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Personal Protective Equipment _PPE_

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					Personal Protective
 Equipment, PPE
(Receiver controls)
     PUBH 3310
   October 18, 2010


                      1
      Supplemental Resources
• The Basics of Occupational Safety (course text)
  – Pages 366-371 of Chapter 16 cover personal
    protective equipment and respiratory protection
• Selected Internet websites, as noted in this
  presentation




                                                      2
J. N. Devin, 1972   3
                  Objectives
• Understand PPE principles
   – Hierarchy of controls
   – PPE role
   – OSHA PPE requirements for employers
• Know basic PPE types
   – Chemical Protective Clothing
   – Eye, head, hand and foot protection
• Be familiar with respiratory protection
   – Know about atmosphere supplying and air purifying
     respirators
   – How to use respirator APF and MUC
   – Elements of a respiratory protection program        4
                   Outline
•   Hierarchy of controls
•   PPE role
•   PPE types
•   Respiratory protection




                             5
                Introduction
• Hierarchy of controls
  – The Hierarchy of Controls determines the preferred
    method of controlling hazards
     1. Engineering controls
        – Chemical source and pathway controls, safeguarding
          equipment, noise control, etc.
     2. Administrative controls
        – Safe work practices and procedures
     3. Personal protective equipment (PPE)
        – The least desirable control method


                                                               6
                 Introduction
• Administrative controls
  – While not emphasized in this course, administrative
    controls can be used to reduce employee exposure
  – Administrative controls generally are less desirable
    than engineering (source) controls
  – Examples:
      • Work practice procedures
        – Usually a pathway control
     • Limiting time of exposure (worker rotation)
        – A receiver control
        – Effective for thermal stress, ergonomic stress, etc.
        – Not acceptable for carcinogens or fast-acting agents
          (Ceiling or STEL)

                                                                 7
                    Introduction
• Definition
   – Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) refers to
     protective clothing and devices worn by workers to
     prevent injury
      •   Eye, face and head protection
      •   Gloves
      •   Chemical Protective Clothing
      •   Respiratory Protection
      •   Etc.




                                                          8
                Introduction
• PPE Role
  – PPE is widely accepted and used (misused)
     • Employers often require PPE to enter a worksite,
       regardless of actual hazards
     • Employees demand “safety gear”, regardless
  – PPE should not be used unless other controls have
    been exhausted, in accord with the “Hierarchy of
    Controls”
     • Occupational hazards must be controlled by
       engineering and administration before PPE
     • PPE is a “receiver” control, less desirable than
       source or pathway controls
                                                          9
                Introduction
• PPE Role (cont.)
  – Use of PPE places a burden on employees
     • May increase physiological stress on users
         – Pulmonary, cardiac, and thermal stress, etc.
     • May lead to accidents due to decreased visibility,
       impaired communication, etc.
  – PPE use places an administrative burden on
    employers
  – PPE is expensive




                                                            10
                Introduction
• PPE Role (cont.)
  – However, use of PPE is acceptable:
     • In emergency situations
     • As temporary controls while engineering controls
       are being implemented
     • When engineering controls are unable to
       completely control the hazard
         – PPE supplements the engineering controls
     • When PPE is the only feasible means of control
         – This often is the case for construction and
           maintenance activity.

                                                          11
                Introduction
• PPE Role (cont.)
  – OSHA PPE requirements for employers:
     • PPE must be provided, used, and maintained
       wherever necessary to protect workers from injury
       or impairment
     • Employers are responsible for all PPE on the job
     • Workplace hazards must be evaluated so proper
       PPE can be specified
     • Employees must be trained
     • Employers must certify in writing their compliance
       to assessment and training requirements
  – (Additional requirements for respirator use)
                                                        12
                       PPE types
•   Eye and face protection:
•   Head Protection
•   Foot Protection
•   Hand Protection
•   Protective Clothing
    – Includes Chemical Protective Clothing
• Respiratory Protection
• Other (not for this lecture)
    – Electrical Protective Devices
    – Hearing Protection



                                              13
     Eye and Face Protection
• Eye and face protective devices shield users from
  hazards of:
   – Chemical exposure
   – Physical agents
   – Traumatic injury
• Devices must meet American National Standards
  Institute (ANSI) standard Z87.1, American National
  Standard Practice for Occupational and Educational Eye
  and Face Protection




                                                       14
     Eye and Face Protection
• Types of protectors:
   – Primary protective devices
      • Spectacles
      • Goggles
   – Secondary protective devices – must only be used
     with primary protective devices
      • Face shields
      • Welding helmets



                                                        15
                  Head Protection
• Protective helmets (“hard hats”) are designed to prevent
  injury from falling objects and electrical hazards
   – A shell supported above the head by a
     suspension cradle (crown straps) and/or
     padding
   – Hard hats are not “crash helmets”

                         • Protective helmets must comply
                           with ANSI Z89.1, American
                           National Standard for Personnel
                           Protection-Protective Headwear
                           for Industrial Workers-
     “Hard Hat”            Requirements                 16
              Foot Protection
• Protective footwear is designed to
  shield employees from:
   – Falling or rolling objects
   – Objects piercing the sole
   – Electrical hazards
      • Insulating, to control shock
                                          Metatarsal protective
        hazards
                                          footwear
      • Conductive, to control static
        electricity hazards
• Protective footwear must comply
  with ANSI Z41, American National
  Standard for Personal Protection-
  Protective Footwear
                                        Hiker-style “safety boot”
                                                              17
             Hand Protection
• Hand protection shields users from:
   – Chemicals
      • Gloves must be carefully selected for
        chemical compatibility
         – Chemical can permeate,
           penetrate, or degrade glove
           material
   – Cuts, abrasions and other physical
     injury
   – Temperature extremes
       • There is no applicable ANSI standard for gloves
                                                           18
          Protective Clothing
• Protective clothing may be worn to
  shield workers from hazards of heat,
  chemicals, etc.
   – A wide variety of clothing types are
      available
• There is no applicable ANSI standard
  for protective clothing




                                            Welder’s
                                            apron
                                                 19
         Safety Eyewashes and
                Showers
• Although not PPE, safety
  eyewashes and showers often
  are required where chemical PPE
  or eye and face protection is used
• Equipment must comply with
  ANSI Z353.1, Emergency
  Eyewash and Shower Equipment              Emergency shower
   –   10-second travel time
   –   Specified water flow rates
   –   Weekly testing
   –   Etc.



                                       Emergency eyewash   20
       Respiratory Protection
• In accord with the “Hierarchy of Controls”, respirators are
  the least desirable method of controlling employee
  exposure to airborne hazards. For respirators, this
  concept is reinforced by OSHA standards
   – Respirator use involves risk to the user
       • Physiological burden
       • Strain to pulmonary and cardiac systems
   – Respirators provide limited protection
   – Respirator use places an administrative burden on
     employers
       • Written programs and qualified “program
         administrators” are required


                                                           21
            Respirator?
• Which of the following is a respirator?

  A.                  B.




  C. Both A and B
  D. Neither A or B
                                            22
              Respirator?
• Which of the following is a respirator?

  A.                      B.




“A” is a surgical mask - designed to protect the patient
“B” is a Surgical N95 Respirator , a NIOSH certified N-95
filtering-facepiece respirator (to protect the wearer) and
FDA approved surgical mask (to protect the patient)
                      NIOSH
• NIOSH certifies occupational respirators
  – OSHA only accepts NIOSH certified respirators
  – Any modification voids the certification
  – NIOSH certification for filtering facepiece
    respirators (disposable “dust masks”)
    identifies the filtering efficiency and resistance
    to oil
     • N-95 (the most common type)
        – Not oil resistant
        – 95% efficient filtration for the most penetrating
          particle size
                                                              24
    Respirator Classification
• Respirators may be described by three criteria:
  1. Respiratory inlet covering
     • The barrier between the user and the
       contaminated atmosphere
  2. Pressure relative to atmosphere
     • Positive or negative pressure
  3. Mode of operation
     • Atmosphere supplying or air purifying




                                                    25
1. Respiratory Inlet Covering
• Mouthpiece
   – For escape from a
     contaminated atmosphere
   – Nose-clip equipped
• Quarter-facepiece
                                  Mouthpiece respirator
   – Covers mouth and nose only




                                     Quarter-face
                                     respirators
                                                          26
 1. Respiratory Inlet Covering
• (Continued)

• Half-facepiece (“half mask”)
   – Includes disposable
     filtering facepiece
     respirators (“dust masks”)
                                  Half-face respirators

• Full-facepiece
   – Provides eye protection

• Hood/Helmet
   – Required for abrasive
     blasting                  Full-face respirator
                                                               27
                                      Helmet respirator with shroud
      2. Respirator Operating
             Pressure
• Negative pressure (includes “demand” respirators)
   – Inside pressure drops below atmosphere when user
     inhales
   – Limited protection, since some contaminated air leaks
     in
• Positive pressure
   – Inside pressure is above atmosphere
   – More protective and less physiological strain
• Pressure demand
   – Inside pressure is elevated at all times
   – Most protective, suitable for Immediately Dangerous
     to Life or Health (IDLH)
                                                         28
        3. Respirator Mode of
              Operation
• Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs)
   – Contaminants are removed from the air
      • Particulate are removed by filters
      • Cartridges remove Gases and vapors        Air-Purifying
   – APRs have limited protection                 Respirator
   – Not for oxygen deficiency or IDLH
     conditions
• Atmosphere-supplying respirators
   – Not limited by type of atmospheric hazard
   – May be suitable for O2 deficiency or IDLH
   – Precautions must be taken to assure
     “Grade D” air quality
                                          Atmosphere-supplying
                                                         29
                                          respirator
         Respirator Examples
• Negative-Pressure, Half-facepiece, Air
  Purifying Respirator (APR)
   – Air is drawn through air purifying
     cartridges as the user inhales
• Positive pressure, Full-facepiece, Air
  Purifying Respirator
                                            Half-face APR
   – “Powered Air Purifying Respirator”
     (PAPR)
      • A blower supplies positive
        pressure filtered air to the user
      • These respirators provide
        greater protection with less
        physiological burden
                                               PAPR         30
        Respirator Examples
• Positive-Pressure, Full-Facepiece,
  Atmosphere Supplying
   – “Supplied-Air Respirator” (SAR)
      • An airline connects the user to a
        compressed air supply               SAR
          – Motor-driven compressor or
            compressed air cylinders
• Pressure-Demand, Full-Facepiece,
  Atmosphere Supplying
   – “Self Contained Breathing Apparatus”
     (SCBA)
      • Portable compressed air cylinder
      • The most protective respirator               31
                                              SCBA
Respirator
Examples
• Negative
  Pressure,
  Half-
  facepiece,
  Air-
  Purifying,
  Respirator



               32
 Respirator
 Examples
• Positive-
  Pressure,
  Atmosphere
  Supplying,
  Mouthpiece,
  Self Contained
  Breathing
  Apparatus
  (SCBA)
                   33
  Assigned Protection Factor
• Assigned Protection Factor (APF)
   – Some respirator types are more protective than
     others
   – APF is based on respirator performance
      • APF is related to the amount of contaminant
        expected to enter a particular type of respirator

                           Concentrat ion outside respirator
          APF  Expected
                           Concentrat ion inside respirator

   – APFs are established by regulatory or standard-
     setting agencies
      • `NIOSH, ANSI, OSHA
                                                               34
  Assigned Protection Factor
• Using Assigned Protection Factors
   – Higher APF means better protection
   – Higher APF is required when contaminant levels in
     the workplace are higher
   – The minimum required APF for a given level of
     workplace contamination can be calculated:


                       Workplace contaminan t concentration
       Minimum APF 
                           Acceptable exposure level


                                                              35
  Assigned Protection Factor
• Example: Using Assigned Protection Factors
   – What is the minimum acceptable respirator APF for
     workers exposed to 1 mg/m3 lead?
      • The Permissible Exposure Level (PEL) for lead is
        0.05 mg/m3

                        Workplace contaminan t concentration
        Minimum APF 
                            Acceptable exposure level
                                1 mg
              Minimum APF        m3  20
                            0.05 mg 3
                                   m
      • Answer: 20 is the minimum APF in this case
                                                               36
          Assigned Protection Factor (APF)
                    OSHA 2006
Respirator type                 Inlet covering
                                Quarter     Half    Full face- *Helmet Loose-fitting
                                mask        mask    piece      or hood facepiece
Air purifying                           5      10           50
Powered Air Purifying                          50        1000    25/1000             25
Atmosphere Demand                              10           50
supplying -
Airline     Continuous                         50        1000    25/1000             25
            flow
                Pressure-                      50        1000
                demand
Atmosphere Demand                              10           50         50
supplying -
            Pressure-                                  10,000      10,000
SCBA        demand
*1000 APF for Helmet or Hood style where manufacturer provides supporting evidence
 Maximum Use Concentration
• Maximum Use Concentration (MUC) is related to the
  Assigned Protection Factor (APF)

                     MUC = PEL x APF
   – Example
      • PEL for lead = 0.05 mg/m3
      • APF for half mask APR = 10
      • MUC = 0.05 mg/m3 x 10 = 0.5 mg/m3
         – Therefore, a half-mask APR may not be used where lead
           concentrations exceed 0.5 mg/m3
• Many OSHA standards specify maximum use levels for
  various respirator types
                                                              38
                Respirator Fit
• Respirator users perform “seal checks” to demonstrate
  adequate fit
   – Each time the respirator is worn
   – Positive-pressure and negative-pressure seal checks




     Positive-pressure seal check   Negative-pressure seal check   39
                Respirator Fit
• Fit Testing
   – Formal testing procedure to select
      respirator sizes and models
       • Involves several “exercises”
       • Initial fit testing before the
         respirator is issued
       • Repeated at least annually        Irritant smoke fit testing
   – Subject is exposed to a challenge
      atmosphere
       • Qualitative tests (taste, odor,
         irritation)
       • Quantitative tests
         (instrumentation)
                                           Quantitative fit testing
                                           equipment           40
         Respirator Programs
• A written respirator program is required by OSHA
  wherever respirators are required
• A qualified administrator must oversee the program
• The program must provide worksite-specific procedures
  and elements
• OSHA provides guidance and examples to assist
  employers in administering respiratory protection
  programs:
   – Small Entity Compliance Guide,
   – http://www.osha.gov/Publications/secgrev-current.pdf
   – (http://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/pubindex.list)


                                                            41
           Respirator Programs
• Required Program Elements
  – Procedures for selecting     – Breathing air
    respirators                     • Grade D minimum
  – Medical evaluations          – Filter, cartridge, and
      • Questionnaire              canister labels
      • Medical exam             – Training and information
  – Fit testing                     • Employees must
  – Use of respirators                 demonstrate knowledge
      • No facial hair           – Program evaluation
      • IDLH                     – Recordkeeping
  – Maintenance and care
      • Disinfecting, storage,
         etc.
                                                          42
            PPE Conclusions
1. PPE use is the least desirable way to control hazards
2. However, PPE is required whenever necessary to
   protect workers
3. Use of PPE places an administrative burden on
   employers and a physiological burden on employees
4. Atmosphere-supplying respirators generally are more
   protective than air purifying respirators.
5. Assigned Protection Factor (APF) is a measure of
   respirator performance
6. Exposures must not exceed the Maximum Use
   Concentration (MUC)
7. A written respirator program and a program
   administrator are required by OSHA
                                                           43
                       Resources
• OSHA
  – Personal Protective Equipment,
     • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/personalprotectiveequipment/index.html
  – Respiratory Protection
     • http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/respiratoryprotection/index.html
  – Video “Respirator Safety”
     • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tzpz5fko-fg
  – Publications
     • http://www.osha.gov/pls/publications/publication.html
• NIOSH
  – Personal Protective Equipment
     • http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npptl/


                                                                     44

				
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