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Cal-IPC_News_2011Spring by hishamcamille


									                                                                                             Vol. 19, No. 1    Spring 2011

                                Cal-IPC News
                                 Protecting California’s Natural Areas from Wildland Weeds

                                               Quarterly Newsletter of the California Invasive Plant Council

in the Delta

Lars Anderson, USDA Agricultural Research                  Inside:
Service, hold a mature South American
spongeplant (Limnobium laevigatum).                        South American spongeplant ...............4
Spongeplant was first reported in northern                  John Randall, first president .................6
California in 2003 and is now spreading into
the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Photo:
                                                           Arundo maps and impacts report ........8
USDA-ARS                                                   20th Annual Symposium ..................... 10
                                                           Hybrid Spartina Forum ......................13
                                                                  From the Executive Director’s Desk

                                                                 Criticism is a good thing
                1442-A Walnut Street, #462
                     Berkeley, CA 94709
                                                                 “J     ust as America is a nation built by waves of immigrants, our natural landscape is a
                                                                        shifting mosaic of plant and animal life… Designating some as native and others
                                                                 as alien denies this ecological and genetic dynamism. It draws an arbitrary historical
           ph (510) 843-3902 fax (510) 217-3500
                       line based as much on aesthetics, morality and politics as on science, a line that creates a
         A California 501(c)3 nonprofit organization              mythic time of purity before places were polluted by interlopers.”
       Protecting California’s lands and waters
     from ecologically-damaging invasive plants                  There are many things wrong with comparing human diversity with invasive species, as
       through science, education, and policy.                   Hug Raffles does in his recent op-ed in the New York Times (April 3, 2011). However
               Doug Johnson, Executive Director
                                                                 it is not an uncommon viewpoint to encounter; protection of native biodiversity can
          Heather Brady, Outreach Program Manager                sound like outright nativism. After wildfire swept through Griffiths Park in Los Angeles
         Elizabeth Brusati, Science Program Manager
                                                                 in 2008, a local elected official dismissed the need for post-fire invasive plant control
         Suzanne Harmon, Field Mapping Coordinator
                 Ginny King, Program Assistant                   based on a respect for diversity. (Some people will even take this argument so far as to
                Agustín Luna, Business Manager                   point out that the Nazis were big on protecting native flora.)
              Bertha McKinley, Program Assistant
          Dana Morawitz, Mapping Program Manager                 Of course, human diversity might be better compared to the endemic biodiversity
               Tony Morosco, Mapping Specialist
        Cynthia Powell, Mapping & Modeling Specialist            we are working to protect from invasive species. Less than 1% of all non-native plant
    Falk Schuetzenmeister, Mapping & Modeling Specialist         species in California are considered invasive due to their impacts. There’s no moral
           Arpita Sinha, Training Program Specialist
             Jen Stern, Training Program Manager                 argument being made against all non-native species. Scientists do their best to gauge
                         DIRECTORS                               impacts, which the author of the op-ed (an anthropologist) believes are actually a net
                  Jason Giessow, President                       positive.
                        Dendra, Inc.
                 John Knapp, Vice-President                      Challenges to the validity of our work are frustrating. For instance, a recent panel at the
                     Native Range, Inc.
                  Doug Gibson, Treasurer                         Public Interest Environmental Law Conference 2011 at the University of Oregon in
               San Elijo Lagoon Conservancy
                                                                 March was titled “Environmentalism Gone Awry: The War on Invasive Species”. Talks
                 Julie Horenstein, Secretary
           California Department of Fish & Game                  at the conference addressed “invasion biology’s scientific failings” and “the widespread
                         Edith Allen
              University of California-Riverside
                                                                 poisoning of plants and animals.”
                        Peter Beesley
                   Pacific Gas and Electric
                                                                 But I think these challenges are good. For one, increased attention, even (or especially)
                     Jason Casanova                              critical attention, reflects a broader recognition of the issue of invasive species. More
     Los Angeles/San Gabriel Rivers Watershed Council
                    Edmund Duarte
                                                                 than that, it provides an opportunity to engage people in thinking about the issue and
         Alameda County Department of Agriculture                about ecology in general, which I think is key for creating a sustainable future.
                        Valerie Eviner
                University of California-Davis                   If you enjoy contemplating the moral aspects of invasive species control, I recommend
                         Kim Hayes
                 Elkhorn Slough Foundation                       T.C. Boyle’s new novel When the Killing Stops. He fictionalizes past campaigns to con-
                        Sue Hubbard                              trol invasive rats and pig populations on California’s Channel Islands, which produced
                      Federal Employee
                         Deb Jensen                              a strong backlash from local animal rights groups. The book is an exciting read, and
                   El Dorado Arts Council                        Boyle ably demonstrates something we all need to remember: absolutism and self-
                       Brent Johnson
               Pinnacles National Monument                       righteousness serve no one well.
                        Shawn Kelly
       Southern California Wetlands Recovery Project
                       Shea O’Keefe                              Cal-IPC Staff. Diagonal left to right: Tony
           Natural Resources Conservation Service                Morosco. Row 2: Heather Brady, Falk Schuetzen-
                       Peter Schuyler
                    Ecological Consultant                        meister. Row 3: Jen Stern, Bertha McKinley,
                     Andrea Williams                             Elizabeth
               Marin Municipal Water District
                    STUDENT LIAISONS
                                                                 Brusati, Doug
                 Annabelle Kleist, UC Davis                      Johnson.
                 Lynn Sweet, UC Riverside
                                                                 Row 4: Arpita
         Affiliations for identification purposes only.
                                                                 Sinha, Ginny
                 Cal-IPC News                                    King. Suzanne
             Spring 2011 - Volume 19, Number 1
Editors: Doug Johnson, Elizabeth Brusati, Heather Brady, and     Harmon. Row
         Bertha McKinley
                                                                 5: Agustin Luna
Cal-IPC News is published quarterly by the California Invasive
Plant Council. Articles may be reprinted with permission from    Dana Morawitz.
the editors. Submissions are welcome. Mention of commercial
products does not imply endorsement by Cal-IPC. We reserve
                                                                 Not pictured:
the right to edit all work.                                      Cynthia Powell

2          Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
Wildland Weed NewsNewsNewsNewsNews
The California Dept. of Food & Agricul-     acres. (Oecologia, 2010 165:605-615.         Medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-me-
ture proposes to eliminate its programs     Mar. 2, 2011,          dusae) is the first well-established weed
addressing weeds. See article p. 15.        A study of 26 invasive plant species on      to be proposed for the Federal Noxious
Releasing Asian beetles to eat inva-        four continents found little difference      Weed List. Forest Service Employees
sive saltcedar results in water savings.    between numbers in introduced and            for Environmental Ethics (FSEEE) has
Researchers at UC Santa Barbara, USGS,      native ranges. Instead, they found that      petitioned to have it listed by the US
and USDA have published the first sub-       increases in species abundance are unusu-    Dept. of Agriculture under the Plant
stantive data showing the water conserva-   al, contradicting the common assumption      Protection Act of 2000. Medusahead
tion benefits of this biocontrol. During     that invasive plants are more abundant       invades millions of acres of western states
the first year of large-scale defoliation    in their new settings. The authors believe   and is considered a serious threat to
by the tamarisk leaf beetle (Diorhabda      that the success of a plant in its native    habitat needed by the endangered greater
carinulata) in northern Nevada, approxi-    range may be used to predict its spread      sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).
mately 2,500 acre-feet of water remained    at introduced sites, a criterion which       FSEEE hopes that adding medusahead
in the ground rather than being lost to     currently is not included in biosecurity     to the noxious weed list will allow for
the atmosphere, equivalent to the water     screening programs. (Science Alert, Feb.     regulations to prevent its spread by
required to irrigate 1,000 agricultural     7, 2011,
                                                                                                              ...continued page 16

    Cal-IPC Updates                         Arundo’s impacts                             Call for student nominations
                                            Another new Cal-IPC report quantifies         The Cal-IPC student chapter is
    Sierra recommendations                  the distribution and impacts of Arundo       accepting nominations for student
    Cal-IPC used expert opinion data                donax (see article on p. 8.) This    liaisons to the Cal-IPC board.
    and suitability modeling                         report and the accompanying         Liaisons attend board meetings
    to create                                         geodatabase are available at       in their part of the state and help
    “risk maps”                                    Cal-IPC provide more services to
    and develop                                        arundo.                           students. Please send nominations to
    on eradication,                                     Call for nominations
    containment, and                                    The Cal-IPC Board of             New staff
    surveillance for                                     Directors is accepting          Cal-IPC welcomes Mapping
    43 invasive plant                                    nominations until July 1 for    Specialist Tony Morosco. Tony
    species in the Sierra                                 new board members. Know        co-founded and developed Calflora.
    Nevada. The report,                                    someone that has a lot to     org, and worked as Curator of Living
    including statewide                                     offer? Or maybe you want     Collections at the San Francisco
    maps, is available on                                   to nominate yourself?        Botanical Garden. He has served on
    CD or online at www.                    Elections will be held in late summer        the boards of the East Bay Chapter of          with new board members announced             CNPS and the California Botanical
                                            at the Symposium in October. Board           Society.
    20th anniversary                        terms are two years, beginning in
    The 2011 Symposium will be our          January 2012. The board meets four
    20th! (See p. 10 for details.) Do       times each year at locations around the
    you have photos or memorabilia          state, and requires a commitment to
    from past Symposia (especially          fundraising, working on a committee,
    prior to 2003) to contribute to a       and attending the Symposium. Please
    retrospective display? Send digital     direct nominations and questions to
    photos with credit info and a caption Learn about current
    to Send prints   board members at
    or slides to our mailing address, and
    we will scan and return them to you.
    See you at the Symposium!

                                                                                            Cal-IPC News Spring 2011               3

Spongeplant: A new aquatic weed threat in Delta
By Lars Anderson, USDA Agricultural Research Service, and Pat Akers, California Department of Food & Agriculture

N     o, we’re not talking about Brazillian
      waterweed (Egeria densa). The new
threat is South American spongeplant
                                                 invaded eastern
                                                 regions of the US.
                                                     The first
(Limnobium laevigatum (Humb & Bonpl.             known sponge-
Ex Willd.Heine)). This is a prolific, float-       plant infestations
ing, flowering plant in the “frogbit” family      were found in
(Hydrocharitaceae), the same family con-         small ponds in
taining hydrilla (Hydrilla verticillata), well   Redding and
known as one of world’s worst submersed-         Arcata in 2003,
type aquatic weeds. As its name implies,         but more wide-
South American spongeplant is native             spread, patchy
to South America, Central America and            populations were
                                                 noted along
                                                 several miles of
                                                 the San Joaquin
                                                 River by CDFA
                                                 and the USDA-
                                                 Agricultural Re-
                                                 search Service in
                                                 2007, and in the
                                                 Sacramento-San         Example of mature South American spongeplant from the Sacra-
                                                 Joaquin Delta in       mento-San Joaquin Delta near Brannan Island.
                                                 starting in 2008.
                                                 The combination                             outwardly look like duckweed (e.g. Lemna
                                                 of greatly increased discharges from        spp.) and are easily dispersed by wind,
                                                 Friant Dam down the San Joaquin River       currents, tidal action and no doubt as
                                                 beginning in 2009 coupled now with the      hitchhikers on waterfowl, boats and even
                                                 current large spring runoff will certainly  trapped on water hyacinth plants. For
                                                 create even better dispersal conditions.    example, a single handful can contain over
                                                                                             60 fully expanded seedlings. In contrast,
                                                 Worse than water hyacinth?                  seeds of water hyacinth usually need cycles
                                                     Spongeplant’s dispersal capacity may
                                                 make it even more able to spread in the
Underside of spongeplant leaves showing          Delta than water hyacinth (Eichhornia
buoyant, spongy aerenchyma tissue.               crassipes). Mature plants resemble small,
                                                 densely packed water hyacinth, but rather
                                                 than the very showy, purple flowers of
Central Mexico, and the underside of its         that more common floating invader,
leaves has spongy air-filled tissue called        spongeplant flowers are quite small (ca.
aerenchyma which provides buoyancy.              1 cm across) and inconspicuous, since
    In the US, it has so far only been           they are formed near the base of the
reported in California, where the Califor-       petioles. Like water hyacinth, spongeplant
nia Department of Food & Agriculture re-         spreads vegetatively, as well as through
cently listed it as an “A” rated pest. Other     abundant seed production. Spongeplant
                                                                                              Spongeplant flowers.
closely related species such as European         seeds germinate rapidly to produce
frogbit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae) have          extremely small, floating seedlings that

4         Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
of exposure to air in order to germinate,           Arcata
and first form rooted seedlings with strap-
                                                                      2003: first located
like leaves that only begin to float several
days to weeks later.                                                        Redding
    Little is known about growth rates,
nutrient requirements and cold-tolerance
for spongeplant, so our USDA-ARS labo-
ratory is examining those characteristics
now. But it is clear from the past winters
that the small seedlings (e.g. from 0.2cm
to 2 cm diameter) can easily withstand
frost and our mild freezes since they are
well protected as they float on the water                                                   Sacramento
amongst the taller statured frost-bitten
water hyacinth, cattails and tules.
    Even in February the floating seedlings
are green and ready to rapidly increase       reducing the                                            Located 2007-2010
their growth as both temperature and day      populations that
length increases. Under summer condi-         were first noted
tions, spongeplant has the capacity to        through the use
cover large areas of open water and thus      of hand removal,
render them ill-suited for healthy fish and    mechanical removal
wildlife habitat and problematic for criti-   and herbicides such                                                    Fresno
cal Delta pumping and irrigation delivery     as diquat. The key, as
systems.                                      with all new infestations,
Can spongeplant be stopped?                   is quickly containing,               Distribution of South American spongeplant in
                                              removing or killing the plant.       California. Map courtesy of Pat Akers, CDFA.
   This invader is still in its early dis-    However, controlling the
persal and establishment phase. CDFA          infestations in the Delta will be
crews have had some success in gradually      a challenge due to tidal flows, net river        already focusing on the long-term
                                                                         flows, and the        management of water hyacinth in the
                                                                         likelihood of        Delta and these crews are on the water
                                                                         widely dis-          regularly. To strengthen control efforts,
                                                                         persed popula-       the USDA-ARS Exotic and Invasive
                                                                         tions, some of       Weed Research laboratory on the UC
                                                                         which will be        Davis campus has included L. laevigatum
                                                                         “out of sight”       in its rapid reponses research program
                                                                         behind the           and will be indentifying herbicides
                                                                         taller plants.       that are effective as well as initiating
                                                                              Any             longer term research into discovery of
                                                                         effective            potential biological control agents from
                                                                         rapid response       spongeplant’s native range.
                                                                         approach will          In the meantime, please notify CDFA
                                                                         need to be a       if you think you see this plant! You can
                                                                         coordinated        “report a pest” at
                                                                         effort between     reportapest.
                                                                         CDFA and
                                                                                               For more information contact Lars
                                                                         the California
                                                                                            Anderson at All
                                                                                            photos by USDA-ARS.
                                                                         of Boating and
                                                                         since Boating
Over 60 South American spongeplant seedlings in a handful.               and Waterways
The smallest plants are duckweed.                                        crews are

                                                                                                Cal-IPC News Spring 2011              5

From bull thistle in Yosemite to ants on islands
An interview with Cal-IPC’s first president, John Randall
by Gina Darin, California Department of Water Resources

A    s part of Cal-IPCs 20th year, we are
     interviewing some of the organiza-
tion’s founders. John Randall, the first
                                              1983 to study coastal ecology at Louisiana
                                              State University but then really bloomed
                                              when he moved to UC Davis to study un-
                                                                                           and an extensive photo gallery. Sadly,
                                                                                           the GIST was a victim of TNC budget
                                                                                           cuts in 2009 and most staff were laid off.
president of the Cal-IPC Board, is cur-       der Dr. Marcel Rejmanek in 1986. Within      (GIST’s website and its resources are pre-
rently based in San Diego and working         a year he had begun his dissertation         served at As part of
for The Nature Conservancy’s California       project on the ecology and control of bull   his work with GIST, John became TNC’s
Field Office. I caught John on the phone       thistle in Yosemite National Park and the    representative for the PlantRight coalition
in February to get some of his thoughts       Sierra Nevada.                               to reduce the sale of invasive ornamental
on Cal-IPC’s twenty years.                        John served on the Cal-IPC Board of      plants.
John’s beginning with invasive plants         Directors from 1992 to 2000, and was the         Fast-forward to 2011 and you may
                                              board’s first President. John worked with     find John cruising the farmer’s markets
     John was introduced to invasive plants
                                              fellow Cal-IPC founders Carla Bossard        in San Diego where he has been based
in 1982 when he followed his girlfriend
                                              and Marc Hoshovsky of California Fish        with The Nature Conservancy’s Southern
(now wife) Lesley to Hawai’i for an
                                              & Game to publish Invasive Plants of         California field office since 2009. His
internship at National Tropical Botanical
                                              California Wildlands (UC Press 2000).        work focuses on a variety of conservation
Garden on Kauai. Not a bad gig! His in-
                                              For many years, John led The Nature          issues in the southern third of the state,
ternship included time for exploring Kau-
                                              Conservancy’s Global Invasive Species        ranging from assessing conservation values
ai’s bogs and high elevation forests where
                                              Team (GIST) at UC Davis. GIST pro-           of California’s deserts to inform renewable
invasive plant problems were all-too-obvi-
                                              vided valuable resources to weed workers,    energy siting and mitigation decisions,
ous, especially after Hurricane Iwa struck
                                              including Element Species Abstracts          to promoting implementation of Multi-
in November of that year. John’s interest
                                              describing biology and management            Species Habitat Plans. Not surprisingly,
in invasive plants went dormant for a few
                                              methods for many invasive plants; the        invasive species are still part of his work,
years after he returned to the mainland in
                                              Handbook of Weed Control Methods;            but animal invaders now draw more of his
                                                                                           attention: feral pigs in San Diego County
                                                                                           where they were first detected about four
                                                                                           years ago, and Argentine ants on Santa
                                                                                           Cruz Island. John’s weed work at UC
                                                                                           Davis and for TNC’s Global Invasive Spe-
                                                                                           cies Team surely prepared him with the
                                                                                           patience and determination to deal with
                                                                                           these mobile pests!
                                                                                           John’s favorite Cal-IPC memory
                                                                                               “It was exciting to be part of the
                                                                                           first Symposium in 1992 at Morro Bay.
                                                                                           Around 150 people attended, and after
                                                                                           a day and a half of great talks, the final
                                                                                           session brought everyone back together
                                                                                           to discuss whether we should form a
                                                                                           new invasive plant organization. Each
                                                                                           of the folks who helped organize the
                                                                                           Symposium, and others who signed on
                                                                                           there, had a distinctive personality, skills
John Randall accepting the Jake Sigg Award for Vision and Dedicated Service                and strengths. Some of us were great at
at the 2008 Cal-IPC Symposium. John received the award based on his years of               drawing out the interest and enthusiasm
tireless service and leadership on invasive plant issues in California.                    of the folks there, but not so skilled at

6        Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
directing the discussion to a conclusion.     standing of the ecology, prevention and       cause problems. Cal-IPC has a big role to
Fortunately, one of the organizers, Greg      control of invasive plants. Many conserva-    play in setting priorities in this brave new
Archibald, was focused on keeping to          tion land managers in California were try-    world.
the agenda, staying on time and coming        ing to figure out how to deal with invasive
                                                                                            Advice to weed workers
to some conclusion – Were we going to         plant threats by the early 1990s but didn’t
form a group or not? If so, what were         know where to turn for more information            “Keep your focus on what you
the organization’s top priorities? Who        on the effects of invasive plants on na-      are working to protect – the species,
would help lead? What would they              tive species, communities and ecological      communities and ecological processes
commit to do? Folks were enthused and         processes, as well as on control methods      you want. Look for new ways to achieve
full of energy. We emerged from that          and the effects of controlling invasives on   those ends, including new ways to
meeting with a clear mandate to form          native species and communities.”              prevent and control the invasive plants
an organization and a great group of                                                        that threaten them, and to new para-
                                                  John thinks Cal-IPC has had
people who volunteered and followed                                                         digms for managing mixed systems of
                                              major impacts on the prevention and
through to make it a reality.”                                                              native and introduced species that allow
                                              management of invasive plants and the
                                                                                            the natives to thrive and persist. The
John’s hopes in starting Cal-IPC              restoration of native plant communities
                                                                                            idea of managing mixed communities
                                              throughout the state and beyond. But
    “We hoped that Cal-IPC would                                                            (or “novel ecosystems”) has been getting
                                              these are tough, tough times for fed-
boost the profile of invasive plants in                                                      more attention in the past few years and
                                              eral, state and local agencies and orga-
conservation areas, and prompt agricul-                                                     it’s worth testing approaches to this,
                                              nizations and it remains to be seen how
tural and land managing agencies and                                                        especially in situations where the invad-
                                              looming budget cuts will affect their
organizations and businesses to take                                                        ers are beyond our ability or resources to
                                              priorities. John sees Cal-IPC working
action to prevent and control the worst                                                     control.”
                                              with regulators and businesses to prevent
invaders. We also hoped to engage the
                                              new introductions of species likely to
research community to gain under-

Ecologist E.O. Wilson speaks at UC Merced
By Chelsey Carey, UC Merced

T     wo-time Pulitzer Prize winning
      author and scientist Edward O.
Wilson delivered a keynote address on the
                                              species, he responded by saying, “Those
                                              are the bad actors that we need to concen-
                                              trate on and somehow keep out [of our
                                                                                            environment, we will ultimately lose them
                                                                                                Wilson’s main thesis was clear:
management of natural areas, focusing on      native ecosystems].” To extend the point,     America needs to become more involved
the role of National Parks in sustaining      Wilson spoke of the negative impacts of       in studying and saving biodiversity for its
our ecosystems, as part of the National       the brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis)      own sake. This effort, he claimed, includes
Parks Institute Executive Leadership          on the native bird population in Guam.        joining global efforts to save species that
Seminar at the University of California       Wilson went on to say that he would like      are on the brink of extinction. A major
Merced on April 9. In attendance were         to investigate the range and impacts of the   part of this should focus on preventing,
National Park staff and senior execu-         invasive fire ant (Wasmannia auropunc-         managing, and eradicating invasive
tives of land management organizations        tata) in New Caledonia and Vanuatu.           species, since, as he pointed out, “Climate
representing six continents, University of        An hour later, Wilson’s keynote           change, the spread of invasive species,
California faculty and students, and inter-   address to an excited room started with       overpopulation and overharvesting are
ested locals from the Central Valley.         him reliving his childhood memories of        among the causes of species extinction.”
    I was fortunate enough to be one of       “hunting for fireflies and ants, one glori-     The keynote address ended with Wilson
twelve UC Merced faculty and graduate         ous expedition at a time” through what        encouraging the audience to consider bio-
students who sat down with Wilson for an      later became a forest in the National Park    diversity in every scientific and managerial
intimate hour and a half discussion prior     system. With a combination of solemnity       endeavor, and his applauding the work
to his formal keynote address. During         and wit, Wilson elegantly tackled some        of the National Park Service in their
this time, we discussed the importance        of the major issues facing the National       continual efforts to maintain America’s
of research from taxonomy to climate          Park system and the world today. “If we       natural ecosystems.
change. When I told Wilson that my            save the living environment,” Wilson said,    Chelsea Carey is a member of the Cal-IPC
Ph.D. project focuses on invasive plant       “we will automatically save the physical      Student Chapter
                                              environment. If we save only the physical

                                                                                                Cal-IPC News Spring 2011                 7
             New Release

Mapping Arundo and its impacts
by Jason Giessow, DENDRA, Inc., Jason Casanova, Los Angeles/ San Gabriel Rivers Watershed Council,
and Rene Leclerc, Northwest Hydraulic Consultants, Inc.

J  ustifying invasive plant management
   often relies upon the assumption that
the benefits gained outweigh the expense
                                               began in 2007, funded by a grant from
                                               the State Water Resources Control Board.
                                                                                             within the study area was taller (average
                                                                                             6.5 m (21 ft.), maximum 9.9 m (32.5 ft.))
                                                                                             than reported by many previous studies.
                                                   Arundo is a high-impact invasive plant
of the project itself. Managers would          in California, densely infesting many         Biomass was confirmed as being extremely
prefer a more rigorous justification based      coastal watersheds with canes growing         high (15.5 kg/m2). Leaf area was ex-
on a comprehensive analysis of the plant’s     twenty feet and higher. Historic photos       tremely high at 15.8 m2/m2 (leaf area per
impacts, but this is difficult to perform. In   show approximately 8,907 gross acres          area of ground), which is consistent with
a recently completed multi-year project,       of Arundo in the study area prior to          other studies in California, but higher
Cal-IPC provides such comprehensive            initiation of control programs in the last    than reported in Texas where stands are
analysis for one of California’s worst         two decades. Over 34% of this acreage has     shorter. Stand structure data is an impor-
invasive plants, Arundo donax (giant reed).    been treated to date, costing more than       tant factor in quantifying water use. In
    The project entailed two complemen-        $70 million. A high level of control (over    addition, we studied the impact of Arundo
tary efforts. First, we mapped Arundo          90%) has been achieved in two highly          on fluvial processes, fire risk, and habitat
distribution in each coastal watershed         invaded watersheds, and infestations in       for listed species.
from Monterey to San Diego at high-            other watersheds have been controlled to      Water Use
resolution. Second, we compiled and            a level of 50% or more, indicating that
                                                                                                 Combining our leaf area measure-
augmented the best available information       effective watershed-based control is a
                                                                                             ments with published leaf transpiration
on a range of impacts from Arundo and          realistic objective.
                                                                                             rates produced high water use for Arundo
used our distribution maps to estimate             Our Arundo mapping integrated             stands (40 mm/day). Few studies to date
the impacts in each watershed. The effort      several techniques. Using high-resolution     have measured Arundo water use. Our
                                               georeferenced aerial imagery, we drew         results agree with one study in California
                                               polygons around apparent Arundo               (41.1 mm) and are higher than a study in
                                               infestations and stored the information       Texas on the Rio Grande (9.1 mm). This
                                                 in a GIS. This information was carried      translates into a potential water savings
                                                     into the field on tablet computers,      from restoration of 20 ac-ft/yr, adjusting
                                                          where its accuracy could be        for replacement vegetation. This large
                                                              checked and corrected. Field   potential water use reduction has signifi-
                                                                  work also allowed us to    cant implications for both ecosystems and
                                                                       characterize Arundo   human water use.
                                                                           stands. Arundo

    Arundo donax populations were mapped in each coastal watershed
    from Monterey to San Diego County. Arundo populations are shown
    here in black and watershed boundaries are shown in white. High
    resolution maps from this report are available at

8        Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
                                                               geomorphic structure of      and co-occurrence between Arundo and
                                                               the habitat, all of which    the species. Avian and fish species were
                                                               alter the ecosystem.         the most impacted by Arundo, with
                                                                                            amphibians also ranking high. Plants
                                                                                            and mammals were much less affected.
                                                              Both fires and                 The two most severely impacted species
                                                          fire suppression have              were least Bell’s vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus)
                                                          significant impacts in             and the arroyo toad (Bufo californicus),
                                                          riparian areas. Arundo’s          followed by the southwestern willow
                                                          high biomass and                  flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus),
                                                          stored energy are well-           southern steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss),
                                                          established based on field         and tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius
                                                          and published data. In            newberryi). Arundo also impacts several
                                                          addition, Arundo stands           species that occur in estuary and beach
                                                          have a tall, well-ventilated      habitat near river mouths. The Santa Mar-
                                                          structure containing dry          garita, Santa Ana, San Luis Rey, and Santa
                                                          fuels throughout the year.        Clara watersheds had the highest impacts
                                                          Because of this, Arundo           to federally-listed species.
                                                          stands may convey wildfire
                                                          across a riparian zone bet-       Costs vs. Benefits
                                                          ter than native vegetation.           We calculated benefits in economic
Arundo donax was first mapped on high-resolution           The Simi fire in the Santa         terms, and compared them against
georeferenced aerial imagery. These populations were      Clara watershed was one           the costs of Arundo control. Cost was
then ground-truthed. Note the house on the right side of the clearest examples of           determined based on completed control
of the photo for scale.                                   an upland wildfire spread-         work on numerous watersheds over the
                                                          ing across a riparian zone        past 15 years. Benefits are based on each
Fluvial Processes                                         dominated by Arundo, and          impact (water use, sediment trapping,
    Arundo affects fluvial processes that  then igniting fuels on a separate mountain        flood damage, fire, habitat, and beach
determine the shape and flow of a river    range.                                            debris) applied across the study area and
and regulate the riparian ecosystem. Such           Perhaps more importantly, this study    at the watershed level. We valued benefits
alterations are usually negative for native     documented a new class of fire events that   conservatively, and also noted additional
species adapted to pre-invaded ecosystem        are fully ascribed to Arundo, in which
                                                                                                                   ...continued page 18
function. Our field investigations and hy-       transient encampments and highway
drologic modeling compiled by consulting        overpasses serve as igni-
firm NHC, Inc. suggest that large stands         tion sources. Fires are
of Arundo functionally increase elevations      now starting in riparian
by 1.5 m (5 ft.), in addition to increasing     areas, which did not
stream flow ‘roughness’ when flows exceed         occur historically. Over a
this height. Together these factors result in   ten year period Arundo-
a significant reduction in flow capacity.         initiated fires were
    Arundo stands occur predominantly           estimated to impact 557
in the floodplain and terraces, and are          acres of Arundo and 732
nearly absent from the low-flow and active       acres of riparian habitat
channels. Hydrologic modeling indicates         in the study area, while
that Arundo stands result in a deepening        wildfire initiated outside
of the channel and a transformation             the riparian area burned
of the system from a dynamic set of             544 acres of Arundo.
small braided channels to a single stable       Listed Species
channel. Smaller sized flow events result
                                                   Impacts to plants
in sediment removal from channel areas.
                                                and animals were
During large flow events sediment ag-
                                                explored by examining
gregates on floodplains and river terraces
                                                22 federally-listed
with Arundo stands. These changes affect                                   Arundo canes grow densely in riparian areas. This new
                                                species and assess-
sediment transport budgets, vegetation                                     report quantifies impacts and provides high-resolution
                                                ing types of impact
succession following flow events, and the                                   maps to aid treatment.

                                                                                                Cal-IPC News Spring 2011                 9
                                      20th Annual
     Cal-IPC Symposium
                      Invasive Plants and
                       Ecological Change
                                      October 4 - 7, 2011
              Granlibakken Conference Center, Tahoe City

     Join us under the trees at the
     Granlibakken Conference Center
     and Lodge in Tahoe City to cel-
     ebrate Cal-IPC’s 20th anniversary!
     Special sessions will address the
     many facets of ecological change,
     especially the impacts of climate
     change in the Sierra Nevada.

     Lake Tahoe, the jewel of the High
     Sierra, is the highest lake of its size
     in the United States, with 72 miles
     of shoreline. Tahoe City is perched
     on the shore of Lake Tahoe at the
     headwaters of the Truckee River.

           Field Course
      Discussion Groups
             Field Trips

10     Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
Field Course: On Wednesday, October 4,
we will host a course on Field Techniques for
Reporting Invasive Plants. Topics include data-
recording standards, vouchering techniques,
estimating distance and cover, occurence
reporting, data management, communicating
about your program, field safety, and
landscape level planning. Register with the
Symposium and receive a discount!

Keynote speaker: Carla D’Antonio, now at
UC Santa Barbara, was the keynote speaker at
our first Symposium. She will address change
over the last twenty years, and planning for
the next twenty.
                                                    2010 Golden Weed Wrench Award Winner Sandy
Discussion Groups: Best Management                  DeSimone is congratulated by Cal-IPC Board Member
Practices for Prevention; Aquatic Invasive          Katharine Suding at last year’s Symposium.
Plants; Contractor/Client Relationships;
Management Q&A, and more.

Field Trips: On Friday, October 7, come
explore Lake Tahoe Basin’s invasive plant sites
by boat, bike, foot or car. Visit the Angora Fire
area, a demonstration garden and restoration
projects, invasive detection and eradication
projects of the local WMA or aquatic weed

control projects at Emerald Bay.

                      . . . See next page
                More at                   1992-2012
                                                                        Cal-IPC News Spring 2011        11
  More on the Symposium. . .

Registration, Transportation, Lodging                          Call for Papers & Posters: Due June 20
Registration opens in June! Register online for faster         Submit your abstracts on invasive plant biology,
processing and choose from several payment options.            management, or outreach programs by Monday, June
Registration includes meals, lodging, and 2012 Cal-IPC         20. We especially encourage presentations that address
membership.                                                    this year’s theme of “Ecological Change”. Full details and
Rates: Regular: $290 ($315 after Sept. 2, $340 on-site)        instructions for abstract submission are available at
       Student: $100 ($125 after Sept. 2, $150 on-site)
       Symposium Volunteer: $185 (before Sept. 2 only)         Student Contest
       Restoration Volunteer: $185 (before Sept. 2 only)       Students are invited to enter our fourth annual Student
       Field Course: $145 ($165 without Symposium)             Paper and Poster Contest. First place in each category
Getting There: Tahoe City is located on the north shore of     receives $250. First, second, and third places will be
Lake Tahoe, two hours northeast of Sacramento and              recognized at the Symposium and in Cal-IPC News. Info
50 minutes southwest of Reno, NV. Granlibakken offers          at
transportation from the Reno/Tahoe International Airport for
$40/person each way, with 7 days advance notice.               Award Nominations: due July 9
Lodging: Granlibakken Conference Center offers a variety       The Symposium is an opportunity to honor indi-
of room options. See our website for more information.         viduals and organizations who have made exceptional
Some rooms are reserved at special rates for government        contributions to invasive plant research or management.
employees. Attendees receive free internet and parking.        We welcome nominations for: the Jake Sigg Award for
Reserve your room through our website by Sept. 3 to receive    Vision and Service; the Golden Weed Wrench Award for
the discounted group rates.                                    Land Manager of the Year; the Ryan Jones Catalyst Award;
                                                               the Invasive Plants Policy Award; and the Organization of
Sponsorship Opportunities                                      the Year Award. Send nominations to
Sponsoring the Symposium is a great way for your               See past honorees at
organization to reach California’s natural resource managers
while supporting the event. Five levels of sponsorship offer   Photo Contest: Due September 2
benefits including free registration, exhibit space, and
                                                               Show off your photographic talents in the annual Cal-IPC
recognition in Symposium materials. Info at
                                                               Photo Contest! Photos will be displayed at the Symposium
                                                               and attendees will choose Best in Show. Entries can include
                                                               specimen photos of individual plants, landscape photos,
                                                               or action photos of weed workers. We especially encourage
                                                               photos that illustrate the impacts of weeds. Send entries to

                                                               Auction and Raffle
                                                               The Symposium is not just about learning the newest
                                                               research results and management techniques; it’s also about
                                                               having fun with fellow weed workers! Our Wednesday
                                                               night happy hour includes a raffle with a variety of great
                                                               prizes: tools, trips, wine, books, artwork, clothing, and
                                                               more. The banquet later in the evening features a live
                                                               auction of a few special items. Come mingle with like-
                                                               minded folks from around the state and recharge your
                                                               batteries. Contact if you have a special
                                                               item to contribute.

Cal-IPC staff member Bertha McKinley and attendees enjoy
the keynote address at the 2010 Symposium.

12       Cal-IPC News Spring 2011

Hybrid Spartina Forum: Defining eradication for a genetic invader
by Ingrid Hogle, San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project

E    ighty-five land managers, agency
     personnel, representatives of
environmental organizations and world-
                                               Director Peggy
                                               Olofson explained
                                               that eradication
class scientists gathered for two days         of all discernable
to discuss the “end game” of invasive          hybrids is pos-
cordgrass eradication at the recent Hybrid     sible, and that the
Spartina Forum in Oakland, California.         challenge is now
    The forum was timely as the State          to determine what
Coastal Conservancy (SCC) marks the            to do about those
tenth year of its San Francisco Estu-          hybrids that are
ary Invasive Spartina Project (ISP). The       not discernable.
SCC initiated the ISP in 2000 with the         The question, she
goal to reverse the spread of invasive         posed, is “how far
Spartina, and to eradicate it from the         do we go?”
estuary if possible. This invasive Spartina        The forum
is primarily a result of hybridization         was designed to
between the native Pacific cordgrass            provide an oppor-
(Spartina foliosa) and smooth cordgrass        tunity for thought- Forum participants were challenged to identify native vs.
(Spartina alterniflora) from the East Coast,    ful consideration       invasive hybrid Spartina plants in 19 hands-on displays.
which was introduced by the Army Corps         of this question        “Votes” were tallied using red and green dots, after which the
of Engineers in the 1970s. The resulting       in light of the         true identification was revealed. The verdict? “It’s not easy!”
hybrid plants, discovered and documented       management              Photo by Jude Stalker, Invasive Spartina Project.
by scientists at UC Davis in the late          objectives of the
1990s, are extremely invasive “ecosystem       region’s many stakeholders. Participants        Witham discussed his work on hybrid
engineers” that threaten the integrity of      were asked to consider the likely impacts       cottonwoods, eucalyptus and other species
marshes, mudflats, flood control channels,       of continued elimination of discernable         which indicates that minor variation in
mosquito abatement efforts and habitat         S. alterniflora x foliosa hybrids from the       genotypes within a species can impact
restoration efforts around the bay.            marshes and mudflats of the San Francisco the accumulation of heritable traits, and
                                               Bay in light of their organization’s            that changes to the genetic structure of
    Successful, coordinated, regional
treatment of invasive, hybrid cordgrass        missions and the tidal ecosystem goals for a species within a site can change the
                                               the entire estuary.                             community of other plants and animals
by the ISP since 2005 has led to a nearly                                                      supported by that species, and may ulti-
90% reduction in hybrid Spartina acreage           To inform the consideration of this         mately affect the evolution of the entire
throughout the estuary. However, genetic       question, a multitude of invited speakers       community.
results indicating presence of hybrid          gave presentations on topics ranging from
Spartina in sites that appear to contain       genetics to restoration, and from ecology           Joy Zedler, University of Wisconsin,
only pure Pacific cordgrass complicate the      to federal endangered species policy. The       discussed the ecology of native Spartina
issue of when and what to treat, and thus      full list of speakers and talks is available at foliosa, especially as it grows in southern
complicate the definition of eradication.              California, where it appears to have great
The devil is truly in the details of how one                                                   phenotypic plasticity in response to wet
                                                   Geneticist Valerie Hipkins, USDA            or dry years, and where she has found a
defines the target of eradication.              National Forest Genetics Lab, spoke             long period of low salinity a requirement
   SCC Project Manager Marilyn                 about the unique challenges of                  for its establishment in restored marshes.
Latta kicked off the forum with the            conducting management-based genetic             Dan Simberloff, University of Tennes-
announcement that the Conservancy              work. Malika Ainouche, University of            see, discussed examples of other invasive,
expects to complete control by 2013,           Rennes, France, explained work done             hybrid species and cautioned that no
and expects continued monitoring for           in her lab on similarly closely related
zero net acres through 2016. ISP Project       hybrids of different Spartina species. Tom
                                                                                                                        ...continued page 16

                                                                                                 Cal-IPC News Spring 2011               13
            Thank You for Supporting our Work!
Recent Donors                          New Members                                  Alejandra Martinez-Berdeja (UC
                                                                                    Riverside), Kathryn McEachern (USGS
Your tax-deductible donations are      As a Cal-IPC Member, you join a              Channel Islands), Chelsea Moller (San
extremely valuable in supporting our   powerful network of land managers,           Mateo County RCD), Max Neale
programs. Thank you!                   researchers, volunteers, and concerned       (Tahoe RCD, South Lake Tahoe), Jesse
                                       citizens. Welcome!                           Patterson (Santa Ynez Banch of Chumash
Patron ($500-$999)                                                                  Indians), Raynelle Rino (Literacy for
                                       Douglas Anthony (DriWater, Inc.,
                                                                                    Environmental Justice, San Francisco),
  Edith Allen (Riverside)              Point Richmond), Charles Baughman
                                                                                    Ginny Short (Center for Natural Lands
                                       (Boulder Creek), William Bianco (West
Champion ($250-$499)                                                                Management, Thousand Palms), KC
                                       Sacramento), Mark Bibbo (Westervelt
                                                                                    Sorgen (Sacramento Area Flood Control
 Peter Beesley (Grass Valley)          Ecological Services, Sacramento), Fred
                                                                                    Authority), Jennifer Steele (San Luis
 Valerie Eviner (Davis)                Booker (Alameda County Master
                                                                                    Obispo County Ag Dept., Arroyo
 Doug Gibson (Encinitas)               Gardeners, Berkeley), Ian Boyd
                                                                                    Grande), Steven Swain (UCCE, Novato),
 Jason Giessow (Encinitas)             (Restoration Resources, Rocklin), Greg
                                                                                    Ashenafi Tadesse (Alameda County
 Kim Hayes (Moss Landing)              Bringelson (Santa Clara County Parks
                                                                                    Dept. of Agriculture, Livermore), Lina
 Peter Schuyler (Santa Barbara)        & Rec., Los Gatos), Hattie Brown
                                                                                    Valenzuela (San Joaquin Valley Parkway
 Andrea Williams (Corte Madera)        (Laguna de Santa Rosa Foundation),
                                                                                    Trust), Hannah Wallis (Watsonville),
                                       Tish Brown (San Francisco), Cherilyn
Contributor ($100-$249)                                                             Catherine Waterston (Peninsula
                                       Burton (CDFG, Sacramento), Rosemarie
                                                                                    Open Space Trust, Palo Alto), Shana
 John Anderson (San Francisco)         Calzontzi (Santa Rosa), Scott Carnegie
                                                                                    Welles (Riverside), Christina Williams
 Peter Brastow (San Anselmo)           (W.M. Beaty & Associates, Inc., Fall
                                                                                    (Atascadero), David Williams (Fremont)
 George Stigall (Woodside)             River), John Chapman (Santa Clara
                                       Valley Water District, San Jose), Kathleen
Friend (up to $99)                     Chasey (CNPS, Napa), Heather                 New Organizational Members
  Rebecca Andrade (Santa Rosa)         Clayton (Yorba Linda), Kara Doolin           Organizational Members advance
  David & Louise Beesley               (Sonoma Land Trust), David Dzuik             Cal-IPC’s mission to protect California’s
      (Nevada City)                    (Chico), Shama Ejaz (Fremont), David
                                                                                    wildlands from invasive plants.
  Jason Casanova (Los Angeles)         Emmerson (La Costa Canyon HS,
  Rosemary Corbin (Richmond)           Carlsbad), Loren Eppler (Hazleton,           Big Sur Land Trust
  Athena Demetry (Sequoia NP)          PA), Scott Kent Fowler (Woodmans             Cabrillo National Monument
  Ed Duarte (Livermore)                Pest Control & Horticultural Pest            Cache Creek Conservancy
  Ingrid Hogle (Berkeley)              Management, Oroville), Gretchen              City of Walnut Creek
  Kate Howe (Indiana)                  Garwood (Western Shasta RCD,                 CNPS - Los Angeles Chapter
  Sue Hubbard (Salinas)                Anderson), Holly Gellerman (CDFG,
                                                                                    County of Marin Flood Control &
  Gigi Hurst (Escondido)               Sacramento), Zoe Glas (Oak Run),
                                       Jonathan Gomes (Alameda County                  Water Conservation District
  Deb Jensen (Placerville)
  Brent Johnson (Paicines)             Dept. of Agriculture, Livermore),            Contra Costa County RCD
  Doug Johnson (Albany)                Joanne Greer (Alameda County Dept.           Cooley Ranch, Inc.
  Jean Kaiwi (San Diego)               of Agriculture, Livermore), Alyssa           County of Santa Clara
  Shawn Kelly (Oxnard)                 Hernandez (San Mateo RCD, Half               DeAngelo Brothers, Inc.
  Annabelle Kleist (Davis)             Moom Bay), Bruce Heublein (Cayucos),         Fallbrook Land Conservancy
  Fred Kramer (San Diego)              Bridget Hilbig (Riverside), Brandon          Go Native, Inc.
  Shea O’Keefe (Escondido)             Hill (Fresno), John Holson (ICF              Huntington Library
  Katherine Schmerzler                 International, Sacramento), Melissa          Inyo County Water Department
  George & Helene Strauss (Berkeley)   Howe (Bon Terra Consulting, Consta
                                                                                    Olofson Environmental, Inc.
  Jeff Swager                          Mesa), Andrew Isner (UCCE, Tulare),
                                       Matt James (Coastal Restoration              Orange County Water District
  Mike Taylor
  Sue Wickham (Benicia)                Consultants, Carpinteria), Bill Johnson      Presidio Trust
  Chino Yip (Napa)                     (City of Novato Public Works), Sally         Restoration Resources
  John Zentner                         Krenn (PG&E, Avila Beach), Chris             Sacramento Area Flood Control Agency
                                       Long (California National Guard, San         Tom Dodson & Associates
                                       Luis Obispo), Mark Lujan (Audubon            Tule River Tribal Council
                                       Canyon Ranch, Stinson Beach),                Yocha Dehe Wintun Nation

14       Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
           Policy Update

Cuts and More Cuts
by Doug Johnson, California Invasive Plant Council

A    s much as natural resource managers
     desire secure, steady funding to
maintain effective programs, public
                                                when they address wildland weeds as
                                                much as agricultural weeds, always takes a
                                                back seat to support for high-impact crop
funding for invasive plant management           pests. This is understandable, but unfor-
has been anything but steady in recent          tunate.
years. After last year’s injection of federal       Despite this imperfect fit, the historic
stimulus funding (benefitting the work of        relationship between CDFA and the
Cal-IPC, among others) California state         statewide network of county agricultural
government funding for weed work is             commissioners is a tremendous asset in          Cal-IPC Executive Director Doug John-
crashing.                                       coordinating weed work. Although the            son at National Invasive Species Aware-
    Funding for Weed Management Areas           state’s noxious weed list leaves out many       ness Week, Washington, DC. Photo by
through the California Dept. of Food &          invasive plants with an ecological impact,      Janet Clark.
Agriculture’s general fund budget has been      the list and ratings provided a framework
eliminated. It’s not the first time. In 2006,    for coordinated action. WMAs were also          Awareness Day at the Capitol. We walked
after the program’s initial funding sunset,     able to address plants from Cal-IPC’s           the halls of the state legislature, visiting
Cal-IPC led a statewide letter-writing          Inventory.                                      the offices of all 120 Assembly Members
campaign that convinced the legislature to          So it is a significant blow that CDFA        and State Senators. We were met with
restore program funding.                        is also cutting all funding for its century-    near universal support, and a high degree
    At the current juncture, however, it is     old terrestrial weed eradication program,       of understanding of the issue, due in large
clear that the state is bent on squeezing       which provided a network of regional            part to previous years’ efforts. (One staffer
general fund programs out of CDFA,              field biologists to work with county             had four species of plastic weeds in his
leaving the department to exist on federal      agricultural commissioners on identifying       office from past visits!) We particularly
and industry funding. There may be              and managing high priority weed                 noted interest from several Los Angeles
potential to engage the California Natural      populations. CDFA has also cut the entire       area representatives.
Resources Agency in the future, given           weed biocontrol program, which serves to           Earlier in March, I joined other
that the WMA program serves a public            distribute appropriate biocontrol agents to     invasive species specialists in Washington,
environmental purpose.                          counties. In addition, the CDFA Botany          DC, for National Invasive Species
    Having the WMA program within               Lab, which helps identify plants and            Awareness Week. Panel sessions explored
CDFA has always presented a challenge           maintain what may be the state’s largest        coordination needs across the country for
– support for weed programs, especially         collection of herbarium specimens, has          WMAs, state invasive species councils,
                                                                          been cut signifi-      and mapping networks. The National
                                                                          cantly. Needless      Environmental Coalition on Invasive
                                                                          to say, Cal-IPC       Species held a well-attended lunchtime
                                                                          will be working       meeting at Defenders of Wildlife offices
                                                                          with partners in      that covered topics ranging from Asian
                                                                          the departments       carp spread to forest pest prevention
                                                                          and the legislature   campaigns and animal import screening
                                                                          to find creative       law.
                                                                                                    While funding for invasive species
                                                                            On March 16,        management is not encouraging at this
                                                                         40 intrepid weed       point, there are grounds for optimism in
                                                                         workers came to        the evolving potential for collaboration.
                                                                         Sacramento for         Such collaboration holds promise for
                                                                         the 8th Annual         strengthening the case for renewed
Some of the crew from the 8th Annual Invasive Weeds Aware-               Invasive Weeds         support for invasive species management.
ness Day at the Capital.

                                                                                                  Cal-IPC News Spring 2011               15
                                              exercise was to describe the main impact
...Spartina from page 13                      of invasive, non-native Spartina in terms
                                              of the mission of their organization, and
successful eradication has ever faced an
issue of hybridization. With regard to
                                              to describe their organization’s current
                                              goal with regards to Spartina. On Day
                                                                                                   Field Course
the eradication of hybrid Spartina, he
pronounced:“If you succeed…it would be
                                              2, the question was, “Do you care if any
                                              hybrid alleles are left? If so, why? If not,
the greatest triumph of invasion biology.”
                                              why not?” In other words, does it matter
    Marc Holmes, San Francisco Bay Joint                                                     San Francisco
                                              to you and/or your organization if any ge-
Venture, described the history of tidal                                                      The Presidio’s Log Cabin
                                              netic variability not present in pure native
marsh restoration in the San Francisco        S. foliosa prior to the introduction of S.        June 21 - Strategic Approaches
Bay, putting into perspective the impres-     alterniflora, remains in any of the Spartina       June 22 - Control Methods
sive size and extent of current restoration   left behind by the ISP that is not visually
projects underway in the Bay Area and         discernible as hybrid Spartina.
                                                                                             San Diego
emphasizing how each project builds                                                          Tijuana River NERR
                                                  At the end of the forum, participants
on the successes of previous ones. John                                                        August 3 - Mapping
                                              seemed to reach a consensus that the con-
Bourgeois, South Bay Salt Pond Restora-                                                        August 4 - Control Methods
                                              servation community should prioritize the
tion, discussed the challenges in moving
                                              big picture goal of restoring tidal ecosys-    Tahoe City
forward with restoration knowing that
                                              tem functions, and needed to accept that       Granlibakken Conference Center
invasion by hybrid Spartina threatens the
                                              the detection and removal of all hybrid
success of restoration, and creation of new                                                    Oct. 4 - Field Techniques for
                                              alleles was simply not feasible. Fears that
habitat for invasion threatens to delay the                                                             Reporting Invasive
                                              those alleles left behind might be able to
success of invasive Spartina eradication.                                                               Plants NEW!
                                              recombine and allow the re-emergence
Diane Elam, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Ser-
                                              of invasive traits in future generations of
vice, presented an impressive number of
case studies involving endangered species
                                              plants was a strong concern, however, for                          W
                                                                                                             d     ild
and hybridity.
                                              such a re-emergence of invasive Spartina                    ine         lan
                                              would once again threaten the ultimate                  Tra                 d
    On each day, participants were as-        goal of maintaining and restoring tidal

signed to one of four break-out groups to     ecosystem function.
discuss a question and then report back


to the whole group. On Day 1, their

                                                                                             Cal-IPC Field Courses give you
...News from page 3
                                                                                             access to expert instructors and core
livestock and machinery. (FSEEE Stay          $20.5 million for watercraft inspections       information needed to manage invasive
Informed Newsletter, Spring 2011,             and removal of aquatic invasive species.       plants. Take more courses and work                                    It was originally introduced last year but     towards your Cal-IPC Trained Wildland
In honor of National Invasive Species         stalled in Congress. Information on the        Manager certificate.
Awareness Week, National Public Radio         bill’s status is at
                                                                                             Register for courses, or learn more about
produced a segment on “The Art of War         The EPA and conservation groups                course curricula and the certificate
on Invasive Species”. The program pro-        reached a settlement to limit the              program at, or
files an artist and volunteer weed worker      introduction of invasive species into          call us at (510) 843-3902.
in Washington, D.C. who uses weeds            the Great Lakes. The agreement requires
pulled from Rock Creek Park to create         the EPA to issue a new permit regulat-
handmade paper, paint brushes, and art.       ing ballast water discharges from com-
For instance, he derives ink from English     mercial vessels in settlement of lawsuits
ivy. (February 28, 2011,         brought by a dozen conservation groups
The Lake Tahoe Restoration Act                challenging the legality of the EPA’s
(S. 432), introduced in Congress on           existing permit. Ballast water, water taken
March 2, would provide $415 million           into tanks on commercial ships to main
over ten years to improve water clarity,      stability, is a major transport mechanism
reduce the threat of fire and restore the      of invasive aquatic species. (Natural Re-
environment of the Tahoe Basin. Among         sources Defense Council, March 8, 2011,
other provisions, the bill would authorize

16       Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
                                           Order your 2011

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   Habitat Management Services
Expertise in Exotic Pest Plant Control
    Landscape Contractor Lic # 672030
                                                  IPM Service
      (760) 735-9378 Escondido, CA           
                                                                Cal-IPC News Spring 2011          17
                                               Weed of the Month                             Teacher Resources
Readings &                                     The Monthly Weed Post is a two-page           The Aquatic Invasive Species Toolkit is
                                               pdf bulletin featuring a noxious weed,        a comprehensive set of fun, challenging,
Resources                                      interesting research finding, or other weed    inspiring lessons and activities designed to
                                               management issue, followed by a cross-        help kids understand what invasive species
Know of a resource that should be shared
                                               word puzzle or other educational activity     are, how they affect the environment, and
here? Send it to
                                               to test your knowledge.     what we can all do about them. Produced
Online Training Program                        invasiveplantsMangold/extensionsub.html       as a collaboration between Sea Grant
Southeastern Community College in              Weeds and Climate Change                      and teachers in Oregon, Washington and
North Carolina offers an online, col-          The new book Weed Biology and Climate         California.
lege-level training program in invasive        Change provides a synthesis of known          Recreation Prevention Videos
species management. Students may               information on the probable impact of         “Playing Smart against Invasive Species”
complete classes for continuing education      environmental change on weed biology,         by the USDA Forest Service explains
requirements, a Certificate of Invasive         including impacts of weed biology on          how people can avoid spreading invasive
Species Management, or an Associate in         agriculture, invasive species that limit      species while enjoying the great outdoors.
Science degree in Environmental Science        ecological diversity, and weeds that are      Videos range from 6-27 minutes, can be
Technology with a second year focus in         health risks. In addition, it looks at cur-   viewed online, and cover camping, horse-
invasive species management. www.inva-         rent weed management strategies.              back riding, canoeing, snowmobiling,                                 cross-country skiing, and biking.
                                               Climate Adaptation
Every Plant                                    The Climate Adaptation Knowledge              Humboldt Bay Maps
The Plant List is a working list of all        Exchange (CAKE) is a joint project of         New full-color, digital aerial photographs
known plant species (vascular plants and       Island Press and EcoAdapt aimed at            and benthic habitat maps of Humboldt
bryophytes). It provides the accepted          building a shared knowledge base for          Bay and Eel River Estuary are now avail-
Latin name for most species, with links        managing natural systems in the face of       able. The images, all orthorectified and
to all synonyms by which that species          rapid climate change. It features a virtual   GIS-compatible, provide a detailed inven-
has been known and includes 620 plant          library, case studies, a project directory,   tory of intertidal and subtidal bottom
families and 16,167 plant genera.              and climate modeling tools.                   habitats.                                                  index.html

...Arundo from page 9
                                                                                                        Advertise in
funds invested. This confirms a significant      existing program capacity (experience and
benefit in controlling Arundo in the study      regulatory permits).                                    Cal-IPC News
area.                                                                                              Cal-IPC is now accepting
                                                   This study provides a foundation for
                                                                                                advertisements for our quarterly
Recommendations                                justifying investments in Arundo removal
                                                                                                publication, Cal-IPC News, which
                                               in coastal watersheds from Monterey
     We encourage programs to implement                                                         has been in circulation for 18
                                               to San Diego, and it’s methods allow
control starting in the upper reaches of the                                                    years and reaches several thousand
                                               for assessing particular benefits in each
watershed, particularly if the watershed is                                                     natural resource managers
                                               watershed. The reports detailed maps
heavily invaded. Treatment priorities in                                                        throughout California each year.
                                               also provide a blueprint for planning
the region include: continuing treatment       management efforts in each watershed,                We will consider adver-
of Arundo in areas that have already been      and we hope it will be used to catalyze          tisements from individuals,
treated (protecting initial investment);       future work protecting the region’s              organizations and companies
controlling Arundo in watersheds where         riparian areas.                                  that provide goods and services
it is not yet abundant but could spread                                                         beneficial to natural resource
(early control is more cost effective);            The complete report, along with maps
and controlling Arundo in more highly          and a geodatabase of the mapping results,
invaded watersheds in a ranked order. We       may be downloaded from              Please contact Heather Brady,
ranked watersheds based on four impact         ip/research/arundo.                              Outreach Program Manager, to
classes (water use, geomorphology, fire,                                                         reserve your space in an upcoming
and listed species) and two classes of                                                          issue. or (510)

18       Cal-IPC News Spring 2011
                          The WILDLAND WEED CALENDAR
                                            California Invasive Weeds Awareness Week
            May - July                      July 18-22, Statewide                                October & beyond
SERCAL’s 18th Annual Conference             Sponsor an event!                              Cal-IPC’s 20th Annual Symposium
May 10-12                                  October 4-7
San Diego                                                                                  Granlibakken, Tahoe City
                                            51st Aquatic Plant Management Meeting                                                    
                                            July 24-27
Cal-IPC Bio & ID and Control Courses        Baltimore, MD                                  Continental Dialogue on Non-Native
May 17 & 18                                                          Forest Insects & Disease
Redding                                                                                    October 5-6                                  August & September                        Boulder, CO
CNGA Workshops:                             Cal-IPC Mapping and Control Courses
 Grassland Monitoring                       August 3 & 4                                   Natural Areas Conference
 May 27, Davis                              San Diego                                      November 1-4
                                                                  Tallahassee, FL
 Intro to CA Grasslands Workshop
 June 11, Santa Rosa                                                             
                                            Ecological Society of America
 Grass ID Wrksp                             August 7-12                                    North America Congress for Conservation
 June 25-26, Point Reyes Station            Austin, TX                                     Biology                                                  July 15-18, 2012
                                            SER Int’l Congress on Ecological Restoration   Oakland
Cal-IPC Strategic Approaches and Control
                                            August 21-25                         
June 21 & 22
San Francisco                               Merida, Yucatan, Mexico                        CNPS Conservation Conference                                                   January 10-14, 2012
ESRI International User Conference          Weed Science School                            San Diego
July 11-15                                  August 30 - Sept. 1                  
San Diego                                   UC Davis                                       conference/2012               
                                                                                           CA Weed Science Society Conference
55 Annual Weed Day                          Int’l Conf. on Alien Plant Invasions           January 23 – 25, 2012
July 14                                     August 30-September 3                          Santa Barbara
UC Davis                                    Szombathely, Hungary                                   

        “By turning weeds into art that honors weeds, he found the meta in the
                     ~ Linton Weeks, NPR, discussing artist Patterson Clark of Washington, DC, “The Art of War on
                     Invasive Species”,, February 28, 2011.

        “It’s easy to get burned out if you chainsaw honeysuckle eight hours a day”
                     ~ Claire Nicholson, natural resource technician in Illinois, describing her interest in a variety of con-
                     trol methods, in “Techs bring the heat to rid the region of invasive plant species” by Annie Getsinger,
           , November 25, 2010

                                                                                            Cal-IPC News Spring 2011             19
                                                                                                                        Non-Profit Org.
                    California                                                                                            U.S. Postage
                    Invasive Plant                                                                                           PAID
                                                                                                                          Berkeley, CA
                    Council                                                                                             Permit No. 1435

1442-A Walnut Street, #462
Berkeley, CA 94709


                  Get ready for
              Cal-IPC’s 20th Annual
              Symposium in Tahoe
                  October 4-7!

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