Health, Safety and Environment
University of British Columbia
Fire, Police, Ambulance............................................................................................... 911
Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................... 911
First Aid ................................................................................................................... 2-4444
Student Health Services.......................................................................................... 2-7011
Vancouver Hospital Emergency Dept. .................................................................. 2-7222
Parking, Transportation and Campus Security ................................................... 2-2222
Plant Operations Trouble Calls ............................................................................. 2-2173
Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre
University Site (Koerner, Purdy and Detwiller Pavilions)
Fire .............................................................................................................................. 0000
First Aid ...................................................................................................................... 0000
Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................. 0000
Vancouver Hospital Site, Jack Bell Research Centre, Willow Eye Care Centre
Fire .................................................................................................................................. 84
First Aid .......................................................................................................................... 84
Hazardous Materials Response..................................................................................... 84
B.C. Centre For Disease Control
Fire ................................................................................................................................ 911
First Aid ........................................................................................................604-735-0183
Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................... 911
Security Services ...................................................................................................... 03021
B.C. Children’s Hospital, B.C. Women’s Hospital,
B.C. Research Institute For Child And Family Health
Fire .............................................................................................................................. 8400
First Aid ...................................................................................................................... 8400
Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................. 8400
St. Paul’s Hospital
Fire .............................................................................................................................. 5323
First Aid ............................................................................................................pager 4050
Hazardous Materials Response........................................................................ 5399/5042
UBC Chemical Safety Office .......................................................................604-822-5909
UBC Health, Safety and Environment .......................................................604-822-2029
Poison Control ..............................................................................................604-682-5050
Vancouver Fire Department (Non-Emergency) ........................................604-665-6010
The safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals in the laboratory
environment are the subject of this reference manual. Chemicals are used, to one degree or another, in most
university laboratories. The advent of WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) in
1988 gave employees the legal right-to-know about the hazards of the materials used in the workplace and to
receive the training necessary to use these materials safely. Details on specific types of chemical hazards as
well as commonly used equipment and procedures are outlined on the following pages. The information in
this manual is meant to meet the needs of those who work, study and teach in laboratories at the University
of British Columbia.
The information included in this manual has come from a variety of reliable sources. This manual is
intended for the use of University of British Columbia personnel as an appropriate starting point for the
development of safe and best management practices in UBC laboratories where hazardous chemicals are
used. The material contained within is correct to the best of knowledge of the University of British
Columbia’s Department of Health, Safety and Environment. However, there is no guarantee or warranty that
it is without errors or omissions.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Emergency Phone Numbers i 8. Laboratory Inspections 41
Foreword and Disclaimer ii Laboratory Inspection Checklist 42
Table of Contents iii Monthly Supervisory Checklist 44
1. Introduction 1
9. Hazardous Waste Management 45
UBC Safety Program 1
Organic Solvents 45
Duties and Responsibilities 1
Laboratory Chemicals 46
Regulations, Policies & Procedures 2
Potentially Explosive Materials 47
Chemical Safety Program 2
Waste Oil 47
Environmental Services Facility (ESF) 3
Photochemical Waste 48
University Safety Committees 3
Dry-Cell Batteries 48
Incident & Accident Reporting 3
Unknown Chemicals 48
Chemical Exchange Program 48
2. General Safety Rules 4
Glass, Sharps, Needles, Syringes 48
3. Hazards of Chemicals 5
10. Chemical Laboratory Emergency Response 53
Compressed Gases 5
Fire Safety 53
Flammable & Combustible Materials 5
Oxidizing Materials 6
Toxic Materials 10
Corrosive Materials 12
Dangerously Reactive Materials 13
11. References 61
4. Hazard Information 14
12. List of Appendices 63
A. Project Hazard and Control Assessment Form 64
Material Safety Data Sheets 17
B. Hazard Control Assessment Guide 65
Education and Training 17
C. Procedures for Transportation of Hazardous
Sample MSDS 18
Materials on the UBC Campus 67
D. Spill Kit and Personal Protective Clothing Checklist 68
5. Equipment and Experimental Design 20
E. UBC Spill Reporting Procedures 69
Transporting Chemicals 20
Temperature Control 21
Control of Suck-Back 21
Reduced Pressure Operations 21
Cryogenic Materials 21
Centrifuge Safety 21
Safety Showers and Eye Washes 22
Compressed Gas Cylinders 22
6. Hazard Controls 26
Fume Hoods 26
Electrical Safety 28
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) 31
7. Chemical Storage 35
General Rules 35
Air-Reactive Chemicals 38
Chemical Storage Patterns 38
UBC Chemical Storage Guidelines 40
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
A. UBC SAFETY PROGRAM C. DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES
The BC Workers’ Compensation Board Occupational
The University of British Columbia (UBC) aims to Health and Safety Regulation (Section 3.4[a]) and the
provide a safe, healthy and secure environment in UBC Safety Policy clearly define the roles and
which to carry on the University’s affairs. All responsibilities of the employer, employee and
possible preventive measures are taken to eliminate students at UBC.
accidental injuries, occupational diseases and risks to
personal security. Compliance with the BC Workers’ The university, acting through administrative heads
Compensation Act, the Workplace Hazardous of unit, is responsible for providing a safe, healthy
Materials Information System (WHMIS) and related and secure working environment for all those
legislation is the minimum standard acceptable. All involved in the university’s activities.
students and members of faculty and staff are
encouraged to strive to exceed these minimum legal Supervisors are responsible for the following:
standards and to eliminate unnecessary risks. identifying all hazards; ensuring that there are safe
work procedures and appropriate emergency
procedures; ensuring that all workers and students
B. HEALTH, SAFETY & know and follow those procedures; and correcting
ENVIRONMENT (HSE) unsafe conditions and practices. A supervisor is
anyone who has been delegated responsibility for
UBC’s Department of Health, Safety and others working or studying at UBC.
Environment (HSE) is responsible for:
- developing and maintaining effective accident All students and members of faculty and staff are
prevention programs; responsible for learning and following safe work
- providing the University community with procedures and emergency procedures as well as
required training; reporting all unsafe conditions and incidents or
- assisting the University in complying with accidents.
health, safety and environmental regulations; and
- enhancing departmental services.
HSE’s major programs comprise:
- Biosafety RESPONSIBILITIES
- Chemical Safety
- Diving Safety The Environmental Protection Compliance Policy # 6
- Environment; Health Promotion states that:
- Occupational Hygiene
- Personal Security "UBC will act responsibly and demonstrate
- Radiation Safety accountable management of the property and affairs
of UBC in protecting the environment. All
individuals in the University community share the
responsibility for protecting the environment.
Administrative heads of unit are responsible for
ensuring compliance with legislation and UBC
procedures both on and off campus."
Environmental activities at UBC are coordinated by
the Environmental Programs group which is part of
the Department of Health, Safety & Environment.
Program areas include: • Environmental Protection Compliance Policy # 6
• Hazardous Materials Management Policy # 9
• Regulatory compliance • Pest Control Policy # 12
• Environmental Auditing • Smoking Policy # 15
• Emergency Preparedness
In order to view these UBC policies please go to the
• Hazardous Waste Management
HSE web site (http://www.hse.ubc.ca).
• Pollution Prevention
• Training & Awareness Laboratory oriented HSE courses, such as Biosafety;
Chemical Safety; and Radiation Safety all provide
Health, Safety & Environment offers a 2-hour reference manuals that include relevant regulations,
session on Environmental Responsibilities at UBC. polices, standard and safe laboratory practices, and
For further information on this session or information procedures and guidelines that are recommended by
on any of the program areas, please contact the HSE.
Manager Environmental Programs at 822-9527 or
view the web site at http://www.hse.ubc.ca. Individual departments may also have internal, site-
specific policies and procedures for safe work
E. REGULATIONS, POLICIES AND
F. CHEMICAL SAFETY PROGRAM
Laboratory activities must respond to a variety of
regulations, policies, procedures and guidelines. The Chemical Safety Program, one of several
programs offered by the Department of Health, Safety
The following is a list of the most important Acts and and Environment (HSE), promotes the safe handling,
Regulations to which employees at UBC must storage and disposal of chemicals. The Chemical
comply while conducting their various work and Safety Officer provides information, advice and
research tasks at UBC, on or off-campus: guidance on regulations and the accepted good
practices for chemical use to the University
• BC Workers’ Compensation Act, Occupational community.
Health and Safety Regulation, 1998
• Fire Services Act, BC Fire Code, 1992 The Chemical Safety Officer coordinates the
• BC Waste Management Act, 1994 Workplace Hazardous Material Information System
• Waste Management Act, Spill Reporting (WHMIS) program at UBC. Each department has a
Regulation, 1993 designated WHMIS coordinator who is responsible for
• Waste Management Act, Special Waste WHMIS education within their own department. Other
Regulation, 1995 responsibilities of the Chemical Safety Office include
• BC Health Act, Sanitary Regulations, 1992 advising lab personnel on the design of laboratories;
• BC Pesticide Control Act, Regulations, 1992 selection of safety equipment; inspections of
• Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods laboratories; and training in procedures for the safe
Regulations, 1992 handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials.
• GVRD Sewer Use By-law, No. 164, 1991 Chemical Safety Courses are offered four times a year.
• Municipal Air Quality Management By-law, No. For questions concerning the handling of hazardous
725, 1992 materials, contact the Chemical Safety Officer at 822-
• Municipal Solid Waste and Recyclable Material 5909.
Regulation, By-law No. 181, 1996
In addition to government regulations, UBC
laboratory personnel are required to comply with
UBC policies such as:
• UBC Safety Policy # 7
G. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES I. INCIDENT/ACCIDENT
FACILITY (ESF) REPORTING
The purpose of the facility is to safely manage UBC’s Faculty & Staff Incident/Accident Report
hazardous waste generated at the University of British form must be completed for every incident or
Columbia in accordance with provincial, local and accident, even if are were no injuries sustained. If
federal regulations. the injured person is a student or visitor to campus,
the UBC Student & Visitor Incident/Accident Report
Chemical wastes are collected regularly and taken to form must be completed. Any event that involves
the Environmental Services Facility (ESF) at south injury to a person or damage to property, or has the
campus. They are sorted, treated and packaged potential to do so, must be reported to Health, Safety
according to type before being shipped for disposal. and Environment within 24 hours of occurrence.
Highly reactive compounds, such as picric acid or old There is also a WCB form that injured employees
containers of diethyl ether, are picked up at the have to complete.
generator’s site by a contractor licensed to handle such
materials. For serious accidents notify 9-1-1, Health,
Safety & Environment at 822-2029, and
Specific UBC procedures for handling chemical waste immediately seal the area. Do not begin
are included in Chapter 9. Additional information clean-up, as on-site evidence must be
regarding chemical waste disposal can be obtained by preserved.
These serious accidents include:
H. UNIVERSITY SAFETY a) Accident resulted in the death or critical condition
COMMITTEES with a serious risk of death.
b) Accident that involved a major structural failure
University safety committees fall into one of three of collapse of a building, bridge, tower, crane,
general categories. hoist, temporary construction support system, or
1) The University Health and Safety Committee which c) Accident that involved the major release of a
has representatives from all areas of the University. toxic or hazardous substance.
e) Blasting accident required to be reported by Part
2) Eight Faculty Advisory Committees, such as the 21 or a diving accident required to be reported by
UBC Chemical Safety Committee, that deal with Part 24.
specialized areas of health and safety problems.
3) The Local Safety Committees, which are the
backbone of the safety, program at the University and
represent each unit on campus.
4 Safety Rules
CHAPTER 2. GENERAL SAFETY RULES
A. WORK HABITS C. FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
• Do not store food or beverages in the laboratory • All moving belts and pulleys must have safety
environment. • guards.
• Do not pipette by mouth. • Sample breathing air space for measurement of
• Wash hands before and after work in a science possible contaminants; keep good records.
laboratory, and after spill clean-ups. • Keep up-to-date emergency phone numbers posted
• Restrain loose clothing (e.g. sleeves, full cut next to the phone.
blouses, neckties etc.), long hair and dangling • Have appropriate equipment and materials
jewelry. available for spill control; replace when necessary.
• Protection should be provided for the lab worker
and also the lab partner working nearby. Use Safety Equipment.
• Always inform co-workers of plans to carry out
Order Only What You Need.
hazardous work before you start.
Substitute Less Hazardous Materials.
• First aid and CPR training is recommended for lab
D. PURCHASING, USE AND
Never Work Alone. DISPOSAL
Wash Hands Often.
No Food, Drink or Smoking. • Label all chemicals accurately with date of receipt,
or preparation, and initialed by the person
responsible. Add pertinent precautionary
information for handling.
B. SAFETY WEAR • Never open a reagent container until the label has
• ANSI (or equivalent standard) approved eye or been read and completely understood.
face protection should be worn continuously. • Unlabelled bottles (a special problem) must be
• Wear gloves that will resist penetration by the identified to the extent that they can then be class-
chemical being handled and which have been ified as hazardous or non-hazardous wastes.
checked for pin holes, tears, or rips.
• Wear a laboratory coat or apron to protect skin and E. SUBSTITUTIONS
clothing from chemicals.
• Footwear should cover feet completely; no • Where possible, reduce risks by using diluted
open-toe shoes. substances instead of using concentrates.
• Use micro/semi-micro techniques instead of
Wear Appropriate Personal Protective • Use films, videotapes, and other methods rather
Equipment. than experiments involving hazardous substances.
All Gloves are Not Alike. • Evaluate all substitutions before changing
Hazards of Chemicals 5
CHAPTER 3. HAZARDS OF CHEMICALS
Chemical hazards are defined according to one of six hazard categories: (A) compressed gases, (B) flammable and
combustible (C) oxidizing, (D) toxic (E) corrosive, and (F) dangerously reactive materials. In this chapter,
characteristics and examples of these six hazard classes will be discussed. Additional sources of information can be
found in the References section of this manual.
There are three elements that must be present in order
A. COMPRESSED GASES for a fire to result. One way of pictorially describing
this phenomenon is the “Fire Triangle”.
I. HAZARDS & HANDLING
Class A - compressed gases include compressed gases,
dissolved gases or gases liquified by compression or
refrigeration within reinforced metal cylinders. This
includes cryogenic liquids that are hundreds of degrees Fuel Oxygen
below zero, thereby representing an extreme cold
Compressed gases present a physical danger that results Energy Source
from the sudden, out-of-control release of these
materials from their containers. This release is The use, storage and handling of flammable and
associated with a concomitant discharge of energy due combustible materials are governed by the BC -
to great expansion in volume of the material leaving the WCB Occupational Health & Safety Regulation and
cylinder, displacement of air and potential creation of a the BC Fire Code.
hazardous atmosphere; i.e. the energy released is akin to
a jettisoned rocket that is capable of bursting through I. DEFINITIONS
walls or any other objects in its way.
1. “Flash point” defines the minimum temperature
at which a liquid within a container gives off
B. FLAMMABLE AND vapour of sufficient concentration in air that can
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS ignite in the presence of an ignition source.
Class B - flammable and combustible materials are
substances that form vapours that can burn or 2. A “flammable liquid”, as per the BC Fire Code,
explode. Vapour pressure is the pressure that is is "a liquid having a flash point below 37.8 °C
exerted by a saturated vapour above its own liquid in (100°F), and having a vapour pressure not
a closed container. It is reported in mm Hg, and it is exceeding 275.8 kPa (absolute) at 37.8° C”.
positively correlated with temperature.
3. A “combustible liquid” is one with a flash point
Examples of substances that are included in this at or above 37.8°C.
◊ Flammable gases 4. “Explosive limits” refers to the vapour
◊ Flammable liquids concentration range of a combustible or
◊ Combustible liquids flammable material that will ignite in the
◊ Flammable solids presence of an ignition source.
◊ Flammable aerosols
◊ Reactive flammable (spontaneously 5. The “autoignition temperature” is the
combustible in air, or materials that react with temperature at which the vapour from a liquid
water to produce a flammable gas) will ignite without a source of ignition such as a
spark or flame.
6 Hazards of Chemicals
II. HAZARDS C. OXIDIZING MATERIALS
The BC Fire Code includes regulations that control the
storage, handling and use of flammable and I. HAZARDS & HANDLING
combustible liquids in buildings and bulk storage Class C – oxiding materials are substances that
facilities. readily yield oxygen or its equivalent to stimulate the
combustion (oxidation) of organic matter. Chromic
Flammable liquids give off vapours that, in most acid and (di)chromates, nitric acid and nitrates,
cases, are heavier than air and can travel long perchloric acid and perchlorates, permanganates,
distances until reaching a source of ignition such as peroxides and bleach (hypochlorite) are all examples
an open flame, hot surfaces, static sparks, etc. at of oxidizing reagents. Oxidizers are incompatible
which time a fire or explosion could result. with reducing agents (which usually contain
hydrogen), such as hydrides, bisulfites and
Flammable liquids pose many serious problems. The thiosulfates, and with flammable and combustible
misuse of a small amount can have a disastrous materials such as solvents, Varsol and acetic acid.
effect. As liquids, they can flow and thus any
spillage will increase the fire hazard. Burning Nitric and perchloric acids are both strongly
flammable liquids will likewise flow and spread the oxidizing acids. They will act rapidly on exposed
fire. skin by a denaturing mechanism. Nitric and
perchloric acids will also act explosively with
III. HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE organic compounds and reducing agents.
Organic peroxides are a particular group of oxidizing
Safe handling practices must be strictly followed in materials that are often unstable in nature. They can
handling and transferring of all flammable liquids. be among the most hazardous materials handled in
Small quantities of flammables present the same laboratories. They are low power explosives which
hazard as large quantities - capable of giving off are sensitive, to varying degrees, to heat or shock.
ignitable or explosive vapours. Grounding of Often they are products of room temperature
containers used for transferring flammable solvents oxidation of a variety of organic ethers, alkenes,
is required to eliminate static charge build-up. certain alcohols, potassium and other materials.
Because vapours continuously escape from Peroxide inhibitors are usually added to compounds
flammable liquids, they must be kept in closed that readily form explosive peroxides; however, they
containers, never in an open container. may not be sufficient to control peroxide formation
once the container has been opened.
In the open laboratory area, the UBC Flammable
Liquid Guidelines restrict the volume of flammable All peroxidizable compounds should be stored away
liquids with a flash point less than 37.8°C to a from heat and light (which catalyze the peroxidation
maximum of 25 L (container size). Amounts in reaction), and reducing agents as well as being
excess of this must be kept in approved safety cans, a protected from physical damage and ignition sources.
flammable liquid cabinet or proper flammable
storage facility. An inventory of all peroxidizable material is
required. These substances must be inspected and
The flash points of several commonly used solvents tested for peroxides regularly after the container is
are provided in a table on the next page. opened. A simple test procedure for detection of
peroxides in substances such as alkali. metals, alkali
metal alkoxides, amides or organometallics is not
Hazards of Chemicals 7
FLASH POINTS OF COMMON FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
The following are Class 1A flammable liquids (flash point < 22.8°C; boiling point < 32°C):
Flammable Liquid Flash Point (°C) Flammable Liquid Flash Point (°C)a
Ethyl chloride - 50 2-Pentanone 7
Pentane - 49 Methyl methacrylate 10
Ethyl ether - 45 Methanol 11
Acetaldehyde - 38 Isopropanol 12
Isopropylamine - 37 Dioxane 12
Ethyl formate - 19 Ethylene dichloride 13
Ethylamine - 18 Octane 13
Sec-butyl acetate 17
Allyl alcohol 21
Butyl acetate 22b
Closed cup values are given unless where denoted by "OC" (open cup)
Borderline Class 1A
The following are Class 1B flammable liquids The following are Class 1C flammable liquids
(flash point < 22.8°C, boiling point ≥ 37.8°C) (22.8°C < flash point < 37.8°C)
Flammable Liquid Flash Point (°C) Flammable Liquid Flash Point (°C)
Naphtha 4.4 - 20 Methyl isobutyl ketone 22.5
Allyl chloride - 31 2-Butanol 24
Carbon disulfide - 30 n-Amyl acetate 25
Isopropyl ether - 28 2-Hexanone 25
Acrolein - 26 Isoamyl acetate 25
Hexane - 21 Xylene 25
Cyclohexane - 20 Butyl alcohol 29
Ethyl bromide - 20 Chlorobenzene 29
Nickel carbonyl - 20 p-Anisidine 30
Acetone - 17 sec-Amyl acetate 31
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine - 15 Styrene 32
Tetrahydrofuran - 14 Ethylenediamine 33.5
Butylamine - 12 Morpholine 35
Benzene - 11 Turpentine 35
Methyl acetate - 10
Methyl ethyl ketone - 6 Flash point values were taken from NIOSH/OSHA Pocket
Ethyl acetate - 4 Guide to Chemical Hazards, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication
Heptane - 4 No. 78-210, Fourth Printing, August 1981
Acrylonitrile - 1
8 Hazards of Chemicals
PRECAUTIONS TEST STRIPS
If ether peroxidation is visibly evident as a viscous The simplest method for testing for the presence of
layer in the bottom of the container, or cystals around peroxides in materials can be done using peroxide
the cap, Do Not Handle the container. If the test strips available from local laboratory supply
container is more than 2 years old, and has not been houses (e.g. EM Quant from Anachemia Scientific).
opened or tested within the past 12 months, do not
open the container and call the Chemical Safety CHEMICAL TESTING
Officer at 822-5909. To 1 mL of the ether to be tested, add a solution of
100 mg of potassium iodide in 1 mL of glacial acetic
Records of the tests for peroxide formation must be
acid. A pale yellow colour indicates a low
maintained using a label similar to the one shown
concentration (0.001 to 0.0005 %) of peroxides, and
bright yellow or brown colour indicates a high (>
0.1%) and hazardous concentration of peroxides.
This chemical test is more sensitive than the test
strips, as it will detect dialkyl peroxides as well as
PEROXIDIZABLE COMPOUND hydroperoxides.
Rec'd Opened It should be remembered that these tests are valid
Date only for relatively simple chemicals. Complicated
organic structures may also act as oxidizing agents
Discard or test within ___ months and therefore appear to give positive tests for
after opening peroxides. There are no testing methods for
Test Dates ___ ___ ___ ___ peroxides of potassium metal.
Test Results ___ ___ ___ REMOVAL of PEROXIDES
If peroxides are detected, the solvent should be
treated prior to use or being sent for disposal to ESF.
II. PEROXIDE TESTING PROGRAM
Either of the following procedures may be used to
Certain ethers such as di-isopropyl ether form remove the peroxides.
peroxides more rapidly than most others and should a) Activated Alumina Method: Peroxides can be
be handled with particular care. Purchases of large conveniently removed by passing the solvent
quantities and long term storage are not through a short column of activated alumina.
recommended. This method is effective for both water-insoluble
and water-soluble solvents (except low
Examples of compounds that require testing at least molecular weight alcohols). Since this method
every 3 months after opening and before use are; does not destroy peroxides, the alumina should
be flushed with a dilute acid solution of
di-isopropyl ether potassium metal potassium iodide or ferrous sulfate following
sodium amide divinyl acetylene treatment to remove peroxides.
b) Ferrous Salt Method: Peroxide impurities in
water-soluble solvents are easily removed by
Examples of compounds that require testing at least shaking with a concentrated solution of ferrous
every 12 months after opening and before use are: salt. A frequently used ferrous salt solution can
be prepared either from 60 gm of ferrous sulfate
dioxane butadiene + 6 mL concentrated sulfuric acid + 100 mL of
diethyl ether methyl methacrylate water, or from 100 gm of ferrous sulfate + 42
tetrahydrofuran styrene mL concentrated hydrochloric acid + 85 mL of
diglyme tetralin water.
cyclohexene vinyl chloride
acrylonitrile acrylic acid
There are several methods for the detection of
peroxides, two of which are described below.
Hazards of Chemicals 9
III. USER GUIDELINES FOR accomplished by washing with a 5% solution of
WORKING WITH ETHERS sodium metabisulphite or ferrous sulphate.
PEROXIDE CONTENT AND USES Evaporation: Evaporation (e.g. in a rotary
Ethers must be tested for peroxide content before evaporator) concentrates the peroxides and poses a
using, especially where there is a potential for hazard. When the volume is small and the
exposure to heat or shock during the process. The evaporation is carried out near room temperature,
following are general guidelines concerning the ethers with low levels of peroxides may be
degree of hazard associated with peroxide reasonably safe. When high volumes and/or high
contamination at the levels indicated. temperatures are used, the ether must be peroxide
free. Personal protective equipment is required, as
< 3 ppm Reasonably safe for most noted in previous paragraph.
laboratory procedures involving
moderate quantities. Chromatography: Ethers with moderate levels of
peroxides are probably suitable for a variety of
3 - 50 ppm Possible moderate hazard forms of chromatography, provided that the ether is
depending on type of use. Avoid not going to be subsequently evaporated. Note,
concentration of the peroxides. however, that peroxides bind to alumina and to some
Disposal recommended if the other adsorbents. This may concentrate peroxides at
ether is not to be used. the top of a column, resulting in a hazard if the
column is not washed with a suitable solvent and is
> 50 ppm Unacceptable; may pose a then allowed to dry out.
serious hazard. Dispose of ether
or remove peroxides by a
General Solvent: Ethers with moderate levels of
peroxides are probably suitable for a variety of
general laboratory procedures that do not concentrate
Ethers that show any evidence of crystal the peroxides. However, users should be aware of
formation in solution or around the cap, or of oil potential problems associated with peroxides, and
formation, should be treated as extremely waste ether solvents should be disposed of
hazardous and should not be handled. Treat as a immediately after use.
It should be noted that some alcohols, ketones,
Some alcohols such as 2-propanol (isopropanol) can aldehydes, and alkenes are also susceptible to
form peroxides also. Previously, the presence of peroxide formation.
peroxide had been reported, in a 99.5% pure sample
of isopropanol stored for several months in a partially
full clear glass bottle in strong daylight.
i) Relationship of Hazard to Type of Use REFERENCES:
The degree of hazard associated with peroxide
contamination is dependent on the way the ether is 1. H.L. Jackson et al., Control of
used. Concentration of the peroxides will increase the Peroxidizable Compounds in: Safety in
hazard. The following are general guidelines for a the Chemical Laboratory, 1974, Vol. 3,
variety of common uses. 114-117.
2. G.A. Mirafzal and H.E. Baumgarten,
Distillation: Only ethers containing 0 ppm of Journal of Chemical Education,
peroxides should be used for distillations or refluxes, 1988, 65:9, A226-A228.
and care must be taken to ensure that the distillation 3. Bretherick’s Handbook of Reactive
container does not go dry. Leave at least 10% residue Chemical Hazards, 5th Ed., Vol. 1,
or “bottoms” when distilling peroxidizable pp.458, Butterworth Heinemann, 1995.
compounds. The ether must be tested prior to use in a
distillation, and must be peroxide free. Safety glasses
are essential at all times and a shield should be used
during the distillation or evaporation process. If it is
necessary to remove peroxides, it can be
10 Hazards of Chemicals
D. TOXIC MATERIALS RESPIRATORY TRACT
I. DEFINITION • route of entry for gases, vapours and small
A toxic chemical is any substance that may cause • absorption of gases and vapours in the
damage to structure, or disturbance to function, when respiratory tract depends on:
it is ingested, inhaled or absorbed, or when applied • vapour pressure of material
to, injected into or developed within the body, in • concentration in inhaled air
relatively small amounts, by its chemical action
• chemical properties
Class D – toxic and infectious materials comprise 3
ii) Symptoms of Inhalation Exposure:
subdivisions. D1 materials are those causing
immediate and serious toxic effects. D2 materials are
• eye, nose, and throat irritation
those causing other toxic effects such as: chronic
(long-term); carcinogenic (causing cancer); • increased mucous in nose and throat
teratogenic (damages fetus); reproductive (damages • narcotic effects (headache, confusion,
reproductive organs) mutagenic (damages bacterial dizziness, collapse)
DNA); irritating; or sensitizing effects. D3 • Asphyxiation by gases occurs by displacing
substances include biohazardous and infectious oxygen in the air by inert gases or blocking
materials. transport or utilization of oxygen (e.g. carbon
monoxide, hydrogen sulphide)
Effects of toxic chemicals are related to: iii) Protection
- Routes of Entry a) The preferred and most effective way of protecting
- Dose oneself from inhalation hazards involves
- Duration engineering controls such as fume hoods, general
and local exhaust systems and biosafety cabinets.
b) Where engineering controls are not available,
II. ROUTES OF ENTRY there are a wide variety of respirators available to
SKIN and EYES eliminate exposure from inhaled particulates,
i) Interaction vapours, gases or fumes. The correct respirator
• skin acts as a barrier and filter must be chosen; see chapter on Hazard
• reaction with a chemical may cause local
irritation or tissue destruction
• a chemical may penetrate the skin and react
with tissue proteins causing allergic sensitivity
• ingestion of toxic substances can occur
• a chemical may penetrate the skin and enter the
accidentally through poor hygiene practices or
blood stream, especially through broken skin
use of contaminated laboratory glassware for
• fat soluble solvents readily penetrate the skin food or drink
• eyes are especially vulnerable to chemical exposure
ii) Symptoms of Exposure • mouth and throat discomfort
• dry, whitened skin • gastrointestinal discomfort
• redness, swelling • coma; death
• rash, blisters, itching
iii) Protection • Do NOT pipet by mouth.
• protect hands against cuts • Do NOT store food items in lab glassware bin or
• wear the appropriate gloves; remove gloves lab refrigerator.
before touching uncontaminated surfaces • Do NOT eat in the lab.
• protect eyes with safety glasses, goggles,
• WASH hands after working with chemicals,
or face shield.
before leaving the lab and before eating.
Hazards of Chemicals 11
INJECTION INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY
i) Interaction Important factors include:
• occurs through mishaps with hypodermic ∗ general health
needles and broken glassware. ∗ heredity
ii) Symptoms ∗ age
• may be local or systemic ∗ sex
iii) Protection The properties of the chemicals being used must be
• wear protective gloves where feasible determined prior to use by reading labels and
• use forceps or broom and dustpan for cleaning Material Safety Data Sheets.
up broken glass
Any substance has the potential for being toxic
III. DOSE depending on:
• the amount or dose;
the amount of the chemical that actually enters • duration of exposure;
the body • the route of entry; and
is determined by the concentration of the • susceptibility of the individual being exposed.
chemical and frequency and duration of
exposure An exposure limit or EL is the maximum allowed
airborne concentration to which a worker may be
IV. DURATION exposed. The BC regulatory limits define an 8-hour
and a 15-minute (short-term exposure limit or STEL)
i) Acute Exposure time-weighted average concentration and sometimes
• usually single, short term exposure a ceiling limit for several hundred compounds. In
• acute toxicity results from the potential for a the literature the time-weighted average limits may
chemical to cause harm after a single, short be defined as threshold limit values (TLV) or time-
exposure. weighted average (TWA) values.
• effects appear quickly
• effects often reversible The LD50 or LC50 represent alternative criteria that
express the amount of a chemical that is known to be
ii) Chronic Exposure fatal to 50% of a population of a specific animal
• repeated exposure species.
• chronic toxicity is the potential for a chemical to
cause harm following repeated exposure over Both types of criteria are meant to be used as guides
weeks, months or years by a professional hygienist in determining a safe
• effects take time to appear exposure level in a workplace. In both sets of
• usually irreversible effects criteria, the lower the value of the EL or LD50, the
E.g. mercury, carbon tetrachloride are cumulative more toxic the chemical.
poisons requiring special work and clean-up
procedures. For certain substances, a level that is as low as
reasonably achievable (ALARA) is required.
V. EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS A table of comparative exposure values is provided
LOCAL at the end of this chapter.
• area in contact with the chemical
e.g. Acid, base burns.
• affects tissues and organs that are far removed
from the site of contact
• chemical enters body and is distributed via blood
e.g. Methanol inhalation or ingestion can cause
permanent eye damage.
12 Hazards of Chemicals
E. CORROSIVE MATERIALS Section 30.21 of the WCB Regulation specifically
refers to the use of perchloric acid. Perchloric acid
I. DEFINITION must be used in a special wash-down fume hood
made of a non-combustible material (usually stainless
Class E - corrosive substances are those materials steel). The use of the hood must be posted and no
that, upon contact, cause visible destruction of, or combustibles are permitted to be stored in the same
irreversible alterations to, tissue or metal. The eyes hood. No more than 6.4 kg of perchloric acid may
are especially sensitive to permanent damage by be stored in a laboratory. Stored perchloric acid
corrosive substances. must be inspected monthly, and if any discoloration
is noted it must be disposed of immediately and in a
safer manner. Anhydrous perchloric acid may only
II. HAZARDS & HANDLING
be used if freshly made; any unused portions must be
Large quantities of corrosive chemicals are used disposed of safely at the end procedure and not kept
routinely in manufacturing and laboratory for more than one day.
procedures. Many household chemicals are corrosive
in nature and deserve the same respect and care. Bases (caustics)
The most common bases found in laboratories are the
Corrosives comprise both acids and bases (caustics). alkali metal hydroxides, ammonium hydroxide and
PH, a term that is often applied to describe the nature organic amines. The alkali metal hydroxides are
of acids and bases, expresses, on a scale of 0 to 14, especially destructive to the skin. The skin has a
the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance. slippery feel when exposed to these materials because
Materials with pH 7 are considered neutral and non- the hydroxyl radicals bond to the skin’s peptides.
corrosive; those below 7 are acidic and those above 7 Since the pain of exposure is delayed, it is extremely
are caustic or basic. The further away from pH 7 that important that the skin be washed thoroughly for at
a substance is, the more corrosive it is. least 15 minutes after exposure to these alkali
solutions. The vapours from ammonium hydroxide
The exceptions to this physical property (pH) are (ammonia) present serious respiratory hazards.
“superacids” and “superbases” which can be up to
billions of times stronger than sulfuric or
hydrochloric acids but exist in nonaqueous solvents. III. PREVENTION & EMERGENCIES
When mixed together, acids and bases will react
vigorously with each other. Proper handling and
The common inorganic acids include hydrochloric,
usage of corrosives require protective clothing to
nitric, sulphuric and phosphoric acids; phenols and
prevent skin, eye, or lung exposure. Serious burns
the halogens, such as bromine and chlorine are also
and eye or lung damage can result from contact with
acidic in nature. All hydrogen halides are acids that
are serious respiratory as well as skin hazards.
Exposure requires immediate action to wash away
Hydrogen fluoride presents a special hazard. Both
the material away with copious amounts of water.
the gas and liquid form are highly toxic and able to
Thick, oily corrosive liquids such as sulfuric acid and
penetrate deeply into the tissues and bone. Symptoms
40% sodium hydroxide are especially hazardous as it
(pain) of contact with hydrogen fluoride solutions
is difficult for water to quickly penetrate and dissolve
may be delayed with serious burns resulting. When
these materials. Washing, in this situation, may
skin is exposed to hydrogen fluoride solutions, flush
include wiping off the oily layer with a cloth while
with water for at least 15 minutes; apply calcium
keeping the affected body part in the water stream.
gluconate gel after washing with water; and in all
Proper and prompt decontamination can prevent or
cases of exposure, seek medical attention.
minimize serious injury.
Sulphuric acid is a very strong dehydrating acid.
Volatile, corrosive materials, such as volatile
When preparing aqueous solutions of this oxoacid
ammonium hydroxide, should be handled in the fume
and other concentrated acids, always add acid to
hood. Personal protective equipment, such as splash
water, very slowly. There will be a large ‘heat of
goggles, rubber gloves, substantial shoes and a lab
solution’ producing a rapid increase in temperature
coat or rubber apron, should always be worn when
during mixing. Continual stirring of the solution as
handling corrosive materials.
well as the use of “distilled water” ice for cooling
(substitute for water) is recommended.
Hazards of Chemicals 13
F. DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE d) wherever practicable, the work must be safely
MATERIALS isolated from workers by distance.
Dry picric acid is a highly explosive material that is
widely used as a DNA marker. Section 30.22 of the
Class F - Dangerously reactive materials are those WCB Regulation states that “solid picric acid must
substances that: be stored with at least 10% moisture content and
a) undergo vigorous polymerization, decomposition regular inspections must be made to ensure that the
or condensation; minimum moisture content is maintained. Solutions
b) become self-reactive under conditions of shock, of picric acid must not be allowed to accumulate and
or increase in pressure or temperature; or dry around cap threads”. It is important to: dispose
c) react vigorously with water to release poisonous of old stock; order minimum amounts; and check
gas. current stocks annually to ensure solid material has
not dried out. Do Not Handle dry picric acid
II. HAZARDS & HANDLING containers; call 822-2643 or 822-5909 for advice.
WCB Regulation 30.20 states that:
a) quantities of explosive and highly reactive Acid halides, such as acetyl chloride or phosphoryl
material available in the work area must be chloride, react violently with water. Lithium
restricted to amounts immediately required for aluminum hydride spontaneously combusts in air.
the work day; Some organic monomers, such as butadiene, will
b) if the nature of the laboratory work suggests that self-polymerize in air. Read labels and material
explosions or implosions may result, the safety data sheets carefully to determine reactivity
laboratory apparatus or equipment involved in and compatibility characteristics of the chemicals
such work must be adequately shielded; being used.
c) subsequently, the operators must be provided
with and must wear suitable protective devices;
The following is a short list of commonly used chemicals and their respective toxicities*.
Chemical Name El – 8 hr EL – 15 min LD50/LC50
ppm mg/kg body weight
ppm mg/m Designation
Acetone 250 593 500
Benzene 0.5 2 Skin, K1, A 2.5
Chloroform 2 10 Skin, K2, R2
Mercury, metal & inorganic 0.025 Skin, R2, Z, A
Sodium chloride (table salt) 3750 (rat)
Sodium cyanide or Cyanides 5 ceiling Skin 15 (rat)
*Data in table of Exposure Limits (EL) from BC Workers’ Compensation Act, Occupational, Health & Safety Regulation, 1998
Skin designation indicates that skin absorption can contribute to overall exposure.
K1 – confirmed human carcinogen
K2 –suspected human carcinogen
R1 – a proven reproductive toxin
R2 – a possible reproductive toxin
Z -- sensitizer
A – ALARA substance; i.e. substances to which exposure of workers must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable
14 Hazard Information
CHAPTER 4. HAZARD INFORMATION
A. INTRODUCTION Legislation to implement WHMIS has been
enacted on both the federal and provincial/
The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information territorial levels. Federal requirements deal with
System (WHMIS) is a major response to the the importation and sale of controlled products;
Canadian worker's right-to-know about the safety provincial legislation covers the storage, handling
and health hazards of materials used in the and use of controlled products in the workplace
workplace. (except in federal government workplaces).
WHMIS legislation provides employees, Provincial legislation, through amendments to
employers and suppliers nationwide with specific occupational safe and health regulations, covers
vital information about hazardous materials the responsibility of the employer to provide:
(called controlled products in the legislation).
♦ Workplace labelling and identification;
This chapter will provide basic information about ♦ A material safety data sheet where the
the key elements of WHMIS: employer uses a controlled product;
♦ Worker education on controlled
♦ Controlled product labelling - which products.
alerts workers to the identity and dangers
of products and to the basic safety C. WHAT IS A CONTROLLED
♦ Material safety data sheets (MSDS) -
technical bulletins which provide
detailed hazard and precautionary A controlled product is a substance or
information; and material that meets or exceeds criteria for
♦ Worker education and training inclusion in one or more of the following
programs. WHMIS hazard classes and divisions.
B. BACKGROUND The 6 classes and 8 symbols for WHMIS
controlled products are presented in a table on the
Exposure to hazardous materials can contribute to following page.
many serious health effects such as kidney or lung
damage, sterility, cancer, burns and dermatitis. PRODUCTS PARTIALLY EXEMPTED
Some materials can cause fires or explosions. A FROM WHMIS (covered by other acts)
federal impact analysis on the use of hazardous INCLUDE:
materials in the workplace estimated the social
cost due to exposure to those materials in 1984 o Consumer products
was about $600 million. In British Columbia, o Cosmetics and drugs
from 1982 to 1986, workplace exposure to o Explosives
hazardous chemicals resulted in approximately o Pesticides
4,300 wage-loss disease claims, at an estimated o Radioactive substances
compensation cost of $26 million.
For exempted products, WHMIS regulations
The purpose of WHMIS is to help reduce the require employers to educate workers in the safe
likelihood of disease or injury in the workplace. It handling of these products and to use workplace
was developed through the collective efforts of labelling when, for example, contents are
labour, industry and federal, provincial and transferred to new containers.
territorial regulatory agencies. The Workers'
Compensation Board of BC has been active in
formulating the system and producing the written
materials for its implementation.
Hazard Information 15
Hazard Symbol & Associated Hazards Handling Information
Class A - an explosion hazard because the gas is being held do not drop cylinder
Compressed Gas in a cylinder under pressure keep cylinder away from potential
container can explode if heated in a fire sources of ignition
container may explode if dropped store containers in a designated area
Class B - the material burns; represents a fire hazard keep away from heat sources and
Combustible and may burn at relatively low temperatures; oxidizing materials
Flammable Material flammables will ignite at lower temperatures than never smoke in vicinity
combustibles store in cool, fire-proof area, as
may burst into flame spontaneously in air, or designated by supervisor
release flammable gas on contact with water
may cause fire when exposed to heat, sparks,
flames or friction
Class C – poses fire\explosion risk in presence of Class B keep away from Class B materials
Oxidizing Material materials store in designated area
may cause fire, react violently or cause explosion keep away from ignition sources
in the presence of combustible materials such as never smoke in vicinity
wood and solvents wear eye, face, and hand protection,
may react violently with reducing agents and protective clothing
may burn skin and eyes upon contact
Class D - Division 1 potentially fatal substances handle with extreme caution
Poisonous and may be fatal or cause permanent damage if inhaled, avoid contact with skin or eyes; wear
Infectious materials; swallowed or absorbed into body appropriate personal protective
may burn eyes or skin upon contact equipment and clothing
avoid inhaling; work in well-ventilated
and serious toxic area and/or wear respiratory protection
effects wash and shower thoroughly after each
store in designated areas only
Class D - Division 2 not immediately dangerous to health avoid eye, skin contact by using
Causing other toxic may cause death or permanent damage as a result appropriate personal protective
effects of repeated exposures over time equipment and clothing
may be skin or eye irritant or sensitizer avoid inhaling; work in well-ventilated
may cause cancer area and/or wear respiratory protection
may cause reproductive or teratogenic effects store in designated areas
Class D - Division 3 may cause a serious disease resulting in illness or take every precaution to avoid
Biohazardous and death contamination
Infectious Materials may damage metal handle only when wearing necessary
handle in designated areas only where
appropriate engineering controls are in
Class E - causes severe eye and skin irritation upon contact keep containers tightly closed
Corrosive material causes severe tissue damage with prolonged avoid skin and eye contact by wearing
contact eye, face and hand protection and
may be harmful if inhaled protective clothing
avoid inhaling; work in well-ventilated
area and/or wear respiratory protection
Class F - unstable; may react with water to release toxic or keep away from heat
Dangerously flammable gas open containers carefully; do not drop
Reactive Material May explode as a result of shock, friction or store material in designated cool,
increase in temperature flame-proof area
may undergo vigorous polymerization
16 Hazard Information
D. THE THREE KEY ELEMENTS OF ♦ Emergency telephone number
INFORMATION DELIVERY 3. THE EMPLOYER'S ROLE - AT THE
WHMIS The employer is responsible for checking that supplier
• Hazardous materials information system in labels have been provided and applied to controlled
workplace. products received at the workplace.
• Involves communication from suppliers of
controlled products to employers & to workers. Workplace labels are necessary on containers of
• Labelling; MSDS; worker education/training. controlled products produced on site, and in many
cases on containers into which product has been
transferred from a supplier's container. Workplace
I. FIRST ELEMENT: LABELLING labels provide three types of information :
Various types of labels or other identifiers are ♦ Safe Handling Information
necessary to alert workers to the hazards and safe ♦ See Material Safety Data Sheet
procedures necessary for use of hazardous products in
Workplace labels may be in the language of choice at
the workplace. Hazard symbols and the use of the
1. THE SUPPLIER'S ROLE - SALE AND hatch-mark border are optional. A sample workplace
DISTRIBUTION label is shown below.
When a supplier produces or imports a product for Solvent X
distribution and sale in Canada, that supplier must
prepare a supplier label that typically provides seven Keep away from sparks, heat
pieces of information: and open flame
♦ Product identification Use local exhaust ventilation or NIOSH
♦ Hazard symbols approved organic vapour respirator.
Wear neoprene gloves and
♦ Risk phrases
chemical splash goggles
♦ Precautionary statements
♦ First aid measures See MSDS
♦ A statement advising that a Material Safety Data
Sheet (MSDS) is available
♦ Supplier identification 4. Other Means of Identification
2. LABELLING - IN LABORATORIES A simple identifier of the product in a container is
Supplier labels from laboratory supply houses, sufficient when the product will be:
packaged in <10 kilogram quantities, and intended for ♦ Used in a laboratory; or
laboratory use, must have: ♦ Will be under the control of the employee who
transferred the product to the new container for
♦ Product identifier use on the same shift.
♦ Risk phrases
♦ Precautionary measures Products produced in a laboratory for research, and
♦ First aid measures development work in the same lab, do not require a
♦ Reference to availability of MSDS workplace label, only a means of identification. In
addition, if the controlled product is transferred to
Supplier labels for laboratory samples, in <10 piping systems, reaction vessels, etc., the employer
kilogram quantities with no available MSDS must must ensure the system is properly identified as to
have the following information: contents.
♦ Distinctive WHMIS label border
When hazardous wastes that contain controlled
♦ Product identifier
products are produced and stored in a workplace, their
♦ Supplier identifier
location must be identified with placards or other
♦ Chemical identity of ingredients where known similar means.
Hazard Information 17
Workers must be instructed in the information sheet when the data sheet at the workplace is three
contained on labels and identifiers. The employer years old.
must take steps to ensure labels are not defaced and are
easy to read at all times. If the employer produces a controlled product for use
at the workplace, the employer must develop an
MSDS to accompany workplace labelling for it. Such
II. SECOND ELEMENT: MATERIAL data may be in the language of choice at the
SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS) workplace.
Copies of supplier and employer MSDS must be
An MSDS is a technical bulletin, which provides accessible to employees, close to their work areas and
detailed hazard, precautionary and emergency available during each workshift. MSDS may be hard
information on a product. copies or available on a computer if the employer takes
all reasonable steps to keep the system in active
The data sheet is the second element of the WHMIS working order. Workers must know how to access
information system and supplements the alert MSDS, and must be educated in the content required
information provided on labels. WHMIS provides on the data sheet and the applicable information in it.
minimum content requirements for data sheets: A sample MSDS for bleach is included at the end of
III. THIRD ELEMENT: WORKER
All data sheets must provide must provide the EDUCATION
♦ Product information 8. EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITY
♦ Hazardous ingredients
♦ Physical data i) Need to establish education and training programs
♦ Fire and explosion hazard for workers that includes:
♦ Reactivity data a) Education in how WHMIS works
b) Education in the hazards of controlled products;
♦ Toxicological properties (health effects)
c) Training in procedures for the safe storage,
♦ Preventive measures
handling, use and disposal of a controlled product.
♦ First aid measures d) Training in procedures to be followed in an
♦ Preparation information with date of preparation, emergency with the product and when airborne or
name and phone number of persons or corporate other emissions from the product are present.
departments to be contacted for additional
9. WORKER’S RESPONSIBILITY
No section on the data sheet can be left blank. Workers need to be educated if they:
No data sheet may be more than three years old. a) Store, handle, use or dispose of a controlled product
or supervise workers performing those duties; or
6. SUPPLIER RESPONSIBILITY b) Work near the controlled product such that their
health and safety could be at risk during normal
Suppliers must develop or obtain an MSDS in both storage, handling, use or disposal, during
official languages for each controlled product they sell maintenance operations or in emergencies.
or import. Information must be current and prepared
not more than three years before sale or importation. The objective of the program of instruction must be
A copy of the MSDS must be sent to the purchaser on to ensure that workers are able to apply the
or before the date of sale at the time of first purchase. information to protect their own health and safety.
Purchasers may request data sheets in either or both of
the official languages. The program of instruction must be developed and
implemented in consultation with the safety and health
7. EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITY committee or representative. It must be reviewed at
least once a year or more often if conditions at the
Employers must ensure that MSDS's are received for
workplace or information on the product change the
all controlled products supplied to the workplace. The
risk to workers.
employer must contact the supplier for an updated
18 Hazard Information
MSDS Incompatibility: Forms toxic, reactive chloramines
with nitrogen compounds (ammonia,urea, amines,
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
isocyanurates). Forms explosive nitrogen trichloride
with ammonium salts in the presence of acid.
IDENTIFICATION Contact with acid, liberates highly toxic chlorine gas.
Can form explosive methyl hypochlorite with
MSDS RECORD NUMBER 2853625
methanol. Some metals (copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt)
DATE OF MSDS 2000-12
speed up decomposition of NaOCl. Solutions are
CURRENCY NOTE This MSDS was
corrosive to many metals.
provided to CCOHS in electronic form on 2001-09-
Reactivity: Avoid exposure to heat and light.
Hazardous Decomposition Products: Cl2, NaOH,
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION 5% FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA
Caledon Laboratories Ltd Not combustible. Solution does not support
ADDRESS combustion. Closed containers can explode in fire
40 Armstrong Avenue,Georgetown situation.
Ontario,Canada L7G 4R9; Phone: 905-877- Extinguishing Media: Use an extinguisher
0101;Fax: 905-877-6666 appropriate to the surrounding material that is
EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NO. burning.
613-996-6666 (CANUTEC Flash Point: Not applicable
Autoignition Temperature: Not applicable
Hazardous Combustion Products:
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA Cl2, oxygen, sodium chlorate.
PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION TOXICOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND
Chemical Name and Synonyms: HEALTH DATA
Sodium hypochlorite solution 5% Toxicological Data:
Chemical Family: Hypochlorous acid salt LD50: (oral, rat) 8,910 mg/kg; (dermal, rabbit)
Chemical Formula: NaClO×H2O in H2O >10,000 mg/kg
Product Use: Laboratory reagent LC50: (rat) >10,500 mg/m3/1h (unspecified strength)
Effects of Acute Exposure to Product:
HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS OF MATERIALS Inhaled: Mist can irritate nose and throat. If mixed
Ingredients % TLV Units CAS No. with acids, or warmed to > 40C, releases poisonous
Sodium hypochlorite 5-10 1 ppm (as Cl2) 7681-52-9 chlorine gas which may cause severe lung damage.
Inhalation of vapours, mist or fumes may cause
PHYSICAL DATA bronchial irritation, coughing, laboured breathing,
Physical State: Liquid nausea, and pulmonary edema.
Appearance and Odour: Pale yellow liquid; Skin contact: Mist and solutions cause irritation or
chlorine-like odour severe chemical burns.
Odour Threshold (ppm): 1 ppm (as Cl2) Eye contact: Mist and solutions cause irritation or
Boiling Point (degrees C): Decomposes above 40C severe chemical burns. Concentrated solutions can
Freezing Point (degrees C): -6C cause permanent eye damage.
pH: ~11 Ingested: Ingestion may cause erosion of the
Specific Gravity: ~1.1 (6%) mucous membranes. May cause edema of the
pharynx, glottis and larynx and perforation of
SHIPPING DESCRIPTION esophagus or stomach. Ingestion or inhalation of
UN: 1791 large amounts may lead to vomiting, circulatory
T.D.G. Class: 8 collapse, confusion, delirium, coma and death.
Pkg. Group: III Effects of Chronic Exposure to Product:
Prolonged or repeated contact with solutions
REACTIVITY DATA containing 4 to 6% NaOCl can cause allergic skin
Chemical Stability: Decomposes slowly. Process is reaction. Sensitized people can react to very dilute
speeded up by exposure to heat and light. (0.04-0.06%) solutions.
Hazard Information 19
Carcinogenicity: when not in use and when empty. Empty containers
No human information available. Not carcinogenic may contain hazardous residues; treat with caution.
in animal testing by ingestion or skin contact. Storage: Store in suitable, labelled containers, in a
Teratogenicity: No human or animal information cool, dry, well-ventilated area, out of direct sunlight.
available Use corrosion-resistant materials, lighting and
Reproductive Effects:No human information ventilation in storage area. Store away from
available. Some effects demonstrated in testing with incompatible materials. Keep containers tightly
mice. closed when not in use and when empty. Protect
Mutagenicity: No human information. Mutagenic from damage, and inspect frequently for signs of
in some short-tern testing, but not in testing on live leaking.
FIRST AID MEASURES
Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with running water for
Engineering Controls: Local exhaust ventilation at least 30 minutes, holding eyelids open during
recommended. flushing. Avoid flushing contaminated water into
Respiratory Protection: NIOSH/MSHA approved unaffected eye. Get medical attention immediately.
mist mask, mist half-face respirator or supplier-air Skin: Remove contaminated clothing under running
respirator. High or unknown concentrations, as in water, including watches, rings, belts, and shoes.
fire or spill conditions: positive-pressure full face- Wear protective gloves to avoid contact. Flush
piece self-contained breathing apparatus or positive- affected areas with running water for at least 30
pressure full face-piece supplied-air respirator with minutes. Get medical advice. Decontaminate
auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing clothing completely before reuse, or discard.
apparatus Inhalation: Immediately remove victim to fresh air
Eye Protection: Chemical safety goggles and/or (caution must be used by rescuers to avoid exposure;
face shield. use buddy system and appropriate protective
Skin Protection: Natural or butyl rubber, neoprene, equipment). Give oxygen and get medical attention
nitrile rubber, polyethylene, PVC, Viton, Saranex, for any breathing difficulty. If breathing has stopped,
Responder gloves. Other impervious protective begin artificial respiration and get medical attention
clothing, sleeves, apron, coverall, boots, sufficient to immediately.
prevent contact. Ingestion: If victim is alert and not convulsing, give
Other PPE: Safety shower and eye- 1 to 2 glasses of water to drink to dilute material. DO
wash fountain in work area. NOT induce vomiting. If spontaneous vomiting
Leak and Spill Procedure: Restrict access to area of occurs, have victim lean forward with head down to
spill. Ventilate area. Cleanup personnel must be avoid breathing in of vomitus, rinse mouth and
thoroughly trained in the hazards of this chemical and administer more water. Obtain medical attention
its safe use, and must wear protective equipment and immediately.
clothing sufficient to prevent inhalation of mist or
fumes, and contact with skin and eyes. Prevent from REFERENCES
entering sewers and waterways. Contain spill with
CCINFO disc: Cheminfo, December 2000
inert absorbent material. Collect in suitable, labelled,
Budavari: The Merck Index, 12th ed., 1997
covered containers for disposal. Contaminated
Sax, Lewis: Hawleys Condensed Chemical
absorbent may pose the same hazards as the
Dictionary, 11th ed., 1987
chemical; treat with caution. Flush area of spill with
large amounts of running water.
Waste Disposal: Follow all federal, provincial and
local regulations for disposal. Date Issued: November 25, 1991
Handling: Workers using this chemical must be Revision: December 2000
thoroughly trained in its hazards and its safe use. MSDS: 7880-6
Avoid all contact and inhalation. Use the smallest
possible amount for the purpose, in designated areas Prepared by: Caledon Laboratories Ltd. (905) 877-0101
with adequate ventilation. Keep containers closed
20 Equipment and Experimental Design
CHAPTER 5. EQUIPMENT AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
In Chapter 2, a list of general laboratory safety rules secondary container that is able to contain the contents
was provided. The next several sections provide more of the primary container in the event of a leak or spill.
detail on certain commonly used laboratory equipment, The secondary container should be shatter-proof and
safety equipment and procedures. leak-proof; a heavy rubber or plastic pail is
Emergency procedures to follow if an accident occurs
It is vital that laboratory personnel understand how to while transporting hazardous materials must be in
correctly and safely use the apparatus that is needed in place. This includes having access to clean-up
any given experiment. This includes the use of basic materials and the procedures for using them properly.
types of glassware, distillation, filtration and low The site should be isolated and acecess limited to
pressure apparatus as well as more expensive and authorized personnel. The designated emergency
sophisticated instruments such as gas and liquid response team (Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services)
chromatographs and spectrometers. should be contacted for assistance or back-up.
Detailed draft procedures for moves of large numbers
Awareness of potential hazards in the use of all types of containers between buildings on a UBC site are
of equipment must be recognized and the appropriate provided in Appendix C.
procedures in place; This includes emergency
procedures for responding to utility shutdowns and The transport of dangerous goods (i.e. hazardous
interruptions requiring evacuation. Equipment must be materials with acute hazards) from any UBC site to
properly maintained in order for it to operate safely another location off-campus is regulated by the
and correctly. Broken or chipped glassware or leaking Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act.
hoses should not be used especially with low pressure Persons who ship, carry or receive such goods must
systems. have current certification of training. The Department
of Health, Safety and Environment offers certification
Written procedures are required wherever the courses of different types during the year. For
equipment, process or materials are potentially additional information on this topic, call 822 – 5909.
A log book should be used for all potentially When chemicals need to be stored in a refrigerator or
hazardous equipment. freezer, certain guidelines must be followed. The
materials must be securely packaged, tightly sealed and
Advise co-workers of potenial hazards. Post properly labelled. Highly reactive materials must be
emergency procedures with name and phone inspected regularly to ensure they are secure, tightly
number of contact person. sealed and in good condition. Flammable materials
(flash point < 37.8°C) that require cold storage must
be stored in an explosion proof unit. All volatile
Prior to the start of all new projects, tasks, or
materials must be compatible with the construction
processes, a hazard assessment should be done.
materials of their containment.
D. TEMPERATURE CONTROL
A form for assessing potential hazards of
projects is provided in Appendix A. A hazard Experimental investigations can be carried out under a
control assessment guide is in Appenidx B. variety of temperature conditions.
Several methods for heating up reactions are
B. TRANSPORTING CHEMICALS available. However, they are not always
Chemicals, when they must be transported to another
laboratory or building, must be packaged properly. The
primary container is closed tightly and placed into a
Equipment and Experimental Design 21
Although easy to use, heating mantles are not always
the best means of applying heat. Hot spots can quickly F. REDUCED PRESSURE
develop causing sudden boiling and eruption of the OPERATIONS
contents of the vessel being heated. It is also difficult
to know the exact temperature at the surface of the Glass vacuum containers, such as desiccators and
vessel or its contents at any particular time. flasks, should be wrapped with tape to prevent glass
from flying in the event of an implosion or explosion.
When heating flammable solvents to very high
temperatures, a hot water, oil or sand bath may be When carrying out filtration or distillation procedures
appropriate. A stirred water or oil bath is easily under reduced pressure, the heavy-walled glassware
controlled and monitored. Select your heat source and tubing must be undamaged and able to withstand
based on the characteristic of the chemicals being used, the conditions of reduced pressure. Cold traps
the temperature required, and the procedure being should be used to prevent leaking of vapours from
followed. the experiment to the oil of the vacuum pump or the
water passing through a water aspirator.
Heat sources should not be left unattended (e.g. gas
burners, hot plates, heating mantles, sand baths, etc.) Rotoevaporation of solvents using a water aspirator is
unless emergency procedures, that include a contact not appropriate where the vapour being removed is
name and phone number, are posted adjacent to the highly odorous or toxic unless a suitable cold trap is
apparatus. Automatic shut-off systems for unattended available to capture them. Alternative enclosed
experiments that depend on heat, water, vacuum or systems are recommended.
power sources are recommended.
Use heavy-walled glass and tubing. Wrap with
Experiments requiring cooling need careful tape of nylon net. Use cold trap.
consideration of the process being used. Combinations
of solvent and dry ice may be highly flammable. Low
temperature coolants, besides being a source of
“freezer burns”, can condense oxygen creating a G. CRYOGENIC MATERIALS
potentially explosive atmosphere. Proper personal Most cryogenic liquids can cause frost bite or freezer
protective equipment such as a lab coat, face shield burn to the skin. A few cryogenic liquids, such as
and suitable gloves are recommended. hydrogen, propane and liquefied natural gas, are
flammable. Fluorine is very toxic and also corrosive.
Very low temperature coolants may condense Oxygen and fluorine are both strong oxidizers.
oxygen and cause an explosion with
combustible materials. When handling these materials, the appropriate hand
and eye protection against cold hazards as well as
chemical hazards must be used.
E. CONTROL OF SUCK-BACK
Wherever there is a flow of gas or liquid into a H. CENTRIFUGE SAFETY
system, there is danger of suck-back of those fluids
into the original container or system (eg. gas cylinder Ensure tabletop centrifuges are securely anchored to
or domestic water supply). This is easily prevented a location where its vibration will not cause bottles or
by the use of one-way valves. Where goose-neck equipment to fall. Other rules for safe operation of
tops are present, it is necessary to install a one-way centrifuges are:
valve on the tap or plumbing system if a hose from • Lid must be closed during operation.
the top into the sink is used. • Centrifuge must be monitored until full
operating speed is attained and the machine is
running safely without vibration.
• If vibration occurs, stop centrifuge immediately
and check load balances; check swing-out
buckets for clearance and support.
• Discard plastic centrifuge tubes after one cycle
of ultra-centrifugation (high failure rate).
• Use nitrocellulose tubes only when transparent
and flexible (fresh); they must never be heated
because of explosive possibility.
22 Equipment and Experimental Design
• Rotors and buckets must be regularly cleaned
with non-corrosive cleaning solutions. Use the proper regulator. Maintain
• Record of all uses and maintenance activities appropriately.
must be kept.
3. With the flow-control valve at the regulator outlet
I. SAFETY SHOWERS AND EYE closed, turn the delivery pressure-adjusting screw
WASHES clockwise until the required delivery pressure is
Emergency showers and eye washes should be reached.
available to all laboratory personnel who work with
large quantities of hazardous materials. Plant 4. Control of flow can be regulated by means of a
Operations personnel are responsible for the annual valve supplied in the regulator outlet or by a
testing of showers. supplementary valve put in a pipeline downstream
from the regulator.
Laboratory supervisors are responsible for 5. The regulator itself should not be used as a flow
ensuring that eyewashes are flushed weekly to control by adjusting the pressure to obtain
clear them of particulate that could damage different flow rates.
eyes during emergency use.
II. RULES FOR HANDLING
COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
J. COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
1. Know the hazards associated with the gases.
Pressure regulators are used in a system using
compressed gas to reduce pressure from high-pressure 2. Use the appropriate personal protective equipment
sources, such as gas cylinders or gas supply pipelines, (i.e. foot guards).
to a safe working pressure range.
3. Keep cylinders away from fire, sparks, and
The pressure regulator should be attached to a cylinder electricity.
without forcing the threads. If the inlet of a regulator
does not fit the cylinder outlet, no excess effort should 4. Always use a cylinder cart for transport.
be made to force the fitting. A poor fit may indicate
that the regulator is not intended for use on the gas 5. Cylinders should be chained in place or
chosen. Regulators for "fuel” gases (H2, acetylene, otherwise secured at all times; chain cylinders
etc.) generally have a left hand thread. to the cylinder cart.
The procedures for the safe use of compressed gas 6. Protect cylinders from any objects that might cut
cylinders in UBC laboratories are provided at the end or scrape them.
of this chapter.
7. Do not drop cylinders, or otherwise permit them
I. RULES FOR USING PRESSURE to strike each other.
8. Leave valve cap on cylinder until secured and
The following procedure should be used to obtain the ready for use.
required delivery pressure:
9. Store with valve caps in place, even when empty.
1. After the regulator has been attached to the
cylinder valve outlet, turn the delivery 10. Ground all cylinders containing flammable gases.
pressure-adjusting screw counter clockwise until it
turns freely. 11. Use only in an upright position.
2. Open the cylinder valve slowly until the tank 12. All valves should be closed when not in use.
gauge on the regulator registers the cylinder
pressure. At this point, the cylinder pressure 13. Use the proper regulator for a particular gas.
should be checked to see if it is at the expected
value. A large error may indicate that the cylinder
valve is leaking.
Equipment and Experimental Design 23
14. Carefully open all valves and adjust gas flow hydrogen bromide to react with the cylinder
rates; keep cylinder between yourself and wall.
15. Always consider cylinders to be full, and handle
16. Discontinue using a high-pressure cylinder when
the pressure approaches 30 psi, and clearly label
“EMPTY”, then remove for return to vendor.
17. Oily regulators should never be used with oxygen.
Oxygen under pressure will rapidly oxidize oil or
grease, resulting in an explosion.
18. Acetylene under pressure can decompose with
explosive force. It can explode with extreme
violence if ignited. Copper or brass (with more
than 65% copper) can form explosive compounds
in contact with acetylene.
19. Glass equipment should not be pressurized. A
general rule is no pressure greater than 25 cm (10
inches) of water, without special protective
20. Never mix gases in a cylinder. Explosion,
contamination, corrosion, and other hazards can
21. Cylinders containing large amounts of a
flammable gas (hydrogen, acetylene, and
ethylene) should be stored outside in a protected
area and piped into the working area.
22. Store in a fire-proof, well-ventilated area.
23. Storage area temperature should not exceed 37.8°;
a minimum temperature will also be required
depending on the gases in storage.
24. Store gases supporting combustion (O2, CO2 etc.)
at least 7.5 m (25 feet) from fuel gases, preferably
in another gas storage area.
25. Do not transport in closed vehicles.
Corrosive compressed gases, such as hydrogen
bromide, should not be stored, unused, for
extensive periods of time.
26. There is a danger of the valves corroding and
leaking, as well as the potential for the cylinder
pressure to exceed its limits to explode. The
pressure excess may be due to the production of
hydrogen when moisture is present causing
24 Equipment and Experimental Design
Chemical Safety Program
PROCEDURES FOR THE USE OF COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
IN UBC LABORATORIES
9. “Smallest Practical size ” means “the use of the
SCOPE smallest size that is returnable, and would not require
changing gas cylinders more than once a month.
This procedure describes the protocol for the safe use of
compressed gas cylinders in UBC laboratories. 10. “Toxic” is as defined by WHMIS, and includes Class
D, Division 1, materials causing immediate and
serious toxic effects and Class D, Division 2 (very
PURPOSE toxic and toxic chronic effect materials). Examples of
These procedures are designed to minimize the occurrence highly toxic gases found in UBC laboratories include,
and impact of accidents resulting from the use of but are not limited to: hydrogen cyanide (HCN),
compressed gas cylinders in laboratories, and ensure that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), chlorine
the use of compressed gases in laboratories is conducted in (Cl2), fluorine (F2), bromine (Br2), carbon monoxide
compliance with all relevant legislation. (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen bromide
(HBr), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and ammonia (NH3).
11. For additional information, consult with HS&E
1. Compressed gases, that present additional hazards to personnel.
UBC laboratory workers and researchers, must be
2. These procedures take into consideration the BC A. General
Workers Compensation Health and Safety Regulation,
1. All compressed gas cylinders are labelled with the
BC Fire Code and the Gas Safety Act.
• Name of gas
3. These procedures address issues concerning the
• Name of supplier
disposal of compressed gas cylinders in a safe and
• Date of purchase
environmentally friendly manner. The purchaser of
• Date of hydrostatic testing (by supplier)
any compressed gas, that is not returnable, is
The person responsible will be defined as:
responsible for the disposal costs.
• The supervisor of the shop or laboratory where
the cylinder is being used, or
4. These procedures address issues of compatibility.
• In the case of general departmental storage areas,
a designated person determined by the
5. Regulations governing compressed gasses allow the
administrative head of unit.
use of these materials in a laboratory but not their
long-term storage; compressed gases, not in “use”
must be kept in a “compliant storage facility”. “Use”
2. Cylinders are not located near laboratory exits or in
main egress routes.
means that the gas cylinder is attached to a piece of
equipment or apparatus that is being used at least once
a week. 3. The regulator is replaced with a protective cap when
not being used for long periods of time (in storage in
6. “Hazardous gases” includes gases classified as toxic, designated facility) and during transport.
corrosive and flammable gases. Additional
regulations apply to their use and storage. 4. The smallest available size of gas cylinder, that is
returnable, is used (see note at end of this section).
7. “Storage” occurs when cylinders are not connected to
an apparatus. 5. The number and types of gas cylinders are kept to a
minimum in a research or work area.
8. “Compliant Storage Facility” refers to a room, shelter
or building constructed according to Building and Fire 6. A cylinder valve is kept closed when a cylinder is not
Code specifications for the storage of “hazardous” in active use or empty (closing the pressure regulator,
gases. Some of the features of such a facility are the by itself, is not acceptable).
requirements for an exit directly to the outdoors,
appropriate ventilation, the ability to separate 7. Any cylinders that have not been used for one year
incompatible gases, and, where applicable, the use of should be returned.
explosion-proof electrical parts.
8. See “CHART” for storage compatibility rules
according to the BC Fire Code.
Equipment and Experimental Design 25
3. Procedures for responding to a leak must be developed.
9. See “Section D” for information specifically related to
use of propane in a building. 4. All laboratory personnel must be trained to use
methods for prevention of accidents as well as
Note: Some gases may not be available in returnable emergency procedures.
cylinders. Any such cylinders that have not been used for
one year, should be considered for disposal. 5. There must not be any potential ignition sources in the
vicinity of an unattended cylinder of compressed
B. Flammable, Toxic and Corrosive Gases
D. Propane Gas Cylinders
1. For mixed gas occupancy of hazardous gases, there is (BC Gas Safety Act)
maximum separation required between cylinders as
defined by the BC Fire Code. 1. Propane cylinders of 20 pounds (9 kilograms) capacity
or more must not be stored in UBC buildings.
2. Highly toxic gases are kept and used in a continuously
operating fume hood or in a specialized gas storage 2. Propane cylinders must be stored in a secure area
cabinet with an exhaust to the outside. protected from vandalism and the weather.
3. A sign is located on the outside door of any room and 3. If propane gas is required to operate equipment inside
adjacent to equipment where a hazardous gas is being a UBC building, the propane cylinder must be stored
used, advising occupants of potential hazards and outside and piped, at low pressure, into the building
emergency procedures to follow if a leak or other using piping material and procedures permitted by
incident occurs. UBC Regulatory Services. This does not apply to
small (1 pound) size bottles used as portable heating
4. Gas detectors and alarm systems are installed where torches.
cylinders of compressed toxic gases are being used, or
an equivalent means of managing an accidental 4. Where large quantities are being used, Health, Safety
release is implemented (upon consultation with the and Environment must be consulted on the
Chemical Safety Officer @ 822-5909 or the requirements for detector and alarm systems.
Occupational Hygiene Officer @ 822-2643).
5. Warning signs identifying this hazard must be on the
cage or room protecting the cylinder as well as on the
piping entering the building.
C. Emergency Procedures
1. All potential hazards associated with an accidental gas
release must be identified, such as oxygen
displacement and toxic, flammable, explosive or
2. Written procedures must be developed to minimize
CHART FOR DETERMINING COMPATIBLE STORAGE COMPLIANCE
(Extracted from BC Fire Code, 1998 - Table 22.214.171.124)
Separation Chart for Storage of Dangerous Goods
Flammable Non-Flammable Poison Gas Corrosive Oxidizing
Gas Gas Gas Gas
Flammable Gas P P X X X
Non-Flammable Gas P P P P P
Poison Gas X P P A A
Corrosive Gas X P A DS A
Oxidizing Gas X P A A P
P Permitted; items may be stored together.
X Incompatible items; do not store together in same fire compartment (storage facility).
A Incompatible items; separate by minimum of 1 metre distance.
DS Defer to Material Safety Data Sheet.
26 Hazard Controls
CHAPTER 6. HAZARD CONTROLS
A. INTRODUCTION B. LABORATORY FUME HOODS
IV. WORK PRACTICES
Control of chemical hazards used in the laboratory is
necessary. There are five types of controls for 1. Conduct all operations, which generate
minimizing or eliminating hazards. In order of air-born contaminants, inside a fume
decreasing effectiveness they are: hood.
Substituting something less hazardous 2. Always wear appropriate eye protection
Engineering controls and a lab coat when working around a
Personal protective equipment 3. If the hood is used for semi-permanent
experiments, post the name and phone
They are in order of decreasing effectiveness. number of the person in charge, experiment
title and potential hazards.
Elimination of a hazardous product or substitution with
a less hazardous product represents the best solution. 4. Keep your head outside the face of the
Engineering controls are the next best choice for hood with the sash lower than your face.
controlling hazardous materials. They do not require
continual monitoring and are more likely to be used; 5. Keep apparatus at least 15 cm from the face
however they do require regular maintenance and are of the hood to minimize turbulence at
more expensive to implement. The next type of control entrance to hood as this can cause some of the
is administrative and it includes written procedures, contaminants to be swirled out of the hood.
training, supervision and scheduling of activities. The
use of personal protective equipment represents the 6. Avoid blocking the rear ventilation slot.
least effective type of control; its effectiveness is limited Material stored at the back of the hood should
by the dependence on individuals wearing it, and its be stored on an elevated shelf so that the slot
discomfort. airflow is not impeded.
In laboratories where hazardous materials are used, 7. Avoid storing chemicals or gas cylinders
engineering controls are preferred and usually comprise inside the hood. Hazardous chemicals should
fume hoods or local exhaust systems. This chapter will be stored in approved safety cabinets.
discuss fume hood use, maintenance and emergency
procedures; electrical safety; the use of personal 8. Do not place electrical receptacles or other
protective equipment; and the use of emergency ignition sources inside the hood when
showers and eye washes. flammable liquids or gases are present. No
permanent electrical receptacles are permitted
in the hood (current design criteria).
9. Avoid cross drafts at the face of the hood.
Minimize foot traffic past the hood and
position windows and supply air diffusers to
direct air away from the hood.
10. Do not raise the sash higher than the labelled
height as this will reduce the hood efficiency.
Red arrow = 0.75 mps flow rate; Blue arrow
= 0.50 mps flow rate (carcinogens &
radioactives not permitted).
Hazard Controls 27
11. Leave the sash lowered when the
experiment is unattended. Fume hood users should incorporate the following
elements into their emergency planning in order to
12. Keep the bypass grill clean. facilitate the emergency shut-down of experiments
being conducted in fume hoods:
V. FUME HOOD AIRFLOW FAILURE
RESPONSE PROCEDURE a) An understanding of the hazards associated
with the materials being used. Keep the
INTRODUCTION amount of toxic material in use to a
The abrupt and complete loss of airflow to a laboratory
fume hood may create significant hazards or cause b) The provision for personal protective
injury to maintenance and laboratory staff. The equipment such as chemical cartridge
purpose of this procedure is to ensure that the hazards respirators, which will provide protection
associated with hood system failure are minimized. from chemicals in use.
LABORATORY PROCEDURE c) A planned shutdown procedure, so that the
experiment may be shut down safely. (Some
Good experimental design requires that fume hood experiments may be safely interrupted, but it
users develop a plan of action to follow if the fume may be safer for others to be driven to
hood fails. This planned procedure should include the completion). Shut-down procedure include:
following steps: closing chemical containers, closing off heat,
relieving all pressures, removing hazardous
substances and monitoring for radioisotopes
where they are in use.
Air Flow Failure Instruction Sticker
d) Determine if evacuation of the lab would be
required and if the Fire Department should be
If Fume Hood Air Flow Stops: called.
❒ Note pressure gauge reading, if one is provided.
❒ Shut off experiments, turn off heat, relieve pressures. VI. FUME HOOD MAINTENANCE
❒ Seal containers; remove compressed gas cylinders from the PROCEDURES
❒ Ensure no other lab equipment is vented into the hood.
❒ Place “Do Not Use; Hood Out of Order” sign on the fume
Fume hood maintenance is a planned, annual
hood. procedure. Depending on the nature of the work
❒ Where radioisotopes are used, contact Radiation Protection at involved (e.g. whether the actual fume cupboard is
2-7052. included or whether the fume hood system has leaks or
❒ Call Trouble Calls @ 2-2173. not) there are standard procedures that must be
❒ Advise departmental administrator - phone #:
performed by fume hood users prior to work being
UBC - HS&E, 94
done by maintenance personnel.
UBC fume hoods should have a sticker, similar to the
one above, on the bottom corner of the sash to remind
fume hood users of the procedures to be followed
should there be a fume hood failure. If a sticker is
damaged or missing, contact the Occupational Hygiene
Office at 822-2643.
28 Hazard Controls
There are three levels of fume hood maintenance; they C. ELECTRICAL SAFETY
differ with respect to the type of work or maintenance
Edited from: "UBC Electrical Engineering Safety Guidelines and Procedures Manual"
being done and consequently with respect to the
activities to be assumed by the fume hood user. For all VII. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
fume hood shutdowns the following is required: It is essential that no unauthorized wiring be installed.
- Containers capped; gas cylinders removed If an electrical supply must be altered, contact your
- Heat sources closed supervisor. If the problem is related to electrical
- Hood monitored for radioactivity & fixtures or installed as part of the building, Plant
decontaminated as required Operations maintenance personnel must carry out
- No equipment is venting into hood. alterations.
The table below summarizes the main differences Ensure that electrical outlets are not overloaded. Also
between Level II & III. check that equipment is properly grounded, especially
in "wet" areas.
Type of Work or User’s Responsibilities
Maintenance Personnel constructing their own electrical research
II. Work done outside All chemicals removed from apparatus, or making their own repairs, should have
hood, but within ductwork hood the equipment checked for safety if 110 V or other
III. Work done within hood Everything is removed from hood high voltages are involved. See the supervisor, before
putting the equipment into use.
Here is an example of one type of maintenance:
FUME HOOD SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURES The age of solid-state devices has tended to obscure
University of British Columbia
the dangers of electrical circuitry. Researchers are
DO NOT USE THIS FUME HOODFOR REGULAR often only exposed to low voltages throughout most of
MAINTENANCE WORK WHERE THE EXHAUST SYSTEM their work.
IS NOT STACKED ON THE ROOF, AND IS NOT INTACT
DONE ( ) INSTRUCTIONS Much equipment within a department
❒ Ensure all containers are tightly capped.
❒ All chemicals must be removed from the hood.
operates at voltages that could prove lethal.
❒ Shut down all heat sources.
❒ Monitor the hood for radioactive decontamination where Storage capacitors can release sufficient energy to
radioisotopes have been used and decontaminate if electrocute or burn persons. Microwave sources have
necessary. Contact Radiation Protection Office at 822- also been known to cause a variety of radiation-related
problems, as have high voltage sources, which have
❒ Ensure that no other lab equipment or apparatus is vented
into the hood during shutdown.
developed X-ray emissions.
❒ Lower the sash and attach this completed form to the front
face. Before being faced with an emergency, study the
❒ Advise all personnel in the area of the planned work. laboratory in which you are working and determine the
If removal of the chemicals will endanger lab users, call Health, following:
Safety and Environment at 822-2029 to develop safe work
procedures. 1) The electrical hazards present.
I have prepared this hood for REPAIR/MAINTENANCE as per
the instructions given above. To be signed by the Hood User. 2) The location of the main breaker for the room.
SIGNATURE OF FUME HOOD USER:
CAUTION!!! DO NOT WORK ALONE ON ANY EQUIPMENT
DO NOT REMOVE THIS TAG THAT MAY EXPOSE YOU TO DANGEROUS
OR USE THIS FUME HOOD VOLTAGES!!!
UNLESS SIGNED OFF BY THE TRADESPERSON.
I have completed the REPAIR/MAINTENANCE and this fume If users are faced with the operation of non-familiar
hood may now be used. To be signed by the tradesperson. equipment, then it is their responsibility to become
SIGNATU RE OF THE TRADESPERSON: familiar with the correct operation of that equipment
Yellow For additional copies of master, please contact HS&E at 822-2029. and the hazards involved in the operation of the
Hazard Controls 29
ELECTRICAL INJURIES the parts of the body involved, the dryness of the skin
and the frequency of an alternating current.
Electrical injuries are caused by the passage of current
through the body. Initially, the victim must be removed Body resistance is not consistent. Dry skin may have a
from the power source. If possible, switch off the line resistance of 100,000 to 600,000 ohms; wet skin will
voltage; otherwise, use insulated materials to pull the probably have a resistance of about 1,000 ohms. This
victim free of the power line. is a significant difference with no easy way of
assessing the degree of wetness or dryness. Once the
The first concern for the victim must be directed current passes the skin resistance, the internal
towards the effect of the electricity on the heart. resistance of the body is even lower. For example, the
Critically, the heart may cease functioning altogether, resistance though the head, from ear to ear, is about
or it may go into ventricular fibrillation that can lead to 100 ohms; the resistance through the body from a hand
death within a very short time span. to a foot is about 400-600 ohms.
As little as 50 V may bring on ventricular It is obvious that dependence on skin and body
fibrillation across the body. resistance will offer little protection.
If heart activity has stopped, it is essential that the The damage is caused by current flow. For example, a
casualty gets medical assistance immediately. A person 10-watt light bulb draws 0.09 A (90 mA) at most.
familiar with CPR can apply these techniques in Correspondingly, a 100-watt light bulb takes about 0.9
conjunction with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. In the A (900 mA).
case of fibrillation, little can be done without access to
SAFE CURRENT VALUES
a defibrillator, as heart massage will likely prove
ineffective. Safe current values are much less than the amount
drawn by a 10-watt light bulb.
Secondary effects of exposure to power sources are
burns and/or involuntary muscle spasms caused by the Current Effects
current flow. Burns are often not restricted to the skin < 1 mA No sensation; probably not felt
surface and may be much more serious than they 1-8 mA Shock felt, not painful. No loss
appear initially. of muscular control
Microwave and radiation burns are even more often UNSAFE CURRENT VALUES
associated with deep burns. A physician should attend 8-15 mA Painful shock. Possible to let go at will
to electrical burns. because muscular control not lost.
15-20 mA Painful shock. Muscular control lost.
The muscle spasms may cause a body to be physically Cannot let go.
thrown across the room or off a ladder. In this 20-50 ma Painful. Severe muscular contractions.
instance, anticipate possible broken bones or other Breathing difficult.
50-200 mA Possible ventricular fibrillation (heart
types of injuries associated with a fall.
condition that results in death - no
remedy available on job). Muscular
ELECTRICAL SHOCK contraction and nerve damage.
> 200 mA Severe burn, severe muscular
Electricity is a wonderful and necessary tool but can be
contractions, heart muscles clamp heart
a killer if not treated with respect. "It's only low and stop it for the duration of the shock.
voltage" is not an acceptable reason for treating
electricity without proper caution. In reality, people
Quick action necessary for the electric shock victim.
have been killed while handling low voltages while
others have survived entanglement with 33,000 V.
It is not voltage that kills; it’s the amperage.
As well as voltage, the severity of an electrical shock
depends on the amount of current flow through the
body; the current flow depends upon both voltage and
resistance. Other factors that must be considered are
30 Hazard Controls
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health CHECKLIST
and Safety (CCOHS)
• INSPECT CORDS AND PLUGS
o Check power cords and plugs daily. Discard
Electrical Safety Infogram if worn or damaged. Have any cord that feels
more than comfortably warm checked by
• INSPECT tools, power cords, and electrical
fittings for damage prior to each use. Repair or • ELIMINATE OCTOPUS CONNECTIONS
replace damaged equipment. o DO NOT PLUG several power cords into one
• DO NOT WEAR gloves, loose clothing or outlet.
jewellery while using revolving power tools.
• PULL THE PLUG, NOT THE CORD
o DO NOT DISCONNECT power supply by
• SWITCH tools OFF before connecting them to a pulling or jerking cord from the outlet.
power supply. Pulling the cord causes wear and may cause
• DISCONNECT power supply before making shock.
• ENSURE tools are properly grounded or double • NEVER BREAK OFF THE THIRD PRONG
insulated. The grounded tool must have an IN A PLUG
approved 3-wire cord with a 3-prong plug. This o Replace broken three-prong plugs and make
plug should be plugged in a properly grounded 3- sure the third prong is properly grounded.
• TEST all tools for effective grounding with a • NEVER USE EXTENSION CORDS AS
continuity tester or a ground fault circuit PERMANENT WIRING
interrupter (GFCI) before use.
• DO NOT BYPASS the switch and operate the o Use extension cords only to temporarily
tools by connecting and disconnecting the power supply power to an area that does not have a
cord. power outlet.
• DO NOT USE electric tools in wet conditions or o Keep power cords away from heat, water, and
damp locations unless tool is connected to a oil. They can damage the insulation and
GFCI. cause a shock.
• DO NOT CLEAN tools with flammable or toxic o DO NOT ALLOW vehicles to pass over
solvents. unprotected power cords. Cords should be
• DO NOT OPERATE tools in area containing put in conduit or protected by placing planks
explosive vapours or gases. alongside them.
• KEEP power cords clear of tools during use. Excerpted from the CCOHS “Powered Hand Tools – Basic
• SUSPEND power cords over aisles or work areas Electrical Safety”, F01.
to eliminate stumbling or tripping hazards.
• REPLACE open front plugs with dead front plugs.
Dead front plugs are sealed and present less
danger of shock or short circuit.
• DO NOT USE light duty power cords.
• DO NOT CARRY electrical tools by the power
• DO NOT TIE power cords in knots. Knots can
cause short circuits and shocks. Loop the cords or
use a twist lock plug.
Hazard Controls 31
D. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE I. GLOVES
EQUIPMENT (PPE) There are several glove types available depending on
the potential hazard of concern. General guidelines are
included below. Due to variations between
manufacturers, the final choice must be dependant on
Personal protective equipment is an
their specific characteristics and recommendations.
individual’s means of protecting themselves
from hazards in the laboratory. Wherever The following general guidelines should be
possible, engineering controls should be considered:
installed to make the workplace safe. a) Gloves are available in a variety of materials
differing significantly in permeability and wear-
There are however some instances, such as chemical resistance.
spill clean-up, where the technology or costs of b) Disposable gloves, manufactured from latex,
engineering controls are not practical or available. PVC, polyethylene and polyurethane, are for
general use and have low abrasion resistance and
Personal protective equipment must be provided if it is varied permeability to solvents.
required to perform an operation safely. The type of c) A variety of rubber gloves are more resistant and
PPE that is required will depend on the particular less permeable to more chemicals.
hazards of the materials, equipment and procedures • Natural rubber: flexible; generally
being used. For more information, call HS&E at withstands many acids, alkalis, salts and
• Neoprene: flexible; provides protection from
VIII. EYE PROTECTION chlorinated solvents, alcohol, alkalis, oil and
The type of eye protection that is required in a • Nitrile: resistant to cuts, abrasions and most
laboratory depends on the materials and operations in punctures; generally outperforms natural
use. The following guidelines should be considered rubber and neoprene in most solvents.
when determining the type of eye protection that is • Butyl rubber: highest permeation resistance
required. The same rules apply to those working near to gas or water vapours; ideal for acids,
or visiting hazardous areas. ketones and esters.
• Viton: most resistant rubber; provides
1) Contact lenses are not recommended when protection against polychlorinated biphenyls
working with volatile chemicals. They must be (PCB’s), benzene and aniline. It is the most
worn with safety glasses and supervisors must be expensive rubber glove but often the only
aware of who is wearing them. glove offering adequate protection.
2) Shatterproof prescription eyeglasses do not • (4H; Silver Shield); Plastic laminated
provide adequate splash protection. Splash disposable: meant to be disposable with low
goggles, with sealed sides and top, must be worn abrasion characteristics but impermeable to
when handling corrosive, toxic or irritating epoxy, most solvents, acids, alkalis, paints,
liquids. varnishes and adhesives.
3) Face shields and explosion-proof shields must be • Kevlar, Zetex or Aluminized: handling of
used where necessary; i.e. when there is a risk of hot or sharp objects.
explosion, splashing or combustion with high or
low temperature or pressure reactions or Excerpted from: American Laboratory, August 1989, page 74
32 Hazard Controls
II. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING • A low oxygen environment (<19.5%);
• High concentrations of contaminant or
Lab coats, aprons and coveralls come in a variety of
• Highly toxic contaminant (consult with HSE).
materials that differ significantly in chemical, abrasion
and fire resistance. It is important to choose the
A full-face respirator is a minimum requirement
material best suited for the work being done. Lab
where eye irritation is a known or a suspected
coats and coveralls should be made of a tough fire-
characteristic of the contaminant.
resistant fabric with proper fasteners and long enough
to protect the legs. Aprons should be chemical-
Respirators may be required for the following
resistant, fire-resistant and washable. Avoid
flammable fabrics such as polyester.
1. Working with hazardous fumes, dusts or vapours
where engineering controls not available or
When handling hazardous materials, bare legs practical;
are not allowed. 2. As an escape respirator in the event of a hazardous
IX. FOOTWEAR 3. During spill clean-up operations; or
Shoes must be worn in the laboratory; they must cover 4. Maintenance requiring rooftop entry where fume
the entire foot and be made of a substantial material, hoods or hazard control systems vent onto the
such as leather. Steel-toed safety shoes or boots may roof.
be required in certain situations.
Other situations must be reviewed with HS&E
X. RESPIRATORY PROTECTION staff before work starts.
Respirators used at the University of British Columbia
must provide effective protection against airborne Cartridge Selection
contaminants that may be present. Use of respirators The following cartridges are available for use with
should be considered to control exposure only after half-mask and full-face respirators. Select the
engineering and administrative controls have been appropriate cartridge according to the chart below.
considered. These types of controls include ventilation Consult with HS&E for situations not listed.
(e.g. fume hoods), enclosing the process, substitution
of less hazardous products, rescheduling of work Cartridge Type Colour Examples of Uses
Organic vapour and Yellow Rooftop entry/lab
acid gas procedures/spills
A respirator program is required to ensure that
respirators used by employees provide effective Organic vapour only Black Solvents/paints
protection against airborne contaminants. It should Dusts, particulates, Purple Toxic dusts/ infectious
also define employer, supervisor and employee’s and aerosols aerosols/asbestos welding
respective responsibilities. fumes
Ammonia/amines Green Ammonia spill
Respirator Selection Acid gas Grey Acid gases/chlorine/
Disposable dust masks may only be used for non-toxic Sulphur dioxide
or low concentrations of slightly toxic particulate
materials; they must have two straps and a NIOSH- Acid/solvent/base Olive Spill Clean-up
approval N or P - 95, 99 or 100 number on the mask or Other types of cartridges that address additional classes
strap and be appropriate for the contaminant (i.e. oil or or combinations of airborne hazardous materials are
non-oil based). available.
The following procedure refers to the use of half-mask
or full-face dual cartridge respirators. A cartridge type
of respirator may only be used if the contaminant has
adequate warning properties (taste, odour, irritation).
It must not be used in situations that are immediately
dangerous to life and health (IDLH), which includes:
Hazard Controls 33
Fit Testing for Respirators
To provide protection, respirators that are designed to If leakage continues to occur or the respirator fits
fit the face must have an effective seal. The respirator uncomfortably, a different size or brand of mask must
user must be clean-shaven where the mask fits the be tried. If a good fit cannot be obtained, the user
face. Fit tests (i) and (ii) must be performed by cannot wear a respirator. Report the problem to the
respirator users before every use. At the same time the supervisor.
integrity of the mask, especially the inhalation valves,
must be checked prior to fitting on the face. RULES FOR Use of Respirators
The wide part of the face piece is placed under the • Corrective eye wear or other equipment must
chin, with the narrow portion over the nose. The straps not interfere with the seal of the respirator.
are placed over the back and top of the head, and then
the neck strap is fastened and tightened until the mask
No covering can be used which passes between the
respirator face piece and the wearer’s face.
i) Inhalation (negative pressure) test
Cover the inhalation openings • Respirators will be inspected before and after each
(where cartridges are attached) and use, checking straps, valves, cartridges, etc. as
breathe in normally. The face piece well as general cleanliness.
should collapse against the face. • The respirator user prior to each use will perform
Hold for ten seconds. If the face a positive/negative pressure fit check.
piece remains slightly collapsed and • High contaminant levels and other factors such as
no leakage is felt around the mask, high humidity, can affect the filter or cartridges.
the respirator is probably sealed properly. When
leakage no longer occurs, go on to the exhalation test. When wearing a respirator, employees experiencing
any of the following symptoms will leave the
ii) Exhalation (positive pressure) test contaminated area:
Cover the exhalation valve (centre ♦ Nausea
front) and exhale normally. Hold ♦ Dizziness
for ten seconds. If leakage occurs, ♦ Eye irritation
adjust the mask until leakage does ♦ Unusual odour or taste
not occur. Do not use if mask ♦ Excessive fatigue
continues to leak; try a different ♦ Difficult breathing
size or brand. Only after tests (i)
and (ii) have been passed should the chemical Employees noting a high resistance to breathing,
challenge test be performed. irritation or the smell or taste of chemical within the
respirator, will leave the work area immediately and
iii) Chemical test report to the supervisor. The respirator shall be
checked and new cartridges installed followed by
All users must undergo and pass a chemical challenge positive/negative pressure tests to ensure respirator is
test before a respirator can be used. safe to use.
HS&E or the designated departmental co-ordinator
This test must be repeated annually. will determine whether or not an employee may be
allowed to wear a respirator. Where there is any doubt
Attach black or yellow cartridges to the respirator. A about a person’s ability to wear a respirator by an
sample of banana oil (isoamyl acetate) is placed on a employee or safety co-ordinator, the employee should
tissue and waved around the user’s face. The user be examined by a physician. Certain medical
keeps their eyes closed and moves their head up, down conditions may affect the employee’s ability to wear a
and sideways while counting loudly to 20. If the odour respirator, such as lung (e.g. asthma, emphysema) or
can be detected, leakage is occurring and further heart disease.
adjustments and retesting are done until there is no
34 Hazard Controls
STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE TRAINING
Every employee, who wears a respirator, must be fit-
i) Storage tested and trained in the proper use of the respirator.
Store respirators and cartridges in sealed plastic bags Supervisors of workers, who may have to wear
or containers, and keep in a cool, dry place away from respirators, must also be trained.
Wash respirator after use:
a) Disassemble respirator and wash in warm,
mild detergent solution.
b) Rinse thoroughly in warm, clear water.
c) Allow all parts to air-dry before assembly.
d) Inspect and test after each cleaning to ensure
respirator is in proper working order.
Defective respirators shall be tagged “out of service”
and replaced or repaired.
iii) Cartridge “Life”
Cartridge life is dependent on the type of cartridge,
frequency and length of use, as well as the
concentration of the airborne material. HEPA
cartridges (purple) filter out particulate through a paper
filter. Near the end of their life, the holes in the filter
are plugged and air cannot be easily inhaled through
them. Discard when breathing becomes difficult.
Breakthrough of chemical cartridges is indicated by
odour, taste or irritation characteristics of the material.
If any of these qualities are experienced while wearing
a respirator, then leave the area immediately, check the
fit of the mask and replace the cartridges if necessary.
Breakthrough is not the recommended procedure for
determining when cartridges need replacing. In order
to make an assessment of when cartridges should be
replaced, it is very important to label all new cartridges
with the date-of-opening. It is also recommended to
keep a log of the circumstances under which cartridges
have been exposed (i.e. when; how long; and to what
From the opening date and log, a user can decide
whether or not it would be appropriate to replace
cartridges. For example, a set of cartridges could be
worn several times for 3 short term (< 5 minutes)
exposures. Cartridges, once they have been removed
from their original, sealed packages, should be
disposed of within one year of opening.
Chemical Storage 35
CHAPTER 7. CHEMICAL STORAGE
3. UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS
A. INVENTORY (Manufacturer’s Or Employer’s Code)
I. PURPOSE Aldrich 26,918-2
An annual inventory of hazardous materials is CAS 597-31-9
required. According to the WCB Health and Safety SI OX-33450-1
Regulation, Part 5, Section 5.98, “an inventory must
be maintained which identifies all hazardous III. HOW TO LOCATE CHEMICALS
substances at the workplace in quantities that may
endanger workers in an emergency including Develop system for finding information such as:
controlled products covered by WHMIS, explosives, • Computer database system
pesticides, radioactive materials, hazardous wastes, • Cardex system
and consumer products.
A good system should:
Annual inventories allow for the following:
• Direct you quickly to the chemical.
• Be easy to use.
• Check chemicals with limited shelf life.
• Be easy to maintain.
• Remove surplus and old chemicals.
• Be updated annually.
• Correct incompatible storage.
• Know what you have.
• Cleanup containers & shelves. B. CHEMICAL STORAGE
• It’s the Law!
II. CRITERIA 1. Store in central, properly ventilated area that
includes forced ventilation from floor to ceiling
1. BASED ON NAMES? and with exhaust above roof level.
2. Know the location of the master control shut-off
3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropanal (IUPAC) valves for gas, water and electricity.
2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (Aldrich) 3. Smoke detector is required.
Propanal, 3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl (CAS) 4. A communication system to the main office or
Hydroxypivaldehyde (Common) emergency system is recommended.
5. Shelving should be accessible with chemicals at
2. BASED ON CHEMICAL FORMULA? eye level or lower; no high shelf chemical
CH3 6. Avoid floor chemical storage (even temporary).
O 7. Shelf assemblies are firmly secured to walls.
HOCH2 C C Avoid island shelf assemblies.
H 8. Provide anti-roll lips on all shelves.
CH3 9. Shelving assemblies must be constructed of wood
except for storing oxidizers.
Sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3 CHNaO3 10. Avoid metal, adjustable shelves supports and
clips; use fixed, wooden supports.
36 Chemical Storage
11. For emergencies, have: 3. SIGNED PROPERLY (LABELLED)
• Fire extinguishers of the approved type
positioned near an escape route. i) Contents are labelled clearly.
• Spill control and clean-up materials. ii) Labels are intact and legible.
• Approved eye/face wash and shower. iii) Labels are not overwritten; old labels are
removed or completely covered.
iv) Solvent stills are labelled.
II. LABORATORY v) Regularly check and label peroxidizable
Laboratories are not storerooms particularly as it materials with test results.
applies to chemicals and solvents. Chemicals in
laboratories should be stored in areas away from Proper WHMIS labelling is used.
experimental activities, and limited to the
requirements of 12 months or less. Excess stock
should be kept in a proper chemical storage facility.
i) Keep solvent containers closed.
The following basic rules apply particularly to ii) Ensure chemical containers are intact.
chemicals stored in laboratories. iii) Regularly vent materials capable of building
up pressure; e.g. formic acid.
1. SMALL AMOUNTS, NOT STOCKPILED
Ordering 1 kg because it is cheaper than the 100 g Ensure container lids are intact and closed.
size is often false economy. The result:
• It takes up more valuable space.
i) Be aware of nomenclature problems
• It presents a greater potential hazard.
e.g. PHENOL is also known as:
• It may eventually become a disposal - Carbolic acid
problem. - Hydroxybenzene
- Phenic acid
Order only what you can use in 12 months. - Phenyl hydroxide
- Phenylic acid or phenylic alcohol
2. SECURE The Merck Index can be a useful reference when
checking confusing or equivalent names.
i) Do not overcrowd shelves.
ii) Do not store too high; provide a proper III. METHODS
kickstool or ladder where necessary.
iii) Chain compressed gas cylinders.
iv) Store lecture bottles upright and chain, or 1. INTRODUCTION
secure in a proper holder.
v) Store solvents in a proper flammable liquid Chemical storage, whether in a laboratory or central
cabinet, and keep door closed. storeroom, should be under the supervision of a
vi) Use appropriate containers for solvents and qualified person; storerooms must have adequate
vii) Store highly toxic or controlled materials in
a secure cupboard. Specialized cabinets should be used for specific
groups of compatible substances.
Chemical Storage 37
2. ACIDS and BASES Flammable Liquid Cabinet provide:
• A safe means of storage over a short period of
i) Store acids and bases separately. time.
ii) Store acids in dedicated acid cabinet. • A time-saving method of storage by locating
iii) Store oxidizing acids (eg. nitric acid) away cabinets in, or adjacent to work areas which
from organic acids (e.g. acetic acid). reduces the frequency of trips to the drum
iv) Store hydrofluoric and perchloric acids in storage or dispensing facility.
secondary containers made from compatible
v) Safety showers and eye wash facilities must Control flammables by eliminating careless
be within easy access. open storage of small containers.
vi) Protective equipment must be inspected
regularly to insure proper working order, Flammable liquids cabinets must:
especially in corrosive atmospheres. • Be Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC)
listed and approved.
3. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS • Be closed at all times, with door latches
Flammable liquids should be stored in a dry, cool • Have vents that are either plugged or vented
well-ventilated area, preferably a flammable directly to the outside.
materials storage cabinet or room. • Be either wood (must meet specifications of fire
code) or metal.
i) Laboratory Storage • Be suitably placed; ie. not located near an exit
Flammable liquids should be stored: door or blocking access to an exit route.
• According to the BC Fire Code and best • May have to be in a room which has a second
management practices i.e.: exit depending on the quantity and hazards of
flammable liquids in the room.
Maximum size of container allowed in lab is 5 L. • Contain no more than 500 litres maximum of
flammable and combustible liquids of which no
• In listed approved metal safety cans, which more than 250 litres may be flammable.
meet the fire code requirements, and are • The BC Fire Code and local Fire Services limit
equipped with flash arrestor and self-closing the maximum quantities per fire compartment.
• In glass containers greater than 1 litre only if iii) Flammable Liquid Storage Rooms
purity of the material is affected by exposure to A properly designed flammable liquids room must
metal or in original containers. satisfy many requirements, e.g. location, ventilation,
• In appropriate 5 litre waste solvent containers electrical equipment. fire protection, etc. It must also
that are capped when not in active use. meet the needs of the user, e.g. adequate size,
conveniently located, etc.
Maximum volume of flammable containers in
open laboratories at UBC is 25 L. The flammable liquids storage room should be easily
accessible to fire fighting; i.e. located in corners of
buildings over window openings and doors all
ii) Flammable Liquid Cabinets providing sufficient entry. Explosion venting can
An approved flammable liquid storage cabinet may thennbe incorporated into the exterior walls.
be used when quantities of flammables are near or
exceed 25 litres. An approved flammable liquid Specific guidelines for flammable liquid storage
storage cabinet must be listed by an acceptable rooms include: the maximum number of litres per
testing agency and approved by the local Fire square metre of floor space; maximum room size
Department. with and without a sprinkler system (or other
automatic extinguishing system); fire resistance
rating of the interior walls.
Additional requirements include: a raised liquid tight
sill of at least 102 mm in height (a sunken floor or
open grated trench is also permissible); floor drains
38 Chemical Storage
which drain to a safe location; self-closing, listed, 5. CHEMICAL STORAGE PATTERNS
one and one-half hour Class B fire door (listed 3-
hour Class A may be required for walls with a rating When it comes to chemical storage practices, the
greater than 2 hours). alphabet should be one of the last criteria used.
Examples of compatibility problems arising from
Rooms containing Class I flammables must have storing chemicals alphabetically include:
electrical equipment suitable for Class I, division 2;
for Class II and Class III liquids, electrical fixtures • Alkanes and Ammonium Nitrate
must be approved for general use. The room must • Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine
also have a gravity or mechanical exhaust ventilation • Ammonia and Bromine
(ICFM/sq.ft. of floor area) equipped with suitable • Nitric Acid and Phenol
interlocks. • Aldehydes and Amines
• Sodium Cyanide and Sulfuric Acid
iv) Refrigerator Storage • Calcium Hypochlorite and Carbon
Refrigerators must be approved (ULC) for storage of
flammable liquids (explosion-proof), or acceptably Even apparently safe storage can be a potential
tested and approved. A number of refrigerators have problem. The following materials are often stored
exploded due to flammable vapours. together even though there are hazards if the
materials should mix:
If cold storage is required for flammables, • Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid
• Perchloric Acid and Sulfuric Acid
explosion-proof units are required.
• Concentrated Acids and Bases
v) Flammable Compressed Gas Cylinders
• Protected against mechanical damage. SEPARATE BY COMPATIBILITY
• Stored in a secure area.
• Stored with protective caps on. “COMPATIBILITY IS SYNONYMOUS WITH
• Store separately from flammable, oxidizing and CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALITY”
• If stored indoors, the room must have a 2-hour Refer to:
fire separation with entry from the exterior. o Material Safety Data Sheets
• Natural ventilation to outside wall must exist; o Chemical Catalogues
room must have no other purpose. o US School System Lab. Storage Guide
• Compressed gases are normally heavier than air. o Other Reference Materials
• Only 1 cylinder is allowed in any one room and
must not be located below grade. The UBC Chemical Storage Guidelines are
provided in at the end of this chapter.
vi) Toxic Compressed Gases
See end of chapter 5 for “Use of Compressed Gas
Cylinder in UBC Labs”. Contact the Chemical Safety Officer at 822-5909 for
additional information and assistance regarding the
4. AIR-REACTIVE CHEMICALS safe storage of chemicals.
• Ensure container is stored in a secure location On the next page you will find a suggested
without danger of falling. arrangement of the compatible chemical families on
• Secondary containment is recommended. the shelf areas of a chemical storage room. This
arrangement is taken from the Flinn Chemical
Catalogue Reference Manual.
Use glove box or fill head space of the container
with an inert gas before sealing the container.
Chemical Storage 39
SUGGESTED SHELF STORAGE PATTERN – INORGANIC
Sulfur, Phosphorus, Arsenic, Arsenates, Cyanides,
Phosphorus Pentoxide Cyanates
(EXCEPT NITRIC ACID)
Halides, Sulfates, Sulfites, Sulfides, Selenides,
Thiosulfates, Phosphates, Phosphides, Carbides, Store Nitric Acid away from other
Halogens, Acetates Nitrides acids unless the acid cabinet
provides a separate compartment
for Nitric Acid.
Amides, Nitrates (except Borates, Chromates,
ammonium nitrate), Nitrites, Manganates, Permanganates
Acids are best stored in
dedicated cabinets with
Metals, Hydrides Chlorates, Perchlorates, materials, paint and
(Store away from any water), Chlorites, Perchloric Acid, hardware
(Store flammable solids in Peroxides, Hypochlorites,
flammable cabinet) Hydrogen Peroxide ACID CABINET
Hydroxides, Oxides, Silicates, MISCELLANEOUS
SUGGESTED SHELF STORAGE PATTERN – ORGANIC
Alcohols, Glycols, Amines, SEVERE POISONS
Amides, Imines, Imides Phenol, Cresols
Hydrocarbons, Esters, Peroxides, Azides,
Alcohols, Glycols, Etc.
Ethers, Ketones, Ketenes, Hydrocarbons, Esters, Etc.
Halogenated Hydrocarbons, Acids, Anhydrides, Peracids
Ethylene Oxide Ethers, Ketones, Etc.
Epoxy Compounds, Organic Liquids with
Isocyanates MISCELLANEOUS Flash Point < 37.8°C
Sulfides, Polysulfides, etc. MISCELLANEOUS
IF POSSIBLE, ALWAYS AVOID FLOOR STORAGE!
40 Chemical Storage
UBC CHEMICAL STORAGE GUIDELINES
1. Sort according to the 6 WHMIS categories described below.
2. Prioritize the separation process in the following order.
Store as required according to the nature of their individual hazards
e.g. metal hydrides; some hydrogenation catalysts; picric acid; dinitrophenol; trinitrotoluene
Store separate from flammable or combustible materials and reducing agents
e.g. nitrates; chromates; permanganates; chlorates; peroxides
FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS
Flammable liquids (flashpoint ≤37.8°C) should be stored in one of these ways:
♦ approved cabinet ♦ approved fire safety can
♦ explosion-proof refrigerator ♦ approved room
Note: 25 litres is the maximum total volume of all containers, which may be in the open lab,
not including liquids stored in an approved flammable liquid cabinet or safety cans.
Other flammable and combustible materials include:
♦combustible liquids (flashpoint >37.8°C) ♦ flammable gases & aerosols
♦ flammable solids (organic solids) ♦ reactive flammables
Separate concentrated acids and bases (caustics; alkalis; amines and anilines)
♦ oxidizing and flammable materials should be removed segregated as noted above
USE smallest, returnable size containers and quantities
♦ must be secured & not by exit route & door; long term storage in labs prohibited
Store in secure area
Includes cyanide, arsenic, antimony; other heavy metals and their compounds; carcinogens
For large quantities of stock, use the following groupings for a final segregation of chemical classes:
Sulfur, phosphorus**, phosphorus pentoxide** Acids, anhydrides, peracids
Halides, sulfates, sulfites, thiosulfates, phosphates Ethers**, ketones, halogenated hydrocarbons, ethylene
Amides, nitrates** (except ammonium nitrate), nitrites** Alcohols, glycols, amines, amides, imines, imides
Metals & metal hydrides Hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes
Oxides, silicates, carbonates, carbon Epoxy compounds, isocyanates
Arsenates, cyanates Peroxides, hydroperoxides, azides**
Sulfides, selenides, phosphides, carbides, nitrides Sulfides, polysulfides, sulfoxides, nitriles
* Flinn Catalogue designations ** dangerously reactive materials
FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION, CALL THE CHEMICAL SAFETY OFFICER @ 822-5909.
Laboratory Inspections 41
CHAPTER 8. LABORATORY INSPECTIONS
At the University of British Columbia, inspections are conducted by various individuals, groups, and regulatory
agencies. Periodically the BC Workers' Compensation Board carries out unannounced inspections. Vancouver Fire and
Rescue Services also conduct annual inspections of fire extinguishers and other fire-safety issues such as storage of
flammable liquids and condition of fire exits.
Annual formal laboratory inspections are the responsibility of local safety committees. The frequency of inspections
will vary depending on the size of department, the extent of the potential hazards in the department and the ability of
the committee to carry out the inspections. In addition there are four types of inspections that are required to be
conducted by UBC personnel. They are:
• Daily (conducted by each individual, employee or student, of their own work area, to identify and correct
hazardous conditions or report them to their supervisor)
• Monthly (conducted by area supervisors or their designate to identify hazardous conditions, using an
abbreviated checklist that is posted at the work site)
• Annually (formal laboratory inspections that are the responsibility of the local safety committee; detailed
checklist and report to supervisor with appropriate follow-up).
• Special (equipment; post-incident; post-repair; etc.)
An example of a chemical laboratory inspection checklist is included on the next two pages. A copy of a monthly
inspection checklist that would be used by a designated lab user is also included at the end of this chapter.
42 Laboratory Inspections
UBC CHEMICAL LABORATORY SAFETY CHECK LIST
Laboratory Supervisor: Room Number: __________
Inspected By: Date: __________________
The following inspection report identifies deficiencies found by the inspection team.
ITEM YES NO NA COMMENTS
A. EMERGENCY and INFORMATION MATERIAL
1. Emergency procedures posted and legible
- Fire, spills, injuries, earthquake
2. MSDS information posted
3. Chemical Safety Manual available
4. Chemical inventory current (<1 year)
5. Monthly inspections posted and up-to-date
6. Shower available and accessible
7. Eyewash available and accessible
8. Eye wash tested regularly (minimum, bi-weekly)
9. Fire extinguisher present and accessible
10. Fire extinguisher seal intact; date tested
11. Spill kit available and stocked.
B. FIRST AID
12. First aid kit available and stocked
• Inventory list available
13. Treatment record sheet available and used
C. PERSONAL PROTECTION
14. Safety glasses available and worn
15. Laboratory coats and gloves available and worn
16. No bare legs
17. Substantial footwear worn
18. Facial shield available and in good condition
19. Blast shield available and in good condition
20. Respirator(s) available
21. Respirator user(s) trained & fit-tested
22. Vacuum ballasts/Dewar flasks taped or meshed
23. Bench tops and sink areas tidy
24. Tripping hazards absent, passageways clear
25. Laboratory exits clear and doors unlocked
26. Food and drink absent
27. Chipped or broken glassware not in use
28. Friable asbestos absent
29. Step-ladder available for out-of-reach items
30. “No Eating/Drinking/Smoking” signs posted
E. WASTE CONTAINERS
31. "Glass" refuse containers labelled
32. “Glass” segregated from general refuse
33. Needles and sharps in “Sharps” container
34. Bulk solvent-waste containers closed and labelled
-Clorinated and non-chlorinated segregated
-Bulk solvent-waste containers stored in flammable storage cabinet
35. Recyclable solvents segregated
36. Interim solvent waste containers closed and <1 litre
Laboratory Inspections 43
37. Ethidium bromide waste segregated
38. Photographic chemical waste procedures followed.
39. Are you aware of UBC’s Chemical Exchange Program?
F. COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
40. Secured to wall or bench with belt or chain
41. Lecture bottles stored upright or slanted/secure
G. FUME HOODS
42. Sash at recommended height and air flow on
43. Area within and under hood tidy
44. Carcinogens permitted
H. ELECTRICAL APPARATUS
45. Vacuum pumps stored safely and belts guarded
46. Refrigerator spark-proof (or “NO Flammables” sign
posted & flammables are absent)
47. Frayed or cracked electrical cords absent
48. Make-shift wiring absent
I. RUBBER OR PLASTIC TUBING
49. Cracked/brittle/pinched tubing absent
50. Water hoses wired at all connectors
51. Water taps safeguarded against “suck-back”
(or “NO TUBING” sign posted)
J. CHEMICAL LABORATORIES
52. Solvent storage cabinet available and closed
53. Solvent containers closed and labelled
54. Solvent containers outside safety cabinet, < 25 L
55. Solvent-still contents labelled
56. Reagent chemicals stored securely
(lips on shelves or doors on cupboards)
57. Chemical containers intact.
58. Ethers stored (& used) out of direct sunlight
59. Ether containers display opening date
60. Peroxide-forming chemicals (e.g. ethers)
checked for peroxides (3 to 12 months)
61. Labels compliant with WHMIS
62. Chemical labels intact, legible, not overwritten
63. Cleaning baths labelled
64. Carcinogens/Corrosives/Flammables labelled
65. Incompatible materials separated
66. Perchloric acid absent/used in special wash-down fume hood
PLEASE ENSURE THAT CORRECTIONS ARE MADE BY:
(Please sign after violations have been acted upon)
UPON CORRECTION OF VIOLATIONS, PLEASE RETURN TO LOCAL SAFETY COMMITTEE
44 Laboratory Inspections
MONTHLY SAFETY CHECKLIST FOR ROOM
Due Date/Time for Monthly Inspection: __________________________________
Supervisor’s Name: _________________________________________________
Designate’s Name (where appropriate): _________________________________
To ensure that this lab is always a safe workplace, the following items on this list must be checked
at least once every month.
Item January February
Yes No Action Yes No Action
1. Personal protective equipment
available and used.
2. Good housekeeping; food and
3. Aisles and exits clear and free of
4. Water hoses wired or clamped;
gas cylinders clamped.
5. Fume hoods neat and
6. Flammable solvents < 25 L in
7. Peroxidizable compounds dated
upon opening and tested at
8. Proper labelling of chemicals;
labels clear and legible.
9. Compatible storage of chemicals.
10. Free of electrical hazards
11.Sink traps, eye wash fountains
Checked ( ) by (initials)
Waste Disposal Procedures 45
CHAPTER 9. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT
A. INTRODUCTION B. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES
Hazardous waste is produced as a result of chemicals
left over from, or the products of, an experiment. A I. ORGANIC SOLVENTS FOR
concerted attempt must be made to minimize RECOVERY
hazardous waste production using the 3 R’s, reduce,
reuse and recycle. The practice of due diligence in the i) Collect solvents in red waste containers
handling of hazardous materials that might pollute the specifically designated for solvent recovery
environment is mandatory both under Provincial law purposes.
as well as under UBC’s Environmental Compliance ii) Segregate from all other solvents.
Policy. iii) Use only containers that have been used for the
same solvent stream.
Examples of minimization methods include: iv) Segregate oil from solvents.
a) Using diluted solutions rather than concentrated. v) Complete the green solvent waste tag (Figure 1),
b) Using micro- or semi-micro techniques and and attach a bar code label where indicated.
quantities. vi) Provide a brief history of the solvent; identify all
c) Obtaining a sample of a chemical from another components and their approximate percentages.
researcher to try out before purchasing something vii) Tighten all caps before shipping.
that might not work in an experiment. viii) Take the containers to the designated pick-up
ix) Call 822-1285, 822-6306 or 240-4732 to arrange
Substitute or eliminate extremely hazardous for pick-up or more information.
materials when feasible.
Recycled solvents that are currently available
Offering leftover chemicals for use by others is an
example of reusing while solvent recovery exemplifies include acetone, methanol, xylene and Varsol.
II. ORGANIC SOLVENTS FOR DISPOSAL
Waste disposal requires well-defined procedures to
prevent exposure to hazardous materials. Improper
disposal of waste puts UBC staff and waste handlers at
i) Collect solvents in UBC waste solvent containers.
risk as well as jeopardizing the University’s access to
ii) Separate chlorinated from non-chlorinated as
the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD)
much as possible.
waste transfer station.
iii) Separate oil from solvents.
iv) Do not include sludge, grit, paper or inorganic
The following procedures must be accessible to all lab
personnel. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring
v) Complete and affix the generator bar code to the
that all employees are trained and familiar with these
appropriate tags (Figure 1).
disposal procedures and that all laboratory procedures
vi) Identify all classes of materials in each container
are in conformance with these requirements. In
and label as such; estimate the percentage of all
addition, a secure, designated area for the storage of
chemicals being sent for disposal is required. See HSE
vii) Tighten all caps before shipping.
Hazardous Waste Disposal Manual for additional
viii) Take the containers to the designated pick-up
ix) Call 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.
46 Waste Disposal Procedures
for the disposal of Hydrofluoric and Perchloric
III. LABORATORY CHEMICALS acids.
• Chemicals from Suppliers ii) Dilute acid or base to approximately 5% or 1 M by
• Byproducts of Experiments (<1 L or1 kg) adding to cold/ice water.
• Acids and Bases iii) Neutralize by slowly adding neutralizing agent
Oxidizing &Reducing Agents with stirring:
• Inorganic and Organic Salts, Compounds and • For inorganic base for acids, usually 5%
Solutions solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium
• Photographic Chemicals carbonate;
• For inorganic acid for bases, usually 5%
i) List all chemicals on the Chemical Waste solution of hydrochloric acid.
Inventory Form (see sample at the end of chapter). iv) Confirm that the pH is close to neutral
ii) Indicate the full chemical name (or formula), (pH 6-8).
approximate weight or volume and any special v) Dispose neutralized solution into the drain unless
handling information that is relevant. neutralization product is toxic (i.e. contains heavy
iii) Send completed form to ESF by campus mail or metals such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium,
fax to 822-6306. mercury, chromium, lead, iron, copper zinc and
iv) The ESF will process your request and return your others; or toxic anions such as cyanide, sulphide,
form with the chemicals coded according to etc.).
classification and chemical compatibility.
v) After receiving the coded form, secure containers Disposal of large quantities of concentrated
by ensuing caps and lids are tightly closed, and corrosives, or highly toxic ones, contact ESF
vi) Separate chemicals according to code on form and 2. Osmium
place into solid boxes.
vii) Secure the inner containers with newspaper or i) Collect in heavy plastic or glass bottle with a tight
vermiculite to prevent breakage, then tape the box. fitting lid.
viii) Write the chemical classification code on each ii) When the bottle is full, tighten lid.
box in 7-mm (3-in) sized letters and tape an iii) Keep separate from all other chemicals.
envelope with a copy of the coded inventory form iv) Label bottle according to contents.
to the top of the box. The inventory form must v) Package in solid box and label appropriately.
include all chemicals in the box. vi) Call 822-1281 to arrange for pick up.
ix) Write the generator’s Name, Department and
Phone Number on the box. 3. Mercury
x) Take the boxes to the designated pick-up area, and
phone 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up. i) Collect in glass or heavy plastic bottle with a tight
Collect. ii) When the bottle is full, tighten lid.
Segregate. iii) Keep separate from all other chemicals.
Label - affix bar code. iv) Label bottle “Mercury Waste”.
Complete & submit inventory form. v) Package in solid box and label appropriately.
Package and seal. vi) Call 822-1281 to arrange for pick up.
Take to designated area.
4. Ethidium Bromide
IV. SPECIAL PROCEDURES
1. Acids and Bases Contaminated Solid Waste:
Includes gels, gloves, gauze; etc.
This procedure is meant to reduce direct disposal of
acids and bases to sanitary sewers. Further, it applies i) Package ethidium bromide solid waste into a thick
to neutralization of acids and bases in a laboratory plastic garbage bag, ensuring no liquid is present.
setting. It does not apply to large quantities of ii) Once bag is full, package in a cardboard box.
concentrated acids and bases. iii) Affix an ESF Waste Generator Tag with generator
i) Take safety precautions recommended in the bar code sticker attached (call 822-6306 to obtain
MSDS. NOTE: specific procedures must be used
Waste Disposal Procedures 47
a disposal code), and the appropriate box checked iii) The chemicals will be classified. Those chemicals
off. (Figure 1) that fall into the explosives category will be coded
iv) Call 822-1281 to arrange for pick up. “Class F”, “Do Not Touch”.
iv) Package chemicals in cardboard boxes according
Contaminated Liquid Waste - Method 1 to the code.
i) Dilute aqueous solutions to less than 0.5 mg/ml. v) Once box is full, tape it closed.
ii) To each 100 ml of diluted solution, add 20 ml of vi) With a felt-tipped pen, label the box “Class
5% hypophosporous acid (prepared by diluting F”,“Do Not Touch”, and tape a copy of the
commercially available 50% hypophosporous acid inventory form to the top of the box.
by 1:10), and 12 ml of 0.5 M sodium nitrate. vii) Store in a secure place until contacted by ESF re:
iii) Stir briefly to mix; let stand for 20 hours. pick-up.
iv) Neutralize with sodium bicarbonate before viii) ESF will maintain a record of these chemicals.
discarding to drain with large volumes of water. ix) When there is enough explosive waste on campus
to merit pick-up, a licensed company will be hired
Non-Aqueous, water miscible to removed the waste annually, or more frequently
i) For ethidium bromide solution in a solvent like if required. Once a date has been set for pick-up,
isopropanol, add 4 volumes of decontaminating ESF will contact all generators of these materials.
solution (4.2 g of sodium nitrate, 20 ml of
hypophosporous acid [50%] in 300 ml of water). The cost for disposal is approximately $250.00
ii) Stir for 20 hours. per customer. This price is subject to change
iii) Neutralize with sodium bicarbonate before
discarding to drain with large volumes of water.
Non-Aqueous, water immiscible VI. WASTE OIL
i) For ethidium bromide solution in a solvent like
butanol, add 4 volumes of decontaminating Types of waste oil include the following:
solution (4.2 g of sodium nitrate, 20 ml of
hypophosporous acid [50%] in 300 ml of water). ° Automotive lubricating oil
ii) Stir for 72 hours. ° Cutting oil
iii) Add 2 g of activated charcoal for each 100 ml. ° Fuel oil
iv) Stir for 30 minutes, then filter. Neutralize with ° Gear oil
sodium bicarbonate, separate the layers and ° Hydraulic oil
discard the aqueous layer. ° Refined petroleum-based oil
v) The activated charcoal is now a hazardous waste ° Synthetic oil
as is the solvent layer. ° Vacuum-pump oil
Contaminated Liquid Waste - Method 2 Does not include crude oil, oil generated at a well-
Aqueous – very dilute
site, soil, sand or similar material or substances
i) To each 100 ml of 0.5 mg/ml ethidium bromide,
containing dioxins, furans or PCBs
add 400 ml of fresh bleach.
(polychlorinated biphenyls, > 100 ppb).
ii) Stir for 2 hours.
iii) The resultant solution is now ready for safe sewer
disposal. i) Collect oil in:
-original supplier container;
-one gallon plastic oil cans; or 45 gallon metal
V. POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE or plastic drums
CHEMICALS ii) Call 822-6306 for empty waste oil containers.
iii) Do not mix oil with other solvents.
Do Not Handle Potentially Unstable Or iv) Fill out the solvent waste tag (Figure 1) and affix
Explosive Chemicals. Contact Authorized barcode sticker.
Company To Pick Up And Dispose Of Such v) Write “Waste Oil”, “Waste oil contaminated
Materials. with lead”, or “Petroleum oil” in the
i) Complete chemical inventory form, available from vi) Take to the designated pick-up area.
ESF (see sample at the end of chapter). vii) Call 822-63006 to arrange for pick-up.
ii) Send form to ESF by mail or fax (822-6306).
48 Waste Disposal Procedures
Do not mix waste oil with other solvents. Classification may be accomplished by in-house testing or
Do not overfill containers. by sending a sample to an outside analytical laboratory.
This service costs $100.00 per hour, and is performed
annually by an approved contractor. Once a date has
VII. PHOTOCHEMICAL WASTES been set for removal of these items, the generator will be
contacted by ESF. The contractor will bill generator
Disposal of photochemical waste without treatment directly.
into the sewer of landfill is prohibited by GVRD
Sewer Use By-Law No. 164, June 1990 and the BC • Classified as to whether it is organic (halogenated or not) or
inorganic, and whether it contains toxic ions such as heavy
Special Waste Regulation, BC Reg. 63/88, Feb. 18. metals, cyanide, arsenic, etc. It’s flammability/explosive
1988. properties must also be known.
i) Collect photochemical wastes in 5 or 25 litre red
X. CHEMICAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM
containers provided by ESF.
ii) Segregate fixer from developer. UBC’s Chemical Exchange Program is coordinated by
iii) When containers are full, complete the the Environmental Service Facility. Chemicals are
photochemical waste tag, and attach a generator available to any UBC Department faculty or staff
bar code label where indicated. member free of charge. This pilot project intends to
iv) Take the full containers to the designated pick-up reduce the amount of good chemicals that are unused
area. or sent for disposal.
v) Call 822-1285 to arrange for pick-up.
For more information on this program, call 822-6306.
VIII. DRY-CELL BATTERIES
Current list of chemicals available from this
Car Batteries program accessible through the Home Page of
HSE, at: www.hse.ubc.ca (Environment).
° Place car batteries in a designated pick-up area
ensuring that the battery is contained in a plastic To search for a particular chemical, click on the letter
bag if it is wet or leaking. corresponding to the first letter of the chemical name,
° Call 822-6306 for pickup. ignoring all prefixes (i.e. 1,2; a-; o-; etc.). To browse
through the inventory scroll down the list.
(not including car batteries)
i) Collect all used dry-cell batteries in a strong XI. GLASS WASTE
cardboard box. When full, close and securely seal
with packing tape. It is the responsibility of lab personnel to ensure that
ii) Label the box “Used Batteries for Disposal”, and glass waste is packaged properly. Full “approved
add the generator’s Name, Department and Phone containers” are to be taken to the building’s designated
Number. area for pick-up by the Plant Operations’s Glass Waste
iii) Take the box to the designated pick-up area. truck.
iv) Call 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.
1. Approved Containers
Uncontaminated glass waste must be collected in
IX. UNKNOWN CHEMICALS approved UBC glass waste containers. The only
i) Call 822-6306 to register unknown chemicals. containers that may be used are five gallon grey metal
Provide name, department and phone number of or white plastic pails (available through Plant
the contact person in charge of the waste. Operations @ 822-5272). They must be labelled
ii) Code/number the individual containers. “Glass Waste Only”; other packaging such as
iii) Put the containers in a cardboard box. cardboard is not acceptable. Each container must be
iv) Write “Unidentified Chemicals” and “Do Not lined with a clear plastic bag, which encloses all the
Touch” on the box in clear lettering. glass (bags available through Plant Operations @ 822-
5272). See Figure 2.
Unknown Chemicals Must Be Classified*
Before They Will Be Accepted By ESF.
Waste Disposal Procedures 49
Glass waste containers should not be used for any Sharps containers, whether autoclaved or not,
other purpose. MUST NOT be placed into the “Glass Waste
Only” containers. They are to be taken to the
building’s designated area for hazardous waste
i) Deposit uncontaminated glass waste, not pick-up.
needles or syringes, into approved “Glass
Waste Only” containers.
ii) Once a container is ¾ full, choke off the bag XIII. DISPOSABLE SYRINGES
and tie ensuring that no glass protrudes past
the top of the container. The easiest way to dispose of these syringes is by
iii) Attach a label to the bag indicating the incineration.
building, room and phone number.
iv) Take the container must to the building’s i) Dispose of the entire syringe and needle in a
“Sharps” container. OR
designated area for glass waste pick-up.
A replacement container will be available
ii) If the needle is removed and placed into a
to be taken back to the work area. “Sharps” container, dispose of the syringe as
“Plastic Waste for Incineration”.
Contaminated glass may only be disposed of in
the glass waste containers only if they have iii) Take box or sharps container to the building’s
been decontaminated. designated pick-up area.
iv) Call 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.
XII. SHARPS AND NEEDLES
Infectious or biohazardous waste syringes
Sharps (blades, glass pieces) and needles can represent
must be autoclaved or chemically
a physical, chemical and/or infectious hazard.
decontaminated prior to disposal.
To control these hazards, sharps and needles must be
collected in containers made of a hard, impervious
plastic that is both autoclavable and acceptable for
incineration. Preferably, they should be “red” in
colour or easily identifiable and labelled as “Sharps”.
These containers can be purchased from companies
that sell laboratory supplies.
i) Collect all sharps and needles in red plastic or
other suitable container.
ii) Chemically decontaminate all infectious items
prior to disposal into the container, or autoclave
the entire container once it is full.
iii) Securely close and snap the lid in place.
iv) Label container with the UBC ESF Waste
Generator Tag that includes the waste generator
number and sticker.
v) Take to designated pick up area for disposal by
50 Waste Disposal Procedures
Figure 1. Sample of ESF Hazardous Waste Generator Tags
Waste Disposal Procedures 51
Figure 2. Glass Waste Disposal Procedures
52 Waste Disposal Procedures
UBC Environmental Services Facility Page __ of ___
Health, Safety and Environment
Chemical Waste Inventory
Chemical Name Size/volume/weight Identification/ Code
Comments (office only)
Name Dept For Office Only
Building Rm # Date Received
This form must be completed in full and returned to the Environmental Services Facility for approval. Please fax
form to Ron Aamodt at 822-6306. Please contact Ron Aamodt (822-6306) if you have any further inquiries.
Emergency Procedures 53
CHAPTER 10. CHEMICAL LABORATORY
Report all incidents, accidents and hazardous A fire safety emergency and evacuation plan
conditions to the Chemical Safety Officer, and procedures must be developed.
Occupational Hygiene Officer or the Director of
Health, Safety and Environment at 822-2029 as soon
as possible after an incident has occurred. i) The plan will include:
• sounding the alarm
• notifying the fire department
A. EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
• instructing personnel on procedures to follow
Emergency Procedures must be posted in the • when alarm sounds, confine/control and
workplace at appropriate sites such as next to the extinguish fire, evacuate building.
elevator, entrances to stairwells and in areas where • scheduling of Fire Drills and Inspections.
hazardous materials, equipment or processes are
located. ii) Fire Exit Rules include:
• Access to exits and exits must be kept clear.
Emergency procedures should include response • Corridors and stairwells must be kept free of
measures for responding to fires, explosions, first aid obstructions and combustibles.
and life-threatening injuries, and hazardous materials • Fire doors must not be wedged open.
exposures and spills. • Some labs should have 2 exits - know their
B. INCIDENT-ACCIDENT REPORTING
AND INVESTIGATIONS For answers to fire safety or evacuation
questions contact the UBC Disaster
Using the Incident/Accident Report Forms Preparedness Co-ordinator at 822-1237 or
report all fires, injuries, chemical exposures Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services at 604-
and spills involving more than 1 litre or 665-6000.
smaller spills of very hazardous materials.
II. FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT
C. FIRE SAFETY PROCEDURES i) Extinguishers
Portable extinguishers must be provided and
Where fire is involved, the procedure is to: maintained for the hazard involved.
• Call 9-1-1 from a safe place.
• Ensure work site is evacuated. Occupants should know:
• Use a fire extinguisher only if it is safe, i.e. • Where they are.
there is a means of exiting if the fire cannot • How to use them; consider taking a hands-on fire
be controlled; or leave area. extinguisher training course from the local fire
• Meet at prescribed meeting place. department.
• Return to workplace only when authorized by • Not to block access to them, i.e. do not use for
fire warden or fire safety director. storing lab coats.
• To ensure that fire extinguishers are charged and
I. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR available; call 665-6000 (on UBC campus) to
BUILDINGS replace discharged extinguishers.
Work and storage areas must be kept clean and free The Fire Code covers the type and size of
of accumulations of combustibles not essential to
extinguisher required for the hazard
operations. Access to buildings must be maintained
for fire fighters. involved.
54 Emergency Procedures
It is important that the appropriate fire extinguisher Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services (VFRS)
be used on a particular fire. The table below provides Mobile First Aid coverage (24 hours a day)
describes the 4 different types of extinguishers and to all university employees, students and visitors (on
the types of fires they are meant for. the UBC campus site). This service is provided to
the user free-of-charge.
Class Type of Fire
Activating the “2–4444” System
A Ordinary combustibles: wood, cloth, paper,
rubber, many plastics Dialing 822-4444 (or 2-4444 on a campus phone)
B Flammable liquids: e.g. gasoline, oil, will summon the VFRS Emergency Transport
grease, tar, oil-based paint, lacquer Vehicle (ETV), staffed by a trained first aid
C Live electrical equipment attendant, to the patient’s location.
D Combustible metals At the site, the ETV First Aid Attendant will have
several options at his or her disposal:
Fires of flammable liquids flash so rapidly that the
entire exposed surface may be involved before any 1) The patient may be treated on site (and
extinguishing agent can be applied. The size of the allowed to return to work).
fire extinguisher provided must be sufficient to deal • After notification of the patient’s supervisor.
with a fire involving the entire liquid surface, unlike
ordinary combustible materials where a relatively 2) The patient may be transported (in the ETV)
small extinguisher can be used effectively on an to the Central First Aid Station.
incipient fire before it has had time to spread. • If the treatment requires more sophisticated
Extinguishing equipment of too small capacity has no equipment or a period of time for patient
practical value. monitoring or rest.
• The Central First Aid Station is located at UBC
It is usually impossible to remain in a room with a Student Health Services
flammable liquid fire for manual fire fighting, since
3) The patient may be transported and admitted
burning flammable liquids generate so much heat and
to the UBC Hospital Emergency Ward.
smoke. For this reason, automatic extinguishing
• If deemed necessary by the responding
equipment is desirable for all indoor operations
attendant, or if requested by the patient.
where large quantities of flammable liquids are used.
• Transport may be done using the ETV or by a
BC Ambulance unit.
Different flammable liquids have varying burning
characteristics but extinguishing methods are
As a result of the “2-4444” system, all UBC faculties,
generally similar. In fire fighting, gasoline, benzol,
departments and areas are compliant with WCB
naphtha, acetone, hexane and other liquids with
Occupational First Aid regulations.
higher flash points can also be handled by the same
methods, but are usually easier to extinguish. Water
It is the responsibility of faculties/ departments /
must not be used to extinguish solvent fires as it will
areas to ensure that every worker is made aware
only increase the area of the fire, not extinguish it.
of the location of first aid and how to call for
assistance. This is to be done by posting first aid
REMEMBER! ALL BIG information conspicuously throughout the workplace,
and effectively communicating this information to
FIRES START SMALL! the workers.
Supplemental (Departmental / Area) First Aid
D. TREATMENT OF INJURIES
As a supplement to the Mobile First Aid Service,
In the event of personal injury, the treatment of the local first aid stations and attendants have been
injury must take precedence over spill clean-up established in a variety of locations on campus, on a
procedures. Minimize contamination by confining all voluntary basis.
contaminated persons to a restricted area if doing so In order to ensure prompt and effective first aid
does not add to the extent of their injuries, their treatment at these locations, however, it is strongly
suffering, or impede the speed of their recovery.
Emergency Procedures 55
recommended that all local first aid stations include 8. Inform the injured party’s supervisor of the
the following elements: injury as soon as possible. An incident/accident
report form must be filled out by the injured
• Be equipped with suitable, properly maintained party or their supervisor within 24 hours of the
first aid kit. accident.
• First aid kits include treatment record book in
which all treatments, however minor, are Seek medical attention where injury was involved
recorded. This record protects the worker or or if symptoms of exposure appear or persist.
individual in the unlikely event of future
complications due to the injury.
• All treatments are to be administered by a first II. SERIOUS INJURIES
aid attendant who possesses, at minimum, a Where more than first aid treatment is required, treat as
current WCB ‘Level One’ First Aid / CPR follows:
certification (or equivalent).
• A copy of the treatment sheets must be submitted 1. Call 911 for ambulance.
to the Departmental Safety Program
Administrator and the Local Safety Committee 2. Obtain first aid assistance by calling local first
on a monthly basis. aider; OR 9-1-1 (if student or visitor) or 2-444
• A copy of the treatment sheets is to be submitted (Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services);
to the Department of Health, Safety and
Environment on a monthly basis. 3. Treat the immediately threatening condition,
• Accident/ Incident Forms are to be promptly which may require control of bleeding, CPR or
filled out, and Accident Investigations washing of chemical exposed skin for 15 minutes.
performed, where appropriate. Carry out the following procedures as required:
a) Inhalation - for inhalation exposure, remove
I. MINOR INJURIES the person from the site of exposure and get
Where there is a small cut or break in the skin with medical help immediately. Rescue personnel
coincident chemical exposure, treat as follows: must ensure their own safety first.
b) Ingestion – follow first aid procedures
1. Begin treatment immediately at or near the scene described in MSDS; otherwise, dilution of the
of the accident. stomach contents by drinking water or milk (if
victim is conscious), followed by immediate
2. Rinse the contaminated area under a tap with medical attention is recommended. Contact the
copious quantities of water (at least 15 minutes is Poison Control Centre, 682 - 5050 for further
recommended), and encourage bleeding, where advice.
appropriate, for a few minutes. c) Skin/Eye Exposure – Treat skin or eye
exposure (chemical burn) by dilution with water
3. Keep chemical away from open area of wound. If immediately. Irrigating the burn area or eyes
the exposure is on the face, do not contaminate the for 15-20 minutes is the standard procedure. If
eyes, nostrils or mouth. the eye is exposed, or the material is known to
be absorbed by skin, seek medical attention
4. Wash the exposed area with mild soap and immediately; otherwise, if the skin is exposed,
lukewarm water. seek medical attention if symptoms develop or
5. Do not use abrasives or scrub the skin as this
may increase the extent of injury. Advise emergency personnel of the chemical
name, extent of injuries, hazards of the
6. Do not apply salves or ointments.
material and location of victim.
7. Apply a sterile first aid dressing.
56 Emergency Procedures
E. SPILL CLEAN-UP PROCEDURES 6) Gather the required equipment and materials. If
the appropriate materials are not available, call
Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services (VFRS) for
I. FOR ALL SPILLS assistance.
Once the risk of injuries has been controlled, the spill
7) Put on appropriate protective clothing, a
may be cleaned up and the area decontaminated using
minimum of rubber gloves, eye protection and
the following procedures:
lab coat. Toxic, corrosive or irritating volatile
materials will require the use of a respirator
1. Notify other people in the vicinity of the spill
Ensure appropriate type of respirator and
and inform the supervisor. Evacuate and post
cartridges are used. A full-face respirator is the
warnings in the area if necessary.
minimum requirement for volatile irritating,
toxic or corrosive materials; if SCBA is required,
2. Before responding to any spill the following
call VFRS at 911.
information must be obtained:
• Name of the chemical(s) involved.
8) Turn off any device, instrument, or machine that
• Approximate quantity.
could increase the hazard of the spill. Use
• Hazards of the chemical (review MSDS if
caution if any device is not spark-proof and the
spill includes flammable materials.
i) Flammability: flash point; vapour
9) Use a spill control material (unreactive, neutral,
ii) Toxicity – TLV
compatible material) to make a dike to contain
iii) Corrosiveness – pH
the spill and prevent it from spreading into a
drain or under furniture or equipment.
Sample checklists for a spill clean-up cart and 10) Mix the spill control compound with the spill,
personal protective equipment are provided wait for any neutralizing/absorbent reactions to
in Appendix D. be complete, and scoop the material into an
For spills > 1 L, especially flammable 11) Arrange for pick-up of the waste material by the
solvents, highly toxic or corrosive materials, Environmental Services Facility (ESF) at 822-
Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services at 9-1-1, 6306.
should be called for stand-by support.
12) The responsible person must determine using the
Off-campus locations, such as hospital sites may table in the UBC Spill Reporting Procedures
have different phone numbers and protocols. (Appendix T), if the spill is reportable and which
agencies require notification.
3. Perform clean-up procedures only if:
13) Complete Incident/Accident forms and send to
a) The appropriate spill control material, HS&E, the Department Head and Local Safety
equipment and protective clothing are Committee.
b) Personnel is familiar with equipment and If appropriate equipment and trained
clean-up procedures. personnel are not available on site, the
c) More than one person is in the lab and clean-up should not proceed.
available to participate. Contact the Vancouver Fire and Rescue
d) There are no ignition sources present.
Services and HSE for support.
4) After reviewing the MSDS and assessing the
hazards posed by the spill, establish the
appropriate clean-up procedure.
5) Determine the extent of evacuation required.
Emergency Procedures 57
II. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES
i) Apply neutralizer for caustics (Spill X-C,
• Flammable solvents Neutracit-2 or equivalent product) from the
• Acids perimeter of the spill, inward.
• Caustics ii) Carefully mix with brushes and scoops; if
• Hydrofluoric Acid necessary, add more neutralizer to any free base.
• Perchloric Acid iii) When foaming subsides, check pH of a
• Mercury homogeneous sample of the mixture.
iv) Add a scoopful (about 5 mL) of the treated
1. FLAMMABLE SOLVENTS material to about 100 mL of water.
v) Test pH with pHdrion paper (e.g. E.M. Quant
DO NOT attempt to clean up a solvent spill if Company available from BDH or Anachemia
there is an ignition source present. Science).
vi) If pH is not between 3 and 10, add more
i) Apply solvent absorbent (Spill X-S, Solusorb or neutralizer.
equivalent product) from the perimeter inward, vii) When the caustic has been sufficiently
covering the total spill area. neutralized, pick up treated material with scoops
ii) Mix thoroughly with plastic scoops until and transfer to a disposal bag container.
material is dry and free flowing, and no evidence viii) Seal container appropriately, and label.
of free liquid remains. ix) Decontaminate and wash spill area surfaces with
iii) Transfer the absorbed solvent to an appropriate water and wet sponge.
disposal container that is not soluble in the x) Check with the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
solvent, and seal the container. concerning disposal of the bag and contents.
iv) Contact the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
concerning disposal of the container and its 4. HYDROFLUORIC ACID
contents. i) Wear protective clothing including HF
2. ACIDS ii) Apply solid calcium carbonate from the
(except hydrofluoric acid, depending on neutralizer) perimeter of the spill, inward.
iii) When the hydrofluoric acid has been absorbed,
i) Apply acid neutralizer (Spill X-A, Neutrasorb or mix thoroughly with a plastic scoop.
equivalent product) from the perimeter of the iv) Add a scoopful (about 5 mL) of the mixture to
spill, inward. about 100 mL of water.
ii) Carefully mix with brushes and scoops; if v) Test the pH with pHdrion paper. When the pH
necessary, add more neutralizer to any free acid. is between 7 and 10, scoop the solid into a
iii) When foaming subsides, check pH of a plastic container of water.
homogeneous sample of the mixture. vi) Let stand until the white solid settles out of
iv) Add a scoopful (about 5 mL) of the treated solution. Decant the solution to the drain with at
material to about 100 mL of water. least 50 volumes of water.
v) Test pH with pHdrion paper (e.g. E.M. Quant vii) Package the solid residue in a plastic bag, seal
Company available from BDH or Anachemia and label.
Science). viii) Check with the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
vi) If pH is not between 3 and 10, add more concerning disposal of the bag and contents.
vii) When the acid has been sufficiently neutralized, Dam. Absorb (neutralize).
pick up treated material with scoops and transfer Test. Package. Label.
to a disposal container.
viii) Seal container appropriately, and label.
5. PERCHLORIC ACID
ix) Decontaminate and wash spill site surfaces with
soapy water and wet sponge. i) Apply acid neutralizer (Spill X-A, Neutrasorb or
x) Contact the ESF at 822-6306 for directions equivalent product) from the perimeter of the
concerning disposal of the bag and its contents. spill, inward.
58 Emergency Procedures
ii) Mop up with wet rags or paper towels. OR
• Use Zinc pieces (pre-rinsed in dilute
CONTAMINATED PAPER OR RAGS hydrochloric acid) to act as magnets to
(COMBUSTIBLES) MUST BE KEPT WET TO pick up mercury droplets, then place
PREVENT COMBUSTION UPON DRYING. zinc/mercury pieces into wide-mouth jar*
equipped with tight fitting lid.
iii) Wipe up spill site with wet rags and dispose in
the manner described above. *Label wide-mouth jar: "Mercury/Clean-up
iv) Place wet rags or towels in a plastic bag, seal and Materials"
put into a flammable waste disposal can (non-
metal). xi) The final clean-up steps include:
v) Check with the ESF at 822-6306 for directions • Cracks - spread sulphur or spray
concerning disposal of the bag and contents. MERCONVAP® solution into cracks and
leave as a cover to inhibit evaporation of
6. MERCURY (metallic) SPILL any mercury that is not visible or accessible.
• Monitor Spill Area – Contact HSE @822-
i) Report the spill to a supervisor; if necessary,
2029 to monitor spill area to determine if
contact HS&E for further assistance.
mercury vapour concentrations are
ii) Evacuate all personnel from area if spill is large,
dangerously high (≥ 0.05 mg/m3).
or room is small and ventilation is poor.
iii) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment
such as lab coat, rubber, latex or vinyl gloves, Remove All Personal Protective Equipment
plastic boot protectors, splash goggles and half- Before Leaving Room - Decontaminate or
mask respirator with approved cartridge for Dispose of as “Waste Mercury Materials”.
mercury vapours (self-contained breathing
apparatus may be required if spill is large, • Place all labelled mercury containers into a
temperature is elevated, and/or site of spill is in solid container and label appropriately - i.e.
an enclosed space with poor ventilation). 'Waste Mercury"' or "Mercury Clean-up
iv) Ventilate area as much as possible; i.e. open all Materials".
windows. • Contact the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
v) Mark off spill area with signs, barriers or tape. concerning disposal.
vi) Pool mercury using stiff paper or plastic sheet to
carefully manoeuvre beads of mercury into one
F. EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS
vii) Shake off any mercury that clings to paper or AND RESPONSE
plastic into a wide-mouth container before being
transferred with a funnel into a small, clean
I. BEFORE THE QUAKE
viii) Pick up mercury using a glass pipette with a • Identify potential hazards such as:
rubber bulb OR a glass filter flask equipped with o Objects with sharp edges or glass
a trap and a vacuum source such as a large construction.
rubber bulb, water aspirator, vacuum tap or o Unrestrained objects weighing more than 5
vacuum pump (Figure 1). kg located above counter height.
ix) Transfer liquid mercury to glass (preferable) or o Objects over 22 kg sliding or rolling on the
plastic bottle of the smallest size possible floor.
equipped with a tight fitting lid. Label 'Waste o Potential contact with exposed utilities.
Mercury". o Enclosed areas with limited access.
x) Decontaminate spill area by using one of the • Anchor or relocate items that pose a serious
following methods: hazard.
• Dust area of spill with sulphur powder, • Identify a safe place to take cover when shaking
then sweep mercury/sulphur mixture into occurs.
wide-mouth jar equipped with tight fitting • Keep flashlight and small portable AM/FM radio
lid. (with extra batteries) at work site.
Emergency Procedures 59
• Have 72-hour survival kit available and stored • In the library or laboratory, move away
under desk. from shelving area; inner walls should be
• Know location of at least 2 fire extinguishers safest.
closest to work are and how to use them.
• Take first aid and CPR courses. • In a lecture room or classroom, crouch on
• Be familiar with all exits from your work area; the floor under desks or chairs.
know where to meet colleagues after the quake.
• Have backup copies of important data. • If outside - stay there!
• Have a family plan: Move to open space away from buildings
o May be without help or transportation for at and power-lines.
least 72 hours.
o Identify contact person outside Lower • If in a car – pull over and stop!
Mainland and family meeting place. Avoid stopping near buildings, power-lines
o Make prior arrangements in the event you or on bridges
are not at home at the time of the quake.
• The following tips are specifically for preparing
II. AFTER QUAKE
your lab space:
o Install lips or doors on chemical shelves. • Stay calm!
o All storage shelves must be attached to wall • Stay safe!
with metal restraints. • Provide first aid to injured.
o Develop work resumption plan; i.e. Have • Extinguish open flames and terminate work
plans for care of laboratory animals. procedures.
o Have access to spill containment equipment • Wait until motion has stopped before
and materials. moving to exit the building.
o Keep fume hood sashes closed as far as • Gather emergency supplies and first aid kits;
possible. take with you if you evacuate area.
o Ensure heavy equipment and furniture that • Determine if building is unsafe for
could block exit routes is secured. occupancy; if necessary evacuate carefully.
o Keep aisles and exit routes free of • Go to pre-established meeting area.
• Do not re-enter buildings until assessed for
Identify potential Hazards. • Ensure there are no gas leaks or fire hazards
Anchor or relocate. before turning on light switches or lighting
Prepare personal survival kit. matches.
Have a family plan. • Be prepared for significant aftershocks.
• Keep roads clear.
• Listen to radio for instructions.
• Do not flush toilets.
II. DURING QUAKE • Use phone for life safely only.
Lights may go out; sprinkler systems may go on; fire
alarms may sound; the ground may shake and
furniture and equipment move.
When the quake starts:
• Move away from overhead hazards.
• Duck (under desk; in doorway being aware
of closing doors).
• Cover your head.
• Hold (brace) yourself against doorway, or
hold on to desk or table leg).
60 Emergency Procedures
Figure 1. Mercury Spill Clean-up Apparatus
CHAPTER 11. REFERENCES
A. BOOKS, MANUALS, JOURNALS
• Armour, M.A. 1996. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
• Armour, M.A., R.A. Bacovsky, L.M. Browne, P.A. McKenzie and D.M. Renecker. 1986. Potentially
Carcinogenic Chemicals Information and Disposal Guide. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton,
Canada, pp 147.
• Bretherick, L. 1981. Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory, 3rd ed. The Royal Society of Chemistry,
London, pp 567.
• Budavari, Susan, M.J. O'Neil, A. Smith, P.E. Heckelman and J.F. Kinneary. 1996. The Merck Index,
12th edition. Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey.
• Chemical Rubber Co. 1971. Handbook on Laboratory Safety, 2nd ed. CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, pp 854.
• Green, Michael E. and Amos Turk. 1978. Safety in Working with Chemicals.
• Henry, R.J., I. Olitzky, N.D. Lee, B. Walker, and J. Beattie. 1976. Safety in the Clinical Laboratory.
Bioscience, Van Nuys, California, pp 176.
• Kaufman, James A. 1990. Waste Disposal in Academic Institutions. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea,
Michigan, pp 192.
• Lunn, George and Eric B. Sansone. 1990. Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Toronto, Canada, pp 271.
• Lewis, Richard J., Sr. 1992. Sax’s Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 8th edition. Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 3553.
• Manufacturing Chemists Association. 1970. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Manufacturing
o Chemists Association, Washington, DC, pp 176.
• Matheson. 1983. Guide to Safe Handling of Compressed Gases. Matheson Gas Products, Inc. 323 pp.
• Minister of Supply and Services Canada. 1992. Dangerous Goods Initial Emergency Response Guide.
Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply & Services, Canada, pp 217.
• NFPA. 1991. Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials, 10th edition. National Fire Protection
Association, Quincy, Mass.
• National Research Council. 1981. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in
o Laboratories. National Academic Press, Washington, DC, pp 291.
• National Research Council. 1983. Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories.
National Academic Press, Washington, DC, pp 282.
• Pipitone, David. 1984. Safe Storage of Laboratory Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, Canada,
• Pitt, Martin J. and Eva Pitt. 1985. Handbook of Laboratory Waste Disposal. Ellis Horwood Ltd.,
Chichester, England, pp 360.
• Rose, Susan L. 1984. Chemical Laboratory Safety.
• Schilt, Alfred A. 1979. Perchloric Acid and Perchlorates. The G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co.,
Columbus, Ohio, pp 189.
• Transport Canada. 2000. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, pp 384.
• Urben, P.G., ed. 1995. Bretherick’s Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 3rd edition.
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, Britain, pp 2004.
• Young, Jay A., 1987. Improving Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Practical Guide. John Wiley &
Sons, Toronto, Canada, pp 350.
B. INTERNET ADDRESSES FOR MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
Visit HSE Website @ www.hse.ubc.ca for additional information. Addresses and information are not guaranteed to be valid.
• Fisher Chemicals
• VWR Scientific products
• J.T. Baker, Inc
• Mallinckrodt Laboratory Chemicals
• Matheson Tri-Gas, Inc
• Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)
LIST OF APPENDICES
A. Project Hazard and Control Assessment
B. Hazard Control Assessment Guide
C. UBC Procedures for Transportation of Hazardous Materials on Campus
D. Spill Kit and Personal Protective Clothing Checklist
E. UBC Spill Reporting Procedures
64 Appendix A
PROJECT HAZARD AND CONTROL ANALYSIS
HAZARD GRADE: High ( ) (potentially life threatening)
Medium ( ) (potential for significant equipment of building damage)
Low ( ) (minor equipment damage)
Equipment Type Potential Hazards Y/N Control Measures
Previous Inspection Date High pressure or Vacuum
Room No. High temperature
Current Inspection Date High voltage
Experimenter(s) Risk of explosion
Inspected By Toxic materials
Advisor(s) Reactive/oxidizing materials
Loss of air
Loss of water
Loss of power
Part II. Specify potential leak hazards: __________________________________________________________________
Part III. Spill Control for the following types of spills is available: _________________________________________
Part IV. List principle hazardous chemicals used. Part V. Waste generation information
Location of MSDS:
Item Quantity MSDS MSDS
Available ( ) Reviewed ( ) Type of Waste Quantity Disposal Method
Part VI. Safety Information
Emergency Contact Information First aid station location:
Location: Required Personal Protective Equipment Available:
Emergency Shutdown Procedures posted: Eye protection: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Yes ( ) No ( ) Location: Foot protection: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Hand protection: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Emergency Safety Equipment
Apron/lab coat: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Fire extinguisher location:
Respirator: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Eye wash fountain location:
Emergency shower location:
Part VII. Historical safety problems ______________________________________________________________
Part VIII. Inspection Committee Recommendations
Other Remarks _______________________________________________________________________________________
Attachments: UBC Hazard Control Assessment Form and Standard Operating Procedures for project including safety features.
Please call HSE @ 822-5909 to obtain the electronic version of this form.
Appendix B 65
UBC HAZARD CONTROL ASSESSMENT GUIDE
If a hazard exists, there must be a means of controlling it. There are 4 types of controls that are available which must be evaluated in the order given:
a) elimination or substitution; b) engineering controls; c) administrative (e.g. procedures, posters, work schedule, etc.); and d) personal protective
Note: Reference to procedures means specific procedures for materials/equipment/processes being used and includes relevant training.
Type of Hazard UBC Procedure or Hazard Control
1. Hazardous materials used and WCB Occupational Health and - substitute/minimize
stored Safety Regulation (WCB - fume hood
- hazards identified OHSR); WHMIS; BC Fire - monitoring and alarm equipment
- Potential significant inhalation Code; UBC Laboratory - appropriate containers & storage units;
exposures assessed Chemical Safety Manual - appropriate labels & MSDS available (WHMIS)
- appropriate handling, disposal and emergency
- procedures, signage, training
- personal protective equipment
2. Compressed gas used WCB OHSR; BC Fire Code; - minimum quantities in lab or shop
Gas Safety Act - means of securing and transporting
- monitors and alarms as required; signage
- written work and emergency procedures; training
3. Potentially violent reaction via: WCB OHSR - fume hood
rapid decomposition; impact - minimization of quantities; heat; other
sensitive; stability on storage to - isolation or shielding
cold, heat, light, water, metals, - means of pressure relief
etc.; mischarge or wrong - redundant controls; automatic shutdown mechanism
addition order; quantity and - ability to vent all parts of system before breaking any
rate of evolution of heat and lines
gases; water or air contact - appropriate storage area
- appropriate handling & emergency procedures
4. Radioactive material or source AECB Regulations ; WCB - Fume hood
used? OHSR; UBC Radiation Safety - Canadian Nuclear Association Procedures;
Manual - UBC Radionuclide Safety and Methodology
- appropriate emergency procedures
5. Infectious or biohazardous WCB OHSR; WHMIS; MRC - biosafety cabinet
material used or handled? Guidelines; UBC Biosafety - medical surveillance
Manual - UBC protocols & procedures including emergency
66 Appendix B
Type of Hazard UBC Procedure or Hazard Control
6. Catalysts, inhibitors, or contaminants WCB OHSR; WHMIS - engineering
(like iron) affect reactions? - appropriate handling procedures
- written procedures & training
- appropriate emergency procedures
7. Energy Sources/Failures WCB OHSR; UBC Lock- - automatic shut-off system for:
- heating/cooling systems Out procedures; Electrical - power
- power ( high voltage) Code; Boiler & Pressure - temperature
- machinery Vessel Code??? - HVAC; ventilation;
- water; air - pressure,
- ventilation - water and air supply systems (back-up system)
- automatic controls or equipment - signage
- pressure - lock-out procedures
- materials/equipment/container integrity - appropriate handling & emergency procedures
- fires/explosions; spills
8. Possible generation of : WCB OHSR; Special - substitute materials
- unacceptable odour Waste & Environmental - engineering controls:
- air pollution, Regulations - fume hood : PPE
- excessive noise, - trap or back-flow preventor (1-way valve)
- excessive heat, - noise testing and absorption
- sewer contamination - cooling system
- waste trap
- appropriate emergency procedures
9. Hazardous waste generated WCB OHSR; Special - appropriate containers for storage
Waste & Environmental - written procedures & training
Regulations - appropriate emergency procedures
10. Potential for impact of hazards of WCB OHSR; - notification of relevant personnel & organizations
materials and process upset on Environmental Legislation prior to incident
neighbours, service, medical, - process for notification of relevant personnel &
emergency response personnel, etc. organizations post incident
- appropriate emergency procedures
11. Space for equipment, materials and WCB OHSR - adequate and appropriate space
12. Asbestos containing material WCB OHSR; UBC - awareness training
present. procedures - reporting procedures
Appendix C 67
Chemical Safety Program
PROCEDURES FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ON CAMPUS
SCOPE 3. Sort chemicals according to UBC Chemical Storage
Guidelines (Chapter 7).
This procedure is to be used when hazardous materials are
being moved within the UBC main campus or within off- 4. Evaluate age, quality and usefulness of chemicals before
campus UBC facilities; for example, when large quantities of packing to move.
hazardous materials are being transported by vehicle between
buildings at one site. 5. Consider the disposal of old or possibly contaminated
6. Consider the disposal of materials not used for 3 years or
This procedure is to minimize the occurrence and impact of more unless they are part of planned future experiments
accidents that could occur when large quantities of hazardous within the next year; they may be suitable for UBC’s
materials are being moved from one building to another and to Chemical Exchange Program.
move these materials in a manner that is compliant with
applicable environmental regulations. 7. Classify unidentified materials before they are moved or
sent for disposal. This procedure may be performed by
BACKGROUND qualified in-house personnel or external agencies. Call the
Environmental Programs Officer @822-9280 for further
1. This procedure takes into consideration the BC Workers’
Compensation Board OHS Regulation that refers to
appropriate handling of hazardous materials in the
8. Inventory all hazardous materials.
workplace as well as the federal Transportation of
Dangerous Goods Regulations.
9. Pack compatible materials into strong boxes ensuring
containers cannot contact one another and break; add
2. This procedure includes the requirement for inventory,
padding, such as vermiculite, that is compatible with the
labelling and safe transport as well as appropriate
chemicals in the box; do not use paper products for
emergency response procedures and equipment.
packing oxidizers. Packing must be done by a qualified
person; i.e. either the owner/user or a person
3. This procedure requires that appropriately trained
knowledgeable about chemicals and their hazards.
personnel label, package, transport and receive hazardous
10. Seal boxes. Label with name of principal investigator,
place of origin, place of destination, box number, and a
4. These procedures are not acceptable if hazardous materials
code that reflects coding on inventory list.
are being transported to or from the main UBC campus, or
between other sites.
11. The time of move should be at the least busiest time on
campus within the time frame under consideration.
5. For the purposes of this procedure, hazardous materials
and dangerous goods are used synonymously.
12. Persons transporting the hazardous materials must be
familiar with the hazards of the materials being
6. A UBC site includes the main campus and also off campus
transported and the appropriate chemical emergency
sites such as major Lower Mainland Hospitals, wherever
response (first aid, chemical exposure, spills and fire). If
UBC personnel are working and studying.
the move takes place by vehicle on public roads, there are
2 options; a) the carrier must have current TDG
PROCEDURE certification and an appropriate vehicle with placarding; or
1. Identify a person responsible for the hazardous materials b) the public roads between the 2 buildings must be closed
designated to be moved; this includes materials already in to public access during the time of the move.
use in an experiment that may require special packaging of
equipment plus chemical contents. 13. The receiver of the hazardous materials must store them
appropriately according to UBC Chemical Storage
2. Identify materials that are stored in freezers and ensure Guidelines.
proper packaging/cooling during the move and at
destination. 14. Contact the Chemical Safety Officer at 822-5909 for
68 Appendix D
SPILL KIT CHECKLIST
The following are suggested items to be included in a spill kit:
1 each Kit or cart (moveable preferably; with rigid liner)
2 each Plastic liners
1 each Instruction Booklet
1 each Safety Flashlight
1 each Printed Floor Sign (slippery when wet)
1 roll Barricade tape
2 each Chemical Spill Clothing Kit - MUST BE SEALED
10 each Spill Control Pillows, 1 litre size
1-10 litres Damming Material (unreactive, absorbent such as vermiculite)
1 each Acid Neutralizer shaker, 2.8 kg
1 each Caustic Neutralizer Shaker, 2.8 kg
1 each Solvent Absorbent Shaker, 2.8 kg
20 each Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Pads 12" X 12" (20 per package)
1 box Mercury/VAP ABSORB
1 each Tongs, 20" long (for picking up broken/contaminated glass)
1 each Mop Bucket, 35 quart
1 each Wringer
1 each 24 ounce Mop Head and Handle
1 each Spill Squeegee, Floor Size, 18" Head
1 each Spill Squeegee, Bench Size, 8" Head
1 each Polypropylene Broom
1 each Bench Brush
1 each Dust Pan 1 roll Chem/Kleen-Ups Towels, 9 3/4" X 100 ft. roll
1 each Glass Disposal Box, 8" X 8" X 10"
5 each Hazardous Waste Disposal Bags 12" X 18"
1 each Sponge
1 each Liquid Cleaner, 32 ounce
1 each Bleach, 1 gallon
1 roll pH Paper
1 roll Barricade Tape, 100 feet
1 each Cover, for CART
Checked by: Date:
1) Note any shortages
2) Replace ASAP
3) If Clothing kit disturbed, check item by item.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING CHECKLIST
1 each Total Body Coverall, Polylaminated TYVEK
2 pair Foot Covers, Disposable, Polyethylene
1 pair Nitrile Gloves
1 package Disposable Polyethylene Gloves
1 pair Chemical Splash Goggles, Fog Free Lens
1 each Hydrogen Fluoride Respirator
1 each Dust and Mist Respirator
1 each Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals In Industry Chart, Pocket Size
Checked by: Date:
The Clothing Kit must be sealed up again with the Tape provided for this purpose.
Note: When a cartridge respirator is required for chemical spill clean-up, only those who have been trained
and fit-tested are authorized to do so. For this reason, cartridge respirators are not included in the spill kit.
Appendix E 69
SPILL REPORTING PROCEDURES
Health, Safety &
4. The responsible person must determine, using Table 1
SCOPE below, if the spill is reportable and which agencies require
Spill reporting procedures are applicable to all UBC activities notification.
and operations. These procedures are specific to the Point Grey
campus and may require modification for use at other University 5. The responsible person must notify all applicable agencies
locations. immediately and complete the UBC Spill Reporting Form
PURPOSE 6. The responsible person is to keep the original Spill
To ensure that all spills of hazardous materials are reported to the Reporting Form and fax a copy to the Department of Health,
appropriate authority as required by law. Safety & Environment (fax# 604-822-6650) as soon as
reasonably possible. The Department of Health, Safety &
BACKGROUND Environment must also be notified by phone, (604) 822-
2029, of the spill as soon as possible. A second copy of the
Many different statutes impose specific legal obligations to form must be forwarded to the applicable Administrative
report spills to provincial and federal agencies. The primary Head of Unit.
responsibility of any person who has possession, charge, or
control of a hazardous material is to do everything in his or her
power to prevent a spill of that material. This includes
establishing programs to prevent the escape of the material, such
as identifying areas where there are potential risks of spills, SPILL
adopting procedures and technologies to minimize or eliminate Call
such risks, and ensuring anyone handling the materials is trained
in the relevant procedures and technologies.
When a spill does occur, the responsible person must act quickly
to stop, contain, and minimize the effects of the spill. Courts
impose stricter penalties for convictions arising from a spill if Stop, contain and minimize
there was a delay in responding to or reporting of the spill. A
effects of the spill
spill is defined as an external release to air, water or land. A
dangerous good released from its packaging in transit or on
arrival is also considered a reportable spill under Transportation
of Dangerous Goods Act 1992.
In the event of a spill, more than one piece of legislation may Identify the material and the
apply and more than one agency may require a spill report to be amount spilled
completed. These reports are time sensitive.
1. When the potential for a spill exists programs are to be
established to prevent the escape of hazardous materials.
This should include identifying areas where there are
Determine if the spill is
potential risks of spills, adopting procedures and reportable – refer to Table 1
technologies to minimize or eliminate such risks, and
ensuring all personnel involved are trained in the procedures Yes
2. In the event of a spill or release of material, persons in the
immediate area should act to ensure their personal safety. 1. Notify appropriate agencies immediately.
The responsible person, must act quickly to stop, contain, 2. Call Health, Safety & Environment.
minimize the effects of and clean up the affected area,
3. Complete and fax UBC Spill Reporting Form.
where possible and safe - this may include initiating an
Emergency Response (911).
3. Identify the material and the quantity spilled.
70 Appendix E
TABLE 1 – Determination of Materials and Agencies Requiring Notification All Classes refer to the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods classification, see Section 3
Use the following table to determine if a spill is reportable and which agency(ies) should be notified. 1) Find the substance under
“Substance Spilled”, 2) Compare the actual amount spilled to the “Specified Amount”, if the actual is equal to or greater than the specified
amount report the spill to the “Contact Agencies” listed in the final column.
CRITERIA/SUBSTANCE SPILLED SPECIFIED AMOUNT Required Contact Agencies
Waste containing a pest control product Any Pesticide Management Program
Waste oil 100 L PEP
Explosives of Class 1 Any PEP & Transport Canada
Flammable gases of Division 1 of Class 2 10 kg where spill results from equipment failure, error, PEP
deliberate action, or inaction
Non-flammable gases of Division 2 of Class 2 10 kg where spill results from equipment failure, error, PEP
deliberate action or inaction
Poisonous gases of division 3 of Class 2 Any PEP & Transport Canada
Corrosive gases of Division 4 of Class 2 Any PEP & Transport Canada
Flammable liquids of Class 3 100 L PEP
Flammable solids of Class 4 25 kg PEP & Transport Canada
Products or substances that are oxidizing substances of 50 kg or 50 L PEP & Transport Canada
Division 1 of Class 5
Products or substances that are organic compounds that 1 kg or 1 L PEP & Transport Canada
contain the bivalent “-0-0-“ structure of Division 2 of
Products or substances that are poisons of Division 1 of 5 kg or 5 L PEP & Transport Canada
Organisms that are infectious or that are reasonably Any PEP & Transport Canada
believed to be infectious, and the toxins of these
organisms (risk grp II and above)
Radioactive materials of Class 7 All discharges of a radiation level exceeding 10Msv/h at PEP & Transport Canada
the package surface and 200uSv/h at 1 m from the
Corrosive materials of Class 8 5 kg or 5 L PEP & Transport Canada
Waste Asbestos 50 kg PEP
Miscellaneous products or substances of Division 1 of 50 kg or 50 L PEP & Transport Canada
Miscellaneous products or substances of Division 2 of 1 kg or 1 L PEP & Transport Canada
Miscellaneous products or substances of Division 3 of 5 kg or 5 L PEP & Transport Canada
A substance not covered by these items that can cause 200 kg or 200 L PEP
Natural Gas 10 kg, if there is a breakage in a pipeline or fitting PEP
operated at >100psi that results in a sudden release
One of the 45 materials on the List of Toxic substances Any Environment Canada
(refer to Section 4)
A major release of a toxic or hazardous material 1 The incident resulted in an injury that required Workers Compensation Board
immediate medical attention beyond the level of
service provided by a first aid attendant or injuries
to several workers which require first aid.
2 The incident resulted in a situation of continuing
danger to workers, as when the release of a
chemical cannot be readily or quickly cleaned up.
A substance that is or may be a health hazard Any Medical Health Officer
Deleterious substance released into water frequented by Any PEP
PEP = Provincial Emergency Program
Emergency Response 911 Health, Safety & Environment
(604) 822-2029; (fax# 822-6650)
PEP/Provincial Emergency Program Transport Canada Contact the local Police
(250) 387-5956 or 1-800-663-3456
Pesticide Management Program (604) 582-5200 Medical Health Officer (604) 736-2033
Environment Canada (604) 666-6100 Workers Compensation Board
1-800-661-2112 after hours (604)-273-7711
Appendix E 71
Section 1 DEFINITIONS
Environment: “the air, land, water and all other external conditions or influences under which man, animals and plants live or are
BC Waste Management Act, 1992.
Dangerous Goods: “articles or substances which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or to property when transported by
air and which are classified according to section 3.0.”
Dangerous Goods Regulations, IATA 1998.
a) “any substance that, if added to any water, would degrade or alter or form a part of a process of degradation or alteration of the quality
of that water so that it is rendered or is likely to be rendered deleterious to fish or fish habitat or to the use by man of fish that frequent
that water, or
b) any water that contains a substance in such quantity or concentration, or that has been so treated, processed or changed, by heat or other
means, from a natural state that it would, if added to any other water, degrade or alter or form part of a process of degradation or
alteration of the quality of that water so that it is rendered or is likely to be rendered deleterious to fish or fish habitat or to the use by
man of fish that frequent that water,
and without limiting the generality of the foregoing includes
c) any substance or class of substances prescribed pursuant to paragraph (a),
d) any water that contains any substance or class of substances in a quantity or concentration that is equal to or in excess of a quantity or
concentration prescribed in respect of that substance or class of substances pursuant to paragraph (b), and
e) any water that has been subjected to a treatment, process or change prescribed pursuant to paragraph (c).”
Note that aside from toxic chemicals, deleterious substances have been found to include such things as sediment, which has been shown to
impede a fish’s ability to catch prey and to affect its gills.
Fisheries Act S.34 (1), 1985.
Hazardous Material: “ any prohibited product, restricted product, controlled product or special waste.”
Responsible Person: “any person who had possession, charge or control of a substance immediately before its spill.”
BC Waste Management Act - Spill Reporting Regulation - BC Reg. 263/90.
Spill: “release or discharge … into the environment of a substance in an amount equal to or greater than the amount listed..”
BC Waste Management Act - Spill Reporting Regulation - BC Reg. 263/90.
Section 2 UBC SPILL REPORTING FORM REPORTABLE SPILLS ONLY
Fax to Health, Safety & Environment, (604) 822-6650 EMERGENCY RESPONSE INITIATED
Or call (604) 822-2029
Copy to be forwarded to Administrative Head of YES ❒ NO ❒
Name Description of spill, including cause and actions taken
spilled Agencies attending scene (e.g. Fire Dept. etc)
Agencies notified of spill (e.g. PEP)
Date & time Time
72 Appendix E
Section 3 CLASSIFICATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
Refer to the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Acts, 1992, schedule II for a complete list of substances.
Note: The class number is the first number, the second number is the division number, e.g., 5.2 means class 5, division 2).
Class 1 Explosives
1.1 A substance or article with a mass explosion hazard
1.2 A substance or article with a fragment projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard
1.3 A substance or article that has a fire hazard along with either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection
hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
1.4 A substance or article that presents no significant hazard – explosion effects are largely confined to the
package and no projection or fragments of appreciable size or range are to be expected.
1.5 A very insensitive substance that nevertheless has a mass explosion hazard like those substances in 1.1.
Class 2 Gases
2.1 A flammable gas
2.2 Other compressed gases
2.3 A poisonous gas
2.4 A corrosive gas
Class 3 Flammable and combustible liquids
3.1 A liquid with a closed-cup flask point of less than –18oC
3.2 A liquid with a closed-cup flash-point not less than –18oC
3.3 A liquid with a closed-cup flash point not less than 23oC but less than 61oC
Class 4 Flammable solids, substances liable to spontaneous combustion, and substances that on contact with
water emit flammable gases
4.1 A solid that under normal conditions of transport is readily ignitable and burns vigorously and persistently
or that causes or contributes to fire through friction or from heat retained from manufacturing or processing
4.2 A substance liable to spontaneous combustion when in contact with air or liable to spontaneous heating to
the point where it ignites when in contact with air
4.3 A substance that on contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable or emit flammable
Class 5 Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
5.1 A substance that causes or contributes to the combustion of other material by yielding oxygen or other
oxidizing substances whether or not the substance itself is combustible
5.2 An organic compound that contains a strong oxidizing agent in the form of the bivalent “-O-O-“ structure
and, therefore, may be liable to explosive decomposition or sensitive to heat, shock, or friction
Class 6 Poisonous (toxic) substances and infectious substances
6.1 A solid or liquid that is poisonous through inhalation of its vapours, by skin contact, or by ingestion
6.2 Organisms that are infectious or that are reasonably believed to be infectious to humans and animals
Class 7 Radioactive materials
Class 8 Corrosive substances
Class 9 Miscellaneous products, substances, or organisms dangerous to life, health, property, or the
9.1 Miscellaneous dangerous goods
9.2 An environmentally hazardous substance
9.3 A dangerous waste
Appendix E 73
Section 4 ENVIRONMENT CANADA - CANADIAN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION ACT
Schedule 1 - LIST OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES
1 Chlorobiphenyls (C12H10-nCln where “n” > 2)
2 Dodecachlorophentacyclo (5.3.0.02,6.03,9.04,8) decane
3 Polybrominated Biphenyls (C12H10-nBrn where “n” > 2)
4 Chlorofluorocarbon: totally halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CnClxF(2n+2-x))
5 Polychlorinated Terphenyls (C18H14-nCln where “n” > 2)
9 Vinyl Chloride
10 Bromochlorodifluoromethane (CF2BrCl)
11 Bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br)
12 Dibromotetrafluoroethane (C2F4Br2)
13 Fuel containing toxic substances that are dangerous goods within the meaning of section 2 of the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods Act and that
(a) are neither normal components of the fuel nor additives designed to improve the characteristics or the performance
of the fuel; or
(b) are normal components of the fuel or additives designed to improve the characteristics or performance of the fuel,
but are present in quantities or concentrations greater than those generally accepted by industry standards.
14 Dibenzo-para-dioxin (C12H8O2)
15 Dibenzofuran (C12H8O)
16 Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (C12H(8-n)O2Cln where “n” > 2)
17 Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (C12H(8-n)OCln where “n” >2)
18 Tetrachloromethane or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
19 1,1,1-trichloroethane or methyl chloroform (CCl3-CH3)
20 Bromofluorocarbons other than those set out in items 10 to 12
21 Hydrobromofluorocarbons (CnHxFyBr(2n+2-x-y) where 0 < n ≤ 3)
22 Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)
23 Bis(chloromethyl) ether (C2H4Cl2O)
24 Chloromethyl methyl ether (C2H5ClO)
25 Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)
26 Benzene (C6H6)
27 Cyclopropylmethanone (4-cyclophenyl) O-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl] oxime (C17H15ClN2O3)
32 Chlorinated wastewater effluent
33 Creosote-impregnated water materials from creosote-contaminated sites
35 Effluent from pulp mills using bleaching
37 Hexavalent chromium compounds
38 Inorganic arsenic compounds
39 Inorganic cadmium compounds
40 Inorganic fluorides
41 Oxidic, sulphidic and soluble inorganic nickel compounds
42 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
43 Refractory ceramic fibre