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RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT - El Camino College

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RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT - El Camino College Powered By Docstoc
					RAD TECH A
WEEK 2
RADIOGRAPHIC
EQUIPMENT
Fall 2010
   RADIOGRAPHIC
    EQUIPMENT
       RTA Week 2
Ch. 8 & 9 - pg (110 & 111)
Radiographic Room
         OBJECTIVES
• IDENTIFY GENERIC
  COMPONENTS OF THE
  RADIOGRAPHIC EQUIPTMENT

• DESCRIBE VARIOUS PLANES
  OF X-RAY TUBE AND TABLE
  MOVEMENT
THE X-RAY TUBE
       • The X-Ray tube is the
         single most important
         component of the
         radiographic system.
         It is the part that
         produces the X-rays
         How “X-rays” are created
             SEE:   MAN MADE RADIATION (PG.93)



            TO PRODUCE X-RAYS
                YOU NEED:
• A SOUCE OF ELECTONS
• A FORCE TO MOVE THEM QUICKLY
• SOMETHING TO STOP THEM SUDDENLY
• (More on this week 4)
X-RAY TABLE
Radiographic tables
 Are designed to support the patient
  during a radiographic exam
 Comfort is not the primary concern
 Foam pads should be used if the
  patient will be required to be on the
  table for longer than 10 minutes
Tabletop
 Must be uniformly radiolucent to easily
  permit x-ray to pass through.
 Carbon fiber is used because it is strong
  and very little x-ray photons are absorbed.
 Usually tabletops are flat however some
  are curved
Tabletop
 Most tabletops are floating, some are
  motor-driven
 The brakes can be released usually by the
  technologist hand or foot
 The brakes are electromagnetic
 Floating table tops save significant
  amounts of time and strain on the
  technologist
Tables


• Tilting rooms are designed for both
  diagnostic and fluoroscopic work
  – Tilting models usually tilt to 90 degrees in
    one direction and 15 – 30 degrees in the
    other direction
  – Tilting models include ancillary equipment;
    footboard, shoulder support, handgrips,
    compression bands
  FLUOROSCOPY
IMAGES IN MOTION
REMOTE ROOM   &
OLD CONVENTIONAL FLUORO
             Tube Supports
• Designed to help technologists with
  various tube locations for creative imaging.
• Tube suspension systems are available in
  5 versions:
  – ceiling mounted, floor-to-ceiling, floor, mobile
    and c-arm.
              Tube
          Movement
•   Longitudinal
•   Transverse
•   Vertical
•   Angling or Rolling
•   Rotating
•   Telescoping
TABLE OR UPRIGHT
   BUCKY TRAY
             The ‘BUCKY’
• The bucky is the
  device in the table or
  chest board that
  holds the film
  cassette. The
  „bucky‟ is like a
  drawer that opens
  and closes to insert
  and remove the film
  cassette.
    Radiographic
grid & bucky tray
          COLLIMATOR
• ATTACHES
  DIRECTLY BELOW
  THE X-RAY TUBE
• SERVES AS A X-
  RAY BEAM LIMITING
  DEVISE
• CONTROLS THE
  SIZE AND SHAPE
  OF X-RAY FIELD
Cone collimator
                Field Size
• As field size increases, intensity of scatter
  radiation also increases rapidly. Especially
  during fluoroscopy
3 Types of beam-restricting devices

• Aperture
  Diaphragm

• Cones or
  Cylinders

• Variable aperture
  collimator
       The collimator lamp & mirror

• Must be adjusted
  so that the
  projected light field
  coincides with the
  x-ray beam
• Misalignment of
  the light field and
  beam can result in
  collimator cutoff of
  anatomic
  structures
• ALWAYS
  KEEP THE
  COLLIMATED
  AREA
  SMALLER
  THAN THE
  SIZE OF THE
  CASSETTE
        RADIOGRAPH
• PERMANENT RECORD MADE USING
  RADIATION
 – RADIO-   RADIATION (usually x rays)
 – GRAPH    PERMANENT RECORD (film)
UNEXPOSED FILM PLACED IN A
       CASSETTE
   CASSETTE or FILM HOLDER
• The CASSETTE is
  used to hold the film
  during examinations.
  It consist of front and
  back intensifying
  screens, and has a
  lead (Pb) backing.
  The cassette is light
  tight
      CONTROL CONSOLE
• GIVES THE
  TECHNOLOGIST
  CONTROL OF THE
  X-RAY MACHINE

• TECHNIQUE
  SELECTION
• Located OUTSIDE of
  the Radiographic
  Room
      The Control Console
• The control console is
  device that allows the
  technologist to set
  technical factors (mAs
  & kVp) and to make
  an exposure.
• Only a legally
  licensed individual is
  authorized to
  energize the console.
             “Technique”
         kVp , mAs (mA x s)
• What is set at the control panel
• How the “image” is created on the
  “film” or Image receptor (digital)

• kVp controls the “ENERGY” of the beam
• The Higher kVp – more penetrating
• Ranges is 50 -110 in Diagnostic x-ray
             “Technique”
         kVp , mAs (mA x s)
• mA- is the current in combination with the
  time – determines HOW LONG the beam
  will stay on

• Controls the density on the film/image
What is in the Darkroom?
Analog
processor
Darkroom
               Safe Light
• 15 Watts
• Red filter
• Must be 3-6 feet
  from counter top or
  feed tray of
  processor
• Used to be amber
  or orange filter
Computerized Radiography
            CR processor


         • No darkroom required
         Other x-ray stuff….
• Positioning phantoms
• Pixie
           Other x-ray stuff….
• Positioning sponges

• Lead markers

• Gurney
   RTA LAB 1 : EQUIPMENT
• Next week…..

• TOUR OF THE
  IONIZING LAB HERE
  ON CAMPUS.

• COMPLETE IN
  CLASS
  WORKSHEET FOR
  TERMINOLOGY

				
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