Health, Safety and Environment
      University of British Columbia


                                        Emergency Numbers
                                                            UBC Campus
      Fire, Police, Ambulance............................................................................................... 911
      Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................... 911
      First Aid ................................................................................................................... 2-4444
      Student Health Services.......................................................................................... 2-7011
      Vancouver Hospital Emergency Dept. .................................................................. 2-7222
      Parking, Transportation and Campus Security ................................................... 2-2222
      Plant Operations Trouble Calls ............................................................................. 2-2173

             Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre
              University Site (Koerner, Purdy and Detwiller Pavilions)
      Fire .............................................................................................................................. 0000
      First Aid ...................................................................................................................... 0000
      Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................. 0000

Vancouver Hospital Site, Jack Bell Research Centre, Willow Eye Care Centre
      Fire .................................................................................................................................. 84
      First Aid .......................................................................................................................... 84
      Hazardous Materials Response..................................................................................... 84

                                       B.C. Centre For Disease Control
      Fire ................................................................................................................................ 911
      First Aid ........................................................................................................604-735-0183
      Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................... 911
      Security Services ...................................................................................................... 03021

                   B.C. Children’s Hospital, B.C. Women’s Hospital,
                  B.C. Research Institute For Child And Family Health
      Fire .............................................................................................................................. 8400
      First Aid ...................................................................................................................... 8400
      Hazardous Materials Response................................................................................. 8400

                                                      St. Paul’s Hospital
      Fire .............................................................................................................................. 5323
      First Aid ............................................................................................................pager 4050
      Hazardous Materials Response........................................................................ 5399/5042

                                                      Common Numbers
      UBC Chemical Safety Office .......................................................................604-822-5909
      UBC Health, Safety and Environment .......................................................604-822-2029
      Poison Control ..............................................................................................604-682-5050
      Vancouver Fire Department (Non-Emergency) ........................................604-665-6010


The safe use, storage, handling, waste and emergency management of chemicals in the laboratory
environment are the subject of this reference manual. Chemicals are used, to one degree or another, in most
university laboratories. The advent of WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) in
1988 gave employees the legal right-to-know about the hazards of the materials used in the workplace and to
receive the training necessary to use these materials safely. Details on specific types of chemical hazards as
well as commonly used equipment and procedures are outlined on the following pages. The information in
this manual is meant to meet the needs of those who work, study and teach in laboratories at the University
of British Columbia.


The information included in this manual has come from a variety of reliable sources. This manual is
intended for the use of University of British Columbia personnel as an appropriate starting point for the
development of safe and best management practices in UBC laboratories where hazardous chemicals are
used. The material contained within is correct to the best of knowledge of the University of British
Columbia’s Department of Health, Safety and Environment. However, there is no guarantee or warranty that
it is without errors or omissions.


                                             TABLE OF CONTENTS

Emergency Phone Numbers                        i           8.   Laboratory Inspections                               41
Foreword and Disclaimer                        ii               Laboratory Inspection Checklist                      42
Table of Contents                              iii              Monthly Supervisory Checklist                        44
1.   Introduction                              1
                                                           9.   Hazardous Waste Management                           45
     UBC Safety Program                        1
                                                                Organic Solvents                                     45
     Duties and Responsibilities               1
                                                                Laboratory Chemicals                                 46
     Regulations, Policies & Procedures        2
                                                                Potentially Explosive Materials                      47
     Chemical Safety Program                   2
                                                                Waste Oil                                            47
     Environmental Services Facility (ESF)     3
                                                                Photochemical Waste                                  48
     University Safety Committees              3
                                                                Dry-Cell Batteries                                   48
     Incident & Accident Reporting             3
                                                                Unknown Chemicals                                    48
                                                                Chemical Exchange Program                            48
2.   General Safety Rules                      4
                                                                Glass, Sharps, Needles, Syringes                     48
3.   Hazards of Chemicals                      5
                                                           10. Chemical Laboratory Emergency Response                53
     Compressed Gases                          5
                                                               Fire Safety                                           53
     Flammable & Combustible Materials         5
                                                               Injuries                                              54
     Oxidizing Materials                       6
                                                               Spills                                                56
     Toxic Materials                          10
                                                               Earthquakes                                           58
     Corrosive Materials                      12
     Dangerously Reactive Materials           13
                                                           11. References                                            61
4.   Hazard Information                       14
                                                           12. List of Appendices                                    63
     Labelling                                16
                                                           A. Project Hazard and Control Assessment Form             64
     Material Safety Data Sheets              17
                                                           B. Hazard Control Assessment Guide                        65
     Education and Training                   17
                                                           C. Procedures for Transportation of Hazardous
     Sample MSDS                              18
                                                              Materials on the UBC Campus                            67
                                                           D. Spill Kit and Personal Protective Clothing Checklist   68
5.   Equipment and Experimental Design        20
                                                           E. UBC Spill Reporting Procedures                         69
     Transporting Chemicals                   20
     Refrigerators                            20
     Temperature Control                      21
     Control of Suck-Back                     21
     Reduced Pressure Operations              21
     Cryogenic Materials                      21
     Centrifuge Safety                        21
     Safety Showers and Eye Washes            22
     Compressed Gas Cylinders                 22

6.   Hazard Controls                          26
     Fume Hoods                               26
     Electrical Safety                        28
     Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)      31

7.   Chemical Storage                         35
     Inventory                                35
     General Rules                            35
     Methods                                  36
     Air-Reactive Chemicals                   38
     Chemical Storage Patterns                38
     UBC Chemical Storage Guidelines          40

                                                    Introduction                                                1

                                   CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
A. UBC SAFETY PROGRAM                                        C. DUTIES & RESPONSIBILITIES
                                                             The BC Workers’ Compensation Board Occupational
The University of British Columbia (UBC) aims to             Health and Safety Regulation (Section 3.4[a]) and the
provide a safe, healthy and secure environment in            UBC Safety Policy clearly define the roles and
which to carry on the University’s affairs. All              responsibilities of the employer, employee and
possible preventive measures are taken to eliminate          students at UBC.
accidental injuries, occupational diseases and risks to
personal security. Compliance with the BC Workers’           The university, acting through administrative heads
Compensation Act, the Workplace Hazardous                    of unit, is responsible for providing a safe, healthy
Materials Information System (WHMIS) and related             and secure working environment for all those
legislation is the minimum standard acceptable. All          involved in the university’s activities.
students and members of faculty and staff are
encouraged to strive to exceed these minimum legal           Supervisors are responsible for the following:
standards and to eliminate unnecessary risks.                identifying all hazards; ensuring that there are safe
                                                             work procedures and appropriate emergency
                                                             procedures; ensuring that all workers and students
B. HEALTH, SAFETY &                                          know and follow those procedures; and correcting
   ENVIRONMENT (HSE)                                         unsafe conditions and practices. A supervisor is
                                                             anyone who has been delegated responsibility for
UBC’s Department of Health, Safety and                       others working or studying at UBC.
Environment (HSE) is responsible for:
- developing and maintaining effective accident              All students and members of faculty and staff are
    prevention programs;                                     responsible for learning and following safe work
- providing the University community with                    procedures and emergency procedures as well as
    required training;                                       reporting all unsafe conditions and incidents or
- assisting the University in complying with                 accidents.
    health, safety and environmental regulations; and
-    enhancing departmental services.

HSE’s major programs comprise:
                                                             D. ENVIRONMENTAL
- Biosafety                                                     RESPONSIBILITIES
- Chemical Safety
- Diving Safety                                              The Environmental Protection Compliance Policy # 6
- Environment; Health Promotion                              states that:
- Occupational Hygiene
- Personal Security                                          "UBC will act responsibly and demonstrate
- Radiation Safety                                           accountable management of the property and affairs
                                                             of UBC in protecting the environment.          All
                                                             individuals in the University community share the
                                                             responsibility for protecting the environment.
                                                             Administrative heads of unit are responsible for
                                                             ensuring compliance with legislation and UBC
                                                             procedures both on and off campus."

                                                             Environmental activities at UBC are coordinated by
                                                             the Environmental Programs group which is part of
                                                             the Department of Health, Safety & Environment.
2                                                  Introduction

Program areas include:                                      •     Environmental Protection Compliance Policy # 6
                                                            •     Hazardous Materials Management Policy # 9
•   Regulatory compliance                                   •     Pest Control Policy # 12
•   Environmental Auditing                                  •     Smoking Policy # 15
•   Emergency Preparedness
                                                            In order to view these UBC policies please go to the
•   Hazardous Waste Management
                                                            HSE web site (
•   Pollution Prevention
•   Training & Awareness                                    Laboratory oriented HSE courses, such as Biosafety;
                                                            Chemical Safety; and Radiation Safety all provide
Health, Safety & Environment offers a 2-hour                reference manuals that include relevant regulations,
session on Environmental Responsibilities at UBC.           polices, standard and safe laboratory practices, and
For further information on this session or information      procedures and guidelines that are recommended by
on any of the program areas, please contact the             HSE.
Manager Environmental Programs at 822-9527 or
view the web site at                 Individual departments may also have internal, site-
                                                            specific policies and procedures for safe work
                                                            F. CHEMICAL SAFETY PROGRAM
Laboratory activities must respond to a variety of
regulations, policies, procedures and guidelines.           The Chemical Safety Program, one of several
                                                            programs offered by the Department of Health, Safety
The following is a list of the most important Acts and      and Environment (HSE), promotes the safe handling,
Regulations to which employees at UBC must                  storage and disposal of chemicals. The Chemical
comply while conducting their various work and              Safety Officer provides information, advice and
research tasks at UBC, on or off-campus:                    guidance on regulations and the accepted good
                                                            practices for chemical use to the University
•   BC Workers’ Compensation Act, Occupational              community.
    Health and Safety Regulation, 1998
•   Fire Services Act, BC Fire Code, 1992                   The Chemical Safety Officer coordinates the
•   BC Waste Management Act, 1994                           Workplace Hazardous Material Information System
•   Waste Management Act, Spill Reporting                   (WHMIS) program at UBC. Each department has a
    Regulation, 1993                                        designated WHMIS coordinator who is responsible for
•   Waste Management Act, Special Waste                     WHMIS education within their own department. Other
    Regulation, 1995                                        responsibilities of the Chemical Safety Office include
•   BC Health Act, Sanitary Regulations, 1992               advising lab personnel on the design of laboratories;
•   BC Pesticide Control Act, Regulations, 1992             selection of safety equipment; inspections of
•   Canadian Transportation of Dangerous Goods              laboratories; and training in procedures for the safe
    Regulations, 1992                                       handling, storage and disposal of hazardous materials.
•   GVRD Sewer Use By-law, No. 164, 1991                    Chemical Safety Courses are offered four times a year.
•   Municipal Air Quality Management By-law, No.            For questions concerning the handling of hazardous
    725, 1992                                               materials, contact the Chemical Safety Officer at 822-
•   Municipal Solid Waste and Recyclable Material           5909.
    Regulation, By-law No. 181, 1996

In addition to government regulations, UBC
laboratory personnel are required to comply with
UBC policies such as:

•   UBC Safety Policy # 7
                                                     Introduction                                                  3

G. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES                                     I. INCIDENT/ACCIDENT
   FACILITY (ESF)                                                REPORTING

The purpose of the facility is to safely manage               UBC’s Faculty & Staff Incident/Accident Report
hazardous waste generated at the University of British        form must be completed for every incident or
Columbia in accordance with provincial, local and             accident, even if are were no injuries sustained. If
federal regulations.                                          the injured person is a student or visitor to campus,
                                                              the UBC Student & Visitor Incident/Accident Report
Chemical wastes are collected regularly and taken to          form must be completed. Any event that involves
the Environmental Services Facility (ESF) at south            injury to a person or damage to property, or has the
campus. They are sorted, treated and packaged                 potential to do so, must be reported to Health, Safety
according to type before being shipped for disposal.          and Environment within 24 hours of occurrence.
Highly reactive compounds, such as picric acid or old         There is also a WCB form that injured employees
containers of diethyl ether, are picked up at the             have to complete.
generator’s site by a contractor licensed to handle such
materials.                                                    For serious accidents notify 9-1-1, Health,
                                                              Safety & Environment at 822-2029, and
Specific UBC procedures for handling chemical waste           immediately seal the area. Do not begin
are included in Chapter 9. Additional information             clean-up, as on-site evidence must be
regarding chemical waste disposal can be obtained by          preserved.
calling 822-9280.
                                                              These serious accidents include:
H. UNIVERSITY SAFETY                                          a) Accident resulted in the death or critical condition
   COMMITTEES                                                       with a serious risk of death.
                                                              b) Accident that involved a major structural failure
University safety committees fall into one of three              of collapse of a building, bridge, tower, crane,
general categories.                                              hoist, temporary construction support system, or
1) The University Health and Safety Committee which           c) Accident that involved the major release of a
has representatives from all areas of the University.            toxic or hazardous substance.
                                                              e) Blasting accident required to be reported by Part
2) Eight Faculty Advisory Committees, such as the                21 or a diving accident required to be reported by
UBC Chemical Safety Committee, that deal with                    Part 24.
specialized areas of health and safety problems.

3) The Local Safety Committees, which are the
backbone of the safety, program at the University and
represent each unit on campus.
4                                                 Safety Rules

                   CHAPTER 2. GENERAL SAFETY RULES
A. WORK HABITS                                             C. FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT

• Do not store food or beverages in the laboratory         • All moving belts and pulleys must have safety
   environment.                                            • guards.
• Do not pipette by mouth.                                 • Sample breathing air space for measurement of
• Wash hands before and after work in a science               possible contaminants; keep good records.
   laboratory, and after spill clean-ups.                  • Keep up-to-date emergency phone numbers posted
• Restrain loose clothing (e.g. sleeves, full cut             next to the phone.
   blouses, neckties etc.), long hair and dangling         • Have appropriate equipment and materials
   jewelry.                                                   available for spill control; replace when necessary.
• Protection should be provided for the lab worker
   and also the lab partner working nearby.                             Use Safety Equipment.
• Always inform co-workers of plans to carry out
                                                                    Order Only What You Need.
   hazardous work before you start.
                                                                 Substitute Less Hazardous Materials.
• First aid and CPR training is recommended for lab

                                                           D. PURCHASING, USE AND
              Never Work Alone.                               DISPOSAL
              Wash Hands Often.
          No Food, Drink or Smoking.                       • Label all chemicals accurately with date of receipt,
                                                              or preparation, and initialed by the person
                                                              responsible.     Add      pertinent    precautionary
                                                              information for handling.
B. SAFETY WEAR                                             • Never open a reagent container until the label has
• ANSI (or equivalent standard) approved eye or               been read and completely understood.
   face protection should be worn continuously.            • Unlabelled bottles (a special problem) must be
• Wear gloves that will resist penetration by the             identified to the extent that they can then be class-
   chemical being handled and which have been                 ified as hazardous or non-hazardous wastes.
   checked for pin holes, tears, or rips.
• Wear a laboratory coat or apron to protect skin and      E. SUBSTITUTIONS
   clothing from chemicals.
• Footwear should cover feet completely; no                • Where possible, reduce risks by using diluted
   open-toe shoes.                                            substances instead of using concentrates.
                                                           • Use micro/semi-micro techniques instead of
     Wear Appropriate Personal Protective                  • Use films, videotapes, and other methods rather
                Equipment.                                    than experiments involving hazardous substances.
          All Gloves are Not Alike.                        • Evaluate all substitutions before changing
                                                Hazards of Chemicals                                                 5

                     CHAPTER 3. HAZARDS OF CHEMICALS
Chemical hazards are defined according to one of six hazard categories: (A) compressed gases, (B) flammable and
combustible (C) oxidizing, (D) toxic (E) corrosive, and (F) dangerously reactive materials. In this chapter,
characteristics and examples of these six hazard classes will be discussed. Additional sources of information can be
found in the References section of this manual.

                                                              There are three elements that must be present in order
A.       COMPRESSED GASES                                     for a fire to result. One way of pictorially describing
                                                              this phenomenon is the “Fire Triangle”.
Class A - compressed gases include compressed gases,
dissolved gases or gases liquified by compression or
refrigeration within reinforced metal cylinders. This
includes cryogenic liquids that are hundreds of degrees       Fuel                                  Oxygen
below zero, thereby representing an extreme cold

Compressed gases present a physical danger that results                       Energy Source
from the sudden, out-of-control release of these
materials from their containers. This release is              The use, storage and handling of flammable and
associated with a concomitant discharge of energy due         combustible materials are governed by the BC -
to great expansion in volume of the material leaving the      WCB Occupational Health & Safety Regulation and
cylinder, displacement of air and potential creation of a     the BC Fire Code.
hazardous atmosphere; i.e. the energy released is akin to
a jettisoned rocket that is capable of bursting through       I.         DEFINITIONS
walls or any other objects in its way.
                                                              1. “Flash point” defines the minimum temperature
                                                                     at which a liquid within a container gives off
B.       FLAMMABLE AND                                               vapour of sufficient concentration in air that can
         COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS                                       ignite in the presence of an ignition source.
Class B - flammable and combustible materials are
substances that form vapours that can burn or                 2. A “flammable liquid”, as per the BC Fire Code,
explode. Vapour pressure is the pressure that is                     is "a liquid having a flash point below 37.8 °C
exerted by a saturated vapour above its own liquid in                (100°F), and having a vapour pressure not
a closed container. It is reported in mm Hg, and it is               exceeding 275.8 kPa (absolute) at 37.8° C”.
positively correlated with temperature.
                                                              3. A “combustible liquid” is one with a flash point
Examples of substances that are included in this                     at or above 37.8°C.
classification are:
 ◊ Flammable gases                                            4. “Explosive limits” refers to the vapour
 ◊ Flammable liquids                                                 concentration range of a combustible or
 ◊ Combustible liquids                                               flammable material that will ignite in the
 ◊ Flammable solids                                                  presence of an ignition source.
 ◊ Flammable aerosols
 ◊ Reactive flammable (spontaneously                          5. The        “autoignition temperature” is the
      combustible in air, or materials that react with               temperature at which the vapour from a liquid
      water to produce a flammable gas)                              will ignite without a source of ignition such as a
                                                                     spark or flame.
6                                            Hazards of Chemicals

II.     HAZARDS                                           C.        OXIDIZING MATERIALS
The BC Fire Code includes regulations that control the
storage, handling and use of flammable and                I.        HAZARDS & HANDLING
combustible liquids in buildings and bulk storage         Class C – oxiding materials are substances that
facilities.                                               readily yield oxygen or its equivalent to stimulate the
                                                          combustion (oxidation) of organic matter. Chromic
Flammable liquids give off vapours that, in most          acid and (di)chromates, nitric acid and nitrates,
cases, are heavier than air and can travel long           perchloric acid and perchlorates, permanganates,
distances until reaching a source of ignition such as     peroxides and bleach (hypochlorite) are all examples
an open flame, hot surfaces, static sparks, etc. at       of oxidizing reagents. Oxidizers are incompatible
which time a fire or explosion could result.              with reducing agents (which usually contain
                                                          hydrogen), such as hydrides, bisulfites and
Flammable liquids pose many serious problems. The         thiosulfates, and with flammable and combustible
misuse of a small amount can have a disastrous            materials such as solvents, Varsol and acetic acid.
effect. As liquids, they can flow and thus any
spillage will increase the fire hazard. Burning           Nitric and perchloric acids are both strongly
flammable liquids will likewise flow and spread the       oxidizing acids. They will act rapidly on exposed
fire.                                                     skin by a denaturing mechanism.        Nitric and
                                                          perchloric acids will also act explosively with
III.    HANDLING OF FLAMMABLE                             organic compounds and reducing agents.
                                                          Organic peroxides are a particular group of oxidizing
Safe handling practices must be strictly followed in      materials that are often unstable in nature. They can
handling and transferring of all flammable liquids.       be among the most hazardous materials handled in
Small quantities of flammables present the same           laboratories. They are low power explosives which
hazard as large quantities - capable of giving off        are sensitive, to varying degrees, to heat or shock.
ignitable or explosive vapours. Grounding of              Often they are products of room temperature
containers used for transferring flammable solvents       oxidation of a variety of organic ethers, alkenes,
is required to eliminate static charge build-up.          certain alcohols, potassium and other materials.

Because vapours continuously escape from                  Peroxide inhibitors are usually added to compounds
flammable liquids, they must be kept in closed            that readily form explosive peroxides; however, they
containers, never in an open container.                   may not be sufficient to control peroxide formation
                                                          once the container has been opened.
In the open laboratory area, the UBC Flammable
Liquid Guidelines restrict the volume of flammable        All peroxidizable compounds should be stored away
liquids with a flash point less than 37.8°C to a          from heat and light (which catalyze the peroxidation
maximum of 25 L (container size). Amounts in              reaction), and reducing agents as well as being
excess of this must be kept in approved safety cans, a    protected from physical damage and ignition sources.
flammable liquid cabinet or proper flammable
storage facility.                                         An inventory of all peroxidizable material is
                                                          required. These substances must be inspected and
The flash points of several commonly used solvents        tested for peroxides regularly after the container is
are provided in a table on the next page.                 opened. A simple test procedure for detection of
                                                          peroxides in substances such as alkali. metals, alkali
                                                          metal alkoxides, amides or organometallics is not
                                                 Hazards of Chemicals                                                                7


The following are Class 1A flammable liquids (flash point < 22.8°C; boiling point < 32°C):

Flammable Liquid           Flash Point (°C)                    Flammable Liquid                          Flash Point (°C)a

Ethyl chloride             - 50                                2-Pentanone                                7
Pentane                    - 49                                Methyl methacrylate                       10
Ethyl ether                - 45                                Methanol                                  11
Acetaldehyde               - 38                                Isopropanol                               12
Isopropylamine             - 37                                Dioxane                                   12
Ethyl formate              - 19                                Ethylene dichloride                       13
Ethylamine                 - 18                                Octane                                    13
                                                               Propanol                                  15
                                                               Sec-butyl acetate                         17
                                                               Pyridine                                  20
                                                               Allyl alcohol                             21
                                                               Butyl acetate                             22b
                                                               Closed cup values are given unless where denoted by "OC" (open cup)
                                                               Borderline Class 1A

The following are Class 1B flammable liquids                   The following are Class 1C flammable liquids
(flash point < 22.8°C, boiling point ≥ 37.8°C)                 (22.8°C < flash point < 37.8°C)

Flammable Liquid           Flash Point (°C)                    Flammable Liquid                          Flash Point (°C)

Naphtha                    4.4 - 20                            Methyl isobutyl ketone                    22.5
Allyl chloride             - 31                                2-Butanol                                 24
Carbon disulfide           - 30                                n-Amyl acetate                            25
Isopropyl ether            - 28                                2-Hexanone                                25
Acrolein                   - 26                                Isoamyl acetate                           25
Hexane                     - 21                                Xylene                                    25
Cyclohexane                - 20                                Butyl alcohol                             29
Ethyl bromide              - 20                                Chlorobenzene                             29
Nickel carbonyl            - 20                                p-Anisidine                               30
Acetone                    - 17                                sec-Amyl acetate                          31
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine      - 15                                Styrene                                   32
Tetrahydrofuran            - 14                                Ethylenediamine                           33.5
Butylamine                 - 12                                Morpholine                                35
Benzene                    - 11                                Turpentine                                35
Methyl acetate             - 10
Methyl ethyl ketone        - 6                                 Flash point values were taken from NIOSH/OSHA Pocket
Ethyl acetate              - 4                                 Guide to Chemical Hazards, DHEW (NIOSH) Publication
Heptane                    - 4                                 No. 78-210, Fourth Printing, August 1981
Acrylonitrile              - 1
8                                              Hazards of Chemicals

PRECAUTIONS                                                 TEST STRIPS
If ether peroxidation is visibly evident as a viscous       The simplest method for testing for the presence of
layer in the bottom of the container, or cystals around     peroxides in materials can be done using peroxide
the cap, Do Not Handle the container. If the                test strips available from local laboratory supply
container is more than 2 years old, and has not been        houses (e.g. EM Quant from Anachemia Scientific).
opened or tested within the past 12 months, do not
open the container and call the Chemical Safety             CHEMICAL TESTING
Officer at 822-5909.                                        To 1 mL of the ether to be tested, add a solution of
                                                            100 mg of potassium iodide in 1 mL of glacial acetic
Records of the tests for peroxide formation must be
                                                            acid.     A pale yellow colour indicates a low
maintained using a label similar to the one shown
                                                            concentration (0.001 to 0.0005 %) of peroxides, and
                                                            bright yellow or brown colour indicates a high (>
                                                            0.1%) and hazardous concentration of peroxides.
                                                            This chemical test is more sensitive than the test
                                                            strips, as it will detect dialkyl peroxides as well as
         PEROXIDIZABLE COMPOUND                             hydroperoxides.
                  Rec'd    Opened                           It should be remembered that these tests are valid
        Date                                                only for relatively simple chemicals. Complicated
                                                            organic structures may also act as oxidizing agents
        Discard or test within    ___ months                and therefore appear to give positive tests for
                    after opening                           peroxides.    There are no testing methods for
      Test Dates ___ ___ ___ ___                            peroxides of potassium metal.

      Test Results ___ ___ ___                              REMOVAL of PEROXIDES
                                                            If peroxides are detected, the solvent should be
                                                            treated prior to use or being sent for disposal to ESF.
                                                            Either of the following procedures may be used to
Certain ethers such as di-isopropyl ether form              remove the peroxides.
peroxides more rapidly than most others and should          a) Activated Alumina Method: Peroxides can be
be handled with particular care. Purchases of large             conveniently removed by passing the solvent
quantities and long term storage are not                        through a short column of activated alumina.
recommended.                                                    This method is effective for both water-insoluble
                                                                and water-soluble solvents (except low
Examples of compounds that require testing at least             molecular weight alcohols). Since this method
every 3 months after opening and before use are;                does not destroy peroxides, the alumina should
                                                                be flushed with a dilute acid solution of
di-isopropyl ether             potassium metal                  potassium iodide or ferrous sulfate following
sodium amide                   divinyl acetylene                treatment to remove peroxides.
vinylidene chloride
                                                            b) Ferrous Salt Method: Peroxide impurities in
                                                               water-soluble solvents are easily removed by
Examples of compounds that require testing at least            shaking with a concentrated solution of ferrous
every 12 months after opening and before use are:              salt. A frequently used ferrous salt solution can
                                                               be prepared either from 60 gm of ferrous sulfate
dioxane                      butadiene                         + 6 mL concentrated sulfuric acid + 100 mL of
diethyl ether                methyl methacrylate               water, or from 100 gm of ferrous sulfate + 42
tetrahydrofuran              styrene                           mL concentrated hydrochloric acid + 85 mL of
diglyme                      tetralin                          water.
cyclohexene                  vinyl chloride
acrylonitrile                acrylic acid
There are several methods for the detection of
peroxides, two of which are described below.
                                                Hazards of Chemicals                                            9

III.      USER GUIDELINES FOR                                accomplished by washing with a 5% solution of
          WORKING WITH ETHERS                                sodium metabisulphite or ferrous sulphate.
PEROXIDE CONTENT AND USES                                    Evaporation: Evaporation (e.g. in a rotary
Ethers must be tested for peroxide content before            evaporator) concentrates the peroxides and poses a
using, especially where there is a potential for             hazard. When the volume is small and the
exposure to heat or shock during the process. The            evaporation is carried out near room temperature,
following are general guidelines concerning the              ethers with low levels of peroxides may be
degree of hazard associated with peroxide                    reasonably safe. When high volumes and/or high
contamination at the levels indicated.                       temperatures are used, the ether must be peroxide
                                                             free. Personal protective equipment is required, as
< 3 ppm           Reasonably safe for most                   noted in previous paragraph.
                  laboratory procedures involving
                  moderate quantities.                       Chromatography: Ethers with moderate levels of
                                                             peroxides are probably suitable for a variety of
3 - 50 ppm        Possible moderate hazard                   forms of chromatography, provided that the ether is
                  depending on type of use. Avoid            not going to be subsequently evaporated. Note,
                  concentration of the peroxides.            however, that peroxides bind to alumina and to some
                  Disposal recommended if the                other adsorbents. This may concentrate peroxides at
                  ether is not to be used.                   the top of a column, resulting in a hazard if the
                                                             column is not washed with a suitable solvent and is
> 50 ppm          Unacceptable; may pose a                   then allowed to dry out.
                  serious hazard. Dispose of ether
                  or remove peroxides by a
                                                             General Solvent: Ethers with moderate levels of
                  suitable procedure.
                                                             peroxides are probably suitable for a variety of
                                                             general laboratory procedures that do not concentrate
Ethers that show any evidence of crystal                     the peroxides. However, users should be aware of
formation in solution or around the cap, or of oil           potential problems associated with peroxides, and
formation, should be treated as extremely                    waste ether solvents should be disposed of
hazardous and should not be handled. Treat as a              immediately after use.
                                                             It should be noted that some alcohols, ketones,
Some alcohols such as 2-propanol (isopropanol) can           aldehydes, and alkenes are also susceptible to
form peroxides also. Previously, the presence of             peroxide formation.
peroxide had been reported, in a 99.5% pure sample
of isopropanol stored for several months in a partially
full clear glass bottle in strong daylight.

i) Relationship of Hazard to Type of Use                     REFERENCES:
The degree of hazard associated with peroxide
contamination is dependent on the way the ether is              1.     H.L. Jackson et al., Control of
used. Concentration of the peroxides will increase the                 Peroxidizable Compounds in: Safety in
hazard. The following are general guidelines for a                     the Chemical Laboratory, 1974, Vol. 3,
variety of common uses.                                                114-117.
                                                                2.     G.A. Mirafzal and H.E. Baumgarten,
Distillation: Only ethers containing 0 ppm of                                   Journal of Chemical Education,
peroxides should be used for distillations or refluxes,                   1988,         65:9, A226-A228.
and care must be taken to ensure that the distillation          3.     Bretherick’s    Handbook    of Reactive
container does not go dry. Leave at least 10% residue                     Chemical Hazards, 5th Ed., Vol. 1,
or “bottoms” when distilling peroxidizable                                pp.458, Butterworth Heinemann, 1995.
compounds. The ether must be tested prior to use in a
distillation, and must be peroxide free. Safety glasses
are essential at all times and a shield should be used
during the distillation or evaporation process. If it is
necessary to remove peroxides, it can be
10                                             Hazards of Chemicals

D.      TOXIC MATERIALS                                     RESPIRATORY TRACT
                                                            i) Interaction
I.      DEFINITION                                          • route of entry for gases, vapours and small
A toxic chemical is any substance that may cause            • absorption of gases and vapours in the
damage to structure, or disturbance to function, when          respiratory tract depends on:
it is ingested, inhaled or absorbed, or when applied                  • vapour pressure of material
to, injected into or developed within the body, in                    • concentration in inhaled air
relatively small amounts, by its chemical action
                                                                      • chemical properties
Class D – toxic and infectious materials comprise 3
                                                            ii) Symptoms of Inhalation Exposure:
subdivisions.    D1 materials are those causing
                                                            • headache
immediate and serious toxic effects. D2 materials are
                                                            • eye, nose, and throat irritation
those causing other toxic effects such as: chronic
(long-term);   carcinogenic     (causing    cancer);        • increased mucous in nose and throat
teratogenic (damages fetus); reproductive (damages          • narcotic effects (headache, confusion,
reproductive organs) mutagenic (damages bacterial              dizziness, collapse)
DNA); irritating; or sensitizing effects. D3                • Asphyxiation by gases occurs by displacing
substances include biohazardous and infectious                  oxygen in the air by inert gases or blocking
materials.                                                      transport or utilization of oxygen (e.g. carbon
                                                                monoxide, hydrogen sulphide)

Effects of toxic chemicals are related to:                  iii) Protection
- Routes of Entry                                           a) The preferred and most effective way of protecting
- Dose                                                           oneself from inhalation hazards involves
- Duration                                                       engineering controls such as fume hoods, general
                                                                 and local exhaust systems and biosafety cabinets.
                                                            b) Where engineering controls are not available,
II.     ROUTES OF ENTRY                                          there are a wide variety of respirators available to
SKIN and EYES                                                    eliminate exposure from inhaled particulates,
i) Interaction                                                   vapours, gases or fumes. The correct respirator
• skin acts as a barrier                                         and filter must be chosen; see chapter on Hazard
• reaction with a chemical may cause local
  irritation or tissue destruction
                                                            GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT
• a chemical may penetrate the skin and react
                                                            i) Interaction
   with tissue proteins causing allergic sensitivity
                                                            • ingestion of toxic substances can occur
• a chemical may penetrate the skin and enter the
                                                                 accidentally through poor hygiene practices or
   blood stream, especially through broken skin
                                                                 use of contaminated laboratory glassware for
• fat soluble solvents readily penetrate the skin                food or drink
• eyes are especially vulnerable to chemical exposure
                                                            ii) Symptoms
ii) Symptoms of Exposure                                    • mouth and throat discomfort
• dry, whitened skin                                        • gastrointestinal discomfort
• redness, swelling                                         • coma; death
• rash, blisters, itching
                                                            iii) Protection
iii) Protection                                             • Do NOT pipet by mouth.
• protect hands against cuts                                • Do NOT store food items in lab glassware bin or
• wear the appropriate gloves; remove gloves                      lab refrigerator.
   before touching uncontaminated surfaces                  • Do NOT eat in the lab.
• protect eyes with safety glasses, goggles,
                                                            • WASH hands after working with chemicals,
   or face shield.
                                                                  before leaving the lab and before eating.
                                              Hazards of Chemicals                                           11

INJECTION                                                  INDIVIDUAL SUSCEPTIBILITY
i) Interaction                                             Important factors include:
• occurs through mishaps with             hypodermic               ∗ general health
     needles and broken glassware.                                 ∗ heredity
                                                                   ∗ diet
ii) Symptoms                                                       ∗ age
• may be local or systemic                                         ∗ sex
iii) Protection                                            The properties of the chemicals being used must be
• wear protective gloves where feasible                    determined prior to use by reading labels and
• use forceps or broom and dustpan for cleaning            Material Safety Data Sheets.
      up broken glass
                                                           Any substance has the potential for being toxic
III.       DOSE                                            depending on:
                                                           • the amount or dose;
       the amount of the chemical that actually enters     • duration of exposure;
       the body                                            • the route of entry; and
       is determined by the concentration of the           • susceptibility of the individual being exposed.
       chemical and frequency and duration of
       exposure                                            An exposure limit or EL is the maximum allowed
                                                           airborne concentration to which a worker may be
IV.        DURATION                                        exposed. The BC regulatory limits define an 8-hour
                                                           and a 15-minute (short-term exposure limit or STEL)
i) Acute Exposure                                          time-weighted average concentration and sometimes
• usually single, short term exposure                      a ceiling limit for several hundred compounds. In
• acute toxicity results from the potential for a          the literature the time-weighted average limits may
     chemical to cause harm after a single, short          be defined as threshold limit values (TLV) or time-
     exposure.                                             weighted average (TWA) values.
• effects appear quickly
• effects often reversible                                 The LD50 or LC50 represent alternative criteria that
                                                           express the amount of a chemical that is known to be
ii) Chronic Exposure                                       fatal to 50% of a population of a specific animal
• repeated exposure                                        species.
• chronic toxicity is the potential for a chemical to
     cause harm following repeated exposure over           Both types of criteria are meant to be used as guides
     weeks, months or years                                by a professional hygienist in determining a safe
• effects take time to appear                              exposure level in a workplace. In both sets of
• usually irreversible effects                             criteria, the lower the value of the EL or LD50, the
E.g. mercury, carbon tetrachloride are cumulative          more toxic the chemical.
poisons requiring special work and clean-up
procedures.                                                For certain substances, a level that is as low as
                                                           reasonably achievable (ALARA) is required.

V.         EFFECTS OF TOXIC CHEMICALS                      A table of comparative exposure values is provided
LOCAL                                                      at the end of this chapter.
• area in contact with the chemical
        e.g. Acid, base burns.
• affects tissues and organs that are far removed
   from the site of contact
• chemical enters body and is distributed via blood
   e.g. Methanol inhalation or ingestion can cause
   permanent eye damage.
12                                             Hazards of Chemicals

E.       CORROSIVE MATERIALS                                Section 30.21 of the WCB Regulation specifically
                                                            refers to the use of perchloric acid. Perchloric acid
I.       DEFINITION                                         must be used in a special wash-down fume hood
                                                            made of a non-combustible material (usually stainless
Class E - corrosive substances are those materials          steel). The use of the hood must be posted and no
that, upon contact, cause visible destruction of, or        combustibles are permitted to be stored in the same
irreversible alterations to, tissue or metal. The eyes      hood. No more than 6.4 kg of perchloric acid may
are especially sensitive to permanent damage by             be stored in a laboratory. Stored perchloric acid
corrosive substances.                                       must be inspected monthly, and if any discoloration
                                                            is noted it must be disposed of immediately and in a
                                                            safer manner. Anhydrous perchloric acid may only
                                                            be used if freshly made; any unused portions must be
Large quantities of corrosive chemicals are used            disposed of safely at the end procedure and not kept
routinely in manufacturing and laboratory                   for more than one day.
procedures. Many household chemicals are corrosive
in nature and deserve the same respect and care.            Bases (caustics)
                                                            The most common bases found in laboratories are the
Corrosives comprise both acids and bases (caustics).        alkali metal hydroxides, ammonium hydroxide and
PH, a term that is often applied to describe the nature     organic amines. The alkali metal hydroxides are
of acids and bases, expresses, on a scale of 0 to 14,       especially destructive to the skin. The skin has a
the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a substance.         slippery feel when exposed to these materials because
Materials with pH 7 are considered neutral and non-         the hydroxyl radicals bond to the skin’s peptides.
corrosive; those below 7 are acidic and those above 7       Since the pain of exposure is delayed, it is extremely
are caustic or basic. The further away from pH 7 that       important that the skin be washed thoroughly for at
a substance is, the more corrosive it is.                   least 15 minutes after exposure to these alkali
                                                            solutions. The vapours from ammonium hydroxide
The exceptions to this physical property (pH) are           (ammonia) present serious respiratory hazards.
“superacids” and “superbases” which can be up to
billions of times stronger than sulfuric or
hydrochloric acids but exist in nonaqueous solvents.        III.      PREVENTION & EMERGENCIES
                                                            When mixed together, acids and bases will react
                                                            vigorously with each other. Proper handling and
The common inorganic acids include hydrochloric,
                                                            usage of corrosives require protective clothing to
nitric, sulphuric and phosphoric acids; phenols and
                                                            prevent skin, eye, or lung exposure. Serious burns
the halogens, such as bromine and chlorine are also
                                                            and eye or lung damage can result from contact with
acidic in nature. All hydrogen halides are acids that
                                                            corrosive materials.
are serious respiratory as well as skin hazards.
                                                            Exposure requires immediate action to wash away
Hydrogen fluoride presents a special hazard. Both
                                                            the material away with copious amounts of water.
the gas and liquid form are highly toxic and able to
                                                            Thick, oily corrosive liquids such as sulfuric acid and
penetrate deeply into the tissues and bone. Symptoms
                                                            40% sodium hydroxide are especially hazardous as it
(pain) of contact with hydrogen fluoride solutions
                                                            is difficult for water to quickly penetrate and dissolve
may be delayed with serious burns resulting. When
                                                            these materials. Washing, in this situation, may
skin is exposed to hydrogen fluoride solutions, flush
                                                            include wiping off the oily layer with a cloth while
with water for at least 15 minutes; apply calcium
                                                            keeping the affected body part in the water stream.
gluconate gel after washing with water; and in all
                                                            Proper and prompt decontamination can prevent or
cases of exposure, seek medical attention.
                                                            minimize serious injury.
Sulphuric acid is a very strong dehydrating acid.
                                                            Volatile, corrosive materials, such as volatile
When preparing aqueous solutions of this oxoacid
                                                            ammonium hydroxide, should be handled in the fume
and other concentrated acids, always add acid to
                                                            hood. Personal protective equipment, such as splash
water, very slowly. There will be a large ‘heat of
                                                            goggles, rubber gloves, substantial shoes and a lab
solution’ producing a rapid increase in temperature
                                                            coat or rubber apron, should always be worn when
during mixing. Continual stirring of the solution as
                                                            handling corrosive materials.
well as the use of “distilled water” ice for cooling
(substitute for water) is recommended.
                                                      Hazards of Chemicals                                                          13

F.        DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE                                            d) wherever practicable, the work must be safely
          MATERIALS                                                          isolated from workers by distance.

                                                                          Dry picric acid is a highly explosive material that is
                                                                          widely used as a DNA marker. Section 30.22 of the
Class F - Dangerously reactive materials are those                        WCB Regulation states that “solid picric acid must
substances that:                                                          be stored with at least 10% moisture content and
a) undergo vigorous polymerization, decomposition                         regular inspections must be made to ensure that the
    or condensation;                                                      minimum moisture content is maintained. Solutions
b) become self-reactive under conditions of shock,                        of picric acid must not be allowed to accumulate and
    or increase in pressure or temperature; or                            dry around cap threads”. It is important to: dispose
c) react vigorously with water to release poisonous                       of old stock; order minimum amounts; and check
    gas.                                                                  current stocks annually to ensure solid material has
                                                                          not dried out. Do Not Handle dry picric acid
II.       HAZARDS & HANDLING                                              containers; call 822-2643 or 822-5909 for advice.
WCB Regulation 30.20 states that:
a) quantities of explosive and highly reactive                            Acid halides, such as acetyl chloride or phosphoryl
   material available in the work area must be                            chloride, react violently with water.       Lithium
   restricted to amounts immediately required for                         aluminum hydride spontaneously combusts in air.
   the work day;                                                          Some organic monomers, such as butadiene, will
b) if the nature of the laboratory work suggests that                     self-polymerize in air. Read labels and material
   explosions or implosions may result, the                               safety data sheets carefully to determine reactivity
   laboratory apparatus or equipment involved in                          and compatibility characteristics of the chemicals
   such work must be adequately shielded;                                 being used.
c) subsequently, the operators must be provided
   with and must wear suitable protective devices;

The following is a short list of commonly used chemicals and their respective toxicities*.

         Chemical Name                                      El – 8 hr                       EL – 15 min             LD50/LC50
                                                                                               ppm              mg/kg body weight
                                            ppm         mg/m            Designation
Acetone                                     250          593                                      500
Benzene                                      0.5          2              Skin, K1, A              2.5
Chloroform                                    2           10             Skin, K2, R2
Mercury, metal & inorganic                              0.025           Skin, R2, Z, A
Sodium chloride (table salt)                                                                                           3750 (rat)
Sodium cyanide or Cyanides                              5 ceiling            Skin                                       15 (rat)
*Data in table of Exposure Limits (EL) from BC Workers’ Compensation Act, Occupational, Health & Safety Regulation, 1998

Skin designation indicates that skin absorption can contribute to overall exposure.
     K1 – confirmed human carcinogen
     K2 –suspected human carcinogen
     R1 – a proven reproductive toxin
     R2 – a possible reproductive toxin
     Z -- sensitizer
     A – ALARA substance; i.e. substances to which exposure of workers must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable
14                                                Hazard Information

                       CHAPTER 4. HAZARD INFORMATION

     A. INTRODUCTION                                          Legislation to implement WHMIS has been
                                                              enacted on both the federal and provincial/
     The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information            territorial levels. Federal requirements deal with
     System (WHMIS) is a major response to the                the importation and sale of controlled products;
     Canadian worker's right-to-know about the safety         provincial legislation covers the storage, handling
     and health hazards of materials used in the              and use of controlled products in the workplace
     workplace.                                               (except in federal government workplaces).

     WHMIS        legislation provides       employees,       Provincial legislation, through amendments to
     employers and suppliers nationwide with specific         occupational safe and health regulations, covers
     vital information about hazardous materials              the responsibility of the employer to provide:
     (called controlled products in the legislation).
                                                              ♦          Workplace labelling and identification;
     This chapter will provide basic information about        ♦          A material safety data sheet where the
     the key elements of WHMIS:                                          employer uses a controlled product;
                                                              ♦          Worker education on controlled
     ♦        Controlled product labelling - which                       products.
              alerts workers to the identity and dangers
              of products and to the basic safety             C. WHAT IS A CONTROLLED
              precautions;                                       PRODUCT?
     ♦        Material safety data sheets (MSDS) -
              technical bulletins which provide
              detailed hazard and precautionary               A controlled product is a substance or
              information; and                                material that meets or exceeds criteria for
     ♦        Worker education and training                   inclusion in one or more of the following
              programs.                                       WHMIS hazard classes and divisions.

     B. BACKGROUND                                            The 6 classes and 8 symbols for WHMIS
                                                              controlled products are presented in a table on the
     Exposure to hazardous materials can contribute to        following page.
     many serious health effects such as kidney or lung
     damage, sterility, cancer, burns and dermatitis.         PRODUCTS PARTIALLY EXEMPTED
     Some materials can cause fires or explosions. A          FROM WHMIS (covered by other acts)
     federal impact analysis on the use of hazardous          INCLUDE:
     materials in the workplace estimated the social
     cost due to exposure to those materials in 1984          o        Consumer products
     was about $600 million. In British Columbia,             o        Cosmetics and drugs
     from 1982 to 1986, workplace exposure to                 o        Explosives
     hazardous chemicals resulted in approximately            o        Pesticides
     4,300 wage-loss disease claims, at an estimated          o        Radioactive substances
     compensation cost of $26 million.
                                                              For exempted products, WHMIS regulations
     The purpose of WHMIS is to help reduce the               require employers to educate workers in the safe
     likelihood of disease or injury in the workplace. It     handling of these products and to use workplace
     was developed through the collective efforts of          labelling when, for example, contents are
     labour, industry and federal, provincial and             transferred to new containers.
     territorial regulatory agencies. The Workers'
     Compensation Board of BC has been active in
     formulating the system and producing the written
     materials for its implementation.
                                               Hazard Information                                                 15

Hazard Symbol &                       Associated Hazards                             Handling Information
Class A -                 an explosion hazard because the gas is being held      do not drop cylinder
Compressed Gas          in a cylinder under pressure                             keep cylinder away from potential
                          container can explode if heated in a fire            sources of ignition
                          container may explode if dropped                       store containers in a designated area

Class B -                 the material burns; represents a fire hazard          keep away from heat sources and
Combustible and           may burn at relatively low temperatures;             oxidizing materials
Flammable Material      flammables will ignite at lower temperatures than       never smoke in vicinity
                        combustibles                                            store in cool, fire-proof area, as
                          may burst into flame spontaneously in air, or        designated by supervisor
                        release flammable gas on contact with water
                          may cause fire when exposed to heat, sparks,
                        flames or friction
Class C –                 poses fire\explosion risk in presence of Class B       keep away from Class B materials
Oxidizing Material      materials                                                store in designated area
                          may cause fire, react violently or cause explosion     keep away from ignition sources
                        in the presence of combustible materials such as         never smoke in vicinity
                        wood and solvents                                        wear eye, face, and hand protection,
                          may react violently with reducing agents             and protective clothing
                          may burn skin and eyes upon contact
Class D - Division 1      potentially fatal substances                           handle with extreme caution
Poisonous and             may be fatal or cause permanent damage if inhaled,     avoid contact with skin or eyes; wear
Infectious materials;   swallowed or absorbed into body                        appropriate personal protective
                          may burn eyes or skin upon contact                   equipment and clothing
Causing immediate
                                                                                 avoid inhaling; work in well-ventilated
and serious toxic                                                              area and/or wear respiratory protection
effects                                                                          wash and shower thoroughly after each
                                                                                 store in designated areas only
Class D - Division 2      not immediately dangerous to health                    avoid eye, skin contact by using
Causing other toxic       may cause death or permanent damage as a result      appropriate personal protective
effects                 of repeated exposures over time                        equipment and clothing
                          may be skin or eye irritant or sensitizer              avoid inhaling; work in well-ventilated
                          may cause cancer                                     area and/or wear respiratory protection
                          may cause reproductive or teratogenic effects          store in designated areas
Class D - Division 3     may cause a serious disease resulting in illness or     take every precaution to avoid
Biohazardous and        death                                                  contamination
Infectious Materials     may damage metal                                        handle only when wearing necessary
                                                                               protective equipment
                                                                                 handle in designated areas only where
                                                                               appropriate engineering controls are in
Class E -                 causes severe eye and skin irritation upon contact     keep containers tightly closed
Corrosive material        causes severe tissue damage with prolonged             avoid skin and eye contact by wearing
                        contact                                                eye, face and hand protection and
                          may be harmful if inhaled                            protective clothing
                                                                                 avoid inhaling; work in well-ventilated
                                                                               area and/or wear respiratory protection
Class F -                 unstable; may react with water to release toxic or     keep away from heat
Dangerously             flammable gas                                            open containers carefully; do not drop
Reactive Material         May explode as a result of shock, friction or          store material in designated cool,
                        increase in temperature                                flame-proof area
                          may undergo vigorous polymerization
16                                             Hazard Information

D. THE THREE KEY ELEMENTS OF                               ♦ Emergency telephone number
   INFORMATION DELIVERY                                    3.   THE EMPLOYER'S ROLE - AT THE
                      WHMIS                                The employer is responsible for checking that supplier
•    Hazardous materials information system in             labels have been provided and applied to controlled
     workplace.                                            products received at the workplace.
•    Involves communication from suppliers of
     controlled products to employers & to workers.        Workplace labels are necessary on containers of
•    Labelling; MSDS; worker education/training.           controlled products produced on site, and in many
                                                           cases on containers into which product has been
                                                           transferred from a supplier's container. Workplace
I.       FIRST ELEMENT: LABELLING                          labels provide three types of information :
                                                           ♦         Identifier
Various types of labels or other identifiers are           ♦         Safe Handling Information
necessary to alert workers to the hazards and safe         ♦         See Material Safety Data Sheet
procedures necessary for use of hazardous products in
                                                           Workplace labels may be in the language of choice at
the workplace.
                                                           the workplace. Hazard symbols and the use of the
1.   THE SUPPLIER'S ROLE - SALE AND                        hatch-mark border are optional. A sample workplace
     DISTRIBUTION                                          label is shown below.
When a supplier produces or imports a product for                                 Solvent X
distribution and sale in Canada, that supplier must
prepare a supplier label that typically provides seven                   Keep away from sparks, heat
pieces of information:                                                          and open flame
♦ Product identification                                            Use local exhaust ventilation or NIOSH
♦ Hazard symbols                                                     approved organic vapour respirator.
                                                                          Wear neoprene gloves and
♦ Risk phrases
                                                                            chemical splash goggles
♦ Precautionary statements
♦ First aid measures                                                             See MSDS
♦ A statement advising that a Material Safety Data
     Sheet (MSDS) is available
♦ Supplier identification                                  4.   Other Means of Identification
2.   LABELLING - IN LABORATORIES                           A simple identifier of the product in a container is
Supplier labels from laboratory supply houses,             sufficient when the product will be:
packaged in <10 kilogram quantities, and intended for      ♦ Used in a laboratory; or
laboratory use, must have:                                 ♦ Will be under the control of the employee who
                                                                transferred the product to the new container for
♦    Product identifier                                         use on the same shift.
♦    Risk phrases
♦    Precautionary measures                                Products produced in a laboratory for research, and
♦    First aid measures                                    development work in the same lab, do not require a
♦    Reference to availability of MSDS                     workplace label, only a means of identification. In
                                                           addition, if the controlled product is transferred to
Supplier labels for laboratory samples, in <10             piping systems, reaction vessels, etc., the employer
kilogram quantities with no available MSDS must            must ensure the system is properly identified as to
have the following information:                            contents.
♦ Distinctive WHMIS label border
                                                           When hazardous wastes that contain controlled
♦ Product identifier
                                                           products are produced and stored in a workplace, their
♦ Supplier identifier
                                                           location must be identified with placards or other
♦ Chemical identity of ingredients where known             similar means.
                                                  Hazard Information                                               17

Workers must be instructed in the information                 sheet when the data sheet at the workplace is three
contained on labels and identifiers. The employer             years old.
must take steps to ensure labels are not defaced and are
easy to read at all times.                                    If the employer produces a controlled product for use
                                                              at the workplace, the employer must develop an
                                                              MSDS to accompany workplace labelling for it. Such
II.      SECOND ELEMENT: MATERIAL                             data may be in the language of choice at the
         SAFETY DATA SHEETS (MSDS)                            workplace.

                                                              Copies of supplier and employer MSDS must be
An MSDS is a technical bulletin, which provides               accessible to employees, close to their work areas and
detailed hazard, precautionary and emergency                  available during each workshift. MSDS may be hard
information on a product.                                     copies or available on a computer if the employer takes
                                                              all reasonable steps to keep the system in active
The data sheet is the second element of the WHMIS             working order. Workers must know how to access
information system and supplements the alert                  MSDS, and must be educated in the content required
information provided on labels. WHMIS provides                on the data sheet and the applicable information in it.
minimum content requirements for data sheets:                 A sample MSDS for bleach is included at the end of
                                                              this chapter.
                                                              III.     THIRD ELEMENT: WORKER
All data sheets must provide must provide the                          EDUCATION
following information:
♦ Product information                                         8.     EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITY
♦ Hazardous ingredients
♦ Physical data                                               i) Need to establish education and training programs
♦ Fire and explosion hazard                                   for workers that includes:
♦ Reactivity data                                             a) Education in how WHMIS works
                                                              b) Education in the hazards of controlled products;
♦ Toxicological properties (health effects)
                                                              c) Training in procedures for the safe storage,
♦ Preventive measures
                                                                 handling, use and disposal of a controlled product.
♦ First aid measures                                          d) Training in procedures to be followed in an
♦ Preparation information with date of preparation,              emergency with the product and when airborne or
     name and phone number of persons or corporate               other emissions from the product are present.
     departments to be contacted for additional
                                                              9.     WORKER’S RESPONSIBILITY
No section on the data sheet can be left blank.               Workers need to be educated if they:
No data sheet may be more than three years old.               a) Store, handle, use or dispose of a controlled product
                                                                 or supervise workers performing those duties; or
6.    SUPPLIER RESPONSIBILITY                                 b) Work near the controlled product such that their
                                                                 health and safety could be at risk during normal
Suppliers must develop or obtain an MSDS in both                 storage, handling, use or disposal, during
official languages for each controlled product they sell         maintenance operations or in emergencies.
or import. Information must be current and prepared
not more than three years before sale or importation.         The objective of the program of instruction must be
A copy of the MSDS must be sent to the purchaser on           to ensure that workers are able to apply the
or before the date of sale at the time of first purchase.     information to protect their own health and safety.
Purchasers may request data sheets in either or both of
the official languages.                                       The program of instruction must be developed and
                                                              implemented in consultation with the safety and health
7.    EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITY                                 committee or representative. It must be reviewed at
                                                              least once a year or more often if conditions at the
Employers must ensure that MSDS's are received for
                                                              workplace or information on the product change the
all controlled products supplied to the workplace. The
                                                              risk to workers.
employer must contact the supplier for an updated
18                                             Hazard Information

                    MSDS                                   Incompatibility: Forms toxic, reactive chloramines
                                                           with nitrogen compounds (ammonia,urea, amines,
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
                                                           isocyanurates). Forms explosive nitrogen trichloride
                (December, 2001)
                                                           with ammonium salts in the presence of acid.
IDENTIFICATION                                             Contact with acid, liberates highly toxic chlorine gas.
                                                           Can form explosive methyl hypochlorite with
MSDS RECORD NUMBER                 2853625
                                                           methanol. Some metals (copper, nickel, zinc, cobalt)
DATE OF MSDS                       2000-12
                                                           speed up decomposition of NaOCl. Solutions are
CURRENCY NOTE                      This MSDS was
                                                           corrosive to many metals.
provided to CCOHS in electronic    form on 2001-09-
                                                           Reactivity: Avoid exposure to heat and light.
                                                           Hazardous Decomposition Products: Cl2, NaOH,
MANUFACTURER                                               Flammability:
Caledon Laboratories Ltd                                   Not combustible.      Solution does not support
ADDRESS                                                    combustion. Closed containers can explode in fire
40 Armstrong Avenue,Georgetown                             situation.
Ontario,Canada L7G 4R9; Phone: 905-877-                    Extinguishing Media:          Use an extinguisher
0101;Fax: 905-877-6666                                     appropriate to the surrounding material that is
EMERGENCY TELEPHONE NO.                                    burning.
613-996-6666 (CANUTEC                                      Flash Point: Not applicable
                                                           Autoignition Temperature: Not applicable
                                                           Hazardous Combustion Products:
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA                                       Cl2, oxygen, sodium chlorate.

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION                                     TOXICOLOGICAL               PROPERTIES         AND
Chemical Name and Synonyms:                                HEALTH DATA
Sodium hypochlorite solution 5%                            Toxicological Data:
Chemical Family:     Hypochlorous acid salt                LD50: (oral, rat) 8,910 mg/kg; (dermal, rabbit)
Chemical Formula: NaClO×H2O in H2O                         >10,000 mg/kg
Product Use:         Laboratory reagent                    LC50: (rat) >10,500 mg/m3/1h (unspecified strength)
                                                           Effects of Acute Exposure to Product:
HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS OF MATERIALS                         Inhaled: Mist can irritate nose and throat. If mixed
Ingredients         %    TLV Units        CAS No.          with acids, or warmed to > 40C, releases poisonous
Sodium hypochlorite 5-10 1 ppm (as Cl2)   7681-52-9        chlorine gas which may cause severe lung damage.
                                                           Inhalation of vapours, mist or fumes may cause
PHYSICAL DATA                                              bronchial irritation, coughing, laboured breathing,
Physical State:            Liquid                          nausea, and pulmonary edema.
Appearance and Odour:      Pale     yellow     liquid;     Skin contact: Mist and solutions cause irritation or
                           chlorine-like odour             severe chemical burns.
Odour Threshold (ppm): 1 ppm (as Cl2)                      Eye contact: Mist and solutions cause irritation or
Boiling Point (degrees C): Decomposes above 40C            severe chemical burns. Concentrated solutions can
Freezing Point (degrees C): -6C                            cause permanent eye damage.
pH:                          ~11                           Ingested: Ingestion may cause erosion of the
Specific Gravity:          ~1.1 (6%)                       mucous membranes. May cause edema of the
                                                           pharynx, glottis and larynx and perforation of
SHIPPING DESCRIPTION                                       esophagus or stomach. Ingestion or inhalation of
UN:                   1791                                 large amounts may lead to vomiting, circulatory
T.D.G. Class:         8                                    collapse, confusion, delirium, coma and death.
Pkg. Group:           III                                  Effects of Chronic Exposure to Product:
                                                           Prolonged or repeated contact with solutions
REACTIVITY DATA                                            containing 4 to 6% NaOCl can cause allergic skin
Chemical Stability: Decomposes slowly. Process is          reaction. Sensitized people can react to very dilute
speeded up by exposure to heat and light.                  (0.04-0.06%) solutions.
                                                 Hazard Information                                                  19

Carcinogenicity:                                             when not in use and when empty. Empty containers
No human information available. Not carcinogenic             may contain hazardous residues; treat with caution.
in animal testing by ingestion or skin contact.              Storage: Store in suitable, labelled containers, in a
Teratogenicity: No human or animal information               cool, dry, well-ventilated area, out of direct sunlight.
available                                                    Use corrosion-resistant materials, lighting and
Reproductive Effects:No human information                    ventilation in storage area.       Store away from
available. Some effects demonstrated in testing with         incompatible materials. Keep containers tightly
mice.                                                        closed when not in use and when empty. Protect
Mutagenicity: No human information. Mutagenic                from damage, and inspect frequently for signs of
in some short-tern testing, but not in testing on live       leaking.
                                                             FIRST AID MEASURES
                                                             Eyes: Immediately flush eyes with running water for
Engineering Controls: Local exhaust ventilation              at least 30 minutes, holding eyelids open during
recommended.                                                 flushing. Avoid flushing contaminated water into
Respiratory Protection: NIOSH/MSHA approved                  unaffected eye. Get medical attention immediately.
mist mask, mist half-face respirator or supplier-air         Skin: Remove contaminated clothing under running
respirator. High or unknown concentrations, as in            water, including watches, rings, belts, and shoes.
fire or spill conditions: positive-pressure full face-       Wear protective gloves to avoid contact. Flush
piece self-contained breathing apparatus or positive-        affected areas with running water for at least 30
pressure full face-piece supplied-air respirator with        minutes. Get medical advice.             Decontaminate
auxiliary positive-pressure self-contained breathing         clothing completely before reuse, or discard.
apparatus                                                    Inhalation: Immediately remove victim to fresh air
Eye Protection: Chemical safety goggles and/or               (caution must be used by rescuers to avoid exposure;
face shield.                                                 use buddy system and appropriate protective
Skin Protection: Natural or butyl rubber, neoprene,          equipment). Give oxygen and get medical attention
nitrile rubber, polyethylene, PVC, Viton, Saranex,           for any breathing difficulty. If breathing has stopped,
Responder gloves. Other impervious protective                begin artificial respiration and get medical attention
clothing, sleeves, apron, coverall, boots, sufficient to     immediately.
prevent contact.                                             Ingestion: If victim is alert and not convulsing, give
Other PPE:                 Safety shower and eye-            1 to 2 glasses of water to drink to dilute material. DO
wash fountain in work area.                                  NOT induce vomiting. If spontaneous vomiting
Leak and Spill Procedure: Restrict access to area of         occurs, have victim lean forward with head down to
spill. Ventilate area. Cleanup personnel must be             avoid breathing in of vomitus, rinse mouth and
thoroughly trained in the hazards of this chemical and       administer more water. Obtain medical attention
its safe use, and must wear protective equipment and         immediately.
clothing sufficient to prevent inhalation of mist or
fumes, and contact with skin and eyes. Prevent from          REFERENCES
entering sewers and waterways. Contain spill with
                                                             CCINFO disc: Cheminfo, December 2000
inert absorbent material. Collect in suitable, labelled,
                                                             Budavari: The Merck Index, 12th ed., 1997
covered containers for disposal.         Contaminated
                                                             Sax, Lewis: Hawleys Condensed Chemical
absorbent may pose the same hazards as the
                                                             Dictionary, 11th ed., 1987
chemical; treat with caution. Flush area of spill with
large amounts of running water.
                                                             ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Waste Disposal: Follow all federal, provincial and
local regulations for disposal.                              Date Issued:              November 25, 1991
Handling: Workers using this chemical must be                Revision:                 December 2000
thoroughly trained in its hazards and its safe use.          MSDS:                     7880-6
Avoid all contact and inhalation. Use the smallest
possible amount for the purpose, in designated areas         Prepared by: Caledon Laboratories Ltd. (905) 877-0101
with adequate ventilation. Keep containers closed
20                                     Equipment and Experimental Design

In Chapter 2, a list of general laboratory safety rules    secondary container that is able to contain the contents
was provided. The next several sections provide more       of the primary container in the event of a leak or spill.
detail on certain commonly used laboratory equipment,      The secondary container should be shatter-proof and
safety equipment and procedures.                           leak-proof; a heavy rubber or plastic pail is
                                                           Emergency procedures to follow if an accident occurs
It is vital that laboratory personnel understand how to    while transporting hazardous materials must be in
correctly and safely use the apparatus that is needed in   place. This includes having access to clean-up
any given experiment. This includes the use of basic       materials and the procedures for using them properly.
types of glassware, distillation, filtration and low       The site should be isolated and acecess limited to
pressure apparatus as well as more expensive and           authorized personnel. The designated emergency
sophisticated instruments such as gas and liquid           response team (Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services)
chromatographs and spectrometers.                          should be contacted for assistance or back-up.
                                                           Detailed draft procedures for moves of large numbers
Awareness of potential hazards in the use of all types     of containers between buildings on a UBC site are
of equipment must be recognized and the appropriate        provided in Appendix C.
procedures in place; This includes emergency
procedures for responding to utility shutdowns and         The transport of dangerous goods (i.e. hazardous
interruptions requiring evacuation. Equipment must be      materials with acute hazards) from any UBC site to
properly maintained in order for it to operate safely      another location off-campus is regulated by the
and correctly. Broken or chipped glassware or leaking      Transportation of Dangerous Goods (TDG) Act.
hoses should not be used especially with low pressure      Persons who ship, carry or receive such goods must
systems.                                                   have current certification of training. The Department
                                                           of Health, Safety and Environment offers certification
Written procedures are required wherever the               courses of different types during the year. For
equipment, process or materials are potentially            additional information on this topic, call 822 – 5909.
                                                           C. REFRIGERATORS
A log book should be used for all potentially              When chemicals need to be stored in a refrigerator or
hazardous equipment.                                       freezer, certain guidelines must be followed. The
                                                           materials must be securely packaged, tightly sealed and
Advise co-workers of potenial hazards. Post                properly labelled. Highly reactive materials must be
emergency procedures with name and phone                   inspected regularly to ensure they are secure, tightly
number of contact person.                                  sealed and in good condition. Flammable materials
                                                           (flash point < 37.8°C) that require cold storage must
                                                           be stored in an explosion proof unit. All volatile
Prior to the start of all new projects, tasks, or
                                                           materials must be compatible with the construction
processes, a hazard assessment should be done.
                                                           materials of their containment.

                                                           D. TEMPERATURE CONTROL
A form for assessing potential hazards of
projects is provided in Appendix A. A hazard               Experimental investigations can be carried out under a
control assessment guide is in Appenidx B.                 variety of temperature conditions.

                                                           Several methods for heating up reactions are
B. TRANSPORTING CHEMICALS                                  available. However, they are not always
Chemicals, when they must be transported to another
laboratory or building, must be packaged properly. The
primary container is closed tightly and placed into a
                                        Equipment and Experimental Design                                        21

Although easy to use, heating mantles are not always
the best means of applying heat. Hot spots can quickly      F. REDUCED PRESSURE
develop causing sudden boiling and eruption of the             OPERATIONS
contents of the vessel being heated. It is also difficult
to know the exact temperature at the surface of the         Glass vacuum containers, such as desiccators and
vessel or its contents at any particular time.              flasks, should be wrapped with tape to prevent glass
                                                            from flying in the event of an implosion or explosion.
When heating flammable solvents to very high
temperatures, a hot water, oil or sand bath may be          When carrying out filtration or distillation procedures
appropriate. A stirred water or oil bath is easily          under reduced pressure, the heavy-walled glassware
controlled and monitored. Select your heat source           and tubing must be undamaged and able to withstand
based on the characteristic of the chemicals being used,    the conditions of reduced pressure. Cold traps
the temperature required, and the procedure being           should be used to prevent leaking of vapours from
followed.                                                   the experiment to the oil of the vacuum pump or the
                                                            water passing through a water aspirator.
Heat sources should not be left unattended (e.g. gas
burners, hot plates, heating mantles, sand baths, etc.)     Rotoevaporation of solvents using a water aspirator is
unless emergency procedures, that include a contact         not appropriate where the vapour being removed is
name and phone number, are posted adjacent to the           highly odorous or toxic unless a suitable cold trap is
apparatus. Automatic shut-off systems for unattended        available to capture them. Alternative enclosed
experiments that depend on heat, water, vacuum or           systems are recommended.
power sources are recommended.
                                                            Use heavy-walled glass and tubing. Wrap with
Experiments requiring cooling need careful                  tape of nylon net. Use cold trap.
consideration of the process being used. Combinations
of solvent and dry ice may be highly flammable. Low
temperature coolants, besides being a source of
“freezer burns”, can condense oxygen creating a             G. CRYOGENIC MATERIALS
potentially explosive atmosphere. Proper personal           Most cryogenic liquids can cause frost bite or freezer
protective equipment such as a lab coat, face shield        burn to the skin. A few cryogenic liquids, such as
and suitable gloves are recommended.                        hydrogen, propane and liquefied natural gas, are
                                                            flammable. Fluorine is very toxic and also corrosive.
Very low temperature coolants may condense                  Oxygen and fluorine are both strong oxidizers.
oxygen and cause an explosion with
combustible materials.                                      When handling these materials, the appropriate hand
                                                            and eye protection against cold hazards as well as
                                                            chemical hazards must be used.
Wherever there is a flow of gas or liquid into a            H. CENTRIFUGE SAFETY
system, there is danger of suck-back of those fluids
into the original container or system (eg. gas cylinder     Ensure tabletop centrifuges are securely anchored to
or domestic water supply). This is easily prevented         a location where its vibration will not cause bottles or
by the use of one-way valves. Where goose-neck              equipment to fall. Other rules for safe operation of
tops are present, it is necessary to install a one-way      centrifuges are:
valve on the tap or plumbing system if a hose from          •    Lid must be closed during operation.
the top into the sink is used.                              •    Centrifuge must be monitored until full
                                                                 operating speed is attained and the machine is
                                                                 running safely without vibration.
                                                            •    If vibration occurs, stop centrifuge immediately
                                                                 and check load balances; check swing-out
                                                                 buckets for clearance and support.
                                                            •    Discard plastic centrifuge tubes after one cycle
                                                                 of ultra-centrifugation (high failure rate).
                                                            •    Use nitrocellulose tubes only when transparent
                                                                 and flexible (fresh); they must never be heated
                                                                 because of explosive possibility.
22                                      Equipment and Experimental Design

•    Rotors and buckets must be regularly cleaned
     with non-corrosive cleaning solutions.                         Use the proper regulator. Maintain
•    Record of all uses and maintenance activities                            appropriately.
     must be kept.
                                                            3.    With the flow-control valve at the regulator outlet
I. SAFETY SHOWERS AND EYE                                         closed, turn the delivery pressure-adjusting screw
   WASHES                                                         clockwise until the required delivery pressure is
Emergency showers and eye washes should be                        reached.
available to all laboratory personnel who work with
large quantities of hazardous materials. Plant              4.    Control of flow can be regulated by means of a
Operations personnel are responsible for the annual               valve supplied in the regulator outlet or by a
testing of showers.                                               supplementary valve put in a pipeline downstream
                                                                  from the regulator.
Laboratory supervisors are responsible for                  5.    The regulator itself should not be used as a flow
ensuring that eyewashes are flushed weekly to                     control by adjusting the pressure to obtain
clear them of particulate that could damage                       different flow rates.
eyes during emergency use.
                                                            II.       RULES FOR HANDLING
                                                                      COMPRESSED GAS CYLINDERS
                                                            1.    Know the hazards associated with the gases.
Pressure regulators are used in a system using
compressed gas to reduce pressure from high-pressure        2.    Use the appropriate personal protective equipment
sources, such as gas cylinders or gas supply pipelines,           (i.e. foot guards).
to a safe working pressure range.
                                                            3.    Keep cylinders away from fire, sparks, and
The pressure regulator should be attached to a cylinder           electricity.
without forcing the threads. If the inlet of a regulator
does not fit the cylinder outlet, no excess effort should   4.    Always use a cylinder cart for transport.
be made to force the fitting. A poor fit may indicate
that the regulator is not intended for use on the gas       5.    Cylinders should be chained in place or
chosen. Regulators for "fuel” gases (H2, acetylene,                    otherwise secured at all times; chain cylinders
etc.) generally have a left hand thread.                          to the cylinder cart.
The procedures for the safe use of compressed gas           6.    Protect cylinders from any objects that might cut
cylinders in UBC laboratories are provided at the end             or scrape them.
of this chapter.
                                                            7.    Do not drop cylinders, or otherwise permit them
I.       RULES FOR USING PRESSURE                                 to strike each other.
                                                            8.    Leave valve cap on cylinder until secured and
The following procedure should be used to obtain the              ready for use.
required delivery pressure:
                                                            9.    Store with valve caps in place, even when empty.
1.   After the regulator has been attached to the
     cylinder valve outlet, turn the delivery               10. Ground all cylinders containing flammable gases.
     pressure-adjusting screw counter clockwise until it
     turns freely.                                          11. Use only in an upright position.

2.   Open the cylinder valve slowly until the tank          12. All valves should be closed when not in use.
     gauge on the regulator registers the cylinder
     pressure. At this point, the cylinder pressure         13. Use the proper regulator for a particular gas.
     should be checked to see if it is at the expected
     value. A large error may indicate that the cylinder
     valve is leaking.
                                        Equipment and Experimental Design                              23

14. Carefully open all valves and adjust gas flow              hydrogen bromide to react with the cylinder
    rates; keep cylinder between yourself and                  wall.

15. Always consider cylinders to be full, and handle

16. Discontinue using a high-pressure cylinder when
    the pressure approaches 30 psi, and clearly label
    “EMPTY”, then remove for return to vendor.

17. Oily regulators should never be used with oxygen.
    Oxygen under pressure will rapidly oxidize oil or
    grease, resulting in an explosion.

18. Acetylene under pressure can decompose with
    explosive force. It can explode with extreme
    violence if ignited. Copper or brass (with more
    than 65% copper) can form explosive compounds
    in contact with acetylene.

19. Glass equipment should not be pressurized. A
    general rule is no pressure greater than 25 cm (10
    inches) of water, without special protective

20. Never mix gases in a cylinder. Explosion,
    contamination, corrosion, and other hazards can

21. Cylinders containing large amounts of a
    flammable gas (hydrogen, acetylene, and
    ethylene) should be stored outside in a protected
    area and piped into the working area.

22. Store in a fire-proof, well-ventilated area.

23. Storage area temperature should not exceed 37.8°;
    a minimum temperature will also be required
    depending on the gases in storage.

24. Store gases supporting combustion (O2, CO2 etc.)
    at least 7.5 m (25 feet) from fuel gases, preferably
    in another gas storage area.

25. Do not transport in closed vehicles.

Corrosive compressed gases, such as hydrogen
bromide, should not be stored, unused, for
extensive periods of time.

26. There is a danger of the valves corroding and
    leaking, as well as the potential for the cylinder
    pressure to exceed its limits to explode. The
    pressure excess may be due to the production of
    hydrogen when moisture is present causing
24                                          Equipment and Experimental Design

                                          Chemical Safety Program
                                         IN UBC LABORATORIES
     Health, Safety
     & Environment
                                                                 9.   “Smallest Practical size ” means “the use of the
SCOPE                                                                 smallest size that is returnable, and would not require
                                                                      changing gas cylinders more than once a month.
This procedure describes the protocol for the safe use of
compressed gas cylinders in UBC laboratories.                    10. “Toxic” is as defined by WHMIS, and includes Class
                                                                     D, Division 1, materials causing immediate and
                                                                     serious toxic effects and Class D, Division 2 (very
PURPOSE                                                              toxic and toxic chronic effect materials). Examples of
These procedures are designed to minimize the occurrence             highly toxic gases found in UBC laboratories include,
and impact of accidents resulting from the use of                    but are not limited to: hydrogen cyanide (HCN),
compressed gas cylinders in laboratories, and ensure that            hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), chlorine
the use of compressed gases in laboratories is conducted in          (Cl2), fluorine (F2), bromine (Br2), carbon monoxide
compliance with all relevant legislation.                            (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen bromide
                                                                     (HBr), hydrogen fluoride (HF), and ammonia (NH3).
                                                                 11. For additional information, consult with HS&E
1.     Compressed gases, that present additional hazards to          personnel.
       UBC laboratory workers and researchers, must be
       controlled.                                               PROCEDURE
2.     These procedures take into consideration the BC           A. General
       Workers Compensation Health and Safety Regulation,
                                                                 1.   All compressed gas cylinders are labelled with the
       BC Fire Code and the Gas Safety Act.
                                                                      following information:
                                                                      •    Name of gas
3.     These procedures address issues concerning the
                                                                      •    Name of supplier
       disposal of compressed gas cylinders in a safe and
                                                                      •    Date of purchase
       environmentally friendly manner. The purchaser of
                                                                      •    Date of hydrostatic testing (by supplier)
       any compressed gas, that is not returnable, is
                                                                      The person responsible will be defined as:
       responsible for the disposal costs.
                                                                      •    The supervisor of the shop or laboratory where
                                                                           the cylinder is being used, or
4.     These procedures address issues of compatibility.
                                                                      •    In the case of general departmental storage areas,
                                                                           a designated person determined by the
5.     Regulations governing compressed gasses allow the
                                                                           administrative head of unit.
       use of these materials in a laboratory but not their
       long-term storage; compressed gases, not in “use”
       must be kept in a “compliant storage facility”. “Use”
                                                                 2.   Cylinders are not located near laboratory exits or in
                                                                      main egress routes.
       means that the gas cylinder is attached to a piece of
       equipment or apparatus that is being used at least once
       a week.                                                   3.   The regulator is replaced with a protective cap when
                                                                      not being used for long periods of time (in storage in
6.     “Hazardous gases” includes gases classified as toxic,          designated facility) and during transport.
       corrosive and flammable gases.              Additional
       regulations apply to their use and storage.               4.   The smallest available size of gas cylinder, that is
                                                                      returnable, is used (see note at end of this section).
7.     “Storage” occurs when cylinders are not connected to
       an apparatus.                                             5.   The number and types of gas cylinders are kept to a
                                                                      minimum in a research or work area.
8.     “Compliant Storage Facility” refers to a room, shelter
       or building constructed according to Building and Fire    6.   A cylinder valve is kept closed when a cylinder is not
       Code specifications for the storage of “hazardous”             in active use or empty (closing the pressure regulator,
       gases. Some of the features of such a facility are the         by itself, is not acceptable).
       requirements for an exit directly to the outdoors,
       appropriate ventilation, the ability to separate          7.   Any cylinders that have not been used for one year
       incompatible gases, and, where applicable, the use of          should be returned.
       explosion-proof electrical parts.
                                                                 8.   See “CHART” for storage compatibility rules
                                                                      according to the BC Fire Code.
                                             Equipment and Experimental Design                                                       25

                                                                            3.    Procedures for responding to a leak must be developed.
9.   See “Section D” for information specifically related to
     use of propane in a building.                                          4.    All laboratory personnel must be trained to use
                                                                                  methods for prevention of accidents as well as
Note: Some gases may not be available in returnable                               emergency procedures.
cylinders. Any such cylinders that have not been used for
one year, should be considered for disposal.                                5.    There must not be any potential ignition sources in the
                                                                                  vicinity of an unattended cylinder of compressed
                                                                                  flammable gas.
B. Flammable, Toxic and Corrosive Gases
                                                                            D. Propane Gas Cylinders
1.   For mixed gas occupancy of hazardous gases, there is                         (BC Gas Safety Act)
     maximum separation required between cylinders as
     defined by the BC Fire Code.                                           1.    Propane cylinders of 20 pounds (9 kilograms) capacity
                                                                                  or more must not be stored in UBC buildings.
2.   Highly toxic gases are kept and used in a continuously
     operating fume hood or in a specialized gas storage                    2.    Propane cylinders must be stored in a secure area
     cabinet with an exhaust to the outside.                                      protected from vandalism and the weather.

3.   A sign is located on the outside door of any room and                  3.    If propane gas is required to operate equipment inside
     adjacent to equipment where a hazardous gas is being                         a UBC building, the propane cylinder must be stored
     used, advising occupants of potential hazards and                            outside and piped, at low pressure, into the building
     emergency procedures to follow if a leak or other                            using piping material and procedures permitted by
     incident occurs.                                                             UBC Regulatory Services. This does not apply to
                                                                                  small (1 pound) size bottles used as portable heating
4.   Gas detectors and alarm systems are installed where                          torches.
     cylinders of compressed toxic gases are being used, or
     an equivalent means of managing an accidental                          4.    Where large quantities are being used, Health, Safety
     release is implemented (upon consultation with the                           and Environment must be consulted on the
     Chemical Safety Officer @ 822-5909 or the                                    requirements for detector and alarm systems.
     Occupational Hygiene Officer @ 822-2643).
                                                                            5.    Warning signs identifying this hazard must be on the
                                                                                  cage or room protecting the cylinder as well as on the
                                                                                  piping entering the building.
C. Emergency Procedures
1.   All potential hazards associated with an accidental gas
     release must be identified, such as oxygen
     displacement and toxic, flammable, explosive or
     corrosive atmospheres.

2.   Written procedures must be developed to minimize
     these hazards.

                                            (Extracted from BC Fire Code, 1998 - Table
                                          Separation Chart for Storage of Dangerous Goods
                                           Flammable        Non-Flammable      Poison Gas               Corrosive     Oxidizing
                                              Gas                 Gas                                     Gas           Gas
      Flammable Gas                            P                   P               X                       X             X
      Non-Flammable Gas                        P                   P                P                       P            P
      Poison Gas                               X                   P                P                      A             A
      Corrosive Gas                            X                   P               A                      DS             A
      Oxidizing Gas                            X                   P               A                       A             P
         P        Permitted; items may be stored together.
          X         Incompatible items; do not store together in same fire compartment (storage facility).
          A         Incompatible items; separate by minimum of 1 metre distance.
          DS        Defer to Material Safety Data Sheet.
26                                                      Hazard Controls

                            CHAPTER 6. HAZARD CONTROLS
A. INTRODUCTION                                                    B. LABORATORY FUME HOODS
                                                                   IV.    WORK PRACTICES
Control of chemical hazards used in the laboratory is
necessary. There are five types of controls for                    1.     Conduct all operations, which generate
minimizing or eliminating hazards. In order of                            air-born contaminants, inside a fume
decreasing effectiveness they are:                                        hood.

          Substituting something less hazardous                    2.     Always wear appropriate eye protection
          Engineering controls                                            and a lab coat when working around a
                                                                          fume hood.
          Administrative controls
          Personal protective equipment                            3.     If the hood is used for semi-permanent
                                                                          experiments, post the name and phone
They are in order of decreasing effectiveness.                            number of the person in charge, experiment
                                                                          title and potential hazards.
Elimination of a hazardous product or substitution with
a less hazardous product represents the best solution.             4.     Keep your head outside the face of the
Engineering controls are the next best choice for                         hood with the sash lower than your face.
controlling hazardous materials. They do not require
continual monitoring and are more likely to be used;               5.     Keep apparatus at least 15 cm from the face
however they do require regular maintenance and are                       of the hood to minimize turbulence at
more expensive to implement. The next type of control                     entrance to hood as this can cause some of the
is administrative and it includes written procedures,                     contaminants to be swirled out of the hood.
training, supervision and scheduling of activities. The
use of personal protective equipment represents the                6.     Avoid blocking the rear ventilation slot.
least effective type of control; its effectiveness is limited             Material stored at the back of the hood should
by the dependence on individuals wearing it, and its                      be stored on an elevated shelf so that the slot
discomfort.                                                               airflow is not impeded.

In laboratories where hazardous materials are used,                7.     Avoid storing chemicals or gas cylinders
engineering controls are preferred and usually comprise                   inside the hood. Hazardous chemicals should
fume hoods or local exhaust systems. This chapter will                    be stored in approved safety cabinets.
discuss fume hood use, maintenance and emergency
procedures; electrical safety; the use of personal                 8.     Do not place electrical receptacles or other
protective equipment; and the use of emergency                            ignition sources inside the hood when
showers and eye washes.                                                   flammable liquids or gases are present. No
                                                                          permanent electrical receptacles are permitted
                                                                          in the hood (current design criteria).

                                                                   9.     Avoid cross drafts at the face of the hood.
                                                                          Minimize foot traffic past the hood and
                                                                          position windows and supply air diffusers to
                                                                          direct air away from the hood.

                                                                   10.    Do not raise the sash higher than the labelled
                                                                          height as this will reduce the hood efficiency.
                                                                          Red arrow = 0.75 mps flow rate; Blue arrow
                                                                          = 0.50 mps flow rate (carcinogens &
                                                                          radioactives not permitted).
                                                        Hazard Controls                                                 27

                                                                     EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
11.        Leave the sash lowered                 when      the
           experiment is unattended.                                 Fume hood users should incorporate the following
                                                                     elements into their emergency planning in order to
12.        Keep the bypass grill clean.                              facilitate the emergency shut-down of experiments
                                                                     being conducted in fume hoods:
           RESPONSE PROCEDURE                                        a)      An understanding of the hazards associated
                                                                             with the materials being used. Keep the
INTRODUCTION                                                                 amount of toxic material in use to a
The abrupt and complete loss of airflow to a laboratory
fume hood may create significant hazards or cause                    b)      The provision for personal protective
injury to maintenance and laboratory staff. The                              equipment such as chemical cartridge
purpose of this procedure is to ensure that the hazards                      respirators, which will provide protection
associated with hood system failure are minimized.                           from chemicals in use.

LABORATORY PROCEDURE                                                 c)      A planned shutdown procedure, so that the
                                                                             experiment may be shut down safely. (Some
Good experimental design requires that fume hood                             experiments may be safely interrupted, but it
users develop a plan of action to follow if the fume                         may be safer for others to be driven to
hood fails. This planned procedure should include the                        completion). Shut-down procedure include:
following steps:                                                             closing chemical containers, closing off heat,
                                                                             relieving all pressures, removing hazardous
                                                                             substances and monitoring for radioisotopes
                                                                             where they are in use.
                 Air Flow Failure Instruction Sticker
                                                                     d)      Determine if evacuation of the lab would be
                                                                             required and if the Fire Department should be
           If Fume Hood Air Flow Stops:                                      called.
❒ Note pressure gauge reading, if one is provided.
❒ Shut off experiments, turn off heat, relieve pressures.            VI.     FUME HOOD MAINTENANCE
❒ Seal containers; remove compressed gas cylinders from the                  PROCEDURES
❒ Ensure no other lab equipment is vented into the hood.
❒ Place “Do Not Use; Hood Out of Order” sign on the fume
                                                                     Fume hood maintenance is a planned, annual
hood.                                                                procedure. Depending on the nature of the work
❒ Where radioisotopes are used, contact Radiation Protection at      involved (e.g. whether the actual fume cupboard is
2-7052.                                                              included or whether the fume hood system has leaks or
❒ Call Trouble Calls @ 2-2173.                                       not) there are standard procedures that must be
❒ Advise departmental administrator - phone #:
                                                                     performed by fume hood users prior to work being
UBC - HS&E, 94
                                                                     done by maintenance personnel.

UBC fume hoods should have a sticker, similar to the
one above, on the bottom corner of the sash to remind
fume hood users of the procedures to be followed
should there be a fume hood failure. If a sticker is
damaged or missing, contact the Occupational Hygiene
Office at 822-2643.
28                                                                             Hazard Controls

There are three levels of fume hood maintenance; they                                     C. ELECTRICAL SAFETY
differ with respect to the type of work or maintenance
                                                                                          Edited from: "UBC Electrical Engineering Safety Guidelines and Procedures Manual"
being done and consequently with respect to the
activities to be assumed by the fume hood user. For all                                   VII.          ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT
fume hood shutdowns the following is required:                                            It is essential that no unauthorized wiring be installed.
- Containers capped; gas cylinders removed                                                If an electrical supply must be altered, contact your
- Heat sources closed                                                                     supervisor. If the problem is related to electrical
- Hood monitored for radioactivity &                                                      fixtures or installed as part of the building, Plant
     decontaminated as required                                                           Operations maintenance personnel must carry out
- No equipment is venting into hood.                                                      alterations.

The table below summarizes the main differences                                           Ensure that electrical outlets are not overloaded. Also
between Level II & III.                                                                   check that equipment is properly grounded, especially
                                                                                          in "wet" areas.
      Type of Work or                           User’s Responsibilities
       Maintenance                                                                        Personnel constructing their own electrical research
II. Work done outside                   All chemicals removed from                        apparatus, or making their own repairs, should have
hood, but within ductwork               hood                                              the equipment checked for safety if 110 V or other
III. Work done within hood              Everything is removed from hood                   high voltages are involved. See the supervisor, before
                                                                                          putting the equipment into use.
Here is an example of one type of maintenance:
                                                                                          ELECTRICAL HAZARDS
         FUME HOOD SHUT-DOWN PROCEDURES                                                   The age of solid-state devices has tended to obscure
                  University of British Columbia
                                                                                          the dangers of electrical circuitry. Researchers are
                         Plant Operations
DO NOT USE THIS FUME HOODFOR REGULAR                                                      often only exposed to low voltages throughout most of
MAINTENANCE WORK WHERE THE EXHAUST SYSTEM                                                 their work.
DONE ( )        INSTRUCTIONS                                                              Much equipment within a department
❒          Ensure all containers are tightly capped.
❒          All chemicals must be removed from the hood.
                                                                                          operates at voltages that could prove lethal.
❒          Shut down all heat sources.
❒          Monitor the hood for radioactive decontamination where                         Storage capacitors can release sufficient energy to
           radioisotopes have been used and decontaminate if                              electrocute or burn persons. Microwave sources have
           necessary. Contact Radiation Protection Office at 822-                         also been known to cause a variety of radiation-related
                                                                                          problems, as have high voltage sources, which have
❒          Ensure that no other lab equipment or apparatus is vented
           into the hood during shutdown.
                                                                                          developed X-ray emissions.
❒          Lower the sash and attach this completed form to the front
           face.                                                                          Before being faced with an emergency, study the
❒          Advise all personnel in the area of the planned work.                          laboratory in which you are working and determine the
If removal of the chemicals will endanger lab users, call Health,                         following:
Safety and Environment at 822-2029 to develop safe work
procedures.                                                                               1) The electrical hazards present.
I have prepared this hood for REPAIR/MAINTENANCE as per
the instructions given above. To be signed by the Hood User.                              2) The location of the main breaker for the room.
                            CAUTION!!!                                                    DO NOT WORK ALONE ON ANY EQUIPMENT
                DO NOT REMOVE THIS TAG                                                    THAT MAY EXPOSE YOU TO DANGEROUS
                 OR USE THIS FUME HOOD                                                    VOLTAGES!!!
I have completed the REPAIR/MAINTENANCE and this fume                                     If users are faced with the operation of non-familiar
hood may now be used. To be signed by the tradesperson.                                   equipment, then it is their responsibility to become
SIGNATU RE OF THE TRADESPERSON:                                                           familiar with the correct operation of that equipment
Yellow     For additional copies of master, please contact HS&E at 822-2029.              and the hazards involved in the operation of the
                                                   Hazard Controls                                                      29

ELECTRICAL INJURIES                                             the parts of the body involved, the dryness of the skin
                                                                and the frequency of an alternating current.
Electrical injuries are caused by the passage of current
through the body. Initially, the victim must be removed         Body resistance is not consistent. Dry skin may have a
from the power source. If possible, switch off the line         resistance of 100,000 to 600,000 ohms; wet skin will
voltage; otherwise, use insulated materials to pull the         probably have a resistance of about 1,000 ohms. This
victim free of the power line.                                  is a significant difference with no easy way of
                                                                assessing the degree of wetness or dryness. Once the
The first concern for the victim must be directed               current passes the skin resistance, the internal
towards the effect of the electricity on the heart.             resistance of the body is even lower. For example, the
Critically, the heart may cease functioning altogether,         resistance though the head, from ear to ear, is about
or it may go into ventricular fibrillation that can lead to     100 ohms; the resistance through the body from a hand
death within a very short time span.                            to a foot is about 400-600 ohms.

As little as 50 V may bring on ventricular                      It is obvious that dependence on skin and body
fibrillation across the body.                                   resistance will offer little protection.

If heart activity has stopped, it is essential that the         The damage is caused by current flow. For example, a
casualty gets medical assistance immediately. A person          10-watt light bulb draws 0.09 A (90 mA) at most.
familiar with CPR can apply these techniques in                 Correspondingly, a 100-watt light bulb takes about 0.9
conjunction with mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. In the           A (900 mA).
case of fibrillation, little can be done without access to
                                                                SAFE CURRENT VALUES
a defibrillator, as heart massage will likely prove
ineffective.                                                    Safe current values are much less than the amount
                                                                drawn by a 10-watt light bulb.
Secondary effects of exposure to power sources are
burns and/or involuntary muscle spasms caused by the            Current           Effects
current flow. Burns are often not restricted to the skin        < 1 mA            No sensation; probably not felt
surface and may be much more serious than they                  1-8 mA            Shock felt, not painful. No loss
appear initially.                                                                 of muscular control

Microwave and radiation burns are even more often               UNSAFE CURRENT VALUES
associated with deep burns. A physician should attend           8-15 mA           Painful shock. Possible to let go at will
to electrical burns.                                                              because muscular control not lost.
                                                                15-20 mA          Painful shock. Muscular control lost.
The muscle spasms may cause a body to be physically                               Cannot let go.
thrown across the room or off a ladder. In this                 20-50 ma          Painful. Severe muscular contractions.
instance, anticipate possible broken bones or other                               Breathing difficult.
                                                                50-200 mA         Possible ventricular fibrillation (heart
types of injuries associated with a fall.
                                                                                  condition that results in death - no
                                                                                  remedy available on job). Muscular
ELECTRICAL SHOCK                                                                  contraction and nerve damage.
                                                                > 200 mA          Severe      burn,     severe      muscular
Electricity is a wonderful and necessary tool but can be
                                                                                  contractions, heart muscles clamp heart
a killer if not treated with respect. "It's only low                              and stop it for the duration of the shock.
voltage" is not an acceptable reason for treating
electricity without proper caution. In reality, people
                                                                Quick action necessary for the electric shock victim.
have been killed while handling low voltages while
others have survived entanglement with 33,000 V.

    It is not voltage that kills; it’s the amperage.

As well as voltage, the severity of an electrical shock
depends on the amount of current flow through the
body; the current flow depends upon both voltage and
resistance. Other factors that must be considered are
30                                                Hazard Controls

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health                      CHECKLIST
and Safety (CCOHS)
                                                             •      INSPECT CORDS AND PLUGS
                                                                    o   Check power cords and plugs daily. Discard
    Electrical Safety Infogram                                          if worn or damaged. Have any cord that feels
                                                                        more than comfortably warm checked by
•    INSPECT tools, power cords, and electrical
     fittings for damage prior to each use. Repair or        •      ELIMINATE OCTOPUS CONNECTIONS
     replace damaged equipment.                                     o   DO NOT PLUG several power cords into one
•    DO NOT WEAR gloves, loose clothing or                              outlet.
     jewellery while using revolving power tools.
                                                             •      PULL THE PLUG, NOT THE CORD
                                                                    o   DO NOT DISCONNECT power supply by
•    SWITCH tools OFF before connecting them to a                       pulling or jerking cord from the outlet.
     power supply.                                                      Pulling the cord causes wear and may cause
•    DISCONNECT power supply before making                              shock.
•    ENSURE tools are properly grounded or double            •      NEVER BREAK OFF THE THIRD PRONG
     insulated. The grounded tool must have an                      IN A PLUG
     approved 3-wire cord with a 3-prong plug. This                 o Replace broken three-prong plugs and make
     plug should be plugged in a properly grounded 3-                   sure the third prong is properly grounded.
     pole outlet.
•    TEST all tools for effective grounding with a           •      NEVER USE EXTENSION CORDS AS
     continuity tester or a ground fault circuit                    PERMANENT WIRING
     interrupter (GFCI) before use.
•    DO NOT BYPASS the switch and operate the                       o   Use extension cords only to temporarily
     tools by connecting and disconnecting the power                    supply power to an area that does not have a
     cord.                                                              power outlet.
•    DO NOT USE electric tools in wet conditions or                 o   Keep power cords away from heat, water, and
     damp locations unless tool is connected to a                       oil. They can damage the insulation and
     GFCI.                                                              cause a shock.
•    DO NOT CLEAN tools with flammable or toxic                     o   DO NOT ALLOW vehicles to pass over
     solvents.                                                          unprotected power cords. Cords should be
•    DO NOT OPERATE tools in area containing                            put in conduit or protected by placing planks
     explosive vapours or gases.                                        alongside them.

•    KEEP power cords clear of tools during use.                    Excerpted from the CCOHS “Powered Hand Tools – Basic
•    SUSPEND power cords over aisles or work areas                  Electrical Safety”, F01.
     to eliminate stumbling or tripping hazards.
•    REPLACE open front plugs with dead front plugs.
     Dead front plugs are sealed and present less
     danger of shock or short circuit.
•    DO NOT USE light duty power cords.
•    DO NOT CARRY electrical tools by the power
•    DO NOT TIE power cords in knots. Knots can
     cause short circuits and shocks. Loop the cords or
     use a twist lock plug.
                                                Hazard Controls                                                          31

D. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE                                       I.   GLOVES
    EQUIPMENT (PPE)                                          There are several glove types available depending on
                                                             the potential hazard of concern. General guidelines are
                                                             included below.          Due to variations between
                                                             manufacturers, the final choice must be dependant on
Personal protective equipment is an
                                                             their specific characteristics and recommendations.
individual’s means of protecting themselves
from hazards in the laboratory. Wherever                     The following general guidelines should be
possible, engineering controls should be                     considered:
installed to make the workplace safe.                        a) Gloves are available in a variety of materials
                                                                 differing significantly in permeability and wear-
There are however some instances, such as chemical               resistance.
spill clean-up, where the technology or costs of             b) Disposable gloves, manufactured from latex,
engineering controls are not practical or available.             PVC, polyethylene and polyurethane, are for
                                                                 general use and have low abrasion resistance and
Personal protective equipment must be provided if it is          varied permeability to solvents.
required to perform an operation safely. The type of         c) A variety of rubber gloves are more resistant and
PPE that is required will depend on the particular               less permeable to more chemicals.
hazards of the materials, equipment and procedures               •    Natural      rubber:      flexible;   generally
being used. For more information, call HS&E at                        withstands many acids, alkalis, salts and
822-2029.                                                             ketones.
                                                                 •    Neoprene: flexible; provides protection from
VIII.    EYE PROTECTION                                               chlorinated solvents, alcohol, alkalis, oil and
The type of eye protection that is required in a                 •    Nitrile: resistant to cuts, abrasions and most
laboratory depends on the materials and operations in                 punctures; generally outperforms natural
use. The following guidelines should be considered                    rubber and neoprene in most solvents.
when determining the type of eye protection that is              •    Butyl rubber: highest permeation resistance
required. The same rules apply to those working near                  to gas or water vapours; ideal for acids,
or visiting hazardous areas.                                          ketones and esters.
                                                                 •    Viton: most resistant rubber; provides
1) Contact lenses are not recommended when                            protection against polychlorinated biphenyls
   working with volatile chemicals. They must be                      (PCB’s), benzene and aniline. It is the most
   worn with safety glasses and supervisors must be                   expensive rubber glove but often the only
   aware of who is wearing them.                                      glove offering adequate protection.
2) Shatterproof prescription eyeglasses do not                   •    (4H; Silver Shield); Plastic laminated
   provide adequate splash protection.        Splash                  disposable: meant to be disposable with low
   goggles, with sealed sides and top, must be worn                   abrasion characteristics but impermeable to
   when handling corrosive, toxic or irritating                       epoxy, most solvents, acids, alkalis, paints,
   liquids.                                                           varnishes and adhesives.
3) Face shields and explosion-proof shields must be              •    Kevlar, Zetex or Aluminized: handling of
   used where necessary; i.e. when there is a risk of                 hot or sharp objects.
   explosion, splashing or combustion with high or
   low temperature or pressure reactions or                       Excerpted from: American Laboratory, August 1989, page 74
32                                                  Hazard Controls

II.      PROTECTIVE CLOTHING                                          • A low oxygen environment (<19.5%);
                                                                      • High concentrations of contaminant or
Lab coats, aprons and coveralls come in a variety of
                                                                      • Highly toxic contaminant (consult with HSE).
materials that differ significantly in chemical, abrasion
and fire resistance. It is important to choose the
                                                               A full-face respirator is a minimum requirement
material best suited for the work being done. Lab
                                                               where eye irritation is a known or a suspected
coats and coveralls should be made of a tough fire-
                                                               characteristic of the contaminant.
resistant fabric with proper fasteners and long enough
to protect the legs. Aprons should be chemical-
                                                               Respirators may be required for the following
resistant, fire-resistant and washable.            Avoid
flammable fabrics such as polyester.
                                                               1. Working with hazardous fumes, dusts or vapours
                                                                    where engineering controls not available or
When handling hazardous materials, bare legs                        practical;
are not allowed.                                               2. As an escape respirator in the event of a hazardous
                                                                    material release;
IX.      FOOTWEAR                                              3. During spill clean-up operations; or
Shoes must be worn in the laboratory; they must cover          4. Maintenance requiring rooftop entry where fume
the entire foot and be made of a substantial material,              hoods or hazard control systems vent onto the
such as leather. Steel-toed safety shoes or boots may               roof.
be required in certain situations.
                                                               Other situations must be reviewed with HS&E
X.       RESPIRATORY PROTECTION                                           staff before work starts.
Respirators used at the University of British Columbia
must provide effective protection against airborne             Cartridge Selection
contaminants that may be present. Use of respirators           The following cartridges are available for use with
should be considered to control exposure only after            half-mask and full-face respirators.        Select the
engineering and administrative controls have been              appropriate cartridge according to the chart below.
considered. These types of controls include ventilation        Consult with HS&E for situations not listed.
(e.g. fume hoods), enclosing the process, substitution
of less hazardous products, rescheduling of work                Cartridge Type          Colour   Examples of Uses
procedures, etc.
                                                                Organic vapour and      Yellow   Rooftop entry/lab
                                                                acid gas                         procedures/spills
A respirator program is required to ensure that
respirators used by employees provide effective                 Organic vapour only     Black    Solvents/paints
protection against airborne contaminants. It should             Dusts, particulates,    Purple   Toxic dusts/ infectious
also define employer, supervisor and employee’s                 and aerosols                     aerosols/asbestos welding
respective responsibilities.                                                                     fumes

                                                                Ammonia/amines          Green    Ammonia spill
Respirator Selection                                            Acid gas                Grey     Acid gases/chlorine/
Disposable dust masks may only be used for non-toxic                                             Sulphur dioxide
or low concentrations of slightly toxic particulate
materials; they must have two straps and a NIOSH-               Acid/solvent/base       Olive    Spill Clean-up
approval N or P - 95, 99 or 100 number on the mask or          Other types of cartridges that address additional classes
strap and be appropriate for the contaminant (i.e. oil or      or combinations of airborne hazardous materials are
non-oil based).                                                available.
The following procedure refers to the use of half-mask
or full-face dual cartridge respirators. A cartridge type
of respirator may only be used if the contaminant has
adequate warning properties (taste, odour, irritation).
It must not be used in situations that are immediately
dangerous to life and health (IDLH), which includes:
                                                 Hazard Controls                                                   33

Fit Testing for Respirators
To provide protection, respirators that are designed to       If leakage continues to occur or the respirator fits
fit the face must have an effective seal. The respirator      uncomfortably, a different size or brand of mask must
user must be clean-shaven where the mask fits the             be tried. If a good fit cannot be obtained, the user
face. Fit tests (i) and (ii) must be performed by             cannot wear a respirator. Report the problem to the
respirator users before every use. At the same time the       supervisor.
integrity of the mask, especially the inhalation valves,
must be checked prior to fitting on the face.                 RULES FOR Use of Respirators

The wide part of the face piece is placed under the           •    Corrective eye wear or other equipment must
chin, with the narrow portion over the nose. The straps            not interfere with the seal of the respirator.
are placed over the back and top of the head, and then
the neck strap is fastened and tightened until the mask
                                                              No covering can be used which passes between the
feels secure.
                                                              respirator face piece and the wearer’s face.
i) Inhalation (negative pressure) test
Cover the inhalation openings                                 •    Respirators will be inspected before and after each
(where cartridges are attached) and                                use, checking straps, valves, cartridges, etc. as
breathe in normally. The face piece                                well as general cleanliness.
should collapse against the face.                             •    The respirator user prior to each use will perform
Hold for ten seconds. If the face                                  a positive/negative pressure fit check.
piece remains slightly collapsed and                          •    High contaminant levels and other factors such as
no leakage is felt around the mask,                                high humidity, can affect the filter or cartridges.
the respirator is probably sealed properly. When
leakage no longer occurs, go on to the exhalation test.       When wearing a respirator, employees experiencing
                                                              any of the following symptoms will leave the
ii) Exhalation (positive pressure) test                       contaminated area:
Cover the exhalation valve (centre                            ♦ Nausea
front) and exhale normally. Hold                              ♦ Dizziness
for ten seconds. If leakage occurs,                           ♦ Eye irritation
adjust the mask until leakage does                            ♦ Unusual odour or taste
not occur. Do not use if mask                                 ♦ Excessive fatigue
continues to leak; try a different                            ♦ Difficult breathing
size or brand. Only after tests (i)
and (ii) have been passed should the chemical                 Employees noting a high resistance to breathing,
challenge test be performed.                                  irritation or the smell or taste of chemical within the
                                                              respirator, will leave the work area immediately and
iii) Chemical test                                            report to the supervisor. The respirator shall be
                                                              checked and new cartridges installed followed by
All users must undergo and pass a chemical challenge          positive/negative pressure tests to ensure respirator is
test before a respirator can be used.                         safe to use.
                                                              HS&E or the designated departmental co-ordinator
      This test must be repeated annually.                    will determine whether or not an employee may be
                                                              allowed to wear a respirator. Where there is any doubt
Attach black or yellow cartridges to the respirator. A        about a person’s ability to wear a respirator by an
sample of banana oil (isoamyl acetate) is placed on a         employee or safety co-ordinator, the employee should
tissue and waved around the user’s face. The user             be examined by a physician. Certain medical
keeps their eyes closed and moves their head up, down         conditions may affect the employee’s ability to wear a
and sideways while counting loudly to 20. If the odour        respirator, such as lung (e.g. asthma, emphysema) or
can be detected, leakage is occurring and further             heart disease.
adjustments and retesting are done until there is no
34                                                    Hazard Controls

STORAGE AND MAINTENANCE                                          TRAINING
                                                                 Every employee, who wears a respirator, must be fit-
i) Storage                                                       tested and trained in the proper use of the respirator.
Store respirators and cartridges in sealed plastic bags          Supervisors of workers, who may have to wear
or containers, and keep in a cool, dry place away from           respirators, must also be trained.

ii) Maintenance
Wash respirator after use:
     a) Disassemble respirator and wash in warm,
     mild detergent solution.
     b) Rinse thoroughly in warm, clear water.
     c) Allow all parts to air-dry before assembly.
     d) Inspect and test after each cleaning to ensure
     respirator is in proper working order.

Defective respirators shall be tagged “out of service”
and replaced or repaired.

iii) Cartridge “Life”
Cartridge life is dependent on the type of cartridge,
frequency and length of use, as well as the
concentration of the airborne material. HEPA
cartridges (purple) filter out particulate through a paper
filter. Near the end of their life, the holes in the filter
are plugged and air cannot be easily inhaled through
them. Discard when breathing becomes difficult.

 Breakthrough of chemical cartridges is indicated by
odour, taste or irritation characteristics of the material.
If any of these qualities are experienced while wearing
a respirator, then leave the area immediately, check the
fit of the mask and replace the cartridges if necessary.

Breakthrough is not the recommended procedure for
determining when cartridges need replacing. In order
to make an assessment of when cartridges should be
replaced, it is very important to label all new cartridges
with the date-of-opening. It is also recommended to
keep a log of the circumstances under which cartridges
have been exposed (i.e. when; how long; and to what

From the opening date and log, a user can decide
whether or not it would be appropriate to replace
cartridges. For example, a set of cartridges could be
worn several times for 3 short term (< 5 minutes)
exposures. Cartridges, once they have been removed
from their original, sealed packages, should be
disposed of within one year of opening.
                                              Chemical Storage                                             35

                        CHAPTER 7. CHEMICAL STORAGE
                                                         3.     UNIQUE IDENTIFIERS
A. INVENTORY                                                    (Manufacturer’s Or Employer’s Code)

I.       PURPOSE                                         Aldrich            26,918-2
An annual inventory of hazardous materials is            CAS                597-31-9
required. According to the WCB Health and Safety         SI                 OX-33450-1
Regulation, Part 5, Section 5.98, “an inventory must
be maintained which identifies all hazardous             III.       HOW TO LOCATE CHEMICALS
substances at the workplace in quantities that may
endanger workers in an emergency including               Develop system for finding information such as:
controlled products covered by WHMIS, explosives,         •   Computer database system
pesticides, radioactive materials, hazardous wastes,      •   Cardex system
and consumer products.
                                                           A good system should:
Annual inventories allow for the following:
                                                           •     Direct you quickly to the chemical.
                                                           •     Be easy to use.
•     Check chemicals with limited shelf life.
                                                           •     Be easy to maintain.
•     Remove surplus and old chemicals.
                                                           •     Be updated annually.
•     Correct incompatible storage.
•     Know what you have.
•     Cleanup containers & shelves.                      B. CHEMICAL STORAGE
•     It’s the Law!
                                                         I. GENERAL
II.      CRITERIA                                        1. Store in central, properly ventilated area that
                                                             includes forced ventilation from floor to ceiling
1.    BASED ON NAMES?                                        and with exhaust above roof level.
                                                         2. Know the location of the master control shut-off
3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropanal (IUPAC)                       valves for gas, water and electricity.
2,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (Aldrich)          3. Smoke detector is required.
Propanal, 3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl (CAS)                   4. A communication system to the main office or
Hydroxypivaldehyde (Common)                                  emergency system is recommended.
                                                         5. Shelving should be accessible with chemicals at
2.    BASED ON CHEMICAL FORMULA?                             eye level or lower; no high shelf chemical
                 CH3                                     6. Avoid floor chemical storage (even temporary).
                                   O                     7. Shelf assemblies are firmly secured to walls.
HOCH2 C          C                                           Avoid island shelf assemblies.
                                   H                     8. Provide anti-roll lips on all shelves.
                 CH3                                     9. Shelving assemblies must be constructed of wood
                                                             except for storing oxidizers.
Sodium bicarbonate     NaHCO3       CHNaO3               10. Avoid metal, adjustable shelves supports and
                                                             clips; use fixed, wooden supports.
36                                               Chemical Storage

11. For emergencies, have:                                  3.     SIGNED PROPERLY (LABELLED)
 •   Fire extinguishers of the approved type
     positioned near an escape route.                       i)         Contents are labelled clearly.
 •   Spill control and clean-up materials.                  ii)        Labels are intact and legible.
 •   Approved eye/face wash and shower.                     iii)       Labels are not overwritten; old labels are
                                                                       removed or completely covered.
                                                            iv)        Solvent stills are labelled.
II.       LABORATORY                                        v)         Regularly check and label peroxidizable
Laboratories are not storerooms particularly as it                     materials with test results.
applies to chemicals and solvents. Chemicals in
laboratories should be stored in areas away from                      Proper WHMIS labelling is used.
experimental activities, and limited to the
requirements of 12 months or less. Excess stock
                                                            4.     SEALED
should be kept in a proper chemical storage facility.
                                                            i)         Keep solvent containers closed.
The following basic rules apply particularly to             ii)        Ensure chemical containers are intact.
chemicals stored in laboratories.                           iii)       Regularly vent materials capable of building
                                                                       up pressure; e.g. formic acid.

Ordering 1 kg because it is cheaper than the 100 g               Ensure container lids are intact and closed.
size is often false economy. The result:
                                                            5.     SEGREGATED
•      It takes up more valuable space.
                                                            i)     Be aware of nomenclature problems
•      It presents a greater potential hazard.
                                                                   e.g. PHENOL is also known as:
•      It may eventually become a disposal                              - Carbolic acid
       problem.                                                         - Hydroxybenzene
                                                                        - Oxybenzene
                                                                        - Phenic acid
    Order only what you can use in 12 months.                           - Phenyl hydroxide
                                                                        - Phenylic acid or phenylic alcohol

2.     SECURE                                               The Merck Index can be a useful reference when
                                                            checking confusing or equivalent names.
i)        Do not overcrowd shelves.
ii)       Do not store too high; provide a proper           III.        METHODS
          kickstool or ladder where necessary.
iii)      Chain compressed gas cylinders.
iv)       Store lecture bottles upright and chain, or       1.     INTRODUCTION
          secure in a proper holder.
v)        Store solvents in a proper flammable liquid       Chemical storage, whether in a laboratory or central
          cabinet, and keep door closed.                    storeroom, should be under the supervision of a
vi)       Use appropriate containers for solvents and       qualified person; storerooms must have adequate
          waste.                                            security.
vii)      Store highly toxic or controlled materials in
          a secure cupboard.                                Specialized cabinets should be used for specific
                                                            groups of compatible substances.
                                                  Chemical Storage                                                37

2.     ACIDS and BASES                                       Flammable Liquid Cabinet provide:
                                                             •   A safe means of storage over a short period of
i)        Store acids and bases separately.                      time.
ii)       Store acids in dedicated acid cabinet.             •   A time-saving method of storage by locating
iii)      Store oxidizing acids (eg. nitric acid) away           cabinets in, or adjacent to work areas which
          from organic acids (e.g. acetic acid).                 reduces the frequency of trips to the drum
iv)       Store hydrofluoric and perchloric acids in             storage or dispensing facility.
          secondary containers made from compatible
v)        Safety showers and eye wash facilities must        Control flammables by eliminating careless
          be within easy access.                             open storage of small containers.
vi)       Protective equipment must be inspected
          regularly to insure proper working order,          Flammable liquids cabinets must:
          especially in corrosive atmospheres.               •   Be Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC)
                                                                 listed and approved.
3.     FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS                                     •   Be closed at all times, with door latches
Flammable liquids should be stored in a dry, cool            •   Have vents that are either plugged or vented
well-ventilated area, preferably a flammable                     directly to the outside.
materials storage cabinet or room.                           •   Be either wood (must meet specifications of fire
                                                                 code) or metal.
i) Laboratory Storage                                        •   Be suitably placed; ie. not located near an exit
Flammable liquids should be stored:                              door or blocking access to an exit route.
  •   According to the BC Fire Code and best                 •   May have to be in a room which has a second
      management practices i.e.:                                 exit depending on the quantity and hazards of
                                                                 flammable liquids in the room.
 Maximum size of container allowed in lab is 5 L.            •   Contain no more than 500 litres maximum of
                                                                 flammable and combustible liquids of which no
 •     In listed approved metal safety cans, which               more than 250 litres may be flammable.
       meet the fire code requirements, and are              •   The BC Fire Code and local Fire Services limit
       equipped with flash arrestor and self-closing             the maximum quantities per fire compartment.
 •     In glass containers greater than 1 litre only if      iii) Flammable Liquid Storage Rooms
       purity of the material is affected by exposure to     A properly designed flammable liquids room must
       metal or in original containers.                      satisfy many requirements, e.g. location, ventilation,
 •     In appropriate 5 litre waste solvent containers       electrical equipment. fire protection, etc. It must also
       that are capped when not in active use.               meet the needs of the user, e.g. adequate size,
                                                             conveniently located, etc.
Maximum volume of flammable containers in
    open laboratories at UBC is 25 L.                        The flammable liquids storage room should be easily
                                                             accessible to fire fighting; i.e. located in corners of
                                                             buildings over window openings and doors all
ii) Flammable Liquid Cabinets                                providing sufficient entry. Explosion venting can
An approved flammable liquid storage cabinet may             thennbe incorporated into the exterior walls.
be used when quantities of flammables are near or
exceed 25 litres. An approved flammable liquid               Specific guidelines for flammable liquid storage
storage cabinet must be listed by an acceptable              rooms include: the maximum number of litres per
testing agency and approved by the local Fire                square metre of floor space; maximum room size
Department.                                                  with and without a sprinkler system (or other
                                                             automatic extinguishing system); fire resistance
                                                             rating of the interior walls.

                                                             Additional requirements include: a raised liquid tight
                                                             sill of at least 102 mm in height (a sunken floor or
                                                             open grated trench is also permissible); floor drains
38                                                 Chemical Storage

which drain to a safe location; self-closing, listed,         5.    CHEMICAL STORAGE PATTERNS
one and one-half hour Class B fire door (listed 3-
hour Class A may be required for walls with a rating          When it comes to chemical storage practices, the
greater than 2 hours).                                        alphabet should be one of the last criteria used.
                                                              Examples of compatibility problems arising from
Rooms containing Class I flammables must have                 storing chemicals alphabetically include:
electrical equipment suitable for Class I, division 2;
for Class II and Class III liquids, electrical fixtures       •     Alkanes and Ammonium Nitrate
must be approved for general use. The room must               •     Hydrogen Peroxide and Hydrazine
also have a gravity or mechanical exhaust ventilation         •     Ammonia and Bromine
(ICFM/sq.ft. of floor area) equipped with suitable            •     Nitric Acid and Phenol
interlocks.                                                   •     Aldehydes and Amines
                                                              •     Sodium Cyanide and Sulfuric Acid
iv) Refrigerator Storage                                      •     Calcium Hypochlorite and Carbon
Refrigerators must be approved (ULC) for storage of
flammable liquids (explosion-proof), or acceptably            Even apparently safe storage can be a potential
tested and approved. A number of refrigerators have           problem. The following materials are often stored
exploded due to flammable vapours.                            together even though there are hazards if the
                                                              materials should mix:
If cold storage is required for flammables,                   •   Acetic Acid and Nitric Acid
                                                              •   Perchloric Acid and Sulfuric Acid
explosion-proof units are required.
                                                              •   Concentrated Acids and Bases
v) Flammable Compressed Gas Cylinders
•   Protected against mechanical damage.                              SEPARATE BY COMPATIBILITY
•   Stored in a secure area.
•   Stored with protective caps on.                               “COMPATIBILITY IS SYNONYMOUS WITH
•   Store separately from flammable, oxidizing and                    CHEMICAL FUNCTIONALITY”
    poison gases.
•   If stored indoors, the room must have a 2-hour            Refer to:
    fire separation with entry from the exterior.                 o Material Safety Data Sheets
•   Natural ventilation to outside wall must exist;               o Chemical Catalogues
    room must have no other purpose.                              o US School System Lab. Storage Guide
•   Compressed gases are normally heavier than air.               o Other Reference Materials
•   Only 1 cylinder is allowed in any one room and
    must not be located below grade.                               The UBC Chemical Storage Guidelines are
                                                                     provided in at the end of this chapter.
vi) Toxic Compressed Gases
See end of chapter 5 for “Use of Compressed Gas
Cylinder in UBC Labs”.                                        Contact the Chemical Safety Officer at 822-5909 for
                                                              additional information and assistance regarding the
4.    AIR-REACTIVE CHEMICALS                                  safe storage of chemicals.

•     Ensure container is stored in a secure location         On the next page you will find a suggested
      without danger of falling.                              arrangement of the compatible chemical families on
•     Secondary containment is recommended.                   the shelf areas of a chemical storage room. This
                                                              arrangement is taken from the Flinn Chemical
                                                              Catalogue Reference Manual.
    Use glove box or fill head space of the container
     with an inert gas before sealing the container.
                                    Chemical Storage                                       39


Sulfur, Phosphorus, Arsenic,        Arsenates, Cyanides,
   Phosphorus Pentoxide                  Cyanates
                                                                     INORGANIC ACIDS
                                                                   (EXCEPT NITRIC ACID)
 Halides, Sulfates, Sulfites,       Sulfides, Selenides,
 Thiosulfates, Phosphates,         Phosphides, Carbides,         Store Nitric Acid away from other
  Halogens, Acetates                      Nitrides                 acids unless the acid cabinet
                                                                 provides a separate compartment
                                                                           for Nitric Acid.
 Amides, Nitrates (except           Borates, Chromates,
ammonium nitrate), Nitrites,     Manganates, Permanganates
                                                                  Acids are best stored in
                                                                  dedicated cabinets with
                                                                    corrosion resistant
       Metals, Hydrides            Chlorates, Perchlorates,         materials, paint and
(Store away from any water),      Chlorites, Perchloric Acid,            hardware
 (Store flammable solids in       Peroxides, Hypochlorites,
     flammable cabinet)              Hydrogen Peroxide                  ACID CABINET

Hydroxides, Oxides, Silicates,        MISCELLANEOUS
    Carbonates, Carbon


 Alcohols, Glycols, Amines,                                         SEVERE POISONS
   Amides, Imines, Imides              Phenol, Cresols
                                                                    SECURE CABINET
   Hydrocarbons, Esters,             Peroxides, Azides,
   Aldehydes                          Hydroperoxides
                                                                  Alcohols, Glycols, Etc.

 Ethers, Ketones, Ketenes,                                      Hydrocarbons, Esters, Etc.
Halogenated Hydrocarbons,        Acids, Anhydrides, Peracids
      Ethylene Oxide                                              Ethers, Ketones, Etc.

     Epoxy Compounds,                                             Organic Liquids with
        Isocyanates                   MISCELLANEOUS               Flash Point < 37.8°C

                                                                 FLAMMABLES CABINET
 Sulfides, Polysulfides, etc.         MISCELLANEOUS

40                                                          Chemical Storage

              1. Sort according to the 6 WHMIS categories described below.
              2. Prioritize the separation process in the following order.

                            DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE
                            Store as required according to the nature of their individual hazards
                            e.g. metal hydrides; some hydrogenation catalysts; picric acid; dinitrophenol; trinitrotoluene

                            OXIDIZING MATERIALS
                            Store separate from flammable or combustible materials and reducing agents
                            e.g. nitrates; chromates; permanganates; chlorates; peroxides

                            FLAMMABLE & COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS
                            Flammable liquids (flashpoint ≤37.8°C) should be stored in one of these ways:
                            ♦ approved cabinet                   ♦ approved fire safety can
                            ♦ explosion-proof refrigerator            ♦ approved room
                            Note: 25 litres is the maximum total volume of all containers, which may be in the open lab,
                            not including liquids stored in an approved flammable liquid cabinet or safety cans.

                            Other flammable and combustible materials include:
                            ♦combustible liquids (flashpoint >37.8°C)           ♦ flammable gases & aerosols
                            ♦ flammable solids (organic solids)                 ♦ reactive flammables
                            CORROSIVE MATERIALS
                            Separate concentrated acids and bases (caustics; alkalis; amines and anilines)
                            ♦ oxidizing and flammable materials should be removed segregated as noted above

                            COMPRESSED GASES
                            USE smallest, returnable size containers and quantities
                            ♦ must be secured & not by exit route & door; long term storage in labs prohibited

                            HIGHLY TOXIC
                            Store in secure area
                            Includes cyanide, arsenic, antimony; other heavy metals and their compounds; carcinogens

            For large quantities of stock, use the following groupings for a final segregation of chemical classes:
              INORGANIC*                                                              ORGANIC*
                  Sulfur, phosphorus**, phosphorus pentoxide**                         Acids, anhydrides, peracids
                  Halides, sulfates, sulfites, thiosulfates, phosphates                Ethers**, ketones, halogenated hydrocarbons, ethylene
                  Amides, nitrates** (except ammonium nitrate), nitrites**              Alcohols, glycols, amines, amides, imines, imides
                  Metals & metal hydrides                                               Hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes
                  Oxides, silicates, carbonates, carbon                                 Epoxy compounds, isocyanates
                  Arsenates, cyanates                                                   Peroxides, hydroperoxides, azides**
                  Sulfides, selenides, phosphides, carbides, nitrides                   Sulfides, polysulfides, sulfoxides, nitriles
                                                                                            Phenols, cresols
     * Flinn Catalogue designations                                          ** dangerously reactive materials
                                              Laboratory Inspections                                                 41

At the University of British Columbia, inspections are conducted by various individuals, groups, and regulatory
agencies. Periodically the BC Workers' Compensation Board carries out unannounced inspections. Vancouver Fire and
Rescue Services also conduct annual inspections of fire extinguishers and other fire-safety issues such as storage of
flammable liquids and condition of fire exits.

Annual formal laboratory inspections are the responsibility of local safety committees. The frequency of inspections
will vary depending on the size of department, the extent of the potential hazards in the department and the ability of
the committee to carry out the inspections. In addition there are four types of inspections that are required to be
conducted by UBC personnel. They are:

         •   Daily (conducted by each individual, employee or student, of their own work area, to identify and correct
             hazardous conditions or report them to their supervisor)
         •   Monthly (conducted by area supervisors or their designate to identify hazardous conditions, using an
             abbreviated checklist that is posted at the work site)
         •   Annually (formal laboratory inspections that are the responsibility of the local safety committee; detailed
             checklist and report to supervisor with appropriate follow-up).
         •   Special (equipment; post-incident; post-repair; etc.)

An example of a chemical laboratory inspection checklist is included on the next two pages. A copy of a monthly
inspection checklist that would be used by a designated lab user is also included at the end of this chapter.
42                                                   Laboratory Inspections

Laboratory Supervisor:                                                         Room Number: __________
Inspected By:                                                                  Date: __________________

The following inspection report identifies deficiencies found by the inspection team.
ITEM                                                                     YES   NO     NA      COMMENTS

1. Emergency procedures posted and legible
          - Fire, spills, injuries, earthquake
2. MSDS information posted
3. Chemical Safety Manual available
4. Chemical inventory current (<1 year)
5. Monthly inspections posted and up-to-date
6. Shower available and accessible
7. Eyewash available and accessible
8. Eye wash tested regularly (minimum, bi-weekly)
9. Fire extinguisher present and accessible
10. Fire extinguisher seal intact; date tested
11. Spill kit available and stocked.
12. First aid kit available and stocked
          •    Inventory list available
13. Treatment record sheet available and used
14. Safety glasses available and worn
15. Laboratory coats and gloves available and worn
16. No bare legs
17. Substantial footwear worn
18. Facial shield available and in good condition
19. Blast shield available and in good condition
20. Respirator(s) available
21. Respirator user(s) trained & fit-tested
22. Vacuum ballasts/Dewar flasks taped or meshed
23. Bench tops and sink areas tidy
24. Tripping hazards absent, passageways clear
25. Laboratory exits clear and doors unlocked
26. Food and drink absent
27. Chipped or broken glassware not in use
28. Friable asbestos absent
29. Step-ladder available for out-of-reach items
30. “No Eating/Drinking/Smoking” signs posted
31. "Glass" refuse containers labelled
32. “Glass” segregated from general refuse
33. Needles and sharps in “Sharps” container
34. Bulk solvent-waste containers closed and labelled
    -Clorinated and non-chlorinated segregated
    -Bulk solvent-waste containers stored in flammable storage cabinet
35. Recyclable solvents segregated
36. Interim solvent waste containers closed and <1 litre
                                                       Laboratory Inspections          43

37. Ethidium bromide waste segregated
38. Photographic chemical waste procedures followed.
39. Are you aware of UBC’s Chemical Exchange Program?
40. Secured to wall or bench with belt or chain
41. Lecture bottles stored upright or slanted/secure
42. Sash at recommended height and air flow on
43. Area within and under hood tidy
44. Carcinogens permitted
45. Vacuum pumps stored safely and belts guarded
46. Refrigerator spark-proof (or “NO Flammables” sign
    posted & flammables are absent)
47. Frayed or cracked electrical cords absent
48. Make-shift wiring absent
49. Cracked/brittle/pinched tubing absent
50. Water hoses wired at all connectors
51. Water taps safeguarded against “suck-back”
     (or “NO TUBING” sign posted)
52. Solvent storage cabinet available and closed
53. Solvent containers closed and labelled
54. Solvent containers outside safety cabinet, < 25 L
55. Solvent-still contents labelled
56. Reagent chemicals stored securely
    (lips on shelves or doors on cupboards)
57. Chemical containers intact.
58. Ethers stored (& used) out of direct sunlight
59. Ether containers display opening date
60. Peroxide-forming chemicals (e.g. ethers)
    checked for peroxides (3 to 12 months)
61. Labels compliant with WHMIS
62. Chemical labels intact, legible, not overwritten
63. Cleaning baths labelled
64. Carcinogens/Corrosives/Flammables labelled
65. Incompatible materials separated
66. Perchloric acid absent/used in special wash-down fume hood


(Please sign after violations have been acted upon)

44                                       Laboratory Inspections


Due Date/Time for Monthly Inspection: __________________________________
Supervisor’s Name: _________________________________________________
Designate’s Name (where appropriate): _________________________________

To ensure that this lab is always a safe workplace, the following items on this list must be checked
at least once every month.

                Item                              January                         February
                                        Yes       No         Action      Yes      No        Action
                                                             Taken                          Taken
1. Personal protective equipment
available and used.
2. Good housekeeping; food and
drink absent.
3. Aisles and exits clear and free of
tripping hazards.
4. Water hoses wired or clamped;
gas cylinders clamped.
5. Fume hoods neat and
6. Flammable solvents < 25 L in
open lab.
7. Peroxidizable compounds dated
upon opening and tested at
appropriate intervals
8. Proper labelling of chemicals;
labels clear and legible.
9. Compatible storage of chemicals.
10. Free of electrical hazards
11.Sink traps, eye wash fountains
flushed weekly.
Checked ( ) by (initials)
                                            Waste Disposal Procedures                                           45


A. INTRODUCTION                                             B. SPECIFIC PROCEDURES
Hazardous waste is produced as a result of chemicals
left over from, or the products of, an experiment. A        I.   ORGANIC              SOLVENTS                FOR
concerted attempt must be made to minimize                       RECOVERY
hazardous waste production using the 3 R’s, reduce,
reuse and recycle. The practice of due diligence in the     i)    Collect solvents in red waste containers
handling of hazardous materials that might pollute the            specifically designated for solvent recovery
environment is mandatory both under Provincial law                purposes.
as well as under UBC’s Environmental Compliance             ii) Segregate from all other solvents.
Policy.                                                     iii) Use only containers that have been used for the
                                                                  same solvent stream.
Examples of minimization methods include:                   iv) Segregate oil from solvents.
a) Using diluted solutions rather than concentrated.        v) Complete the green solvent waste tag (Figure 1),
b) Using micro- or semi-micro techniques and                      and attach a bar code label where indicated.
    quantities.                                             vi) Provide a brief history of the solvent; identify all
c) Obtaining a sample of a chemical from another                  components and their approximate percentages.
    researcher to try out before purchasing something       vii) Tighten all caps before shipping.
    that might not work in an experiment.                   viii) Take the containers to the designated pick-up
                                                            ix) Call 822-1285, 822-6306 or 240-4732 to arrange
 Substitute or eliminate extremely hazardous                      for pick-up or more information.
           materials when feasible.
                                                             Recycled solvents that are currently available
Offering leftover chemicals for use by others is an
example of reusing while solvent recovery exemplifies        include acetone, methanol, xylene and Varsol.
                                                            II. ORGANIC SOLVENTS FOR DISPOSAL
Waste disposal requires well-defined procedures to
prevent exposure to hazardous materials. Improper
disposal of waste puts UBC staff and waste handlers at
                                                            i) Collect solvents in UBC waste solvent containers.
risk as well as jeopardizing the University’s access to
                                                            ii) Separate chlorinated from non-chlorinated as
the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD)
                                                                  much as possible.
waste transfer station.
                                                            iii) Separate oil from solvents.
                                                            iv) Do not include sludge, grit, paper or inorganic
The following procedures must be accessible to all lab
personnel. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring
                                                            v) Complete and affix the generator bar code to the
that all employees are trained and familiar with these
                                                                  appropriate tags (Figure 1).
disposal procedures and that all laboratory procedures
                                                            vi) Identify all classes of materials in each container
are in conformance with these requirements. In
                                                                  and label as such; estimate the percentage of all
addition, a secure, designated area for the storage of
                                                                  major components.
chemicals being sent for disposal is required. See HSE
                                                            vii) Tighten all caps before shipping.
Hazardous Waste Disposal Manual for additional
                                                            viii) Take the containers to the designated pick-up
                                                            ix) Call 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.
46                                            Waste Disposal Procedures

                                                                     for the disposal of Hydrofluoric and Perchloric
III. LABORATORY CHEMICALS                                            acids.
•    Chemicals from Suppliers                                 ii)    Dilute acid or base to approximately 5% or 1 M by
•    Byproducts of Experiments (<1 L or1 kg)                         adding to cold/ice water.
•    Acids and Bases                                          iii)   Neutralize by slowly adding neutralizing agent
      Oxidizing &Reducing Agents                                     with stirring:
•    Inorganic and Organic Salts, Compounds and                      •    For inorganic base for acids, usually 5%
     Solutions                                                            solution of sodium hydroxide or sodium
•    Photographic Chemicals                                               carbonate;
                                                                     •    For inorganic acid for bases, usually 5%
i)    List all chemicals on the Chemical Waste                            solution of hydrochloric acid.
      Inventory Form (see sample at the end of chapter).      iv)    Confirm that the pH is close to neutral
ii) Indicate the full chemical name (or formula),                    (pH 6-8).
      approximate weight or volume and any special            v)     Dispose neutralized solution into the drain unless
      handling information that is relevant.                         neutralization product is toxic (i.e. contains heavy
iii) Send completed form to ESF by campus mail or                    metals such as arsenic, antimony, cadmium,
      fax to 822-6306.                                               mercury, chromium, lead, iron, copper zinc and
iv) The ESF will process your request and return your                others; or toxic anions such as cyanide, sulphide,
      form with the chemicals coded according to                     etc.).
      classification and chemical compatibility.
v) After receiving the coded form, secure containers                 Disposal of large quantities of concentrated
      by ensuing caps and lids are tightly closed, and               corrosives, or highly toxic ones, contact ESF
      label clearly.
vi) Separate chemicals according to code on form and          2. Osmium
      place into solid boxes.
vii) Secure the inner containers with newspaper or            i)     Collect in heavy plastic or glass bottle with a tight
      vermiculite to prevent breakage, then tape the box.            fitting lid.
viii) Write the chemical classification code on each          ii)    When the bottle is full, tighten lid.
      box in 7-mm (3-in) sized letters and tape an            iii)   Keep separate from all other chemicals.
      envelope with a copy of the coded inventory form        iv)     Label bottle according to contents.
      to the top of the box. The inventory form must          v)     Package in solid box and label appropriately.
      include all chemicals in the box.                       vi)    Call 822-1281 to arrange for pick up.
ix) Write the generator’s Name, Department and
      Phone Number on the box.                                3.     Mercury
x) Take the boxes to the designated pick-up area, and
      phone 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.                  i)     Collect in glass or heavy plastic bottle with a tight
                                                                     fitting lid.
                    Collect.                                  ii)    When the bottle is full, tighten lid.
                   Segregate.                                 iii)   Keep separate from all other chemicals.
             Label - affix bar code.                          iv)    Label bottle “Mercury Waste”.
        Complete & submit inventory form.                     v)     Package in solid box and label appropriately.
                Package and seal.                             vi)    Call 822-1281 to arrange for pick up.
            Take to designated area.
                                                              4.     Ethidium Bromide
1.   Acids and Bases                                          Contaminated Solid Waste:
                                                                 Includes gels, gloves, gauze; etc.
This procedure is meant to reduce direct disposal of
acids and bases to sanitary sewers. Further, it applies       i)   Package ethidium bromide solid waste into a thick
to neutralization of acids and bases in a laboratory               plastic garbage bag, ensuring no liquid is present.
setting. It does not apply to large quantities of             ii) Once bag is full, package in a cardboard box.
concentrated acids and bases.                                 iii) Affix an ESF Waste Generator Tag with generator
i) Take safety precautions recommended in the                      bar code sticker attached (call 822-6306 to obtain
    MSDS. NOTE: specific procedures must be used
                                            Waste Disposal Procedures                                             47

    a disposal code), and the appropriate box checked       iii) The chemicals will be classified. Those chemicals
    off. (Figure 1)                                               that fall into the explosives category will be coded
iv) Call 822-1281 to arrange for pick up.                         “Class F”, “Do Not Touch”.
                                                            iv) Package chemicals in cardboard boxes according
Contaminated Liquid Waste - Method 1                              to the code.
i) Dilute aqueous solutions to less than 0.5 mg/ml.         v) Once box is full, tape it closed.
ii) To each 100 ml of diluted solution, add 20 ml of        vi) With a felt-tipped pen, label the box “Class
     5% hypophosporous acid (prepared by diluting                 F”,“Do Not Touch”, and tape a copy of the
     commercially available 50% hypophosporous acid               inventory form to the top of the box.
     by 1:10), and 12 ml of 0.5 M sodium nitrate.           vii) Store in a secure place until contacted by ESF re:
iii) Stir briefly to mix; let stand for 20 hours.                 pick-up.
iv) Neutralize with sodium bicarbonate before               viii) ESF will maintain a record of these chemicals.
     discarding to drain with large volumes of water.       ix) When there is enough explosive waste on campus
                                                                  to merit pick-up, a licensed company will be hired
Non-Aqueous, water miscible                                       to removed the waste annually, or more frequently
i) For ethidium bromide solution in a solvent like                if required. Once a date has been set for pick-up,
     isopropanol, add 4 volumes of decontaminating                ESF will contact all generators of these materials.
     solution (4.2 g of sodium nitrate, 20 ml of
     hypophosporous acid [50%] in 300 ml of water).         The cost for disposal is approximately $250.00
ii) Stir for 20 hours.                                      per customer. This price is subject to change
iii) Neutralize with sodium bicarbonate before
     discarding to drain with large volumes of water.
                                                            without notice.

Non-Aqueous, water immiscible                               VI. WASTE OIL
i) For ethidium bromide solution in a solvent like
     butanol, add 4 volumes of decontaminating              Types of waste oil include the following:
     solution (4.2 g of sodium nitrate, 20 ml of
     hypophosporous acid [50%] in 300 ml of water).         °   Automotive lubricating oil
ii) Stir for 72 hours.                                      °   Cutting oil
iii) Add 2 g of activated charcoal for each 100 ml.         °   Fuel oil
iv) Stir for 30 minutes, then filter. Neutralize with       °   Gear oil
     sodium bicarbonate, separate the layers and            °   Hydraulic oil
     discard the aqueous layer.                             °   Refined petroleum-based oil
v) The activated charcoal is now a hazardous waste          °   Synthetic oil
     as is the solvent layer.                               °   Vacuum-pump oil

Contaminated Liquid Waste - Method 2                        Does not include crude oil, oil generated at a well-
Aqueous – very dilute
                                                            site, soil, sand or similar material or substances
i) To each 100 ml of 0.5 mg/ml ethidium bromide,
                                                            containing      dioxins,    furans     or     PCBs
     add 400 ml of fresh bleach.
                                                            (polychlorinated biphenyls, > 100 ppb).
ii) Stir for 2 hours.
iii) The resultant solution is now ready for safe sewer
     disposal.                                              i) Collect oil in:
                                                                 -original supplier container;
                                                                 -one gallon plastic oil cans; or 45 gallon metal
V. POTENTIALLY EXPLOSIVE                                          or plastic drums
   CHEMICALS                                                ii) Call 822-6306 for empty waste oil containers.
                                                            iii) Do not mix oil with other solvents.
   Do Not Handle Potentially Unstable Or                    iv) Fill out the solvent waste tag (Figure 1) and affix
  Explosive Chemicals. Contact Authorized                              barcode sticker.
 Company To Pick Up And Dispose Of Such                     v) Write “Waste Oil”, “Waste oil contaminated
                Materials.                                             with lead”, or “Petroleum oil” in the
                                                                       “Other” section.
i)  Complete chemical inventory form, available from        vi) Take to the designated pick-up area.
    ESF (see sample at the end of chapter).                 vii) Call 822-63006 to arrange for pick-up.
ii) Send form to ESF by mail or fax (822-6306).
48                                             Waste Disposal Procedures

        Do not mix waste oil with other solvents.              Classification may be accomplished by in-house testing or
               Do not overfill containers.                     by sending a sample to an outside analytical laboratory.
                                                               This service costs $100.00 per hour, and is performed
                                                               annually by an approved contractor. Once a date has
VII. PHOTOCHEMICAL WASTES                                      been set for removal of these items, the generator will be
                                                               contacted by ESF. The contractor will bill generator
Disposal of photochemical waste without treatment              directly.
into the sewer of landfill is prohibited by GVRD
Sewer Use By-Law No. 164, June 1990 and the BC                 •    Classified as to whether it is organic (halogenated or not) or
                                                                    inorganic, and whether it contains toxic ions such as heavy
Special Waste Regulation, BC Reg. 63/88, Feb. 18.                   metals, cyanide, arsenic, etc. It’s flammability/explosive
1988.                                                               properties must also be known.

i)     Collect photochemical wastes in 5 or 25 litre red
                                                               X. CHEMICAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM
       containers provided by ESF.
ii)    Segregate fixer from developer.                         UBC’s Chemical Exchange Program is coordinated by
iii)   When containers are full, complete the                  the Environmental Service Facility. Chemicals are
       photochemical waste tag, and attach a generator         available to any UBC Department faculty or staff
       bar code label where indicated.                         member free of charge. This pilot project intends to
iv)    Take the full containers to the designated pick-up      reduce the amount of good chemicals that are unused
       area.                                                   or sent for disposal.
v)     Call 822-1285 to arrange for pick-up.
                                                               For more information on this program, call 822-6306.
                                                               Current list of chemicals available from this
Car Batteries                                                  program accessible through the Home Page of
                                                               HSE, at: (Environment).
°      Place car batteries in a designated pick-up area
       ensuring that the battery is contained in a plastic     To search for a particular chemical, click on the letter
       bag if it is wet or leaking.                            corresponding to the first letter of the chemical name,
°      Call 822-6306 for pickup.                               ignoring all prefixes (i.e. 1,2; a-; o-; etc.). To browse
                                                               through the inventory scroll down the list.
General Batteries
    (not including car batteries)
i) Collect all used dry-cell batteries in a strong             XI. GLASS WASTE
     cardboard box. When full, close and securely seal
     with packing tape.                                        It is the responsibility of lab personnel to ensure that
ii) Label the box “Used Batteries for Disposal”, and           glass waste is packaged properly. Full “approved
     add the generator’s Name, Department and Phone            containers” are to be taken to the building’s designated
     Number.                                                   area for pick-up by the Plant Operations’s Glass Waste
iii) Take the box to the designated pick-up area.              truck.
iv) Call 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.
                                                               1.   Approved Containers
                                                               Uncontaminated glass waste must be collected in
IX. UNKNOWN CHEMICALS                                          approved UBC glass waste containers. The only
i)   Call 822-6306 to register unknown chemicals.              containers that may be used are five gallon grey metal
     Provide name, department and phone number of              or white plastic pails (available through Plant
     the contact person in charge of the waste.                Operations @ 822-5272). They must be labelled
ii) Code/number the individual containers.                     “Glass Waste Only”; other packaging such as
iii) Put the containers in a cardboard box.                    cardboard is not acceptable. Each container must be
iv) Write “Unidentified Chemicals” and “Do Not                 lined with a clear plastic bag, which encloses all the
     Touch” on the box in clear lettering.                     glass (bags available through Plant Operations @ 822-
                                                               5272). See Figure 2.
      Unknown Chemicals Must Be Classified*
      Before They Will Be Accepted By ESF.
                                              Waste Disposal Procedures                                             49

 Glass waste containers should not be used for any            Sharps containers, whether autoclaved or not,
                  other purpose.                              MUST NOT be placed into the “Glass Waste
2.     Procedure
                                                              Only” containers. They are to be taken to the
                                                              building’s designated area for hazardous waste
i)         Deposit uncontaminated glass waste, not            pick-up.
           needles or syringes, into approved “Glass
           Waste Only” containers.
ii)        Once a container is ¾ full, choke off the bag      XIII.       DISPOSABLE SYRINGES
           and tie ensuring that no glass protrudes past
           the top of the container.                           The easiest way to dispose of these syringes is by
iii)       Attach a label to the bag indicating the           incineration.
           building, room and phone number.
iv)        Take the container must to the building’s          i)          Dispose of the entire syringe and needle in a
                                                                          “Sharps” container. OR
           designated area for glass waste pick-up.
           A replacement container will be available
                                                              ii)         If the needle is removed and placed into a
           to be taken back to the work area.                             “Sharps” container, dispose of the syringe as
                                                                          “Plastic Waste for Incineration”.
Contaminated glass may only be disposed of in
 the glass waste containers only if they have                 iii)        Take box or sharps container to the building’s
            been decontaminated.                                          designated pick-up area.

                                                              iv)         Call 822-6306 to arrange for pick-up.
                                                                     Infectious or biohazardous waste syringes
Sharps (blades, glass pieces) and needles can represent
                                                                         must be autoclaved or chemically
a physical, chemical and/or infectious hazard.
                                                                         decontaminated prior to disposal.
To control these hazards, sharps and needles must be
collected in containers made of a hard, impervious
plastic that is both autoclavable and acceptable for
incineration. Preferably, they should be “red” in
colour or easily identifiable and labelled as “Sharps”.
These containers can be purchased from companies
that sell laboratory supplies.

i)     Collect all sharps and needles in red plastic or
       other suitable container.
ii)    Chemically decontaminate all infectious items
       prior to disposal into the container, or autoclave
       the entire container once it is full.
iii)   Securely close and snap the lid in place.
iv)    Label container with the UBC ESF Waste
       Generator Tag that includes the waste generator
       number and sticker.
v)     Take to designated pick up area for disposal by
50                  Waste Disposal Procedures

     Figure 1.   Sample of ESF Hazardous Waste Generator Tags
            Waste Disposal Procedures           51

Figure 2.     Glass Waste Disposal Procedures
52                                       Waste Disposal Procedures

                UBC Environmental Services Facility                                   Page __ of ___
                Health, Safety and Environment

                                   Chemical Waste Inventory

            Chemical Name              Size/volume/weight           Identification/           Code
                                                                      Comments            (office only)












Name                                  Dept                              For Office Only
Building                              Rm #                              Date Received
Phone                                 Email

This form must be completed in full and returned to the Environmental Services Facility for approval. Please fax
form to Ron Aamodt at 822-6306. Please contact Ron Aamodt (822-6306) if you have any further inquiries.
                                              Emergency Procedures                                         53

                   CHAPTER 10. CHEMICAL LABORATORY
                        EMERGENCY RESPONSE
Report all incidents, accidents and hazardous               A fire safety emergency and evacuation plan
conditions to the Chemical Safety Officer,                       and procedures must be developed.
Occupational Hygiene Officer or the Director of
Health, Safety and Environment at 822-2029 as soon
as possible after an incident has occurred.                i) The plan will include:
                                                           • sounding the alarm
                                                           • notifying the fire department
                                                           • instructing personnel on procedures to follow
Emergency Procedures must be posted in the                 • when alarm sounds, confine/control and
workplace at appropriate sites such as next to the              extinguish fire, evacuate building.
elevator, entrances to stairwells and in areas where       • scheduling of Fire Drills and Inspections.
hazardous materials, equipment or processes are
located.                                                   ii) Fire Exit Rules include:
                                                           • Access to exits and exits must be kept clear.
Emergency procedures should include response               • Corridors and stairwells must be kept free of
measures for responding to fires, explosions, first aid         obstructions and combustibles.
and life-threatening injuries, and hazardous materials     • Fire doors must not be wedged open.
exposures and spills.                                      • Some labs should have 2 exits - know their
        AND INVESTIGATIONS                                 For answers to fire safety or evacuation
                                                           questions contact the UBC Disaster
Using the Incident/Accident Report Forms                   Preparedness Co-ordinator at 822-1237 or
report all fires, injuries, chemical exposures             Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services at 604-
and spills involving more than 1 litre or                  665-6000.
smaller spills of very hazardous materials.
                                                           II.       FIRE EXTINGUISHMENT
C. FIRE SAFETY PROCEDURES                                  i) Extinguishers
                                                           Portable extinguishers must be provided and
Where fire is involved, the procedure is to:               maintained for the hazard involved.
   • Call 9-1-1 from a safe place.
   • Ensure work site is evacuated.                        Occupants should know:
   • Use a fire extinguisher only if it is safe, i.e.      • Where they are.
        there is a means of exiting if the fire cannot     • How to use them; consider taking a hands-on fire
        be controlled; or leave area.                         extinguisher training course from the local fire
   • Meet at prescribed meeting place.                        department.
   • Return to workplace only when authorized by           • Not to block access to them, i.e. do not use for
        fire warden or fire safety director.                  storing lab coats.
                                                           • To ensure that fire extinguishers are charged and
I.       GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR                               available; call 665-6000 (on UBC campus) to
         BUILDINGS                                            replace discharged extinguishers.

Work and storage areas must be kept clean and free         The Fire Code covers the type and size of
of accumulations of combustibles not essential to
                                                           extinguisher required for the hazard
operations. Access to buildings must be maintained
for fire fighters.                                         involved.
54                                            Emergency Procedures

It is important that the appropriate fire extinguisher     Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services (VFRS)
be used on a particular fire. The table below              provides Mobile First Aid coverage (24 hours a day)
describes the 4 different types of extinguishers and       to all university employees, students and visitors (on
the types of fires they are meant for.                     the UBC campus site). This service is provided to
                                                           the user free-of-charge.
Class                      Type of Fire
                                                           Activating the “2–4444” System
 A       Ordinary combustibles: wood, cloth, paper,
         rubber, many plastics                             Dialing 822-4444 (or 2-4444 on a campus phone)
  B      Flammable liquids: e.g. gasoline, oil,            will summon the VFRS Emergency Transport
         grease, tar, oil-based paint, lacquer             Vehicle (ETV), staffed by a trained first aid
  C      Live electrical equipment                         attendant, to the patient’s location.
  D      Combustible metals                                At the site, the ETV First Aid Attendant will have
                                                           several options at his or her disposal:
Fires of flammable liquids flash so rapidly that the
entire exposed surface may be involved before any          1) The patient may be treated on site (and
extinguishing agent can be applied. The size of the        allowed to return to work).
fire extinguisher provided must be sufficient to deal      • After notification of the patient’s supervisor.
with a fire involving the entire liquid surface, unlike
ordinary combustible materials where a relatively          2) The patient may be transported (in the ETV)
small extinguisher can be used effectively on an           to the Central First Aid Station.
incipient fire before it has had time to spread.           •    If the treatment requires more sophisticated
Extinguishing equipment of too small capacity has no            equipment or a period of time for patient
practical value.                                                monitoring or rest.
                                                           •    The Central First Aid Station is located at UBC
It is usually impossible to remain in a room with a             Student Health Services
flammable liquid fire for manual fire fighting, since
                                                           3) The patient may be transported and admitted
burning flammable liquids generate so much heat and
                                                           to the UBC Hospital Emergency Ward.
smoke. For this reason, automatic extinguishing
                                                           •    If deemed necessary by the responding
equipment is desirable for all indoor operations
                                                                attendant, or if requested by the patient.
where large quantities of flammable liquids are used.
                                                           •    Transport may be done using the ETV or by a
                                                                BC Ambulance unit.
Different flammable liquids have varying burning
characteristics but extinguishing methods are
                                                           As a result of the “2-4444” system, all UBC faculties,
generally similar. In fire fighting, gasoline, benzol,
                                                           departments and areas are compliant with WCB
naphtha, acetone, hexane and other liquids with
                                                           Occupational First Aid regulations.
higher flash points can also be handled by the same
methods, but are usually easier to extinguish. Water
                                                           It is the responsibility of faculties/ departments /
must not be used to extinguish solvent fires as it will
                                                           areas to ensure that every worker is made aware
only increase the area of the fire, not extinguish it.
                                                           of the location of first aid and how to call for
                                                           assistance. This is to be done by posting first aid
         REMEMBER! ALL BIG                                 information conspicuously throughout the workplace,
                                                           and effectively communicating this information to
        FIRES START SMALL!                                 the workers.

                                                           Supplemental (Departmental / Area) First Aid
                                                           As a supplement to the Mobile First Aid Service,
In the event of personal injury, the treatment of the      local first aid stations and attendants have been
injury must take precedence over spill clean-up            established in a variety of locations on campus, on a
procedures. Minimize contamination by confining all        voluntary basis.
contaminated persons to a restricted area if doing so      In order to ensure prompt and effective first aid
does not add to the extent of their injuries, their        treatment at these locations, however, it is strongly
suffering, or impede the speed of their recovery.
                                               Emergency Procedures                                               55

recommended that all local first aid stations include       8.     Inform the injured party’s supervisor of the
the following elements:                                            injury as soon as possible. An incident/accident
                                                                   report form must be filled out by the injured
•    Be equipped with suitable, properly maintained                party or their supervisor within 24 hours of the
     first aid kit.                                                accident.
•    First aid kits include treatment record book in
     which all treatments, however minor, are               Seek medical attention where injury was involved
     recorded. This record protects the worker or           or if symptoms of exposure appear or persist.
     individual in the unlikely      event of future
     complications due to the injury.
•    All treatments are to be administered by a first       II. SERIOUS INJURIES
     aid attendant who possesses, at minimum, a             Where more than first aid treatment is required, treat as
     current WCB ‘Level One’ First Aid / CPR                follows:
     certification (or equivalent).
•    A copy of the treatment sheets must be submitted       1.     Call 911 for ambulance.
     to     the     Departmental    Safety    Program
     Administrator and the Local Safety Committee           2.     Obtain first aid assistance by calling local first
     on a monthly basis.                                           aider; OR 9-1-1 (if student or visitor) or 2-444
•    A copy of the treatment sheets is to be submitted             (Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services);
     to the Department of Health, Safety and
     Environment on a monthly basis.                        3.     Treat the immediately threatening condition,
•    Accident/ Incident Forms are to be promptly                   which may require control of bleeding, CPR or
     filled out, and Accident Investigations                       washing of chemical exposed skin for 15 minutes.
     performed, where appropriate.                                 Carry out the following procedures as required:

                                                                 a) Inhalation - for inhalation exposure, remove
I.        MINOR INJURIES                                            the person from the site of exposure and get
Where there is a small cut or break in the skin with                medical help immediately. Rescue personnel
coincident chemical exposure, treat as follows:                     must ensure their own safety first.
                                                                 b) Ingestion – follow first aid procedures
1.   Begin treatment immediately at or near the scene               described in MSDS; otherwise, dilution of the
     of the accident.                                               stomach contents by drinking water or milk (if
                                                                    victim is conscious), followed by immediate
2.   Rinse the contaminated area under a tap with                   medical attention is recommended. Contact the
     copious quantities of water (at least 15 minutes is            Poison Control Centre, 682 - 5050 for further
     recommended), and encourage bleeding, where                    advice.
     appropriate, for a few minutes.                             c) Skin/Eye Exposure – Treat skin or eye
                                                                    exposure (chemical burn) by dilution with water
3.   Keep chemical away from open area of wound. If                 immediately. Irrigating the burn area or eyes
     the exposure is on the face, do not contaminate the            for 15-20 minutes is the standard procedure. If
     eyes, nostrils or mouth.                                       the eye is exposed, or the material is known to
                                                                    be absorbed by skin, seek medical attention
4.   Wash the exposed area with mild soap and                       immediately; otherwise, if the skin is exposed,
     lukewarm water.                                                seek medical attention if symptoms develop or
5.   Do not use abrasives or scrub the skin as this
     may increase the extent of injury.                     Advise emergency personnel of the chemical
                                                            name, extent of injuries, hazards of the
6.   Do not apply salves or ointments.
                                                            material and location of victim.
7.   Apply a sterile first aid dressing.
56                                             Emergency Procedures

 E. SPILL CLEAN-UP PROCEDURES                               6) Gather the required equipment and materials. If
                                                                the appropriate materials are not available, call
                                                                Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services (VFRS) for
I. FOR ALL SPILLS                                               assistance.
Once the risk of injuries has been controlled, the spill
                                                            7) Put on appropriate protective clothing, a
may be cleaned up and the area decontaminated using
                                                                minimum of rubber gloves, eye protection and
the following procedures:
                                                                lab coat. Toxic, corrosive or irritating volatile
                                                                materials will require the use of a respirator
1.    Notify other people in the vicinity of the spill
                                                                Ensure appropriate type of respirator and
      and inform the supervisor. Evacuate and post
                                                                cartridges are used. A full-face respirator is the
      warnings in the area if necessary.
                                                                minimum requirement for volatile irritating,
                                                                toxic or corrosive materials; if SCBA is required,
2.    Before responding to any spill the following
                                                                call VFRS at 911.
      information must be obtained:
      • Name of the chemical(s) involved.
                                                            8) Turn off any device, instrument, or machine that
      • Approximate quantity.
                                                                could increase the hazard of the spill. Use
      • Hazards of the chemical (review MSDS if
                                                                caution if any device is not spark-proof and the
                                                                spill includes flammable materials.
         i) Flammability: flash point; vapour
                                                            9) Use a spill control material (unreactive, neutral,
         ii) Toxicity – TLV
                                                                compatible material) to make a dike to contain
         iii) Corrosiveness – pH
                                                                the spill and prevent it from spreading into a
                                                                drain or under furniture or equipment.

Sample checklists for a spill clean-up cart and             10) Mix the spill control compound with the spill,
 personal protective equipment are provided                     wait for any neutralizing/absorbent reactions to
               in Appendix D.                                   be complete, and scoop the material into an
                                                                impervious container.

For spills > 1 L, especially flammable                      11) Arrange for pick-up of the waste material by the
solvents, highly toxic or corrosive materials,                  Environmental Services Facility (ESF) at 822-
Vancouver Fire and Rescue Services at 9-1-1,                    6306.
should be called for stand-by support.
                                                            12) The responsible person must determine using the
Off-campus locations, such as hospital sites may                table in the UBC Spill Reporting Procedures
have different phone numbers and protocols.                     (Appendix T), if the spill is reportable and which
                                                                agencies require notification.
3. Perform clean-up procedures only if:
                                                            13) Complete Incident/Accident forms and send to
     a) The appropriate spill control material,                 HS&E, the Department Head and Local Safety
        equipment and protective clothing are                   Committee.
     b) Personnel is familiar with equipment and                If appropriate equipment and trained
        clean-up procedures.                                   personnel are not available on site, the
     c) More than one person is in the lab and                       clean-up should not proceed.
        available to participate.                              Contact the Vancouver Fire and Rescue
     d) There are no ignition sources present.
                                                                    Services and HSE for support.
4) After reviewing the MSDS and assessing the
    hazards posed by the spill, establish the
    appropriate clean-up procedure.

5) Determine the extent of evacuation required.
                                              Emergency Procedures                                              57

                                                           3.   CAUSTICS
                                                           i)    Apply neutralizer for caustics (Spill X-C,
       •   Flammable solvents                                    Neutracit-2 or equivalent product) from the
       •   Acids                                                 perimeter of the spill, inward.
       •   Caustics                                        ii) Carefully mix with brushes and scoops; if
       •   Hydrofluoric Acid                                     necessary, add more neutralizer to any free base.
       •   Perchloric Acid                                 iii) When foaming subsides, check pH of a
       •   Mercury                                               homogeneous sample of the mixture.
                                                           iv) Add a scoopful (about 5 mL) of the treated
1.          FLAMMABLE SOLVENTS                                   material to about 100 mL of water.
                                                           v) Test pH with pHdrion paper (e.g. E.M. Quant
      DO NOT attempt to clean up a solvent spill if              Company available from BDH or Anachemia
          there is an ignition source present.                   Science).
                                                           vi) If pH is not between 3 and 10, add more
i)   Apply solvent absorbent (Spill X-S, Solusorb or             neutralizer.
     equivalent product) from the perimeter inward,        vii) When the caustic has been sufficiently
     covering the total spill area.                              neutralized, pick up treated material with scoops
ii) Mix thoroughly with plastic scoops until                     and transfer to a disposal bag container.
     material is dry and free flowing, and no evidence     viii) Seal container appropriately, and label.
     of free liquid remains.                               ix) Decontaminate and wash spill area surfaces with
iii) Transfer the absorbed solvent to an appropriate             water and wet sponge.
     disposal container that is not soluble in the         x) Check with the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
     solvent, and seal the container.                            concerning disposal of the bag and contents.
iv) Contact the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
     concerning disposal of the container and its          4.   HYDROFLUORIC ACID
     contents.                                             i)    Wear protective clothing including HF
2.     ACIDS                                               ii) Apply solid calcium carbonate from the
(except hydrofluoric acid, depending on neutralizer)             perimeter of the spill, inward.
                                                           iii) When the hydrofluoric acid has been absorbed,
i)    Apply acid neutralizer (Spill X-A, Neutrasorb or           mix thoroughly with a plastic scoop.
      equivalent product) from the perimeter of the        iv) Add a scoopful (about 5 mL) of the mixture to
      spill, inward.                                             about 100 mL of water.
ii) Carefully mix with brushes and scoops; if              v) Test the pH with pHdrion paper. When the pH
      necessary, add more neutralizer to any free acid.          is between 7 and 10, scoop the solid into a
iii) When foaming subsides, check pH of a                        plastic container of water.
      homogeneous sample of the mixture.                   vi) Let stand until the white solid settles out of
iv) Add a scoopful (about 5 mL) of the treated                   solution. Decant the solution to the drain with at
      material to about 100 mL of water.                         least 50 volumes of water.
v) Test pH with pHdrion paper (e.g. E.M. Quant             vii) Package the solid residue in a plastic bag, seal
      Company available from BDH or Anachemia                    and label.
      Science).                                            viii) Check with the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
vi) If pH is not between 3 and 10, add more                      concerning disposal of the bag and contents.
vii) When the acid has been sufficiently neutralized,                  Dam. Absorb (neutralize).
      pick up treated material with scoops and transfer                  Test. Package. Label.
      to a disposal container.
viii) Seal container appropriately, and label.
                                                           5. PERCHLORIC ACID
ix) Decontaminate and wash spill site surfaces with
      soapy water and wet sponge.                          i) Apply acid neutralizer (Spill X-A, Neutrasorb or
x) Contact the ESF at 822-6306 for directions                  equivalent product) from the perimeter of the
      concerning disposal of the bag and its contents.         spill, inward.
58                                              Emergency Procedures

ii) Mop up with wet rags or paper towels.                                              OR
                                                                    •    Use Zinc pieces (pre-rinsed in dilute
        CONTAMINATED PAPER OR RAGS                                       hydrochloric acid) to act as magnets to
     (COMBUSTIBLES) MUST BE KEPT WET TO                                  pick up mercury droplets, then place
      PREVENT COMBUSTION UPON DRYING.                                    zinc/mercury pieces into wide-mouth jar*
                                                                         equipped with tight fitting lid.
iii) Wipe up spill site with wet rags and dispose in
     the manner described above.                                  *Label wide-mouth jar: "Mercury/Clean-up
iv) Place wet rags or towels in a plastic bag, seal and                          Materials"
     put into a flammable waste disposal can (non-
     metal).                                                 xi) The final clean-up steps include:
v) Check with the ESF at 822-6306 for directions                 • Cracks - spread sulphur or spray
     concerning disposal of the bag and contents.                    MERCONVAP® solution into cracks and
                                                                     leave as a cover to inhibit evaporation of
6. MERCURY (metallic) SPILL                                          any mercury that is not visible or accessible.
                                                                 • Monitor Spill Area – Contact HSE @822-
i)    Report the spill to a supervisor; if necessary,
                                                                     2029 to monitor spill area to determine if
      contact HS&E for further assistance.
                                                                     mercury      vapour     concentrations     are
ii) Evacuate all personnel from area if spill is large,
                                                                     dangerously high (≥ 0.05 mg/m3).
      or room is small and ventilation is poor.
iii) Wear appropriate personal protective equipment
      such as lab coat, rubber, latex or vinyl gloves,            Remove All Personal Protective Equipment
      plastic boot protectors, splash goggles and half-            Before Leaving Room - Decontaminate or
      mask respirator with approved cartridge for                 Dispose of as “Waste Mercury Materials”.
      mercury vapours (self-contained breathing
      apparatus may be required if spill is large,                 • Place all labelled mercury containers into a
      temperature is elevated, and/or site of spill is in              solid container and label appropriately - i.e.
      an enclosed space with poor ventilation).                        'Waste Mercury"' or "Mercury Clean-up
iv) Ventilate area as much as possible; i.e. open all                  Materials".
      windows.                                                     • Contact the ESF at 822-6306 for directions
v) Mark off spill area with signs, barriers or tape.                   concerning disposal.
vi) Pool mercury using stiff paper or plastic sheet to
      carefully manoeuvre beads of mercury into one
                                                                 F. EARTHQUAKE PREPAREDNESS
      large pool.
vii) Shake off any mercury that clings to paper or                       AND RESPONSE
      plastic into a wide-mouth container before being
      transferred with a funnel into a small, clean
                                                             I.         BEFORE THE QUAKE
viii) Pick up mercury using a glass pipette with a           •     Identify potential hazards such as:
      rubber bulb OR a glass filter flask equipped with            o Objects with sharp edges or glass
      a trap and a vacuum source such as a large                       construction.
      rubber bulb, water aspirator, vacuum tap or                  o Unrestrained objects weighing more than 5
      vacuum pump (Figure 1).                                          kg located above counter height.
ix) Transfer liquid mercury to glass (preferable) or               o Objects over 22 kg sliding or rolling on the
      plastic bottle of the smallest size possible                     floor.
      equipped with a tight fitting lid. Label 'Waste              o Potential contact with exposed utilities.
      Mercury".                                                    o Enclosed areas with limited access.
x) Decontaminate spill area by using one of the              •     Anchor or relocate items that pose a serious
      following methods:                                           hazard.
        • Dust area of spill with sulphur powder,            •     Identify a safe place to take cover when shaking
             then sweep mercury/sulphur mixture into               occurs.
             wide-mouth jar equipped with tight fitting      •     Keep flashlight and small portable AM/FM radio
             lid.                                                  (with extra batteries) at work site.
                                              Emergency Procedures                                             59

•     Have 72-hour survival kit available and stored             •   In the library or laboratory, move away
      under desk.                                                    from shelving area; inner walls should be
•     Know location of at least 2 fire extinguishers                 safest.
      closest to work are and how to use them.
•     Take first aid and CPR courses.                            •   In a lecture room or classroom, crouch on
•     Be familiar with all exits from your work area;                the floor under desks or chairs.
      know where to meet colleagues after the quake.
•     Have backup copies of important data.                      •   If outside - stay there!
•     Have a family plan:                                            Move to open space away from buildings
      o May be without help or transportation for at                 and power-lines.
          least 72 hours.
      o Identify contact person outside Lower                    •   If in a car – pull over and stop!
          Mainland and family meeting place.                         Avoid stopping near buildings, power-lines
      o Make prior arrangements in the event you                     or on bridges
          are not at home at the time of the quake.
•     The following tips are specifically for preparing
                                                           II.       AFTER QUAKE
      your lab space:
      o Install lips or doors on chemical shelves.               •   Stay calm!
      o All storage shelves must be attached to wall             •   Stay safe!
          with metal restraints.                                 •   Provide first aid to injured.
      o Develop work resumption plan; i.e. Have                  •   Extinguish open flames and terminate work
          plans for care of laboratory animals.                      procedures.
      o Have access to spill containment equipment               •   Wait until motion has stopped before
          and materials.                                             moving to exit the building.
      o Keep fume hood sashes closed as far as                   •   Gather emergency supplies and first aid kits;
          possible.                                                  take with you if you evacuate area.
      o Ensure heavy equipment and furniture that                •   Determine if building is unsafe for
          could block exit routes is secured.                        occupancy; if necessary evacuate carefully.
      o Keep aisles and exit routes free of                      •   Go to pre-established meeting area.
                                                                 •   Do not re-enter buildings until assessed for
           Identify potential Hazards.                           •   Ensure there are no gas leaks or fire hazards
              Anchor or relocate.                                    before turning on light switches or lighting
          Prepare personal survival kit.                             matches.
              Have a family plan.                                •   Be prepared for significant aftershocks.
                                                                 •   Keep roads clear.
                                                                 •   Listen to radio for instructions.
                                                                 •   Do not flush toilets.
II.       DURING QUAKE                                           •   Use phone for life safely only.

Lights may go out; sprinkler systems may go on; fire
alarms may sound; the ground may shake and
furniture and equipment move.

When the quake starts:
   • Move away from overhead hazards.
   • Duck (under desk; in doorway being aware
       of closing doors).
   • Cover your head.
   • Hold (brace) yourself against doorway, or
       hold on to desk or table leg).
60             Emergency Procedures

     Figure 1. Mercury Spill Clean-up Apparatus
                                               References                                              61

                          CHAPTER 11. REFERENCES

•   Armour, M.A. 1996. Hazardous Laboratory Chemicals Disposal Guide. CRC Press, Boca Raton,
    Florida, pp.546.

•   Armour, M.A., R.A. Bacovsky, L.M. Browne, P.A. McKenzie and D.M. Renecker. 1986. Potentially
    Carcinogenic Chemicals Information and Disposal Guide. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton,
    Canada, pp 147.

•   Bretherick, L. 1981. Hazards in the Chemical Laboratory, 3rd ed. The Royal Society of Chemistry,
    London, pp 567.

•   Budavari, Susan, M.J. O'Neil, A. Smith, P.E. Heckelman and J.F. Kinneary. 1996. The Merck Index,
    12th edition. Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, New Jersey.

•   Chemical Rubber Co. 1971. Handbook on Laboratory Safety, 2nd ed. CRC, Cleveland, Ohio, pp 854.

•   Green, Michael E. and Amos Turk. 1978. Safety in Working with Chemicals.

•   Henry, R.J., I. Olitzky, N.D. Lee, B. Walker, and J. Beattie. 1976. Safety in the Clinical Laboratory.
    Bioscience, Van Nuys, California, pp 176.

•   Kaufman, James A. 1990. Waste Disposal in Academic Institutions. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea,
    Michigan, pp 192.

•   Lunn, George and Eric B. Sansone. 1990. Destruction of Hazardous Chemicals in the Laboratory.
    John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Toronto, Canada, pp 271.

•   Lewis, Richard J., Sr. 1992. Sax’s Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, 8th edition. Van
    Nostrand Reinhold, New York, pp 3553.

•   Manufacturing Chemists Association. 1970. Laboratory Waste Disposal Manual. Manufacturing
          o Chemists Association, Washington, DC, pp 176.

•   Matheson. 1983. Guide to Safe Handling of Compressed Gases. Matheson Gas Products, Inc. 323 pp.

•   Minister of Supply and Services Canada. 1992. Dangerous Goods Initial Emergency Response Guide.
    Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Supply & Services, Canada, pp 217.

•   NFPA. 1991. Fire Protection Guide on Hazardous Materials, 10th edition. National Fire Protection
    Association, Quincy, Mass.

•   National Research Council. 1981. Prudent Practices for Handling Hazardous Chemicals in
           o Laboratories. National Academic Press, Washington, DC, pp 291.

•   National Research Council. 1983. Prudent Practices for Disposal of Chemicals from Laboratories.
    National Academic Press, Washington, DC, pp 282.
    62                                                    References

    •    Pipitone, David. 1984. Safe Storage of Laboratory Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Toronto, Canada,
         pp 280.

    •    Pitt, Martin J. and Eva Pitt. 1985. Handbook of Laboratory Waste Disposal. Ellis Horwood Ltd.,
         Chichester, England, pp 360.

    •    Rose, Susan L. 1984. Chemical Laboratory Safety.

    •    Schilt, Alfred A. 1979. Perchloric Acid and Perchlorates. The G. Frederick Smith Chemical Co.,
         Columbus, Ohio, pp 189.

    •    Transport Canada. 2000. 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook, pp 384.

    •    Urben, P.G., ed. 1995. Bretherick’s Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards, 3rd edition.
         Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Oxford, Britain, pp 2004.

    •    Young, Jay A., 1987. Improving Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: A Practical Guide. John Wiley &
         Sons, Toronto, Canada, pp 350.


    Visit HSE Website @ for additional information. Addresses and information are not guaranteed to be valid.

•       Fisher Chemicals;jsessionid=1243%3A3c39e95a%3A54b150ff99d1de6

•       Sigma-Aldrich

•       VWR Scientific products

•       J.T. Baker, Inc

•       Mallinckrodt Laboratory Chemicals

•       Matheson Tri-Gas, Inc

•       Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS)
                                    Appendices                          63

                        LIST OF APPENDICES

A. Project Hazard and Control Assessment

B. Hazard Control Assessment Guide

C. UBC Procedures for Transportation of Hazardous Materials on Campus

D. Spill Kit and Personal Protective Clothing Checklist

E. UBC Spill Reporting Procedures
64                                                               Appendix A
                                          PROJECT HAZARD AND CONTROL ANALYSIS

Department Name:
HAZARD GRADE:                   High              (         )         (potentially life threatening)
                                Medium            (         )         (potential for significant equipment of building damage)
                                Low               (         )         (minor equipment damage)
                                                                              Part I.
 Equipment Type                                                               Potential Hazards                    Y/N      Control Measures
 Previous Inspection Date                                                     High pressure or Vacuum
 Room No.                                                                     High temperature
 Current Inspection Date                                                      High voltage
 Experimenter(s)                                                              Risk of explosion
 Inspected By                                                                 Toxic materials
 Advisor(s)                                                                   Reactive/oxidizing materials
                                                                              Cryogenics/compressed gases
                                                                              Loss of air
                                                                              Loss of water
                                                                              Loss of power

Part II. Specify potential leak hazards: __________________________________________________________________
Part III. Spill Control for the following types of spills is available:        _________________________________________

Part IV. List principle hazardous chemicals used.                            Part V. Waste generation information
Location of MSDS:
       Item        Quantity          MSDS                MSDS
                                  Available ( )       Reviewed ( )                Type of Waste             Quantity         Disposal Method
                                                                                                                            Available (describe)

Part VI. Safety Information
Emergency Contact Information                                                     First aid station location:
Phone number:
Location:                                                                         Required Personal Protective Equipment Available:

Emergency Shutdown Procedures posted:                                             Eye protection: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Yes ( ) No ( )      Location:                                                     Foot protection: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
                                                                                  Hand protection: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Emergency Safety Equipment
                                                                                  Apron/lab coat: Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Fire extinguisher location:
                                                                                  Respirator:         Yes ( ) No ( ) Location:
Eye wash fountain location:
Emergency shower location:

Part VII.           Historical safety problems ______________________________________________________________
Part VIII.          Inspection Committee Recommendations

Mandatory:          ______________________________________________________________________________________

Optional:           ________________________________________________________________________________________

Other Remarks _______________________________________________________________________________________
Attachments: UBC Hazard Control Assessment Form and Standard Operating Procedures for project including safety features.

                                                                          Please call HSE @ 822-5909 to obtain the electronic version of this form.
                                                                    Appendix B                                                                       65

                               UBC HAZARD CONTROL ASSESSMENT GUIDE
If a hazard exists, there must be a means of controlling it. There are 4 types of controls that are available which must be evaluated in the order given:
a) elimination or substitution; b) engineering controls; c) administrative (e.g. procedures, posters, work schedule, etc.); and d) personal protective

Note: Reference to procedures means specific procedures for materials/equipment/processes being used and includes relevant training.

          Type of Hazard                          UBC Procedure or                                         Hazard Control
                                                   Relevant Reg.
 1. Hazardous materials used and              WCB Occupational Health and            -   substitute/minimize
     stored                                   Safety Regulation (WCB                 -   fume hood
 - hazards identified                         OHSR); WHMIS; BC Fire                  -   monitoring and alarm equipment
 - Potential significant inhalation           Code; UBC Laboratory                   -   appropriate containers & storage units;
     exposures assessed                       Chemical Safety Manual                 -   appropriate labels & MSDS available (WHMIS)
                                                                                     -   appropriate handling, disposal and emergency
                                                                                     -   procedures, signage, training
                                                                                     -   personal protective equipment
 2. Compressed gas used                       WCB OHSR; BC Fire Code;                -   minimum quantities in lab or shop
                                              Gas Safety Act                         -   means of securing and transporting
                                                                                     -   monitors and alarms as required; signage
                                                                                     -   written work and emergency procedures; training
 3. Potentially violent reaction via:         WCB OHSR                               -   fume hood
      rapid decomposition; impact                                                    -   minimization of quantities; heat; other
      sensitive; stability on storage to                                             -   isolation or shielding
      cold, heat, light, water, metals,                                              -   means of pressure relief
      etc.; mischarge or wrong                                                       -   redundant controls; automatic shutdown mechanism
      addition order; quantity and                                                   -   ability to vent all parts of system before breaking any
      rate of evolution of heat and                                                         lines
      gases; water or air contact                                                    -   appropriate storage area
                                                                                     -   appropriate handling & emergency procedures
                                                                                     -   PPE
 4. Radioactive material or source            AECB Regulations ; WCB                 -   Fume hood
     used?                                    OHSR; UBC Radiation Safety             -   Canadian Nuclear Association Procedures;
                                              Manual                                 -   UBC Radionuclide Safety and Methodology
                                                                                     -   appropriate emergency procedures
                                                                                     -   PPE
 5. Infectious or biohazardous                WCB OHSR; WHMIS; MRC                   -   biosafety cabinet
     material used or handled?                Guidelines; UBC Biosafety              -   medical surveillance
                                              Manual                                 -   UBC protocols & procedures including emergency
                                                                                     -   PPE
66                                                     Appendix B

           Type of Hazard                     UBC Procedure or                            Hazard Control
                                               Relevant Reg.
6. Catalysts, inhibitors, or contaminants   WCB OHSR; WHMIS              -   engineering
    (like iron) affect reactions?                                        -   appropriate handling procedures
                                                                         -   written procedures & training
                                                                         -   appropriate emergency procedures
7. Energy Sources/Failures                  WCB OHSR; UBC Lock-          -   automatic shut-off system for:
- heating/cooling systems                   Out procedures; Electrical       - power
- power ( high voltage)                     Code; Boiler & Pressure          - temperature
- machinery                                 Vessel Code???                   - HVAC; ventilation;
- water; air                                                                 - pressure,
- ventilation                                                                - water and air supply systems (back-up system)
- automatic controls or equipment                                        -   signage
- pressure                                                               -   lock-out procedures
- materials/equipment/container integrity                                -   appropriate handling & emergency procedures
                                                                                - fires/explosions; spills
8. Possible generation of :                 WCB OHSR; Special            -   substitute materials
- unacceptable odour                        Waste & Environmental        -   engineering controls:
- air pollution,                            Regulations                        - fume hood : PPE
- excessive noise,                                                             - trap or back-flow preventor (1-way valve)
- excessive heat,                                                        -   noise testing and absorption
- sewer contamination                                                    -   cooling system
                                                                         -   waste trap
                                                                         -   appropriate emergency procedures
9. Hazardous waste generated                WCB OHSR; Special            -   appropriate containers for storage
                                            Waste & Environmental        -   written procedures & training
                                            Regulations                  -   appropriate emergency procedures
10. Potential for impact of hazards of      WCB OHSR;                    -   notification of relevant personnel & organizations
    materials and process upset on          Environmental Legislation           prior to incident
    neighbours, service, medical,                                        -   process for notification of relevant personnel &
    emergency response personnel, etc.                                          organizations post incident
                                                                         -   appropriate emergency procedures
11. Space for equipment, materials and      WCB OHSR                     -   adequate and appropriate space
    experimental set-ups
12. Asbestos containing material            WCB OHSR; UBC                - awareness training
    present.                                procedures                   - reporting procedures
                                                                         - removal/substitution
                                                            Appendix C                                                           67

                                                                  Chemical Safety Program
                                         PROCEDURES FOR THE TRANSPORTATION OF
                                            HAZARDOUS MATERIALS ON CAMPUS

     Health Safety
     & Environment
SCOPE                                                                3.   Sort chemicals according to UBC Chemical Storage
                                                                          Guidelines (Chapter 7).
This procedure is to be used when hazardous materials are
being moved within the UBC main campus or within off-                4.   Evaluate age, quality and usefulness of chemicals before
campus UBC facilities; for example, when large quantities of              packing to move.
hazardous materials are being transported by vehicle between
buildings at one site.                                               5.   Consider the disposal of old or possibly contaminated
                                                                     6.   Consider the disposal of materials not used for 3 years or
This procedure is to minimize the occurrence and impact of                more unless they are part of planned future experiments
accidents that could occur when large quantities of hazardous             within the next year; they may be suitable for UBC’s
materials are being moved from one building to another and to             Chemical Exchange Program.
move these materials in a manner that is compliant with
applicable environmental regulations.                                7.   Classify unidentified materials before they are moved or
                                                                          sent for disposal. This procedure may be performed by
BACKGROUND                                                                qualified in-house personnel or external agencies. Call the
                                                                          Environmental Programs Officer @822-9280 for further
1.   This procedure takes into consideration the BC Workers’
     Compensation Board OHS Regulation that refers to
     appropriate handling of hazardous materials in the
                                                                     8.   Inventory all hazardous materials.
     workplace as well as the federal Transportation of
     Dangerous Goods Regulations.
                                                                     9.   Pack compatible materials into strong boxes ensuring
                                                                          containers cannot contact one another and break; add
2.   This procedure includes the requirement for inventory,
                                                                          padding, such as vermiculite, that is compatible with the
     labelling and safe transport as well as appropriate
                                                                          chemicals in the box; do not use paper products for
     emergency response procedures and equipment.
                                                                          packing oxidizers. Packing must be done by a qualified
                                                                          person; i.e. either the owner/user or a person
3.   This procedure requires that appropriately trained
                                                                          knowledgeable about chemicals and their hazards.
     personnel label, package, transport and receive hazardous
                                                                     10. Seal boxes. Label with name of principal investigator,
                                                                         place of origin, place of destination, box number, and a
4.   These procedures are not acceptable if hazardous materials
                                                                         code that reflects coding on inventory list.
     are being transported to or from the main UBC campus, or
     between other sites.
                                                                     11. The time of move should be at the least busiest time on
                                                                         campus within the time frame under consideration.
5.   For the purposes of this procedure, hazardous materials
     and dangerous goods are used synonymously.
                                                                     12. Persons transporting the hazardous materials must be
                                                                         familiar with the hazards of the materials being
6.   A UBC site includes the main campus and also off campus
                                                                         transported and the appropriate chemical emergency
     sites such as major Lower Mainland Hospitals, wherever
                                                                         response (first aid, chemical exposure, spills and fire). If
     UBC personnel are working and studying.
                                                                         the move takes place by vehicle on public roads, there are
                                                                         2 options; a) the carrier must have current TDG
PROCEDURE                                                                certification and an appropriate vehicle with placarding; or
1.   Identify a person responsible for the hazardous materials           b) the public roads between the 2 buildings must be closed
     designated to be moved; this includes materials already in          to public access during the time of the move.
     use in an experiment that may require special packaging of
     equipment plus chemical contents.                               13. The receiver of the hazardous materials must store them
                                                                         appropriately according to UBC Chemical Storage
2.   Identify materials that are stored in freezers and ensure           Guidelines.
     proper packaging/cooling during the move and at
     destination.                                                    14. Contact the Chemical Safety Officer at 822-5909 for
68                                                  Appendix D

The following are suggested items to be included in a spill kit:
     Quantity      Description
     1 each        Kit or cart (moveable preferably; with rigid liner)
     2 each        Plastic liners
     1 each        Instruction Booklet
     1 each        Safety Flashlight
     1 each        Printed Floor Sign (slippery when wet)
     1 roll        Barricade tape
     2 each        Chemical Spill Clothing Kit - MUST BE SEALED
     10 each       Spill Control Pillows, 1 litre size
     1-10 litres   Damming Material (unreactive, absorbent such as vermiculite)
     1 each        Acid Neutralizer shaker, 2.8 kg
     1 each        Caustic Neutralizer Shaker, 2.8 kg
     1 each        Solvent Absorbent Shaker, 2.8 kg
     20 each       Hydrogen Fluoride Spill Pads 12" X 12" (20 per package)
     1 box         Mercury/VAP ABSORB
     1 each        Tongs, 20" long (for picking up broken/contaminated glass)
     1 each        Mop Bucket, 35 quart
     1 each        Wringer
     1 each        24 ounce Mop Head and Handle
     1 each        Spill Squeegee, Floor Size, 18" Head
     1 each        Spill Squeegee, Bench Size, 8" Head
     1 each        Polypropylene Broom
     1 each        Bench Brush
     1 each        Dust Pan 1 roll Chem/Kleen-Ups Towels, 9 3/4" X 100 ft. roll
     1 each        Glass Disposal Box, 8" X 8" X 10"
     5 each        Hazardous Waste Disposal Bags 12" X 18"
     1 each        Sponge
     1 each        Liquid Cleaner, 32 ounce
     1 each        Bleach, 1 gallon
     1 roll        pH Paper
     1 roll        Barricade Tape, 100 feet
     1 each        Cover, for CART

Checked by:                                                      Date:
1) Note any shortages
2) Replace ASAP
3) If Clothing kit disturbed, check item by item.

     Quantity      Description
     1 each        Total Body Coverall, Polylaminated TYVEK
     2 pair        Foot Covers, Disposable, Polyethylene
     1 pair        Nitrile Gloves
     1 package     Disposable Polyethylene Gloves
     1 pair        Chemical Splash Goggles, Fog Free Lens
     1 each        Hydrogen Fluoride Respirator
     1 each        Dust and Mist Respirator
     1 each        Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals In Industry Chart, Pocket Size

Checked by:                                                      Date:

The Clothing Kit must be sealed up again with the Tape provided for this purpose.
Note: When a cartridge respirator is required for chemical spill clean-up, only those who have been trained
and fit-tested are authorized to do so. For this reason, cartridge respirators are not included in the spill kit.
                                                                 Appendix E                                                           69

                                          SPILL REPORTING PROCEDURES
     Health, Safety &

                                                                         4.   The responsible person must determine, using Table 1
SCOPE                                                                         below, if the spill is reportable and which agencies require
Spill reporting procedures are applicable to all UBC activities               notification.
and operations. These procedures are specific to the Point Grey
campus and may require modification for use at other University          5.   The responsible person must notify all applicable agencies
locations.                                                                    immediately and complete the UBC Spill Reporting Form
                                                                              (Section 2).
PURPOSE                                                                  6.   The responsible person is to keep the original Spill
To ensure that all spills of hazardous materials are reported to the          Reporting Form and fax a copy to the Department of Health,
appropriate authority as required by law.                                     Safety & Environment (fax# 604-822-6650) as soon as
                                                                              reasonably possible. The Department of Health, Safety &
BACKGROUND                                                                    Environment must also be notified by phone, (604) 822-
                                                                              2029, of the spill as soon as possible. A second copy of the
Many different statutes impose specific legal obligations to                  form must be forwarded to the applicable Administrative
report spills to provincial and federal agencies. The primary                 Head of Unit.
responsibility of any person who has possession, charge, or
control of a hazardous material is to do everything in his or her
power to prevent a spill of that material. This includes
establishing programs to prevent the escape of the material, such
as identifying areas where there are potential risks of spills,                                   SPILL
adopting procedures and technologies to minimize or eliminate                                                                      Call
such risks, and ensuring anyone handling the materials is trained
in the relevant procedures and technologies.

When a spill does occur, the responsible person must act quickly
to stop, contain, and minimize the effects of the spill. Courts
impose stricter penalties for convictions arising from a spill if                   Stop, contain and minimize
there was a delay in responding to or reporting of the spill. A
                                                                                        effects of the spill
spill is defined as an external release to air, water or land. A
dangerous good released from its packaging in transit or on
arrival is also considered a reportable spill under Transportation
of Dangerous Goods Act 1992.

In the event of a spill, more than one piece of legislation may                      Identify the material and the
apply and more than one agency may require a spill report to be                             amount spilled
completed. These reports are time sensitive.

1.   When the potential for a spill exists programs are to be
     established to prevent the escape of hazardous materials.
     This should include identifying areas where there are
                                                                                        Determine if the spill is
     potential risks of spills, adopting procedures and                               reportable – refer to Table 1
     technologies to minimize or eliminate such risks, and
     ensuring all personnel involved are trained in the procedures                                   Yes
     and technologies.

2.   In the event of a spill or release of material, persons in the
     immediate area should act to ensure their personal safety.           1. Notify appropriate agencies immediately.
     The responsible person, must act quickly to stop, contain,           2. Call Health, Safety & Environment.
     minimize the effects of and clean up the affected area,
                                                                          3. Complete and fax UBC Spill Reporting Form.
     where possible and safe - this may include initiating an
     Emergency Response (911).

3.   Identify the material and the quantity spilled.
70                                                                        Appendix E

TABLE 1 – Determination of Materials and Agencies Requiring Notification All Classes refer to the Transportation of
Dangerous Goods classification, see Section 3

Use the following table to determine if a spill is reportable and which agency(ies) should be notified. 1) Find the substance under
“Substance Spilled”, 2) Compare the actual amount spilled to the “Specified Amount”, if the actual is equal to or greater than the specified
amount report the spill to the “Contact Agencies” listed in the final column.

 CRITERIA/SUBSTANCE SPILLED                                 SPECIFIED AMOUNT                                                Required Contact Agencies
 Waste containing a pest control product                    Any                                                             Pesticide Management Program
                                                                                                                            & PEP
 Waste oil                                                  100 L                                                           PEP
 Explosives of Class 1                                      Any                                                             PEP & Transport Canada
 Flammable gases of Division 1 of Class 2                   10 kg where spill results from equipment failure, error,        PEP
                                                            deliberate action, or inaction
 Non-flammable gases of Division 2 of Class 2               10 kg where spill results from equipment failure, error,        PEP
                                                            deliberate action or inaction
 Poisonous gases of division 3 of Class 2                   Any                                                             PEP & Transport Canada
 Corrosive gases of Division 4 of Class 2                   Any                                                             PEP & Transport Canada
 Flammable liquids of Class 3                               100 L                                                           PEP
 Flammable solids of Class 4                                25 kg                                                           PEP & Transport Canada
 Products or substances that are oxidizing substances of    50 kg or 50 L                                                   PEP & Transport Canada
 Division 1 of Class 5
 Products or substances that are organic compounds that     1 kg or 1 L                                                     PEP & Transport Canada
 contain the bivalent “-0-0-“ structure of Division 2 of
 Class 5
 Products or substances that are poisons of Division 1 of   5 kg or 5 L                                                     PEP & Transport Canada
 Class 6
 Organisms that are infectious or that are reasonably       Any                                                             PEP & Transport Canada
 believed to be infectious, and the toxins of these
 organisms (risk grp II and above)
 Radioactive materials of Class 7                           All discharges of a radiation level exceeding 10Msv/h at        PEP & Transport Canada
                                                            the package surface and 200uSv/h at 1 m from the
                                                            package surface
 Corrosive materials of Class 8                             5 kg or 5 L                                                     PEP & Transport Canada
 Waste Asbestos                                             50 kg                                                           PEP
 Miscellaneous products or substances of Division 1 of      50 kg or 50 L                                                   PEP & Transport Canada
 Class 9
 Miscellaneous products or substances of Division 2 of      1 kg or 1 L                                                     PEP & Transport Canada
 Class 9
 Miscellaneous products or substances of Division 3 of      5 kg or 5 L                                                     PEP & Transport Canada
 Class 9
 A substance not covered by these items that can cause      200 kg or 200 L                                                 PEP
 Natural Gas                                                10 kg, if there is a breakage in a pipeline or fitting          PEP
                                                            operated at >100psi that results in a sudden release
 One of the 45 materials on the List of Toxic substances    Any                                                             Environment Canada
 (refer to Section 4)
 A major release of a toxic or hazardous material           1   The incident resulted in an injury that required Workers Compensation Board
                                                                immediate medical attention beyond the level of
                                                                service provided by a first aid attendant or injuries
                                                                to several workers which require first aid.
                                                            2   The incident resulted in a situation of continuing
                                                                danger to workers, as when the release of a
                                                                chemical cannot be readily or quickly cleaned up.
 A substance that is or may be a health hazard              Any                                                       Medical Health Officer
 Deleterious substance released into water frequented by    Any                                                       PEP
                                                                                                                     PEP = Provincial Emergency Program
 Emergency Response 911                                  Health, Safety & Environment
                                                         (604) 822-2029; (fax# 822-6650)
 PEP/Provincial Emergency Program                        Transport Canada       Contact the local Police
 (250) 387-5956 or 1-800-663-3456
 Pesticide Management Program (604) 582-5200             Medical Health Officer (604) 736-2033
 Environment Canada (604) 666-6100                       Workers Compensation Board
                                                         1-800-661-2112 after hours (604)-273-7711
                                                                 Appendix E                                                                    71

Section 1           DEFINITIONS

Environment: “the air, land, water and all other external conditions or influences under which man, animals and plants live or are
                                                                                                  BC Waste Management Act, 1992.

Dangerous Goods: “articles or substances which are capable of posing a significant risk to health, safety or to property when transported by
air and which are classified according to section 3.0.”
                                                                                                 Dangerous Goods Regulations, IATA 1998.

Deleterious Substance:
a)  “any substance that, if added to any water, would degrade or alter or form a part of a process of degradation or alteration of the quality
    of that water so that it is rendered or is likely to be rendered deleterious to fish or fish habitat or to the use by man of fish that frequent
    that water, or
b) any water that contains a substance in such quantity or concentration, or that has been so treated, processed or changed, by heat or other
    means, from a natural state that it would, if added to any other water, degrade or alter or form part of a process of degradation or
    alteration of the quality of that water so that it is rendered or is likely to be rendered deleterious to fish or fish habitat or to the use by
    man of fish that frequent that water,
and without limiting the generality of the foregoing includes
c) any substance or class of substances prescribed pursuant to paragraph (a),
d) any water that contains any substance or class of substances in a quantity or concentration that is equal to or in excess of a quantity or
    concentration prescribed in respect of that substance or class of substances pursuant to paragraph (b), and
e) any water that has been subjected to a treatment, process or change prescribed pursuant to paragraph (c).”

Note that aside from toxic chemicals, deleterious substances have been found to include such things as sediment, which has been shown to
impede a fish’s ability to catch prey and to affect its gills.
                                                                                                             Fisheries Act S.34 (1), 1985.

Hazardous Material: “ any prohibited product, restricted product, controlled product or special waste.”

Responsible Person: “any person who had possession, charge or control of a substance immediately before its spill.”
                                                              BC Waste Management Act - Spill Reporting Regulation - BC Reg. 263/90.

Spill: “release or discharge … into the environment of a substance in an amount equal to or greater than the amount listed..”
                                                                 BC Waste Management Act - Spill Reporting Regulation - BC Reg. 263/90.

Section 2           UBC SPILL REPORTING FORM                                      REPORTABLE SPILLS ONLY
Fax to Health, Safety & Environment, (604) 822-6650                          EMERGENCY RESPONSE INITIATED
Or call (604) 822-2029
Copy to be forwarded to Administrative Head of                                       YES       ❒                              NO        ❒

Name                                                                      Description of spill, including cause and actions taken
Phone number

spilled                                                                   Agencies attending scene (e.g. Fire Dept. etc)

                                                                          Agencies notified of spill (e.g. PEP)
Date & time                                                                                  Time
of spill
72                                                       Appendix E


Refer to the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Acts, 1992, schedule II for a complete list of substances.
Note: The class number is the first number, the second number is the division number, e.g., 5.2 means class 5, division 2).

 Class 1      Explosives
     1.1      A substance or article with a mass explosion hazard
     1.2      A substance or article with a fragment projection hazard, but not a mass explosion hazard
     1.3      A substance or article that has a fire hazard along with either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection
              hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard
     1.4      A substance or article that presents no significant hazard – explosion effects are largely confined to the
              package and no projection or fragments of appreciable size or range are to be expected.
     1.5      A very insensitive substance that nevertheless has a mass explosion hazard like those substances in 1.1.
 Class 2      Gases
     2.1      A flammable gas
     2.2      Other compressed gases
     2.3      A poisonous gas
     2.4      A corrosive gas
 Class 3      Flammable and combustible liquids
     3.1      A liquid with a closed-cup flask point of less than –18oC
     3.2      A liquid with a closed-cup flash-point not less than –18oC
     3.3      A liquid with a closed-cup flash point not less than 23oC but less than 61oC
 Class 4      Flammable solids, substances liable to spontaneous combustion, and substances that on contact with
              water emit flammable gases
     4.1      A solid that under normal conditions of transport is readily ignitable and burns vigorously and persistently
              or that causes or contributes to fire through friction or from heat retained from manufacturing or processing
     4.2      A substance liable to spontaneous combustion when in contact with air or liable to spontaneous heating to
              the point where it ignites when in contact with air
     4.3      A substance that on contact with water is liable to become spontaneously flammable or emit flammable
 Class 5      Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides
     5.1      A substance that causes or contributes to the combustion of other material by yielding oxygen or other
              oxidizing substances whether or not the substance itself is combustible
     5.2      An organic compound that contains a strong oxidizing agent in the form of the bivalent “-O-O-“ structure
              and, therefore, may be liable to explosive decomposition or sensitive to heat, shock, or friction
 Class 6      Poisonous (toxic) substances and infectious substances
     6.1      A solid or liquid that is poisonous through inhalation of its vapours, by skin contact, or by ingestion
     6.2      Organisms that are infectious or that are reasonably believed to be infectious to humans and animals
 Class 7      Radioactive materials
 Class 8      Corrosive substances
 Class 9      Miscellaneous products, substances, or organisms dangerous to life, health, property, or the
     9.1      Miscellaneous dangerous goods
     9.2      An environmentally hazardous substance
     9.3      A dangerous waste
                                                      Appendix E                                                         73

               Schedule 1 - LIST OF TOXIC SUBSTANCES

1    Chlorobiphenyls (C12H10-nCln where “n” > 2)
2    Dodecachlorophentacyclo (,6.03,9.04,8) decane
3    Polybrominated Biphenyls (C12H10-nBrn where “n” > 2)
4    Chlorofluorocarbon: totally halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CnClxF(2n+2-x))
5    Polychlorinated Terphenyls (C18H14-nCln where “n” > 2)
6    Asbestos
7    Lead
8    Mercury
9    Vinyl Chloride
10   Bromochlorodifluoromethane (CF2BrCl)
11   Bromotrifluoromethane (CF3Br)
12   Dibromotetrafluoroethane (C2F4Br2)
13   Fuel containing toxic substances that are dangerous goods within the meaning of section 2 of the Transportation of
     Dangerous Goods Act and that
     (a) are neither normal components of the fuel nor additives designed to improve the characteristics or the performance
          of the fuel; or
     (b) are normal components of the fuel or additives designed to improve the characteristics or performance of the fuel,
          but are present in quantities or concentrations greater than those generally accepted by industry standards.
14   Dibenzo-para-dioxin (C12H8O2)
15   Dibenzofuran (C12H8O)
16   Polychlorinated dibenzo-para-dioxins (C12H(8-n)O2Cln where “n” > 2)
17   Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (C12H(8-n)OCln where “n” >2)
18   Tetrachloromethane or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)
19   1,1,1-trichloroethane or methyl chloroform (CCl3-CH3)
20   Bromofluorocarbons other than those set out in items 10 to 12
21   Hydrobromofluorocarbons (CnHxFyBr(2n+2-x-y) where 0 < n ≤ 3)
22   Methyl Bromide (CH3Br)
23   Bis(chloromethyl) ether (C2H4Cl2O)
24   Chloromethyl methyl ether (C2H5ClO)
25   Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC)
26   Benzene (C6H6)
27   Cyclopropylmethanone (4-cyclophenyl) O-[(4-nitrophenyl)methyl] oxime (C17H15ClN2O3)
28   1,2-Dichloroethane
29   3,3’-Dichlorobenzidine
30   Benzidine
31   Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
32   Chlorinated wastewater effluent
33   Creosote-impregnated water materials from creosote-contaminated sites
34   Dichloromethane
35   Effluent from pulp mills using bleaching
36   Hexachlorobenzene
37   Hexavalent chromium compounds
38   Inorganic arsenic compounds
39   Inorganic cadmium compounds
40   Inorganic fluorides
41   Oxidic, sulphidic and soluble inorganic nickel compounds
42   Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
43   Refractory ceramic fibre
44   Tetrachloroethylene
45   Trichloroethylene

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