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									            Roadrunners
      Examining Drinking Behaviors of

 Undergraduate Business Students at

                      Radford University

           By: Wayne Canada, Forest, VA Marketing May 2005
          Marcus Homes, Berryville, VA, Management Dec 2004
          Todd Price, Woodbridge, VA, Management May 2005
             |Justin Stark, Herndon, VA, Marketing May 2005
           William Kelly, Swampscott MA, Marketing May 2005




                      Table of Contents


1. Executive Summary                             Page 3

2. Research Objectives and Research Design         Page 4

3. Research Methodology                           Page 4

4. Results of the Data Analysis                  Page 5

5. Research Results                             Page 12
6. Table of Contents for the Appendix                   Page 14

7. Appendix                                           Page 15




Executive Summary

      The research team that we were involved in examined the use of

alcohol among Radford University Students. Our team went about

collecting this data though online surveys sent out to a randomly selected

sample of 444 Radford College of Business students. The results portrayed

a positive relationship linking drinking habits between freshmen and senior

students. There was also a positive relationship between the percentages

of freshmen and the percentages of seniors who drink. The results

indicated that freshman drink more frequently than senior students. We

also found that the percentage of senior students who drink is larger than

the percent of freshmen students. Finally, we found that there was higher

incidence of undesirable incidents due to drinking among senior students,

as compared to freshmen students.

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Research Objectives and Research Design
      The purpose of our research project was to examine the drinking

habits of Radford College of Business undergraduates .The research

questions that we investigated in this project were:

       1. Were there differences in the percentage of freshman and senior

       undergraduates who drink?

       2. Were there differences in the frequency and the quantity that

       freshman and senior undergraduates drink?

       3. Were there differences in the number of undesirable incidents

       due to drinking between freshman and senior undergraduates?

The research design we used for this investigation was a descriptive

research design. This was an appropriate design because the project

required us to describe the drinking occurrences and characteristics that

freshman and senior undergraduates at Radford University possess by

using our primary data that we collected by sending out surveys.

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Data Collection Methodology:

      In order to answer our research questions, we randomly selected a

sample of 444 Radford College of Business undergraduates from an email

list of 5,409 Radford College of Business undergraduates which was

obtained by their email addresses from the Radford University Registrar’s

Office. The survey (see Exhibit 1: Radford College of Business Drinking
Habits, in the Appendix) asked only freshman and senior respondents

questions about their drinking habits, behaviors, and other demographical

questions. The survey was prepared and published online using

WebSurveyor, an online survey software package. Selected

undergraduates were notified of the survey via email. We began

collecting our data on November 11th and completed our data collection

on November 31st.

      Based on our calculations, the sample size required to minimize

sampling error was 148 undergraduates (see Exhibit 2: Desired Sample Size

Calculations). Since we anticipated approximately a 30% response rate

to our survey, we inflated the desired sample size by 3 and attempted to

contact 444 randomly selected Radford College of Business

undergraduates.

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Results of the Data Analysis:

      As a result to our data collection effort, the roadrunner group

obtained information concerning our survey from 122 undergraduates, for

an overall response rate of 27.4%.

      The first question on the survey asked undergraduates, “What is your

current class status.” A total of 122 undergraduates responded to this

question. 30.33% responded that they were freshman; 13.11% responded

that they were sophomores; 2.46% responded that they were juniors; and
54.10% responded that they were seniors. The rest of the survey is based

on answers that come from freshman and seniors only. (See Exhibit 3, Class

Status in the Appendix).

      The second question on the survey asked undergraduates, “Do you

drink alcoholic beverages?” The total number of 103 undergraduates

responded to this question. 78 of the respondents said that yes they do

drink, while 25 of the respondents said that they do not drink. (See Exhibit

4, RU Students Who Drink in the Appendix).

      The third question on the survey asked undergraduates, “How old

are you?” A total number of 103 undergraduates responded to this

question. 34 of the respondents said that they are under the age of 21,

while 69 of the respondents said that they were 21 or older. (See Exhibit 5,

Age in the Appendix).

      The fourth question on the survey was aimed at those

undergraduates who indicated that they were 21 or older. The question

states, “Since you are 21 or older do you think that you are drinking more

or less or the same amount since you have turned 21”. A total of 69

undergraduates responded to this question. 34.78% of undergraduates

said that they drink more; 33.33% of undergraduates said that they drink

less; and 31.88% of undergraduates said that they drink the same amount.

(See Exhibit 6, Students Over 21 Drinking Habits in the Appendix).
     The fifth question on the survey was aimed at those undergraduates

who indicated that they were younger than 21. The question states,

“Since you are under 21 do you think you that you will drink more, less or

the same amount once you turn 21.” A total of 33 undergraduates

responded to this question. 8.82% of undergraduates said that they drink

more; 29.41% of undergraduates said that they drink less; and 61.76% of

undergraduates said that they will drink the same amount. (See Exhibit 7,

Students Under 21 Drinking Habits in the Appendix).

     The sixth question on the survey asked undergraduates, “How many

days per week would you say that you drink alcoholic beverages?” A

total number of 96 undergraduates responded to this question. 57.43% of

the respondents said that they drink between one-two days; 15.84 % of

the respondents said that they drink between three-four days; 1.98% of the

respondents said that they drink between five-six days; 24.75% of the

respondents said that they do not drink; and 0% of the respondents said

that they drink everyday of the week. (See Exhibit 8, Drinking Frequencies

of RU Students in the Appendix).

     The seventh question on the survey asked undergraduates, “How

many alcoholic beverages do they consume in one night?” A total of 85

undergraduates responded to this question. 49 of the respondents said

that they have between 1-5 drinks a night; 23 of the respondents said that

they have between 6-10 drinks a night; 13 of the respondents said that
they have between 11-15 drinks a night; 0% of the respondents said that

they have between 16-20 drinks a night; and 0% of the respondents said

that they have over 20 drinks a night. (See Exhibit 9, Nightly Drinking

Frequencies in the Appendix).

      The eighth question on the survey has4 different answers. Therefore

the total number of undergraduates that answered this question will vary

between answers. The total of undergraduates that responded to this

question will be stated by the answer that it belongs too. The question on

the survey asked undergraduates, “What influences you to drink?” The first

answer to the question states that students drink to be involved in the

social scene is the main influence for undergraduates to drink. A total of

95 undergraduates responded to this question. 43.16% of the respondents

answered yes and 56.84% answered no (see Exhibit 10, Why Students

Drink-Social Scene in the Appendix).

      The second answer to the question eight states that boredom is the

main influence for undergraduates to drink. A total of 92 undergraduates

responded to this question. 23.91% of the respondents answered yes and

76.09% answered no (see Exhibit 11, Why Students Drink-Boredom in the

Appendix).

      The third answer to the question eight states that depression is the

main influence for undergraduates to drink. A total of 92 undergraduates

responded to this question. 84.78% of the respondents answered yes and
15.22% answered no (see Exhibit 12, Why Students Drink- Depression in the

Appendix).

      The fourth answer to question eight states that fraternities or

sororities were the main influence for undergraduates to drink. A total of

95 undergraduates responded to this question. 28.42% of the respondents

answered yes and 71.58% answered no (see Exhibit 13, Why Students Drink

Fraternities in the Appendix).

      The ninth question on the survey asked undergraduates,

“Approximately how much money do you spend on alcohol, on a weekly

basis.” A total of 99 undergraduates answered this question. We are 95%

confident that the mean response from the population of Radford

University students will be between $7.99- $12.90. The mean response of

money spent was $10.40. (See Exhibit 14, Weekly Money Spent on Alcohol

Table in the Appendix).

      The tenth question on the survey has 4 different answers. Therefore

the total number of undergraduates that answered this question will vary

between answers. The total of undergraduates that responded to this

question will be stated by the answer that it belongs too. The question on

the survey asked undergraduates, “While they were drinking have they

ever experienced any of these undesirable incidents.” The first answer to

the question states that driving under the influence (DUI) was the

undesirable experience that occurred while drinking. A total of 96
undergraduates responded to this question. 8 of the respondents

answered yes to this undesirable experience and 88 answered no. The

second answer to the question states that drunk in public was the

undesirable experience that occurred while drinking. A total of 96

undergraduates responded to this question. 12 of the respondents

answered yes to this undesirable experience and 84 answered no. The

third answer to the question states that underage possession was the

undesirable experience that occurred while drinking. A total of 98

undergraduates responded to this question. 17 of the respondents

answered yes to this undesirable experience and 81 answered no. The

fourth answer to the question states that fake ID charge was the

undesirable experience that occurred while drinking. A total of 96

undergraduates responded to this question. 2 of the respondents

answered yes to this undesirable experience and 94 answered no. (See

Exhibit 15, Undesirable Incidents Table 1 in the Appendix).

     The eleventh question on the survey has 4 different answers.

Therefore the total number of undergraduates that answered this question

will vary between answers. The total of undergraduates that responded to

this question will be stated by the answer that it belongs too. The question

on the survey asked undergraduates, “While drinking have you ever

experienced any of these undesirable incidents.” The first answer to the

question states that vomiting was the undesirable experience that
occurred while drinking. A total of 96 undergraduates responded to this

question. 69 of the respondents answered yes to this undesirable

experience and 27 answered no. The second answer to the question

states that a car accident was the undesirable experience that occurred

while drinking. A total of 96 undergraduates responded to this question. 3

of the respondents answered yes to this undesirable experience and 93

answered no. The third answer to the question states that getting into

fights was the undesirable experience that occurred while drinking. A total

of 95 undergraduates responded to this question. 31 of the respondents

answered yes to this undesirable experience and 64 answered no. The

fourth answer to the question states that sexually transmitted diseases

were the undesirable experience that occurred while drinking. A total of

92 undergraduates responded to this question. 1 respondent answered

yes to this undesirable experience and 91 answered no. (See Exhibit 16,

Undesirable Incidents Table 2 in the Appendix).

      The twelfth question on the survey asked undergraduates, “Since

attending Radford University I (fill in the blank) feel that I drink more

alcoholic beverages.” The total number of undergraduates that answered

this question was 103. Undergraduates who responded to the question

about drinking used the following scale: 1= Strongly Disagree; 2= Disagree;

3= Neutral; 4= Agree; and 5= Strongly Agree. The total number of seniors

who responded to this question was 66. The mean response for seniors was
2.94. The total number of freshman who responded to this question was

37. The mean response for freshman was 2.46. Therefore no significance

difference could be determined between freshmen and senior students

and the amount of alcoholic beverages that they drink once they started

attending Radford University. (See Exhibit 17, RU Effect’s on Student

Drinking Habits Table in the Appendix).

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Answers to Research Questions:

      After careful analyzing all the data that we received we are able to

answer each of our research questions. The first research question stated

were there differences in the percentage of freshman and senior

undergraduates who drink? There is a significant difference in the

percentages of freshman and senior undergraduates who drink. 59.5% of

freshmen stated that they do drink, while 84.8% of seniors stated that they

do drink. Therefore that gives us a significant level of .004, showing that

there is a difference in the percentages of freshman and senior students

who drink. The next research question stated were there differences in

the frequency and the quantity that freshman and senior undergraduates

drink? There was a significant difference in the frequency between

freshmen and seniors; however there was not a significant difference in

the quantity that freshmen and senior undergraduates drink. The

frequency mean value on an interval scale for freshmen were 2.74, while
the mean value for seniors were1.88. A significant level of .028 suggest

that freshman students drink significant more often that seniors. The

quantity mean on an interval scale for freshmen were 1.54, while the

mean value for seniors were 1.59. Therefore no significant difference was

established between freshmen and senior undergraduates and the

quantity they drink. The last research question stated were there

differences in the number of undesirable incidents due to drinking

between freshman and senior undergraduates? Vomiting and fake I.D.

were the only significant differences between freshmen and senior

undergraduates. 58.1% of freshmen stated that they had vomited, while

78.5% of seniors stated that they have vomited. Therefore that provides a

significant level of .038, showing that there is a difference in this

undesirable incident. Another significant difference between freshmen

and seniors was seen in the fake I.D. answer. 6.5% of the freshmen stated

that they have been caught with a fake I.D. while 0% of seniors stated

that they had been caught. Therefore that provides a significant level of

.039, showing that there is a difference in this undesirable incident. All the

other undesirable incidents had no significant differences between

freshmen and senior undergraduates.

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Table of Contents for Appendix
Exhibit 1: Radford College of Business Drinking Survey       Page 15

Exhibit 2: Desired Sample Size Calculations                 Page 17

Exhibit 3: Student Class Status                            Page 18

Exhibit 4: Radford Students Who Drink                       Page 18

Exhibit 5: Age                                             Page 19

Exhibit 6: Students Over 21 Drinking Habits                 Page 19

Exhibit 7: Students Under 21 Drinking Habits                Page 20

Exhibit 8: Drinking Frequencies of RU Students               Page 20

Exhibit 9: Nightly Drinking Frequencies                      Page 21

Exhibit 10: Why Students Drink-Boredom                      Page 21

Exhibit 11: Why Students Drink-Fraternities/Sororities      Page 22

Exhibit 12: Why Students Drink-Social Scene                  Page 22

Exhibit 13: Why Students Drink-Depression                   Page 23

Exhibit 14: Weekly Money Spent on Alcohol Table               Page 23

Exhibit 15: Undesirable Incidents Table 1                    Page 23

Exhibit 16: Undesirable Incidents Table 2                    Page 24

Exhibit 17: RU Effect’s on Student Drinking Habits Table     Page 24



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                              Appendix

Exhibit 1: Radford College Of Business Survey: Survey Questions:




1. What is your class standing?

      Freshman

      Sophomore

      Junior

      Senior



2. Do you drink alcoholic beverages?

      Yes

      No



3. How old are you?

      Under 21

      21 or older



4. Since you have turned 21 do you drink?

      More
      Less

      No difference



5. When you do turn 21 do you think you will drink?

   ·   More

   ·   Less

   ·   No difference



6. How many days per week would you say that you drink alcoholic

beverages?

      One-Two Days per week

      Three- Four Days per week

      Five-Six Days per week

      Every Day per week

      Never



7. How many alcoholic beverages do you consume in one night?

      1-5

      6-10

      11-15

      16-20

      over 20
8. For which of the following reasons do you drink alcohol?

      Boredom Yes ____ No______

      Frat / sororities events Yes ____ No______

      Depression Yes ____ No______

      To be involved in the social scene Yes ____ No______



9. Approximately how much money do you spend on alcohol on weekly

basis? Enter amount ___________?



10. While drinking have you ever experienced any of these undesirable

incidents?

      Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Yes ____ No______

      Drunk in public Yes______ No______

      Underage possession Yes _____ No _______

      Fake ID Yes______ No_______



11. While drinking have you ever experienced any of these undesirable

incidents?

      Vomiting Yes _____ No_____
      Car Accident Yes _____ No ______

      Fights Yes ______ No ______

      Sexually Transmitted Diseases Yes _____ No ______



12. Since attending Radford University I _________ feel as though I drink

more alcoholic beverages.

      Strongly Agree

      Agree

      Neutral

      Disagree

      Strongly Disagree
Exhibit 2: Desired Sample Size Calculations




Sample Size Calculations:

        a. 148 (Average of the numbers in orange) *3 (30% response rate) =

444 (desired sample size)




                i. Survey Question 9 is a ratio data:

N- Sample Size

Z- 1.96 (95% confidence level)

S~ Sample Standard Deviation (Range/6) ---(100-0)/6= 16.67 or 17

E- Sampling Error-- $ 3.00



N=(1.96*17)2 (SQUARED)

-----------------            = 123

       3.00

                i. Survey Question 12 is interval data:

N- Sample Size
Z- 1.96 (95 % confidence level)                                       _

S- Sample Standard Deviation (Range/6) (5-1)/6= .66666666666666666666667

E- - Sampling Error – 0.1 (10%)



N= (1.96 *5)2 (SQUARED)

    --------------                = 172

         0.1
Exhibit 3: Students Class Standing




What is your current class status? (n=122)



Exhibit 4: Radford Students who drink
Do you drink alcoholic beverages? (n=103)
Exhibit 5: Age




How old are you? (n=103)



Exhibit 6: Students Over 21 Drinking Habits
Since you have turned 21 do you drink: more, less, same? (n=69)
Exhibit 7: Students Under 21 Drinking Habits




When you do turn 21 do you think you will drink: more, less, same? (n=33)




Exhibit 8: Drinking Frequencies of RU Students
How many days per week would you say you drink alcohol? (n=96)
Exhibit 9: Nightly Drinking Frequencies




How many alcoholic beverages do you consume in one night? (n=85)



Exhibit 10: Why do students drink alcohol: Boredom
For which of the following reasons do you drink alcohol?
Exhibit 11: Why Do Students Drink Alcohol: Fraternities/Sororities




For which of the following reasons do you drink alcohol?



Exhibit 12: Why Do Students Drink Alcohol: Social Scene
For which of the following reasons do you drink alcohol?
Exhibit 13: Why Do Students Drink Alcohol: Depression




For which of the following reasons do you drink alcohol?



Exhibit 14: Dollars Spent On Alcohol: By Week.



                             Mean            95% Confidence          Number of

                          Response            Interval for the       Responses

                                            Mean Response*               (n)

Weekly Money                 $10.4             $7.99,$ 12.90             99

Spent on Alcohol

* We are 95% confident that the mean response from the population of Radford

University students will be between these two numbers
Approximately how much money do you spend on alcohol, on a weekly

basis?(n=99)



Exhibit 15: Undesirable Incidents Table 1



                           YES               NO          Responses (n)

        DUI                 8                 88              96

  Drunk in Public           12                84              96

    Underage                17                81              98

    Possession

Possession of Fake          2                 94              96

        ID



While drinking, have you ever experienced any of these undesirable

incidents?



EXHIBIT 16: Personal Undesirable Incidents Table 2



                          YES                NO          Responses (n)

    Vomiting               69                 27              96

 Car Accident              3                  93              96
       Fighting            31                  64                     95

         STD                1                  91                     92



While drinking, have you ever experienced any of these undesirable

incidents?



EXHIBIT 17: Radford University’s Effect on Students Drinking Habits



Mean Response For Sr.     Mean Response For Fr.       Significant Difference

(n=66)                    (n=37)

2.94                      2.46                        No (Sig. = .077)

Response Scale: 1=Strongly Disagree…..5=Strongly Agree



Since attending Radford University I feel as though I drink more alcohol.



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