




A Matter of Time
 • We need to start the discussion someplace, and
   defining cloud computing is that place
 • Cloud computing is still an evolving paradigm. Its
   definition, use cases, underlying technologies,
   issues, risks, and benefits will be refined and better
   understood with a spirited debate by the public and
   private sectors.
 • This definition, its attributes, characteristics, and
   underlying rationale will evolve over time. (NIST)




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NIST - The Most Common Cloud Frameworks


   "Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient,
   on-demand network access to a shared pool of
   configurable computing resources (e.g., networks,
   servers, storage, applications, and services) that can
   be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal
   management effort or service provider interaction”




ICT Operational Costs
                                                 11%


                                                                New Applications
                                                                Development
                                                                Existing Applications
                  53%                                           Maintenance
                                                       36%      Infrastructure (IT
                                                                Equipment/Facility)

 A major objective of cloud computing is to
   return as much budget/funding to new                 ICT Spending in
applications development and innovation as             Traditional Large
possible by relieving individual organizations
of infrastructure cost and operations burden             Organizations


                                                                      Various Sources




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                                                                                     29.09.2011




Economics of Virtualization
 • We plan for peak use
 • Most resource remains unused




                                                  From Berkeley “Above the Clouds”




Traditional IT Equipment Use
 • Normally less than 20%
 • Consolidation increases performance
 • Virtualization reduces cost


                              Overall Compute
 Unused or Wasted Resources
                                and Storage
                              Resource Capacity
                                                           Turn Off
                                                          Until Needed

                                  Move to
                               Virtualization




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Cloud Service Essential Characteristics
• On-demand Self-service. Users provision computing and storage
  capabilities.
• Broad Network Access. Compute, software, and storage resources
  are available through a network connection.
• Resource Pooling. Compute resources are pooled to provide a
  single resource to be assigned and reassigned according to user
  demand.
• Rapid Elasticity. Compute and storage capabilities can be rapidly
  and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly
  scale out, and rapidly released to quickly scale in.
• Measured Service. Cloud management systems automatically
  control and optimize resource use by leveraging a metering
  capability at some level of abstraction appropriate to the type of
  service used.




Cloud Service Models
•   Infrastructure as a Service/IaaS. The capability provided to the
    consumer/user to provision processing, storage, networks, and other
    fundamental computing resources where the consumer/user is able to
    deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems
    and applications.
•   Platform as a Service/PaaS. The capability provided to the consumer/user
    to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created or acquired
    applications created using programming languages and tools supported by
    the provider.
•   Software as a Service/SaaS. The capability provided to the consumer/user
    to use a software provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure.

                                                                     SaaS


                                                                     PaaS
      Each layer builds on the previous layer
                                                                     IaaS
                                                                               Wikipedia




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Cloud Deployment Models
 NIST Deployment Models

           Cloud Model      Cloud Description
                            The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may
            Private Cloud   be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on
                            premise or off premise.
                            The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a
            Public Cloud    large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud
                            services.
                            The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds
                            (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are
            Hybrid Cloud    bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that
                            enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting for load-
                            balancing between clouds).
                            The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and
             Community      supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission,
                            security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may
               Cloud        be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on
                            premise or off premise.
                            An interconnection by several cloud service providers allowing cross
Plus ->      InterCloud     provisioning, resource allocation, and cloud exchange marketplace.




  NIST Cloud Combined Framework
                                                         Hybrid Clouds
           Deployment
             Models                       Private            Community                                  Public
                                          Cloud                Cloud                                    Cloud

             Service                      IaaS                    PaaS                                     SaaS
             Models
                                                       On Demand Self-Service
            Essential                 Broad Network Access                      Rapid Elasticity
          Characteristics                 Resource Pooling                   Measured Service


                                      Massive Scale                    Resilient Computing
            Common                    Homogenity                       Geographic Distribution
          Characteristics             Virtualization                    Service Orientation
                                      Low Cost Software                Advanced Security
                                                                    Based upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor - http://ornot.wordpress.com




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Elements of the Cloud
   Users         Users          Users         Users   Users         Users           Users

                      Application User Interface Layer
                                                                                (SaaS)
                                 API Layer
                                                                                (PaaS)
                       Resource Management Layer
                                                                                (IaaS)


                                                              Storage Systems




Provisioning Engine for the Virtual Data Center




Creates virtual data centers and IT infrastructure
within a compute and storage resource




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                                                              29.09.2011




    The Virtual Data Center
• To the user, it is no different than a traditional
  data center
• Greater efficiency
• Faster provisioning
• Ease of management



                                   IaaS



                                                       PaaS




    Cloud (PaaS) User Views and Control
•   Allows individual agency or
    ministry IT managers to
    control own virtual data
    center resources
•   Easy to visualize and
    understand
•   Simplifies resource planning
    and management
•   Overall resource
    management at the
    national operations center
    level




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                                                          29.09.2011




  SaaS – I Don’t Care Where the Applications are Hosted


      •    Single application
      •    Many users
      •    Content is secure
      •    Simple




 Virtual Desktop Support/ SaaS
  • Full desktop utility
  • Security
          – Physical media protection
          – Virus/Malware
          – Hacking
  • Rapid provisioning
  • Volume licensing



Not hardware or
      OS
  dependent




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                                                         29.09.2011




  NIST Cloud Computing Priorities
  • Interoperability – clouds need to work
    together
  • Portability – workloads and data should be
    able to move as needed
  • Security – customer data and workloads are
    protected


All require development of open and usable standards




“Quick Win” - Disaster Recovery
• Requirement to backup government data into a
  central (offsite) location
   – Server-based
   – Workstation-based
   – “Cloud Storage” model
• Long term disaster recovery designed into Cloud as a
  distributed/mirrored architecture allowing
  immediate fail-over




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                                                                                                                                29.09.2011




Issues and Concerns w/Clouds
 •      Security of government information
 •      Personal Privacy of citizens
 •      Availability and performance
 •      Management and control
 •      Migration planning

                                          “Cloud computing is not a silver bullet,
                                         but offers a transformational opportunity
                                         to fundamentally reshape the operations
                                           of government and close the IT gap”
                                                                                                                     (Kundra)




Security is Main Issue with Clouds
Q: Rate the challenges/issues ascribed to the “cloud on demand model”
1= Not Significant 5= Very Significant




Vendor Availability/Experience                                           44,3%

      Regulatory Requirements                                                49,2%

                       Portability                                               50,0%

          Cost of Implementing                                                   50,4%

            Ability to Customize                                                         55,8%
     Integration with Existing IT
                                                                                                 61,1%
               Systems

                      Availability                                                                63,1%

                    Performance                                                                   63,1%

                         Security                                                                                74,6%

                                  0,0%   10,0%   20,0%   30,0%   40,0%     50,0%         60,0%           70,0%    80,0%




                                                                                    Source: IDC Enterprise Panel N=244




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                                                                   29.09.2011




Cloud Security Challenges
•   Data dispersal and international privacy laws
    –   EU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor
        program
    –   Exposure of data to foreign government and data
        subpoenas
    –   Data retention issues
•   Need for isolation management
•   Multi-tenancy
•   Logging challenges
•   Data ownership issues
•   Quality of service guarantees



                                                            NIST




Government Roles in Cloud Computing

                     Thought Leadership
                         Standards
                           Policy




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                                                                                                            29.09.2011




Government Roles in Cloud
• Create national policies and standards
   – Data security
   – Data formats
   – Data and IT Governance
• Produce cloud computing solutions in support of
  government operations
• Provide guidance for both government and commercial
  initiatives
   – Strategic roadmaps
   – Best practices
   – PPPs                                          Government Plays
                                                   An Additional Role
                                                    As National ICT
                                                    “Thought Leader”




US Federal Cloud Computing Vision and Mission

Vision Statement
Establish secure, easy to use, rapidly
provisioned IT services for the Federal
Government, including:
    • Agile and simple acquisition and
      certification processes                        Mission Statement
    • Elastic, usage-based delivery of               Drive the government-wide adoption of
      pooled computing resources                     cost effective, green, and sustainable
    • Portable, reusable and interoperable           Federal cloud computing solutions
      business-driven tools
    • Browser-based ubiquitous internet
      access to services
    • Always on and available, utility-like
      solutions



                                              36
                                              GSA Cloud Computing Initiative Vision and Strategy Document
                                                                                                      36




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                                          29.09.2011




Cloud Readiness Assessment
• Profiles – all levels of government
  management and users
• Awareness and Knowledge
• Existing Technical Architecture
• IT Organizations and Training Plans
• Security and Risk Assessment
• Cloud Computing Strategy
• IT Governance and Management Strategy




  Cloud Development Case Study

               Moldova M-Cloud




                                                 19
                                                     29.09.2011




M-Cloud Introduction
The Requirement
    – Establish a government-wide shared compute
      infrastructure
    – Use international best-practices
    – Develop M-Cloud public services focusing on:
       •   Meet specific performance objectives
       •   Availability
       •   Security
       •   Data location
       •   Data recovery
       •   Regulatory
       •   and other legal requirements.




Moldova
• Develop approach, including:
  – Surveys of existing data centers
  – Cloud Readiness Assessment
  – Review of BCDR environment
  – Interview govt agencies and private companies
  – Intensive thought leadership campaign
  – Feasibility study
• Prepare cloud vendor procurement bid and
  implementation roadmap




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                                                                                                  29.09.2011




M-Cloud Leadership
 • Move to a “cloud first” national ICT policy
 • Identify opportunities through data center
   consolidation
 • Centralize certification of cloud solutions
 • Establish standards for security, interoperability &
   data portability
There was a time when every household, town, farm or village had its own water well. Today,
    shared public utilities give us access to clean water by simply turning on the tap; cloud
   computing works in a similar fashion. Just like water from the tap in your kitchen, cloud
 computing services can be turned on or off quickly as needed. Like at the water utility, there
  is a team of dedicated professionals making sure the service provided is safe, secure and
available on a 24/7 basis. When the tap isn’t on, not only are you saving water, but you aren’t
                   paying for resources you don’t currently need. (Kundra)


                                       Utilities: 1) Roads 2) Water 3) Electricity
                                                      4) Broadband and Compute




M-Cloud Government Structure




   High Level View of M-Cloud




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                                                        29.09.2011




Governments Should Consider Cloud
Computing at Any Stage of Development
• Cloud computing solves immediate problems
  – BCDR
  – More responsive to urgent government agency
    requirements
  – Data center consolidation & operations efficiency
  – Improved flexibility/productivity in application
    development
• Knowledge creation




Cloud Standards
                 A                                B


                                Proprietary
                               Value-Added




                                Standard




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                                                           29.09.2011




Cloud Standards Mission
        Provide guidance to industry and
        government for the creation and
    management of relevant cloud computing
    standards allowing all parties to gain the
      maximum value from cloud computing




                                                45




Standardization
Allowing Value-Added and Proprietary Implementation


 • Advanced or Value-       Proprietary Value
   Added features           and Additional
                            Functionality

 • Standard or
   Core features         Standardized Core
                         Cloud Capabilities


                                                     GSA




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                                                                                            29.09.2011




Standards Framework
•   Cloud computing reference architecture
•   Cloud service level agreements
                                      There are many existing and emerging standards
•   Systems interoperability                 •
                                             •
                                                 OASIS
                                                 OCCI
                                             •   DMTF
•   Data portability                         •   OVF
                                             •   CDMI

•   Security and privacy                     •
                                             •
                                                 IEEE
                                                 And more…


•   Recommendations
     –   Contribute government or agency requirements
     –   Participate in standards development
     –   Encourage agency compliance testing and development
     –   Encourage all agencies to adopt standards
     –   Provide training to all agencies and users




Cloud Computing
Reference Architecture




                                          48

                                                                                       48




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                                                                                                29.09.2011




Cloud Computing Journey                                                           Inter-Cloud

                       We Are
                        Here                                            Open
                                                                      Standards
           APIs and                  Virtual Private
           Protocols                     Cloud         Hybrid Cloud



                           Private
                           Cloud
  Public
  Cloud




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