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Gender Roles

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					Gender Differences
   Independent Living
                Early Childhood
 All children are “relatively” androgynous before
  they are born
 Current U.S. culture (like most societies) has
  stereotypical assumptions about people based
  on gender
 Parents and “society” usually treat children in
  gendered ways: names, colors, clothing,
  behaviors, etc.
       What do baby girls wear?
       What do baby boys wear?
                      Girls
 In   general,
      Parents talk to girls more than boys
      Hold girls more
      Treat girls more gently
      Pick up girls more when they cry
      Keep girls closer to the parent
      Focus on appearance for complements
      Sexually abuse girls more than boys
                        Boys
 In   general,
      Parents let boys cry longer
      Give boys more freedom
      Give boys less attention
      Play more roughly with boys
      Focus on boy’s activities for complements
      Yell at, punish, hit and physically abuse boys
       more
                   Rules of life
   Underlying (unspoken) rules of life for current
    U.S. dominant culture:

   Females: Everyone should take responsibility for
    everyone else (interdependence)
       How do we label independent women?
   Males: Everyone should be responsible for
    themselves (independence)

   So a woman may be taking care of herself and
    her husband, but who is taking care of her?
               Adolescence
 Gender   role traditional students-
  (Feminine Females & Masculine Males)
   False stereotype that all females are feminine

    and all males are masculine.
   Mixed results in the research:

    • More positive peer relations for moderate levels of
      traditional behaviors.
    • Uncertain effect on self esteem (depends on
      study), better for masc. boys than feminine girls.
    • Hyper-masculine boys and hyper-feminine girls
      typically have difficulty with relations with peers
      Non-Traditional Gender
(Feminine Males, Masculine Females, and
Androgynous Females and Males)

   Increased ridicule and bullying by peers
     • Especially against feminine boys
   Lower self esteem, increased shame for boys
   Higher level of depression and suicide
    (especially if gay)
   Self esteem and agency higher for masculine
    and adrogynous female adolescents
    Masculine Speaking Style

 Autonomous
 Parallelcommunication
 Competitive
 Focus on tasks and ideas
 Detach feelings and ego
  Masculine Style – continued

 Responsible  for Self
 Jump in to conversation
 Declarative statements
 Aggressive/swearing
 Talk others out of feelings
 Give few complements and affirmations
     Feminine Speaking Style

 Connecting
 Direct communication
 Cooperative
 Focus on people and feelings
 Integrate feelings and ego
   Feminine Style – continued

 Responsible   for other(s)
 Wait for turn or invitation
 Qualifiers and tag-on endings
 Join others in feelings
 Give complements and affirmations
                 Get With It

 Help   teens see value in androgyny
     Research shows psychologically healthiest
      adults typically androgynous, also better
      relationships, think yin and yang.
         Girls vs. Boys in School

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   How are girls treated in school?

   How are boys treated in school?

   Do different teachers treat students differently?
Male-Female
What are the
differences?
           Brain-based Teaching
                 The Minds of Girls

                                                     By adolescence, a
                                                     girl’s corpus
                                                     callosum is 25
                                                     percent larger than a
                                                     boy’s. This enable
                                                     more “cross talk”
                                                     between
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and      hemispheres.
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                 The Minds of Girls
    Because of the greater cross talk, girls
    are able to multitask better than boys.
    They have fewer attention span
    problems and can make faster
    transitions between lessons.


Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                 The Minds of Girls
                                                     Stronger neural
                                                     connectors creates
                                                     better listening
                                                     skills, more detailed
                                                     memory storage, and
                                                     better discrimination
                                                     among the tones of
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
                                                     voice.
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                 The Minds of Girls
                                                     A girl’s stronger
                                                     neural connectors
                                                     and a larger
                                                     hippocampus
                                                     provide greater use
                                                     of sensory memory
                                                     details in speaking
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
                                                     and writing.
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                 The Minds of Girls

                                                     Girls’ prefrontal
                                                     cortex develops
                                                     earlier and is larger
                                                     than boys’. Girls
                                                     have more serotonin
                                                     and make fewer
                                                     impulsive decisions.
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                 The Minds of Girls
    With more cortical areas devoted
    to verbal functioning, girls are
    better at: sensory memory, sitting
    still, listening, tonality, mental
    cross talk, and the complexities of
    reading and writing.
                                                     i.e. The very skills and
                                                     behaviors often
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and      rewarded in schools.
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                The Minds of Boys
                                                     Boys have more
                                                     cortical area devoted
                                                     to spatial-mechanical
                                                     functioning and half
                                                     as much to verbal-
                                                     emotive functioning.
                                                     “Honey, why don’t you
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
                                                     want to talk about it?”
           Brain-based Teaching
                The Minds of Boys
                                                     Spatial-mechanical
                                                     functioning makes
                                                     boys want to move
                                                     objects through the
                                                     air, such as balls,
                                                     airplanes, their little
                                                     sisters, or just their
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
                                                     arms and legs.
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                The Minds of Boys
                                                     Boys have less
                                                     serotonin and less
                                                     oxytocin, which
                                                     makes them more
                                                     impulsive and less
                                                     likely to sit still to talk
                                                     to someone.
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                The Minds of Boys
                                                     Boys have less blood
                                                     flow to the brain and
                                                     tend to structure or
                                                     compartmentalize
                                                     learning.


Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                The Minds of Boys
                                                     The more words a
                                                     teacher uses, the
                                                     greater chance a boy
                                                     will zone out. Boys’
                                                     brains are better
                                                     suited to symbols,
                                                     abstractions, and
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
                                                     pictures.
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
           Brain-based Teaching
                The Minds of Boys
    Consequently, boys generally learn
    higher math and physics better than
    girls. Boys prefer video games for the
    physical movement and destruction.
    And boys get into more trouble for not
    listening, fidgeting, sleeping in class,
    and incomplete assignments.
Source: Gurian, M. & Stevens, K. “With Boys and
Girls in Mind,” Educational Leadership, Nov. 2004.
The Trouble with Boys
                “Girl behavior
               becomes the gold
             standard. Boys are
                  treated like
                defective girls.”
           Dr. Michael Thompson

           PBS Series Author of
              “Raising Cain”
                   Girls Feel It, Too.
                                             Dove
                                        Campaign for Real
                                             Beauty

         QuickTime™ an d a
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                                           “Onslaught”
                                                 &
                                            “Evolution”

				
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