folding_bike_project by jianghongl

VIEWS: 18 PAGES: 124

									An-Najah National University
Faculty of engineering
Industrial Engineering Department




                     Graduation Project



               FOLDING BICYCLE
                Design, Manufacture and Feasibility Study




                           Supervisor’s Name:
                          Dr. Husam Arman



Prepared by:

   Bayan Khlaif
   Rasha Tahlawi
   Remah Mashaqi
   Hanaa’ Sa’abna
   Wi’am At'out




Folding Bike
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                                                    ‫ئ٘ـذاء‬

      ‫ا‬
      ‫اِزٕؼذ اٌىٍّبد ػٓ اٌزؼج١ش.. ٚسق اٌمٍُ أْ ٠غ١ش.. ٌٚىٓ أثٝ اٌمٍت أال أْ ٠جٛح ٌّب ٠خبٌجٗ ِٓ ِشبػش رف١ط شىشً‬

                         ‫ٚاِزٕبٔب ٚثٕبء..ثٕبء ػٍٝ ِٓ ٔزسٚا أٔفغـُٙ ٌخذِزٕب اِزٕبٔب ٌّب ثزٌٖٛ ػٍٝ ئرّبَ ٘زا اٌّششٚع...‬

                           ‫ئٌٝ ِؼٍُ اٌجشش٠خ ِٕٚجغ اٌؼٍُ ٔج١ٕب ِذّذ ( صٍٝ اٌٍٗ ػٍ١ٗ ٚعٍُ)‬




‫ئٌٝ اٌّزشثؼخ ػٍٝ ػشػ ا٤٠بَ .... اٌطفٍخ اٌزٟ ػّشد ث١زٙب ِٓ اٌذت ٚاٌذجبسح.... اٌّٙشح ا٤ص١ٍخ اٌزٟ طبٌّب عـجمذ دٔ١ب٘ب‬

                                                                                  ‫ٚصِبٔٙب.... ثٍذرٟ اٌمذط اٌشـش٠ف‬



                                                  ‫ب‬
        ‫ئٌٝ اٌز٠ٓ سٚٚا ثذِبئُٙ ثشٜ فٍغط١ٓ ئٌٝ ِٓ ُ٘ أفعً ِٕب جّ١ؼً ئٌٝ اٌز٠ٓ اسرمٛا ئٌٝ اٌغّٛ.. شٙذاء فٍغط١ٓ‬



 ‫ئٌٝ أػّذح اٌؼٍُ ٚاٌّؼشفخ اٌز٠ٓ خطٛا ٌٟ ٌٚ٣خش٠ٓ صفذبد اإلثذاع.. ئٌٝ جّ١غ اٌز٠ٓ عبػذٟٚٔ فٟ رذط١ُ اٌشٛن ٤صً‬

                                                                                           ‫ٌٍض٘شح.... ا٤عـبرزح ا٤فبظً‬



 ‫ئٌٝ اٌ١ذ اٌطب٘شح اٌزٟ أصاٌذ ِٓ أِبِٕب أشٛان اٌطش٠ك.. ٚسعّذ اٌّغزمجً ثخطٛغ ِٓ ا٤ًِ ٚاٌثمـخ.. ئٌٝ اٌزٞ ال رف١ٗ‬

                        ‫ٍ‬                            ‫ب‬
 ‫اٌىٍّبد ٚاٌشىش ٚاٌؼشفبْ ثبٌجّ١ً.. ئٌٝ ِٓ جشع اٌىأط فبسغً ٌ١غـم١ٕٟ لطشح دت.. ئٌٝ ِٓ وّذ أٔبٍِٗ ٌ١مذَ ٌٕب ٌذظخ‬

                ‫عؼبدح .. ئٌٝ ِٓ دصذ ا٤شٛان ػٓ دسثٟ ٌ١ّٙـذ ٌٟ طش٠ك اٌؼٍُ.. ئٌٝ اٌمٍت اٌىج١ش.... ٚاٌذٞ اٌؼض٠ض‬



                        ‫ٍ‬
‫ئٌٝ ِٓ سوغ اٌؼطبء أِبَ لذِ١ٙب.. ٚأػطزٕب ِٓ دِٙـب ٚسٚدٙـب ٚػّش٘ـب دجب ٚرصّ١ّب ٚدفؼب ٌغذ أجًّ.. ئٌٝ اٌغبٌ١خ اٌزٟ‬

‫ال ٔشٜ ا٤ًِ ئال ِٓ ػ١ٕ١ٙب.. ئٌٝ دىّزٟ.. ٚػٍّٟ.. ئٌٝ أدثٟ.. ٚدٍّٟ.. ئٌٝ طش٠مٟ اٌّغـزم١ُ.. ئٌٝ طش٠ك اٌٙـذا٠خ.. ئٌٝ‬

                                ‫٠ٕجٛع اٌصجش ٚاٌزفبؤي ٚا٤ًِ.. ئٌٝ وً ِٓ فٟ اٌٛجٛد ثؼذ اٌٍٗ ٚسعٌٛٗ.... أِٟ اٌغبٌ١خ‬



                                                                    ‫ا‬     ‫ب ء‬
  ‫ئٌٝ أص٘ـبس إٌشجظ اٌزٟ رف١ط دجً ٚٔمبً ٚػطشً.. ئٌٝ اٌمٍٛة اٌطب٘ـشح اٌشل١مخ ٚإٌفٛط اٌجش٠ئخ ئٌٝ س٠بد١ٓ د١برٕب..‬

 ‫ئٌٝ عـٕذٞ ٚلٛرٟ ِٚالرٞ ثؼذ اٌٍٗ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ آثشٟٚٔ ػٍٝ ٔفغـُٙ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ ػٍّٟٛٔ ػٍُ اٌذ١بح.. ئٌٝ ِٓ أظٙشٚا ٌٟ ِب‬

                                                                                       ‫٘ـٛ أجًّ ِٓ اٌذ١بح.... ئخٛرٟ‬

‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
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‫ا٢ْ رفزخ ا٤ششػخ ٚرشفغ اٌّشعبح ٌزٕطٍك اٌغف١ٕخ فٟ ػشض ثذش ٚاعـغ ِظٍُ ٘ـٛ ثذش اٌذ١بح ٚفٟ ٘ـزٖ اٌظٍّخ ال ٠عٟء ئال‬

     ‫لٕذ٠ً اٌزوش٠بد , روش٠بد ا٤خٛح اٌجؼ١ذح.. ئٌٝ اٌز٠ٓ أدججزُٙ ٚأدجٟٛٔ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ وبٔٛا ِالرٞ ٍِٚجئٟ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ‬

     ‫رزٚلذ ِؼٙـُ أجًّ اٌٍذظبد.. ئٌٝ ِٓ عـأفزمذُ٘ ٚأرّٕٝ أْ ٠فزمذٟٚٔ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ جؼٍٙـُ اٌٍٗ أخٛرٟ ثبٌٍٗ.. ٚ ِٓ‬

                                                                   ‫أدججزٙـُ ثبٌٍٗ.... طالة لغـُ إٌٙذعـخ اٌصٕبػ١خ‬



 ‫ئٌٝ ِٓ ٠جّغ ث١ٓ عـؼبدرٟ ٚدضٟٔ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ ٌُ أػشفٙـُ ٌٚٓ ٠ؼشفٟٛٔ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ أرّٕٝ أْ أروش٘ـُ ئرا روشٟٚٔ..‬

             ‫ئٌٝ ِٓ أرّٕٝ أْ رجمٝ صٛس٘ـُ فٟ ػ١ٟٛٔ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ أػزجش٘ـُ فٟ لّخ ِٓ اٌىـّبي اٌفبئك.... ئٌٝ أدجزٟ‬



                                                ‫وً ِٕب ٠ؼشك سف١ك دسثٗ.. ٚ ٌٛ اعزطبع وً ِٕب ٌمذَ ٌٗ أغٍٝ ِب ٠ٍّه..‬

   ‫فّٕٟ أٔب "ث١بْ خٍ١ف" ئٌٝ اٌشٚح اٌزٟ عىٕذ سٚدٟ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ دجُٙ ٠جشٞ فٟ ػشٚلٟ ٚ٠خفك ثٛجٛدُ٘ فإادٞ.. ئٌٝ‬

                                                                                              ‫خط١جٟ عبِش اٌخبٌذٞ‬



  ‫ٚ ِٕٟ أٔب "سشب طذالٚٞ" ئٌٝ ِٓ أدججزُٙ ٠ِٛب ٚ عزجمٝ ِذجزُٙ دائّب ٚأثذا.. ئٌٝ اٌشّؼخ اٌزٟ أدشلذ ٔفغٙب ٌزعئ ٌٟ‬

                                             ‫اٌذ١بح.. ئٌٝ اٌٛسدح اٌزٟ فبح ػج١ش٘ب ٚطبة شزا٘ب.. ئٌٝ أٍٟ٘ ٚ أػضائٟ‬



‫ٚ ِٕٟ أٔب "سِبح ِشبلٟ" ئٌٝ ِٓ أٔذ وً اٌجّبي فٟ ػ١ٕٟ ئٌٝ ِٓ أسٜ ف١ه اٌىّبي وٍٗ.. ئٌٝ ِٓ ثٗ أوجش ٚػٍ١ٗ أػزّذ‬

‫.. ئٌٝ ِٓ ثٛجٛدٖ أوزغت لٛح ِٚذجخ ال دذٚد ٌٙب.. ئٌٝ ِٓ ػشفذ و١ف أجذٖ ٚػٍّٕٟ أْ ال أظ١ؼٗ.. ئٌٝ ئٌٙـٟ اٌزٞ‬

     ‫ال ٠ط١ت اٌٍ١ً ئال ثشىشن ٚال ٠ط١ت إٌٙبس ئٌٝ ثطبػزه أدجبئٟ.. ٚ ئٌٝ ِٓ أػزجشٖ ِثٍٟ ا٤ػٍٝ فٟ إٌجبح.. ئٌٝ خبٌٟ‬

                                                                                              ‫اٌذج١ت ِذّٛد ظب٘ش‬



 ‫ٚ ِٕٟ أٔب "ٕ٘بء صؼبثٕخ" ئٌٝ ِٓ أسٜ اٌزفبؤي ثؼ١ٕٗ .. ٚاٌغؼبدح فٟ ظذىزٗ.. ئٌٝ شؼٍخ اٌزوبء ٚإٌٛس.. ئٌٝ اٌٛجٗ اٌّفؼُ‬

                                        ‫ثبٌجشاءح ٌّٚذجزه أص٘شد أ٠بِٟ ٚرفزذذ ثشاػُ ٌٍغذ.. ئٌٝ أخٟ ِذّٛد صؼبثٕخ‬




‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
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  ‫ٚ ِٕٟ أٔب "ٚئبَ ػطؼٛغ" ئٌٝ سف١ك دسثٟ ٚ٘زٖ اٌذ١بح ثذٚٔه الشٟء.. ِؼه أوْٛ أٔب.. ٚثذٚٔه أوْٛ ِثً أٞ شٟء..‬

                                                                                       ‫ئٌٝ خط١جٟ ٚائً اٌج١ٛعٟ‬



 ‫‪ACKNOULEGEMENT‬‬                                                                                 ‫وٍّخ شـىش‬


        ‫الثذ ٌٕب ٚٔذٓ ٔخطٛ خطٛارٕب ا٤خ١شح فٟ اٌذ١بح اٌجبِؼ١خ ِٓ ٚلفخ ٔؼٛد ئٌٝ أػٛاَ لع١ٕب٘ـب فٟ سدبة اٌجبِؼخ ِغ‬

    ‫أعـبرزرٕب اٌىشاَ اٌز٠ٓ لذِٛا ٌٕب اٌىث١ش ثبرٌ١ٓ ثزٌه جٙـٛدا وج١شح فٟ ثٕبء ج١ً اٌغذ ٌزجؼث ا٤ِخ ِٓ جذ٠ذ ....‬

     ‫لجً أْ ّٔعٟ رمذَ أعـّٝ آ٠بد اٌشـ ىش ٚاالِزٕبْ ٚاٌزمذ٠ش ٚاٌّذجخ ئٌٝ اٌز٠ٓ دٍّٛا ألذط سعـبٌخ فٟ اٌذ١بح ..‬

                                                                      ‫ئٌٝ اٌز٠ٓ ِٙـذٚا ٌٕب طش٠ك اٌؼٍُ ٚاٌّؼشفخ‬

                                                                              ‫ئٌٝ اٌشّٛع اٌزٟ راثذ فٟ وجش٠بء‬

                                                                                       ‫ٌزٕ١ش وً خطٛح فٟ دسثٕب‬

                                                                                           ‫ٌززًٌ وً ػبئك أِبِٕب‬

                                                                                                    ‫ال‬
                                                                                      ‫فىبٔٛا سعـ ً ٌٍؼٍُ ٚا٤خالق‬

                                                                                                         ‫ا‬
                                                                                              ‫شـىشً ٌىُ جّ١ؼبً‬



                                                        ‫ً٘ ٠غـزط١غ أدذ أْ ٠شـىش اٌشـّظ ٤ٔٙـب أظبءد اٌذٔ١ب‬

                                                     ‫ٌىٕٟ عـأدبٚي سد جضء ِٓ جّ١ٍىُ ثأْ أوْٛ وّب أسدرّٟٛٔ‬

                                                                              ‫( ئٔغـبٔ١خ لجً أْ أوْٛ ِٙـٕ١خ )‬

        ‫ئٌٝ جّ١غ أعـبرزرٕب ا٤فبظً , ٚ ػٍٝ سأعـُٙ سئ١ظ اٌجبِؼخ اٌذوزٛس : ساِٟ اٌذّذٌٍٗ , ٚ جّ١غ وٛادس اٌٙـ١ئخ‬

                                                                                                      ‫اٌزذس٠غ١خ‬

                                                                                        ‫ٚٔخص ثبٌزمذ٠ش ٚاٌشىش:‬

                                          ‫اٌذوزٛس : دغـبَ ػشِبْ‬

  ‫اٌزٞ عـبُ٘ فٟ ئٔجبح ٘ـزا اٌؼًّ , ٚ ٚلف داػّب ٚ ِغـبٔذا ٌّغـ١شرٕب , ٚ ثزي لصبسٜ جٙـذٖ فٟ وٕٛٔب ا٤فعً.‬




‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
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‫ٚوزٌه ٔشـىش وً ِٓ عـبػذ ػٍٝ ئرّبَ ٘ـزا اٌجذث ٚلذَ ٌٕب اٌؼْٛ ِٚذ ٌٕب ٠ذ اٌّغـبػذح ٚصٚدٔب ثبٌّؼٍِٛبد اٌالصِخ‬

                                                                               ‫إلرّبَ ٘ـزا اٌجذث ٚٔخص ثبٌزوش:‬

                                         ‫اٌذوزٛس : أدّذ اٌشِذٟ‬

                                ‫ا٤عـزبر اٌّٙـٕذط : عـٍ١ّبْ اٌعؼ١فٟ‬

                                  ‫ا٤عـزبر اٌّٙـٕذط : ٔعبي دٚ٠ىبد‬

                                        ‫اٌذوزٛس : ئ٠بد ػغـبف‬

             ‫اٌز٠ٓ وبٔٛا ػٛٔب ٌٕب فٟ ثذثٕب ٘زا ٚٔٛسا ٠عٟء اٌظٍّخ اٌزٟ وبٔذ رمف أد١بٔب فٟ طش٠مٕب‬



   ‫ئٌٝ ِٓ صسػٛا اٌزفبؤي فٟ دسثٕب ٚلذِٛا ٌٕب اٌّغـبػذاد ٚاٌزغـٙ١الد ٚا٤فىبس ٚاٌّؼٍِٛبد، سثّب دْٚ أْ ٠شـؼشٚا‬

                                                            ‫ثذٚس٘ـُ ثزٌه فٍٙـُ ِٕب وً اٌشـىش، ٚٔخص ِٕٙـُ:‬

                                             ‫ا٤٘ـً ٚ ا٤دجخ‬

           ‫اٌز٠ٓ عـٙشٚا اٌٍ١بٌٟ ِٓ أجٍٕب , ٚ أظبءٚا ٌٕب شـّٛع اٌذ١بح ٌّٕعٟ عـجً إٌجبح فٟ دسثٕب .‬



  ‫"وٓ ػبٌّب .. فاْ ٌُ رغـزطغ فىٓ ِزؼٍّب، فاْ ٌُ رغـزطغ فأدت اٌؼٍّبء، فاْ ٌُ رغـزطغ فال رجغعٙـُ"‬



‫ٔشـىشوُ جّ١ؼب ػٍٝ جٙـٛدوُ ِؼٕب‬




‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
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‫‪ABSTRACT‬‬                                                                                         ‫اٌٍّخص اٌؼبَ‬


      ‫ْذف انًششٔع فٙ ثذاٚبرّ إنٗ إَشبء فكشح خذٚذح نذٖ انٕالغ انفهسطُٛٙ , ٔ ْٙ رصًٛى ٔ إَزبج انذساخخ انمبثهخ نهطٙ.‬
   ‫كبٌ رنك ثٓذف رمهٛم انحٛض انز٘ رسزٓهكّ أثُبء االسزخذاو ٔ أثُبء حفظٓب فٙ األيبكٍ انؼبيخ , ٔنكٙ ٚزًكٍ انًسزخذو ثكم‬
                                                                               ‫أسٚحٛخ حًهٓب ٔانزُمم ثٓب حٛثًب شبء .‬


   ‫رضًُذ يزطهجبد انزصًٛى انكثٛش يٍ انًضاٚب انزٙ ٚدت رٕافشْب فٙ انذساخخ كبنٕصٌ انخفٛف , انمٕح ٔ انًزبَخ , انزٕاصٌ ,‬
                                                                                  ‫سٕٓنخ طٛٓب .......... ٔ غٛش رنك .‬


‫كبٌ ثبإليكبٌ ٔ ثكم سٕٓنخ طٙ كم خضء يٍ أخضاء انذساخخ نزمهٛم انحٛض لذس اإليكبٌ , ٔ نكُُب فٙ ْزا انًسبق نٍ ٚزسُٗ نُب‬
                                                   ‫ثسجت ضٛك انٕلذ سٕا طٙ خضء ثسٛط يٍ األخضاء انًًكٍ طٛٓب .‬


    ‫ٔ فٙ َٓبٚخ انًسبق رًكٍ فشٚك انؼًم ثًشٛئخ اهلل رؼبنٗ يٍ اَدبص يب ْٕ يطهٕة يُّ , حٛث رًكٍ يٍ إَزبج انًُزح ػهٗ‬
  ‫أكًم ٔخّ ٔفك يب ْٕ يصًى نّ , إضبفخ إنٗ رنك فمذ لبو انفشٚك ثإػذاد دساسخ خذٖٔ الزصبدٚخ نزسٕٚك انًُزح فٙ انسٕق‬
                                                                     ‫انًحهٙ ٔ كبَذ َزبئح انذساسخ يدذٚخ ٔ يشثحخ .‬




‫‪The project seeking to develop the scientific theory and linking the study with real life we‬‬
‫‪are working on the folding bike project through the application of concept related to‬‬
‫‪mechanical design and manufacturing where this represent the first part of the project while‬‬
‫‪the second part is about feasibility study to study the Palestinian market and show its ready to‬‬
‫.‪accept this kind of bike‬‬
‫‪The outcome of the project is availability of this product (folding bikes )in the local‬‬
‫.‪marketing‬‬




‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
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                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS




Chapter One : Introduction                                                                                                             .
1.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................9
1.2 Objective...........................................................................................................................10
1.3 Background ......................................................................................................................11
1.3.1 History ..........................................................................................................................12
1.3.2 Usage ............................................................................................................................13
1.3.3 Performance ................................................................................................................14
1.3.4 Portability .....................................................................................................................15
1.3.5 Size .................................................................................................................................16
1.3.6 Dynamics.........................................................................................................................17
1.3.7 Legal requirements ......................................................................................................18


Chapter Two : Methodology & Proceedure
2.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................20
2.2 Background / literature review........................................................................................21
2.3 Folding methods................................................................................................................22
2.4 Selection criteria..............................................................................................................24
2.5 Quadruple Advantages of Bicycle Commuting..............................................................26
2.6 Implementation Methodology.........................................................................................28
2.7 The outputs......................................................................................................................29


Chapter Three : DESİGN AND MANUFACTURİNG                                                                                                    .
3.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................31
3.2 Design motivated..............................................................................................................34
3.3 Design Philosophies...........................................................................................................36
3.3.1 Re-inventing the Wheel................................................................................................36
3.3.2 The 15% Rule................................................................................................................37
3.3.3 Built to Last...................................................................................................................38

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3.3.4 Bikes for Everybody......................................................................................................39
3.3.5 Light is Right.................................................................................................................40
3.3.6 Safety First.....................................................................................................................41
3.4. Drivers let you use the bike............................................................................................43
3.4.1 Reintegrating labor and life.........................................................................................44
3.4.2 Reintegration of Life and Labor..................................................................................45
3.4.3 for Developing Countries..............................................................................................46
3.4.4 Limited Global Supplies of Raw Materials and Energy.............................................47
3.5 Combining Bicycle and Public Transportation..............................................................48
3.6 Calculation related design...............................................................................................49
3.7 steps by drawn .................................................................................................................54




Chapter Four : Feasibility Study                                                                                                 .


4.1 Introduction......................................................................................................................58
4.2 Definition..........................................................................................................................59
4.2.1 What is a Feasibility Study? .........................................................................................60
4.2.2 When to do a study? ......................................................................................................61
4.2.3 Who will conduct the analysis? ....................................................................................62
4.2.4 How will you monitor the progress of the study? ......................................................63
4.2.5 How to use the study results? ......................................................................................65
4.2.6 What Is The Outcome Of Feasibility Studies? ...........................................................66
4.3 Importance Of Feasibility Study....................................................................................67
4.5 Steps of feasibility study..................................................................................................68
4.5.1 Market study ..............................................................................................................69
4.5.2 Technical study ............................................................................................................71
4.5.3 Financial study ............................................................................................................72
4.5.4 Forecast demand ..........................................................................................................77
4.5.5 Market survey...............................................................................................................78

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4.6 Comment on qualitative forecasting methods...............................................................79




 Chapter Five : Recommendations and Conclusions                                                                                     .
 5.1 Recommendations and Conclussions.............................................................................88
5.2 Expectations of the project in the future.........................................................................89




Appendix ................................................. .............................................................................90
     1. SPSS Analysis................................................. ............................................................92

     2. Gantt Chart............................................... .................................................................117




Referances..................................................................................................118
.




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                                                                                                                                  Page 4
                                List Of Figures


No.                             Title             Page


   1            Bicycle using in the past         12
   2            Some of the bicycle usage         13
   3            High performance of bikes         14
   4            Some of shape for folding bike    15
   5            Example of folding bike           16
   6            Compartment of bikes              18
   7            Folding methodology               22
   8            Parts of bike                     31
   9           Design Philosophies                36
   10          Identify the force affecting       49
   11          The Shape of the welding           52
   10          The bike                           54
   11          Folding bike                       56
   12          Sequence of operation              71




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                                                       Page 5
                   List Of Tables


   No.                  Title                              Page

      1.       Time required for each process              72
      2.       Variable cost                               73
      3.       Initial cost                                76
      4.       Fixed cost                                  76
      5.       Cash flow table(a/b)                       80-81
      6.       Modified Acrs Description Allowance         82
      7.       Calculation of NPV                          84
      8.       Initial cost of a business for each year    85




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                                                                Page 6
NOMENCLATURE:


F: shear force
n:the factor of safety
D:The diameter of the welded circle
σ: the shear stress
τ:shear loading
L1: the distance between the center of the back wheel
L2: the distance between the center of the front wheel
W: the average weight on the seat
h2: The distance between the front wheel and the cutting point.
D: the diameter of the used bolt
q: the length of the used bolt
Ѕsy : is form tables due to type of material .
D: Depreciation
NOI : Net operating income
NPV : Net present value
IRR : Internal Rate of Return




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                                                                  Page 7
               CHAPTER ONE
               INTRODUCTION




Folding Bike
                              Page 8
1.1 Introduction                                                                     ‫انًقذيخ‬

A bicycle, also known as a bike, push bike or cycle, is a pedal-driven, human-powered vehicle
with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who rides a bicycle is
called a cyclist or a bicyclist.

Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide,
twice as many as automobiles.

They are the principal means of transportation in many regions. They also provide a popular
form of recreation, and have been adapted for such uses as children's toys, adult fitness,
military and A bicycle, also known as a bike, push bike or cycle, is a pedal-driven, human-
powered vehicle with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A person who
rides a bicycle is called a cyclist or a bicyclist.

Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide,
twice as many police applications, courier services, and competitive sports.

The basic shape and configuration of a typical bicycle has changed little since the first chain-
driven model was developed around 1885.




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                                                                                          Page 9
1.2 Objective                                                                            ‫انهذف‬


The purpose of this design is to produce a folding bicycle which is sufficiently light, yet
robust, to allow someone to cycle up to approximately 5 miles to a public transport access
point (e.g. bus), take the folded cycle on board, and cycle up to 5 miles at the other end of the
journey. A working prototype of the final design manufactured and finally a feasibility study
prepared to assess the market needs and the possibility of commercialization.




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1.3 Background                                                                         .
A folding bicycle incorporates special design features enabling the bike to fold into a compact
form, there by facilitating transport or storage. When folded, the bikes can be more easily
carried into buildings, into workplace or onto public transportation (facilitating mixed-mode
commuting) or more easily stored in compact living quarters or aboard cars, boats or
airplanes. The folding mechanisms themselves are highly variable, with each design offering
a unique combination of folding speed, folding ease, compactness, engineering, ride, weight,
durability and price.


Distinguished by the complexities of their folding mechanism, more demanding structural
requirements, greater number of parts, and more specialized market appeal, folding bikes may
be more expensive than comparable non-folding models.
Sometimes categorized as folding bicycles, another group of bikes (also called break-away
models) may separate into pieces rather than fold.




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1.3.1 History                                                                      ‫نًحخ ربسَخُخ‬




                             Figure )1.1) : Bicycle using in the past



Military interest in bicycles arose in the 1890s, and the French Army and others deployed
folding bikes for bicycle infantry developed a folding version of his Pedersen bicycle for the
British Army that weighed 15 pounds and had 24 inch wheels, it included a rifle rack and was
used in the Second Boer War.
The British WWII Airborne Birmingham Small Arms Company BSA Folding Bicycle was
used from 1939-1945 in the Second World War by British paratroopers. A folding bicycle
was developed as a small size was needed to enable it to be taken on parachute jumps from
aircraft. The bicycle was used by British paratroopers at the D-Day landings and at the Battle
of Arnhem. The bicycle was full-sized, and folding features included wing nuts and hinges for
folding the frame, a wing nut for turning the handlebars, and reversible pedals.




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1.3.2 Usage                                                                       ‫االستخدام‬




                           Figure (1.2): Some of the bicycle usage


Folding bicycles are particularly suitable for urban Bicycle commuting commuters. mixed-
mode commuting [Mixed-mode commuters] who deploy the fold mechanism several times
daily for portage aboard public transport may prioritize a bike with an easy, quick fold.
Marine users, seeking a bike for incidental shore mobility, may prioritize the compactness of
the folded bike. Riders using their bikes less frequently may prioritize speed and comfort of
ride over ease and quickness of folding. People who live in a small apartment often prefer a
folder as it can be more conveniently stored indoors than a full-sized bicycle.




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1.3.3 Performance                                                                       ‫انكفبءح‬




                            Figure (1.3): High performance of bikes



Intended for commuter and utility purposes, folding bikes emphasize ruggedness, comfort and
convenience & mash; though there are high-end models that emphasize speed.
Design constraints that enable the bikes to fold, such as small wheels and a shorter wheelbase
may give a rougher, 'twitchy' ride. To compensate, folders feature wider tires and may offer
front or rear suspension.
Folding bicycles present challenging structural compromises. They often fold near the frame
mid-point (which may weaken or flex) or have elongated seat posts and Stem (bicycle part)
which may experience greater Bending moment bending stresses. To compensate, folders may
feature increased weight as well as more substantial or additional frame members.




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                                                                                      Page 14
1.3.4 Portability                                                                           ..




                        Figure (1.4): Some of shape for folding bike



As folded bikes require less space, they are allowed by some public transpiration systems,
e.g., Transport, which allows folding bikes to be carried at any time on buses and
Underground lines. Other public transportation systems may ban or restrict other bicycles, or
may require that folding bicycles to be enclosed in bags or covers to protect other passengers.
Some may restrict folding bikes to off rush-hour periods. Covers range from custom made
bags, to bin-liners and shopping bags for smaller folders. Airline baggage regulations may
permit folding bikes as ordinary luggage, without extra cost.




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                                                                                       Page 15
1.3.5 Size                                                                               ‫انحدى‬




                           Figure (1.5): Example of folding bike




Folding bikes generally come with a wider range of adjustments than conventional bikes for
accommodating different riders, because the frames are usually only made in one size. Seat
posts and handlebar stems on folders extend as much as four times higher than conventional
bikes. For even greater range of adjustment, longer after-market posts and stems are available.
While folding bicycles are usually smaller in overall size than conventional bicycles, the
distances between center of bottom bracket, the top of the saddle and the handlebars, the
primary factors in determining whether a bicycle fits its rider, are usually similar to that of
conventional bikes. The Bicycle and motorcycle geometry wheelbase of many folding designs
is also very similar to that of conventional, non-folding, bicycles. Some manufacturers are
producing folding bikes designed around folding systems that allow them to utilize 26 wheels,
e.g. the Montague Corporation.




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                                                                                       Page 16
1.3.6 Dynamics                                                                               ..
A bicycle stays upright while moving forward by being steered so as to keep its center of
gravity over the wheels. This steering is usually provided by the rider, but under certain
conditions may be provided by the bicycle itself.
The combined center of mass of a bicycle and its rider must lean into a turn in order to
successfully navigate it. This lean is induced by a method known as counter steering, which
can be performed by the rider turning the handlebars directly with the hand or indirectly by
leaning the bicycle.
Short-wheelbase or tall bicycles, when braking, can generate enough stopping force at the
front wheel in order to flip longitudinally. The act of purposefully using this force to lift the
rear wheel and balance on the front without tipping over is a trick known as a stop pie, endow
or front wheelie.




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                                                                                         Page 17
1.3.7 Legal requirements                                                                        ..




                             Figure (1.6): compartment of bikes


Reflectors for riding after dark
Early in its development, as with automobiles, there were restrictions on the operation of
bicycles. Along with advertising, and to gain free publicity, Albert A. Pope litigated on behalf
of cyclists.
The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic of the United Nations considers a bicycle to be
a vehicle, and a person controlling a bicycle (whether actually riding or not) is considered an
operator. The traffic codes of many countries reflect these definitions and demand that a
bicycle satisfy certain legal requirements, sometimes even including licensing, before it can
be used on public roads. In many jurisdictions, it is an offense to use a bicycle that is not in a
roadworthy condition.
In most jurisdictions, bicycles must have functioning front and rear lights when ridden after
dark. As some generator or dynamo-driven lamps only operate while moving, rear reflectors
are frequently also mandatory. Since a moving bicycle makes little noise, some countries
insist that bicycles have a warning bell for use when approaching pedestrians, equestrians, and
other cyclists.
Some countries require child and/or adult cyclists to wear Helmets, as this may protect riders
from head trauma.




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                                                                                          Page 18
                     CHAPTER TwO
               METHODOLOGY & PROCEDURE




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                                         Page 19
2.1 Introduction                                                                       ‫انًقذيخ‬

This stage is the most important milestones in the project because of the direct contribution in
determining the time required to complete key tasks and to identify the raw material
required.All these things helped to build an economic feasibility study for the entire
project.While doing these things, we faced some difficulties such as the availability of single
frame
After much trouble has been sighted people for what they are required, but not new but was
used (Refurbished) .
Thanks God has been overcome this problem.


Action steps have been as follows:
1 - Achtiarvkrp the project and assisting Dr. Husam Arman.
2 - Choose the most appropriate design based on the specifications.
3 - Purchase of raw material after the search process according to the required specifications.
4 - Start the process of engineering calculations to determine where the pieces.
5 -To the process of storytelling as it is designed.
6 - Selection of the detailed manner in line with the place of the pieces.
7 - the implementation of the process of welding.
8 - Work on the abrasive area of welding.
9 - a process of painting.




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                                                                                         Page 20
2.2 Background / literature review                                                            .


The day before was actually the first time I had ever been able to bring a bike into my
building. Usually, the building manager hassles me about it being a fire hazard or too dirty,
but with the compact folded IF Mode bike he just watched me roll it right into the elevator
without a word. So the next day I rolled the folded IF Mode out of the elevator, through the
front door and into the morning sunshine. Unfolding the bike takes a little practice, but after a
few tries it boils down to one fluid motion that takes about 20 seconds. First you raise the seat
and open the handle bars, then a quick pendulum swing of the front wheel opens the frame.
Finally, lock one lever in place and open the pedals and you're ready to go! Resisting the
temptation to fold and unfolding it again just for fun, I hopped on and headed up 6th avenue.


Many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and
computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for
particular types of cycling.
The invention of the bicycle has had an enormous impact on society, both in terms of culture
and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that eventually played a
key role in the development of the automobile were originally invented for the bicycle – e.g.,
ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets, spoke-tensioned wheels, etc.
There are many types of bicycle. Here in the project we concentred in folding bike.




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                                                                                         Page 21
2.3 Folding methods                                                             ٍ‫طشق انط‬




                             Figure (2.1): folding methodology


Folding mechanisms are highly variable.
'''Half or mid fold’’’
Many folding frames follow classic frame pattern of the safety bicycle's diamond frame, but
feature a hinge point (with single or double hinges) allowing the bicycle to fold approximately
in half. Quick-connect clamps enable raising or lowering steering and seat columns. A
similar swing hinge may be combined with a folding steering column. Fold designs may use
larger wheels, even the same size as in non-folders, for users prioritizing ride over fold
compactness.


'''Triangle hinge'''
A hinge in the frame may allow the rear triangle and wheel to be folded down and flipped
forward, under the main frame tube, as in the Swift Folder and Bike Friday. Such a flip hinge
may be combined with a folding front fork as in the Birdy bicycle. Swing and flip hinges may
be combined on the same frame, as in Brompton and Dahon, which use a folding steering
column. Folding mechanisms typically involve latches and quick releases, which affect the
speed of the fold/unfold. Bike Friday offers a model, the Tikit, featuring a cable-activated
folding mechanism requiring no quick releases or latches, for increased folding speed.




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                                                                                         Page 22
'''Break away and other styles'''
Bikes may partly fold and partly disassemble for packing into a standard or custom sized
suitcase for air travel (e.g., Airnimal and Bike Friday). Other variations include the Bicycle
Torque Coupling. Bicycle torque coupling is a proprietary connector system that can be
retrofitted to a standard frame. The Giatex folds and retracts, adjusting to the size of the rider.
The Gekko folds from the seat tube like an upside down umbrella. The iXi literally breaks
into 2 halves. The Strida has a triangular frame and folds to resemble a unicycle.


Folding mechanisms may incur more cost and weight, allow folding smaller, and tend to use
smaller wheels. 24 inch wheels are the largest for which flip hinges are generally used, but
smaller wheels, typically 16 or 20 inches, are more common. Smaller size does not mean
lighter weight, as most of these designs forgo the bracing benefits of the diamond frame, and
must compensate as a step-through frame does, with thicker metal. The step-through design is
a boon to a wider range of rider size, age and physical ability. Another system found on
folders such as Montague Bikes utilizes the seat tube as a pivot point for the frame to fold.
This system uses a tube within a tube design to give the bike more tensional stiffness. It
allows the user to fold the bike without "breaking" any vital tubes down, preserving the
structural integrity of the diamond frame. This system is operated by a single quick release
found along the top tube of the bike.




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                                                                                           Page 23
2.4 Selection criteria                                                           ..


1.How small do you need the folded package to be?
Full size folders have a better ride and better handling, but can be a pain to take on public
transit. Small folders have the advantage of folding small, but sacrifice ride quality due to the
smaller wheels and to the steering. However some smaller folders have added suspension to
compensate for the harsher ride provided by the smaller wheels.


  2.How fast do you need to be able to fold it?
Some folders can be folded and bagged in less than a minute. Others can take up to five
minutes. Disassemble able bikes can take 30 minutes. Brompton, Birdy, and DaHon fold very
fast.
If your main need is to be able to pack the bike for transport by plane or train, and you don't
need to frequently fold it, then retrofitting an existing bike with S&S torque couplers may be a
better option than buying a folder.




3.How light of a bike do you need?
Price goes up as weight goes down.
The price of bikes change as your requirment wanted .




4.What gear ratio do you need?
If you will be riding up steep hills, you'll want a bike with very low gears.




5.How will you be using it?
If you're only planning on riding 1-2 level miles to a train station, then even used asuitable
bike . If you plan to do recreational rides with a lot of hills as well as using it to commute then
you'll want to buy a better quality and lighter bike. Many people have different bikes for
different purposes. It may be more cost effective to buy a cheap folder for short commutes
and a regular bike for recreational riding, than to buy a high end folder.
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                                                                                           Page 24
6-How much are you willing to spend?
New folders range from $75 to over $1800. At the bottom end you get a steel wheeled, hi-
tensile steel frame, one speed, U frame model, reminiscent of the old Peugeot folders. At the
high end, you get a Cromoly steel frame with top of the line components, and suspension.




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                                                                                      Page 25
2.5 Quadruple Advantages of Bicycle Commuting                                               .


The expression "killing two birds with one stone" is popular because we like the idea of
getting double value out of whatever we do. Quadruple value is twice as good as that, but
there are few situations where we can find four equally strong advantages, all benefiting
concurrently. I claim that bicycle commuting is such a case.


“Saving Money”
Riding a bike to work can save lots of money. How much money varies according to motor
vehicle use? The greatest savings occur with those who can avoid purchasing a car. Since the
average car cost $6,150 a year to operate in 1997 (not counting tolls, fees, fines, or indirect
costs), not owning a car can add $500 a month to the bank account. Whenever the bicycle is
not adequate, public transportation or a rented car can be used instead. In some Asian
countries, many don't own a car and use the bike for all their transportation, & have been able
to retire early on half of the income they would otherwise need. Other cyclists may own a
family car which the spouse needs to get to work. If the cyclist can ride a bike to work on
most occasions, the extra expense of a second car can be avoided. If riding the bike to work
can't reduce your car ownership, the savings will be less. Still, bicycling on every occasion
when possible can reduce vehicle mileage, thus allowing the motor vehicle to last beyond its
years.


“Better Health”
The greatest health hazard in this country is a sedentary lifestyle. Less than 50% of Arabians
get any real exercise, and less than 10% get enough. Exercise, although very beneficial to the
body, can be very harmful under some conditions. It's dangerous to go long periods of time
without exercising and then to overindulge. The weekend warrior syndrome, although not as
dangerous, can also cause problems. The weekend warrior avoids exercise during the week
and then makes it up during two hard, stressful weekend days. Bicycling ten miles every day
at a reasonable pace will give avoid the weekend warrior syndrome and provide the 2,000 k
Cal recommended for a long and healthy life. Riding a bike ten miles has a health benefit
which is about equal to the health deficit caused by smoking a pack of cigarettes. Even if ten
miles a day is impossible, some mileage during the week will prepare the body for the

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                                                                                       Page 26
weekend rides. Some bike commuters, recognizing the need for more miles on their daily
commutes, take the long way home whenever possible. Another way to increase weekly
mileage is to use the bike to run errands, such as purchasing groceries and going shopping.


“Better Environment”
While the other three benefits of cycling help mainly you, this third benefit of protecting the
environment helps others as much as it does you. It is your gift to share with others. Motor
vehicle use degrades the environment in a number of ways, but bicycle use does not. Noise
pollution, for instance, is a real problem for those living near highways, but bicycles produce
no noise. Congestion creates stress for motor vehicle users, pedestrians, and cyclists, but
bicycling does not significantly add to congestion. Adding extra lanes to existing roadways
and building limited-access highways can degrade or even destroy neighborhoods, but
creating bikeways or adding shoulders to roads, which can be used for cycling, have
beneficial affects. Motor vehicles are the primary cause of air pollution everywhere, but
bicycles produce none. And carbon dioxide from motor vehicles adds to global warming, but
bicycles are again innocent.


“Advantage in Traffic congested roads”
For some people, there will be even yet another advantage to bicycling to work: it will be
faster. This advantage is not at all certain. It depends on the traffic flow along your commute
and whether you are stuck in the traffic as well. It also depends on how far you would have to
walk from the parking lot or garage if using a car. As the average downtown speed for motor
vehicles is about 13 miles per hour, at least the possibility exists of getting all your other
benefits and saving time as well. However, this benefit, even where it exists, is very small and
wouldn't be even mentioned except for the fact that people have an exaggerated sense of how
long it takes to get to work by bike. Most cyclists can cover a five mile distance in 15 to 30
minutes (ten to twenty miles per hour). After getting to work, they can often park their bikes
closer to the job (sometimes in their offices), thus saving the long walk from the parking lot,
not to mention the expense. However, in the event that you are able to make it into work
faster than anyone else, don't go around pointing out that fact to everyone -- They are paying
$20 a day to get to work, plus parking fees, and the fact that you are getting there even faster
for less than a buck won't warm the cockles of their hearts.


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                                                                                        Page 27
2.6 Implementation Methodology                                                       ‫آنُخ انزنفُز‬


2.5.1 An extensive study and investigation of bicycle designs
2.5.2 An Initial investigation of current folding bicycle designs
2.5.3 Decide about an appropriate design approach
2.5.4 Detailed design and manufacture steps
         2.5.4.1 Overall geometry.
         2.5.4.2 Design of the main structural members. This will involve comparison
                 Between different materials .
         2.5.6.3 Design of joints and connections.
   2.5.6.4 Design specification of attachments (e.g. wheels, saddle, pedals, chain, crank,
           Brakes, etc) .
   2.5.6.5 Manufacture of a working prototype.
  2.5.5 Conduct a feasibility study of the potential folding bicycle.




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                                                                                         Page 28
2.7 The outputs                                                                  ‫اننزبئح‬


The expected outcomes are:
1- An extensive study to understand how a commercial bike is designed manufactured
    And assembled .
2- An innovative folding bike design and prototype .
3- A feasibility study to asses’ commercialization opportunities .




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                                                                                 Page 29
                    CHAPTER THREE
               DESİGN AND MANUFACTURİNG




Folding Bike
                                          Page 30
    3.1 Introduction                                                                    ‫انًقذيخ‬




                                    Figure (3.1): parts of bike

    1-Frame

    the mechanical core of a bicycle, the frame provides points of attachment for the various
    components that make up the machine. The term is variously construed, and can refer to the
    base section, always including the bottom bracket, or to base frame, fork, and suspension
    components such as a shock absorber.

   Top tube - frame member leading from steered tube to seat tube.
   Down tube - tube on a bicycle frame that runs from the head tube to the bottom bracket.
   Seat tube - the roughly vertical tube in a bicycle frame running from the seat to the bottom
    bracket.
   Seat stay - frame components, small diameter tubes running from top of seat tube to rear
    dropouts.

    Folding Bike
                                                                                         Page 31
   Chain stay - pair of tubes on a bicycle frame that runs from the bottom bracket to the rear
    dropouts .




    2-Saddel area

   Saddle - also seat. What you sit on.
   Seat post - a post that the seat is mounted to. It slides into the frame's seat tube and is used to
    adjust ride height depending how far into the seat tube it is inserted.
   Handlebar - a lever attached, usually using an intermediary stem, to the steered tube of the
    fork. Allows steering and provides a point of attachment for controls and accessories.

    3- front set

   Head tube - the tube of a bicycle frame that contains the headset.
   Shock absorber - for bicycles with suspensions, a device that limits the rate at which
    suspension rebounds after absorbing an impact.
   Fork - a mechanical assembly that integrates a bicycle's frame to its front wheel and
    handlebars, allowing steering by virtue of its steered tube.

    3-Wheel

    As in common usage. Traditionally and most commonly spoked.

   Valve stem or simply valve - port for adding or releasing air from the inner tube. Two types
    are commonly used: Presto and Schrader. A third type, the Woods or Dunlop valve, can still
    be found in Europe and Asia.
   Tire - as in common usage. Usually pneumatic. A tubular tire is glued to the wheel rim; most
    tires use tubes, but tubeless tires and rims are increasingly common.
   Hub - the core of a wheel - contains bearings and, in a traditional wheel, has drilled flanges
    for attachment of spokes.
   Spoke - connects wheel rim to hub. Usually wire with one end swaged to form a head and one
    threaded end. A typical wheel has 36 spokes.



    Folding Bike
                                                                                               Page 32
4-Chain

A system of interlinking pins, plates and rollers that transmits power from the front cranks to
the rear wheel.

5-Chainring

(One of the) front gear(s) , attached to a crank.

6-Cogset

The set of rear sprockets that attaches to the hub on the rear wheel .

7-Crankset

Composed of cranks and chain rings .

8-Pedal

Mechanical interface between foot and crank arm. There are two general types - one secures
the foot with a mechanical clamp or cage and the other has no connection to lock the foot to
the pedal.

9-crank arm

Composed of cranks and chain rings

10-Derailleur

An assembly of levers, usually cable actuated, that moves the chain between sprockets on a
cassette or chain ring assembly.




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                                                                                       Page 33
3.2 Design motivated                                                              ‫دوافع انزصًُى‬

Folding bikes have been a part of the bike scene for since bicycles began but always were
considered to be the poor relation of the full-size bicycle. This happened because they were as
unwieldy as ordinary bicycles used to be, as well as the added task of the folding process.

Fortunately, nowadays it's a different situation. Bicycle technology has developed so the
folding bicycle today is light, strong and agile. Patent hinges and custom fittings have made
them fun and safe to ride, and the fold-up procedure is quick and convenient.

Here are eight convincing reasons why a folding bicycle makes such good sense today:

1- They're simple to operate

Everyone can ride a bike. No license is required and there's usually a minimum of regulations.
But even if you're not obliged to, ALWAYS wear a protective. Most cyclist deaths are the
result of head injuries.

2- They're convenient

You can put a foldable bicycle in the trunk of your automobile or take it on public transport
with you. If you use your folding bike to commute to work, you can store it under your desk
or tuck it in the corner. No more having to lock it up on the street and hoping it's hasn't been
stolen by the time you get back.

3- They're economical

No extra fuel to purchase and no special parking or garaging necessary. You don't have to
pay license fees or vehicle registration - they're great in traffic and you don't have to pay for
parking space or garaging.

4- They're good for the environment

No fossil fuels are burned to pollute the atmosphere. They're good for reducing traffic and
parking congestion - one cyclist on a bike requires a lot less space on the road, and parking,
than a person in a car.

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                                                                                         Page 34
5- They're good for commuting

Public transport is good but there's usually some waiting involved and you've often got a
walk at either end of your commute. With a foldable bicycle you can be on your way, and if
the weather turns unpleasant you can take your folding bicycle on public transport.

6- They're good for short trips, too

No need to fire up the SUV just to go to the library or the supermarket. Plus it's remarkable
what you can carry on a bicycle!

7- They're good for your health

Riding a bike is a low-stress workout, unlike jogging, but still good cardio-vascular exercise.
And you get to breathe some fresh air.

8- They're low maintenance

Keep the tires pumped up and check that the batteries in your lights are charged and that's all
there is to it. A regular service by a bicycle mechanic will cost much less than the same
service for an auto.

And if you want yet another reason - they're fun!

There's a variety of foldable bicycles to choose from, from the entry-level steel folder with a
modest range of gears to some very sophisticated foldable bikes made of ultra-light alloys and
with remarkable gearing specs.

Which folding bike's right for you? It depends on the level of your interest in cycling, and the
depth of your pocket. The enthusiast who can afford it will go for the top of the range. If
you're new to the concept of riding a bicycle on a regular basis, buy an entry-level foldable
bicycle and see how you like it. If the bicycle bug bites, you can upgrade to something more
exotic; if it doesn't, you're not a lot out of pocket.

So, with those eight excellent reasons to buy, what are you waiting for? On your bike!
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                                                                                         Page 35
3.3 Design Philosophies                                                            ‫فهسفخ انزصًُى‬




                            Figure (3.2): Design Philosophies

3.3.1 Re-inventing the Wheel                                                                 .

People usually say, “Don’t re-invent the wheel” when they want a quick and easy solution to a
problem. The trouble with that approach is that when you try and solve problems by looking
at what others have done before, you stifle creativity and limit your ability to come up with
truly original and unique solutions.

We take a contrarian view. For us, “Re-inventing the wheel” is a philosophy that we embrace.
Re-inventing takes a lot of time and it often takes us down the wrong road. But it also leads to
bright flashes of brilliance and insight that ultimately result in quantum leaps forward. This
approach to our work is why, Dr. David Hon, our founder, left Hughes Aircraft and started his
own company after all of the large bicycle manufacturers rejected his original folding bicycle
design.

This approach is also why, time and again, we have introduced innovations that have swept
through the bicycle industry. And it is why we have one of the most prolific and well-
respected R&D teams in the bicycle industry. Today, after more than 25 years of building the
world’s most popular folding bicycles, we stand at the beginning of the 21st century and look
forward to the continued challenge of building environmentally responsible mobility solutions
for the global community.

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                                                                                        Page 36
3.3.2 The 15% Rule                                                                            .

The 15% rule is our commitment to improve our bikes by at least 15% each and every year.
This 15% improvement can come in the form of improved riding performance, increased
comfort, lighter weight, improved folding function, or enhanced durability. This 15% target
puts a lot of pressure on us but it means that you can be assured that we’ll never be resting on
our laurels – we’ll always be searching for ways to improve our product. So if you haven’t
ridden a Dehorn in a year or two, take one for a test ride. We promise you’ll be impressed.




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3.3.3 Built to Last                                                                             .



So many of the products that are manufactured today are disposable . We’re appalled by the
poor quality of so many of the products that we see. We remember when children’s toys were
sturdy enough to be handed down from child to child. Now, many of the toys out there are
lucky to last a few months of use before falling apart. That’s why our landfills are filling up so
rapidly and why we are seeing so many shortages in raw materials. A lot of the bicycles built
today fall into the disposable category – low quality bearings, poorly coated materials that rust
quickly, and corner cutting everywhere add up to a product that won’t last more than a year or
two. We want our bikes to be part of the solution, not part of the problem and that’s why
we’ve made a commitment to using higher quality materials and components that last longer.
Details like stainless steel spokes, sealed hubs and bearings, stainless steel frame latches,
chrome plastic fenders that will never rust, and anodized finishes on aluminum components
are found on every one of our bikes, even the most economic models. We get emails almost
every day from customers that are still riding bikes that are 10 or 15 years old and that’s the
way we like it.




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                                                                                          Page 38
3.3.4 Bikes for Everybody                                                                  .

Some people like super exclusive brands with high prices that lend their owners a veneer of
superiority. Dehorn has been criticized in the past for making “cheap” bikes. But our
corporate mission is to change the world for the better by getting more butts onto bikes. And
you don’t change the world a whole lot by selling small numbers of thousand dollar folding
bikes. We want to make folding bicycles accessible to anyone, anywhere in the world, who
wants one and that means making our bikes affordable. So even though we enjoy designing
high-end bikes and will continue to expand the high end of our line, we’ll always make
“cheap” bikes that are packed with value so that we can make a real impact on society.




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3.3.5 Light is Right                                                                           .

Sure, there are lots of folding bicycles on the market, but how many of them are truly
portable? A bicycle isn’t portable if it’s too heavy to lift into your car or carry across a
subway station. Portable bicycles need to be light. And we make the lightest folding bikes in
the world. Each year, every part of every bike is scrutinized by our team of engineers to see
how we can make it stronger or lighter. The result: what you thought was a pretty darn good
bike last year gets just a bit stronger and lighter this year. Our obsession with weight is why
even our steel frame bicycles are lighter than the aluminum frame bicycles of most other
manufacturers. Following are some of the technologies we use to build some of the world’s
lightest folding bicycles.

∙Premium Frame Materials
Everything starts with the frame and that’s why we choose the best materials for our frames.
All of our aluminum frames are made from custom drawn and double-butted Sonus 7005
aluminum tubing. Even steel frames are made from seamless 4130-chromoly steel that has
been work-hardened in a special machining process.


∙Frame Design
Frame design can be even more important than frame material in building a light frame. A
good frame is strong and light. Some frames on the market are strong but heavy. A few are
light but not strong enough. And many of the cheaper folding bikes on the market are neither
light nor strong. Many of our latest patented technologies focus on how to make a strong but
lightweight frame. These technologies include our Re-Bar™ technology, Sons tubing, Power
Bulge technology, Embed bottom brackets, and Wraparound chain stays.




∙Frame Details
Butted tubing, CNC machined head tubes, forged hinges and drop-outs.




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3.3.6 Safety First                                                                          .

We are committed to building the safest bikes possible. Our bikes incorporate many different
design features and technologies to improve safety. Following are some of the many ways we
ensure the highest levels of safety:

∙ISO 9001 Manufacturing
Our main factory, where every one of our frames is welded and processed, is ISO certified to
meet extremely high standards in production control.


∙Vertical Manufacturing
We’ll bet you didn’t know this but most bicycle companies don’t make their own bikes. They
sub-contract assembly of their bikes to huge OEM factories that are producing all kinds of
bikes for all kinds of customers. And with few exceptions those companies that do have their
own factories don’t produce their own frames. This is what’s known in the industry as a screw
driver factory. Frames are out sourced, components are out-sourced: the factory just has an
assembly line to slap all the parts together. All this out-sourcing can be highly efficient and
tends to reduce prices but the problem with this approach is that it is much harder to
rigorously control quality when the production doesn’t take place in your own factory. That’s
why we have our own factory and we weld and process our own frames. Not only that but we
are heavily vertically integrated, meaning that we even do most of our own tube cutting,
forming, and stamping. The end result is a higher degree of control over quality and much
faster solutions when we do find a problem.


∙In-house Testing Machinery
It’s all well and good to manufacture your own bikes but it is also critically important to put
all new frame and components to the test before they hit the market. Multiple samples of
every new frame and component we make are sent to our testing department for a battery of
tests. Testing lets us build in adequate safety margins.


∙Strong Frames
The large majority of folding bicycles on the market are built with low cost, high tensile (low
carbon) steel. Our frames are TIG welded out of the best materials, like 4130-chromoly and

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double-butted 7005 aluminum alloy. And much of our patented technology is centered around
getting the most strength out of the material that we use.



∙Biologic™ Frame Geometry
Have you ever hopped aboard a small-wheeled folding bike and been shocked by the poor
handling characteristics. Our new Biologic™ II geometry delivers the surest and most stable
ride available. We’ve designed folding bicycles for over 25 years and our Biologic™ II
geometry is the result of that experience.


∙Lifetime Frame Warranty
Of course, all of these technologies wouldn’t mean a thing if our frames weren’t rock solid.
That’s why we can offer a lifetime* warranty on all of our frames and folding components.

*Contingent on the customer having their bike adjusted by a bike technician before riding and
sending in the warranty card.




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                                                                                      Page 42
3.4. Drivers let you use the bike                                                         .


What do you get when you combine the wish for an easy means of transport with the
miraculous human ability to keep balance on two revolving wheels? What you get is a
bicycle. We need bicycles more than ever, but what kind of bicycles and how must they be
produced?
As an extension of a human's abilities, the modern bicycle is nearly perfect. It has changed
little since the basic shape and configuration of the first chain-driven Safety Bicycle model of
the 1880s--a tubular steel diamond frame with steel-spoke wheels less than one meter (three
feet) in diameter, and pneumatic tires, pedals, saddle, and handlebars. Changes since the
1890s have mostly been incremental improvements in materials and manufacturing
techniques. Some 120 years of such evolution is difficult to improve upon without radically
altering the basic design. Though bicycle design has changed little in the past century, we in
the industrialized nations have changed the social and economic fabric of the world beyond
all recognition. That's why we need a new bicycle design.
Any new bicycle design must take into consideration the problems caused by these changes
and must have four sources of motivation.




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                                                                                        Page 43
3.4.1 Reintegrating labor and life                                                              .


Providing local control of industry for the third world.
Using less of the limited global supplies of raw materials and energy; and Combining bicycle
and public transportation to ameliorate the ills of private car transport. Surprisingly, these
criteria all point to the same kind of solution. The design presented here is one of a kind. A
bicycle of this design does not differ functionally from contemporary bicycles--it rides like an
ordinary bike--but the method of production has been changed completely. The advantages
are so considerable that it is possible to overcome the normal resistance encountered with a
new design.


This design incorporates solutions to problems concerning the use of the bicycle in both rich
and poor countries. It also offers good opportunities for poor countries to use local labor, local
materials, and modest amounts of local capital. The need for such a change in the method of
bicycle production may not seem compelling in industrialized nations, but it is a concern for
people living in developing nations.


A project that aims at starting this kind of bicycle production all over the world is motivated
by the urgency of the problems involved. The best way to enable this production may be to
publish a manual that deals with all the economic, technical, and social aspects involved, and
that provides practical design assistance for adapting to local conditions. Further development
and testing of the design is essential, and any assistance or contribution is welcome.




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                                                                                          Page 44
3.4.2 Reintegration of Life and Labor                                                           .


In wealthy countries, industry has a tendency to overindulge the population's need for food
and goods, while it ignores or even destroys other material and immaterial demands.
Therefore, it is our task to adjust wealthy countries' industry toward a more balanced goal.
Industry must be organized in such a way that the stream of goods--production for
production's sake--is not the prime motivator. We need to examine the total human interaction
with industry and its products, both good and bad. When the quality of this human interaction
is brought up to the standard of our current technology, then the total effect of system labor-
life will increase considerably. The total effect can be measured by assessing well-being over
the whole range of human potential.


To a large degree, product design influences whether a different approach can be made. Thus,
where possible, the products we really need must be designed in such a way that their
industrial production can be carried out:


on a small scale.
with a minimum of capital.
with reduced labor specialization.
and on a decentralized basis.
For bicycle production, this means the need to change the production model from large,
centralized bicycle plants concerned mainly with assembling imported parts, to a model of
small bicycle factories that produce all the parts themselves. To make this possible, the whole
production must be simplified technically and commercially. For this strategy to be feasible,
the bicycles produced must also be of better quality, lower cost, and more useful. This is a tall
order, but it can be done.




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                                                                                         Page 45
3.4.3 for Developing Countries                                                                .


Bicycles are of the utmost importance in developing countries. Here the general use of private
cars is completely out of reach for personal transport and always will be (Club of Rome
report).


As the poverty in these countries will not soon disappear, it is necessary to design bicycles
and bicycle-production facilities more adapted to this situation. Current production of bicycles
in the century-old industrial tradition is unsuitable and must be reviewed.


The following design specifications are essential for a useful product and its decentralized
production in the third world:


Must ride well on rough roads and have soft riding, non-pneumatic tires.
Must be durable, easy to repair, and considerably less expensive than currently available
models.
Must include a folding system for use in urban areas and a larger load-carrying capacity for
use in rural areas.
Must enable production with very low capital investment and from readily available materials.
Must incorporate design options adaptable to local conditions; and must employ technology
that is easily taught and adaptable to locally available skills.




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                                                                                        Page 46
3.4.4 Limited Global Supplies of Raw Materials and Energy                                       .


The expected decrease in the availability of materials and energy does not have a direct
impact on bicycle production in wealthy countries except where scarcity begins to influence
the cost of capital. This proposed design strategy may, therefore, have only a marginal effect
in industrialized countries. However, it should be quite attractive in the third world, especially
in consideration of the low capital investment.


Because of the cost and the dependence it creates, capital investment must be reduced. A low
capital investment also means low energy processing. The design should make this possible,
even to the extent that every step in the production can be made by means of manpower. As
an example, the cutting and folding of thin sheet metal and wire can be used (see: harvesting
sheet metal). Forging and welding should be avoided.


Designs that lead to pollution of the environment (for example, chemical treatment for
chrome plating) are unacceptable.




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                                                                                          Page 47
3.5 Combining Bicycle and Public Transportation                                           .


Urban areas could function far better if private car transport could be replaced by public
transport. Though it is generally accepted that this change is necessary, it turns out to be very
difficult to achieve. A purely public system of mass transportation that provides the same
service as private cars would not only be expensive, it would likely be impossible to build
without creating worse problems than the problems the system is intended to address. Much
of this drawback can be overcome if the bicycle is used as an extension of public
transportation to bridge the distance between the places people want to go and the nearest bus
stop or train station.


In order to achieve this goal, the bicycle must comply with the following requirements:


-It must be functionally perfect.
-As luggage, a folded bicycle must not exceed the dimensions and weight of a medium-sized
 Suitcase .
-The folded version must be as easy to fold and unfold as an umbrella.
-It must be available to everyone, so the cost must be low.




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                                                                                          Page 48
3.6 Calculation related design                                                      .

Design calculation :


                                      L2                       L1




                             h2                            w


                                            L2                      L1


                       h2


           A                                                              B
M




                            Figure (3.3): Identify the forces affecting




Folding Bike
                                                                              Page 49
The bolt is from medium carbon steel/cold drawn →




The bolt will hold a tensile force equal to         ,then we design the bolt

accordingly.




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                                                                               Page 50
The simplest way is to assume that the bolt holds all the force, so   =




     →→        M=P


P=


         So τ = as a shear force, Each screw holds


=



Now the case is a combined loading so, we can use energy method.
The distortion_ energy method was created by Von Mises who show that the most
complicated stress situation in two dimensions can be represented by a single stress ˊcalled
the effective stress or the VonMises stress.
 Represents the entire stress state. ˊ


These calculations are for the special case of combined bending and torsion (that is

                  ≠0,
                                             Sy
    ˊ=


                        =30.57MPa     ˊ=


          Sy



n:the factor of safety and it is > 1 so we are in the safe side.


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                                                                                       Page 51
Welding calculations:


The shape of the welding is circle, the circle on the weld symbol indicates that the welding is
to go all around.




                           Figure (3.4) : The shape of the welding


The diameter of welded circle = 40mm
The depth of the welded circle = 5mm
The average normal stress in the weld is :

σ=

F= w =750N

σ=           =5.97MPa

the shear stress due to shear loading :

τ =


                           =                   =144.1


The factor of safety n=



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                                                                                         Page 52
The material has the number AISI 1040 and has
From table A-20 in machine design book.

          .577

     =.577(520)
     =300.04 MPa

n=          =

the factor of safety is greater than 1 ,so we are in the safe side.




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                                                                      Page 53
3.7 steps by drawn                                                    .




                           Figure (3.5): The bike



1-




                L1=33 cm               L2=63 cm




                                                    Radious = 25 cm

                       L= 96 cm




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                                                                  Page 54
2-


                       L1=33 cm                 L2=63 cm




                                                   L=42




This is the cutting point .
After cutting process . we must put a joint by welding process .




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                                                                   Page 55
3- folding the bike.




                               Figure (3.6): Folding bike




The hand and the chair can be folded.




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                                                            Page 56
                CHAPTER FOUR
               FEASİBİLİTY STUDY




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                                   Page 57
4.1 Introduction                                                                   ‫انًقذيخ‬



A feasibility study looks at the viability of an idea with an emphasis on identifying potential
problems and attempts to answer one main question: Will the idea work and should you
proceed with it?


Before you begin writing your business plan you need to identify how, where, and to whom
you intend to sell a service or product. You also need to assess your competition and figure
out how much money you need to start your business and keep it running until it is
established.


This Feasibility Study template will help you to conduct feasibility studies in your
organization.
It takes you through the process of completing a Feasibility Study by defining the business
problem / opportunity, the alternative solutions available and the recommended solution for
implementation.
You can use this Feasibility Study sample to assess the feasibility of any type of solution,
within any type of business environment.




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                                                                                       Page 58
   4.2 Definition                                                                       ‫يفهىو‬


   A feasibility study is an evaluation of a proposal designed to determine the difficulty in
   carrying out a designated task. Generally, a feasibility study precedes technical development
   and project implementation. In other words, a feasibility study is an evaluation or analysis of
   the potential impact of a proposed project.


   To conduct a survey in the following aspects;
7.1 Prices of Conventional Bicycle
7.2 Public demand on Conventional Bicycle usage
7.3 Interest of the public to use the Folding Bicycle
7.4 Government policies on mass production of Folding Bicycle
7.5 Public concerns on a affordable paying scheme
7.6 Safety and traffic concerns




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4.2.1 What is a Feasibility Study?                                                     .


A Project Feasibility Study is an exercise that involves documenting each of the potential
solutions to a particular business problem or opportunity. Feasibility Studies can be
undertaken by any type of business, project or team and they are a critical part of the Project
Life Cycle.


Feasibility studies are preliminary investigations into the potential benefits associated with
undertaking a specific activity or project. The main purpose of the feasibility study is to
consider all factors associated with the project, and determine if the investment of time and
other resources will yield a desirable result. While considered a preliminary study, it is not
unusual for a feasibility study to be highly detailed.




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                                                                                       Page 60
4.2.2 When to do a study?                                                                .


The decision to conduct a feasibility study should not be taken lightly. It is an expensive and
time consuming process. However, not doing a feasibility analysis can be even more
expensive in terms of the poor decisions you may make from not conducting the proper
analysis. To help you understand when to conduct a feasibility study.


You need to be far enough along in the deliberation process of your business idea to make the
best use of a feasibility study. So you need to have a clearly defined outline of one or more
alternative business models or scenarios that you want to explore. And you want to have
conducted sufficient initial investigation of these alternatives to determine if they have the
potential of being viable. You don’t want to spend your feasibility money investigating ideas
that you can determine are not feasible by just making a few phone calls.


This means that you will need to have already done much of the early investigation and
exploration of your business idea before you schedule a full blown study. This early
investigation or pre-feasibility analysis can be done by members of your committee or with
the help of a consultant. You may start by doing a marketing study to determine if the
business idea has market viability. If it does not, you have saved time and money by not
commissioning a comprehensive feasibility study. If the idea has market viability, you can
move forward with the feasibility analysis and use the market analysis in the feasibility study.




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                                                                                         Page 61
4.2.3 Who will conduct the analysis?                                                        .


If you plan to do a feasibility study, you will want to strongly consider hiring a consultant to
conduct the study. Names of business consultants are contained in Directory of Consultants
and Service Providers. This directory only provides you with the names of consultants. You
are responsible for choosing the proper consultant to fit your needs. Time and money spent in
choosing and using a good consultant is an important investment that will pay dividends later.


The cost of a feasibility study can vary greatly depending on the depth and breadth of the
study. When selecting a consultant for a feasibility study, it is often recommended that you
send a Request for Proposals (RFP) to prospective consultants, outlining what you want done.
A consultant can respond to the RFP by describing how the study will be conducted, what
questions will be answered by the study, a time-line for completing the analysis and how
much it will cost. When selecting a consultant from among those responding to the RFP, first
identify which ones provide the type and quality of answers needed to adequately assess your
business idea. Then select the consultant who can provide the required analysis for the least
cost.


Consultants often feel pressured to tell you what you want to hear. Farm groups usually are
excited about a business prospect and, without realizing it, indirectly influence the consultant
to tell them what they want to hear - “the proposal is a good idea.” So, communicate to the
consultant that you want an accurate assessment of the feasibility of the venture.




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                                                                                        Page 62
4.2.4 How will you monitor the progress of the study?                                            .


Hiring a consultant does not negate your responsibility for insuring that the feasibility study is
conducted properly. You need to be engaged in the project and the evaluation process,
understand the issues involved, question the basic assumptions used in the study, and
challenge the conclusions of the study.


A member of the project committee or a small group of members can to be selected to work
with the consultant. They function as the liaison between the consultant and the rest of the
committee members to insure that the study progresses according to the wishes of the project
committee. To adequately perform these duties they must have a thorough understanding of
the project. They must also understand the purpose of the study and be knowledgeable of the
provisions of the consulting contract. They will:


Represent the project committee’s needs and interests to the consultant.
Review and clarify what is needed from the consultant .
Monitor the work of the consultant .
Provide periodic reports to the project committee.
How to accept or reject the study?


At the end of the study, the consultant will provide the committee with a draft of a final
report. Before you start discussing the conclusions of the study and what impact they have on
the viability of your project, you must first review the study to determine if it is accurate,
relevant and complete. It is not uncommon for the project committee to reject the draft of the
report and ask for further clarification and analysis.


The study is only as strong as its weakest part. It takes a mistake in only one part of the study
to sink the business venture. So, before you accept the study you should determine that it:


Is understandable and easy to read ?
Addresses all of the relevant issues and questions.
Lists and discusses all of the underlying assumptions of the project analysis.
Meets the expectations of the project committee .
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Is logically consistent within sections and among sections?
Is thoroughly researched using good research techniques ?
Contains all of the relevant information .
Meets the conditions of the consulting contract.
It is important that you meet this “due diligence” requirement because investors and others
may question your procedures and decisions during this period if the business venture
eventually fails.
You may want to discuss this with your attorney to make sure the proper safeguards are in
place.




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                                                                                    Page 64
4.2.5 How to use the study results?                                                               .


The purpose of the feasibility study is to provide you with the information needed to
determine if the proposed business venture is viable. However, it will probably not provide
you with a magic answer. So you will need to carefully assess the conclusions of the study
and decide if the proposed business venture has sufficient merit to move forward.


If ever there is a time for unemotional, rational and logical thinking, it is now. Mistakes at this
time may be with you for a long time. Common mistakes made by groups at this stage are:


1. The committee members have already made up their minds and rationalize the study results
to fit their decision.


2. Because project committee members tend to be action oriented rather than deliberators,
they become restless to move forward with the project and gloss over important aspects of the
study.


3. Because of the importance of the decision and the lack of clear direction from the
feasibility analysis, committee members find they cannot bring themselves to make a
decision. Rather, they continually seek more information.


4. The committee members become confused by the array of information presented to them
and pressure their consultants and others to give definitive answers of whether to move
forward with the project. When committee members respond to questions pertaining to why
they moved forward with a project by replying, “our consultants said it would work,” are
abdicating their decision making responsibility.




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                                                                                           Page 65
4.2.6 What Is The Outcome Of Feasibility Studies?                                             .


The feasibility study is used as a guide to determine whether to pursue a project or not. It is
also used to sensitize several key elements of the project to determine the weakness or threat
that the business.




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4.3 Importance Of Feasibility Study                                                       ‫األهًُخ‬


Feasibility Study is basically a study that is done to judge the viability of a new business
venture. It is actually a preliminary analysis of a project that lets the people know that whether
to proceed with a project or not.


A Feasibility study is very important for a business. It makes an analysis of all the aspects of a
business. The external factors influencing it and also the internal factors. It also analyzes all
the costs associated with the project and how the material would be sourced. On the other
hand, it will also make an estimate of how much sales are to be expected and what profits
would the project make.


-You can also use this Feasibility Study template to:


1- Research the business problem or opportunity.
2-Document the business requirements for a solution.
3-Identify all of the alternative solutions available .
4-Review each solution to determine its feasibility .
5-List any risks and issues with each solution .
6-Choose a preferred solution for implementation.
7-Document the results in a feasibility report.




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                                                                                          Page 67
     4.5 Steps of feasibility study                         .


     Market study
     Technical study
     Financial study
     Forecast demand
     Market survey


     Three basic financial analysis techniques are used:


1.    The net prsent value method.
2.    The internal rate of return method.
3.    The payback method.




     Folding Bike
                                                           Page 68
4.5.1 Market study                                                                         .


The springboard of marketing study is the studying of demand and supply.


Demand:
Studying of demand started with understanding the
Targeted people and the geographical area which were determined by tow questionnaires that
were the basic of this feasibility study.
The questionnaires were distributed for several city in Palestine such as Qalqilia,
Ramalla,Nablus,Tulkarem and Jeneen. In each city 100 questionnaires were distributed for
different age stage people and 20 one for owner of the bicycle store.
Each one of these questioner specialized with specified and studied questions to help in this
project.
Result of each questionnair were analyzed by SPSS computer program and studied to
determine the targeted people, the best location, the competitors and their prices, the desired
specification and the desired prices, and to determined the most important point which is the
demand.


D=56.2% *235843
 =132544 unit per year


56.2 : percentage of persons who wishes to buy the bicycle according to the questionnaires.
235843:# of meal who ages are between 13-25 year according to the (ff) .


It is clearly that the demand is high perhaps for the following reasons:
Completely dependence for determining the demand was on the questionnaire because that
this product is anew product, this cause a difficulty in collecting the needed data which
relating to the actual and historical demand.
These questionnaires are random their result are un accurate and don’t demonstrate the whole
Palestinian market, the response rates may be low and the questions were answered
incorrectly.




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                                                                                       Page 69
For that and to be on the safe side only 2.5% from the demand was taken in consideration.
New demand =132544* 2.5%
               =3314 unit per year


Supply and competitor:
According to the questionnaire very low competition was founded in the west bank which its
sourse is Israel but there have a lot of restrictions to obtain them.


From this result that was founded a high gap because the demand and the supply which is
demonstrate a good indication to began on the project.




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                                                                                      Page 70
   4.5.2 Technical study                                                                          .


   It includes:
1. Location of the project : according to the questionnaire that notice the highest percentage of
   persons who want to purchase a folding bike is in Jenien which is may be due to the natural of
   the geographical area which almost flat area.
2. Types of product: the types of the product in this project is manufacturing , that is easy to find
   a suitable building to establish this project.
3. Production line: which divided in tow types vertical and horizontal line ,in this case the
   production line is a horizontal.


                Preparation:
     R.M       like separate                        Cutting                        Welding
                 the wheels
              from the frame



        Assemble parts
                                              Painting                         Cooling and
           together
                                                                                polishing
                                                                                                  line


                          Figure(4.1): Sequence of operation




   4- Infra structure: in this project the infra structure study did not take in consideration
   because the building was exist and prepared , so there was no need to make it.




   The other part of technical study such as required equipment , furniture, salaries……etc.
   calculated in the next and final step of feasibility study ( financial part).




   Folding Bike
                                                                                                Page 71
    4.5.3 Financial study                                                                 .


    To begin the financial study it is important to know the time needed for each process to
    determine the time needed to manufacture one folding bike, workers needed, …etc.


                            Table ( 4.1 ) : Time required for each process.
    Processes needed for folding bike manufacturing     Time required for each process
    Preparation and cutting                             15 minutes
    Welding                                             20 minutes
    Polishing                                           5 minutes
    Painting                                            25 minutes




   The step that will determine the sequence of the process is the slowest one which is the
    welding and painting steps.
   Working hours is 6 hour/day
   The actual working hours is 5 hour/day

     5hour 60 min utes
           *              300 min ute / day.
      day       hour
     300 min/ day
                   15 unit / day
     20 min/ unit
   The demand / year is = 3314 unit
   So we need to work 3314 distributed on the different amounts taking on consideration that the
    demand of this kind of product will be seasonal which mean the demand on the summer will
    not be the same in winter but in this case that deal with a complete
   year regardless the demand which vary from month to another.




    Folding Bike
                                                                                               Page 72
     Here calculation of the variable , initial and fixed cost where done .


                                     Table (4.2 ) : Variable Cost

                                        Variable Cost
                                                                                              Variable
                                                         Before      Discount
       Item             No.of item      Cost/unit                                 Total       Cost per
                                                       Discount        (%)
                                                                                                    unit
     Bicycle             3,314.00        250.00        828,500.00      0.15     704,225.00     212.50
 Weaning (‫)فصبنخ‬         3,314.00         12.00        39,768.00       0.10     35,791.20       10.80
  Labor cost per
  unit(welding)          3,314.00         4.66         15,443.24       0.00     15,443.24           4.66
  Labor cost per
   unit(‫)لض+َمم‬          3,314.00         4.66         15,443.24       0.00     15,443.24           4.66
Labor cost per unit
      (Paint)            3,314.00         4.66         15,443.24       0.00     15,443.24           4.66
  Labor cost per
  unit(finishing)        3,314.00         4.66         15,443.24       0.00     15,443.24           4.66
  electricty Bill        3,314.00         6.85         22,702.56       0.00     22,702.56           6.85
 welding electrod        3,314.00         7.50         24,855.00       0.10     22,369.50           6.75
      Paint              3,314.00         12.00        39,768.00       0.10     35,791.20       10.80
                                                                      Total     882,652.42     266.34




     Folding Bike
                                                                                          Page 73
    Sample calculation:


   Labors cost /day = 70 NIS
   Labor cost / unit = 70/ 15 = 4.66 NIS


   Electricity consumes by the electric scissor
    26.1KW 0.45NIS                     1hour
             *          * 5 min ute *
      hour       KW                   60 min ute
                   5
     26.1* 0.45 *     0.978NIS
                   60


   Electricity consumes by welding machine


    .45NIS 52.2 KW                1hour
           *       *15 min ute *
      KW      Hour               60 min ute
     5.8725NIS


    Painting cost:
   3314 unit* 2 painting cans/unit= 6628 painting cans
                 6 NIS
   6628 *                  39768 NIS
             pa int ingcan




   39768 NIS * 90% =35791.2 NIS               (if we have 10% discount)
                                  35791.2
   Cost after discount / unit=            10.8
                                   3314


    Filling material cost:
   Every bike need 18 electrode
   18 *3314 = 59652
   Each filling unit has 240 electrode , so we need 59652/240=248.55 ≈249
   The price of filling material =249* 100NIS=24900NIS
    24900*90%=22320 NIS                     (if we have 10% discount)
    22320 / 3314=6.735 NIS/unit
    Folding Bike
                                                                             Page 74
Bolt cost:
We need 2 bolts for each bike
2*3314*6 NIS = 39768
39768*90%= 35791.2 NIS          (we have 10% discount)
35791.2/3314 = 10.8 NIS/unit.


Bike cost
3314*250=828500NIS
828500*.85=704225NIS(15%discount)
704225/3314=212.5NIS/bike


Worker cost per unit =4.66NIS
Variable cost (per unit )=bike cost +bolt cost +painting cost +welding cost +cutting cost+
worker cost +electrodes
=212.5+10.8+10.8+5.8725+.978+18.64+6.735
=266.3255 NIS




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                                                                                       Page 75
                                  Table ( 4.3 ) : initial cost
                                         Initial Cost
                    Item                 # of item        Cost/Unit               Total
               Electric scissor               1              4,500                4,500
           Welding Machine CO2                1              3,750                3,750
                  Painting                    1                  100               100
                    File                      1                  170               170
                    Clips                     2                  70                140

                  Goggles                     4                   5                20
                   Gloves                     2                  60                120
                   Office                     2                  150               300
         Fire extinguisher (powder)           1                  70                70
                  Hummer                      1                  250               250
                   Office                     6                  30                180
                Fan (‫)يشٔحخ‬                   4                  100               400
                Accessories                   1              1,000                1,000
                 Licensing                    1              1,000                1,000
                                                              Total              12,000




                                  Table (4.4 ) : fixed cost

                                       Fixed Cost
        Item                            # of item        Cost/Unit             Total
        Facility renting                            12                  500             6,000
        Worker Insurance                             4                  600             2,400
        Project Manager insurance                    1                  960               960
        Services Minimum                            12                  150             1,800
        Maintenance                                 12                  300             3,600
        project manager salary                       1                54,000           54,000
                                                         Total                         68,760


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                                                                                                Page 76
4.5.4 Forecast demand                                                                       .


Tow approach for forecasting
Quantitative approach:
Time series approach and causal approach.
Qualititative approach:
Expert opinion, market survey, scenario writing, analogy,and neive .


Because there is no hestorical data about demand , the qualitative abroach ( market srvey) was
followed to forecast the future demand and a constant demand assumed for 10 years .




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                                                                                       Page 77
4.5.5 Market survey                                                                    .


A market survey consist of several steps. First, the questionnaire must be developed that
should contains questions whose answers provide the information needed to determined the
forecast. this information about the customer might be things such as age and income as well
as an indication of whether or not the customer will purchase the product . if the customer is a
retail outlet ,the information might include size of the store and the projected number of items
that will be purchased.
The next step is carrying out the survey ,which maybe              don by mail, fax e-mail
,telephon,atearout postcard in a magazine or in person. how the survey carried out can affect
the number as well as the quality of person . the number ,location and individual customers to
be surveyed should be carefully planned in conjunction with the purpose of the study .




After the survey is conduct ,the results should be tabulated and analyzed. care must be taken
in interpreting these results. Response rate may be low .the questioned answered incorrectly,
or factors not considered in the questionnaire may affect the actual outcome of events.




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                                                                                           Page 78
4.6 Comment on qualitative forecasting methods                                              .


Qualitative methods are often used in industry. Sometimes, expert opinion is used because it
is "closed enough" fast, and easy to do, and it is particularly adept at quickly sensing trend in
market. On the other hand, market survey is time consuming and costly. However, for new
product introduction and forecasting technological advances, they may be the only choice. if
all steps of the method are followed, the results are usually fairly accurate.
Market survey give good result, but the time required to do them makes them less appropriate
for short term forecasting. With the growth of networks and customers with access to inter
active computing, market survey may become more timely and accurate. how ever, the cost
must be weighed against the benefit the survey provides.




The techniques of analysis work with cash flows. Cash flow is the cash that will flow into
and out of the organization becaucse of the project, including revenues, costs, and changes in
assets and liabilities.




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                                                                                         Page 79
                                          Table ( 4.5 ) : Cash flow table(a)


Item                              2010        2011         2012          2013        2014         2015         2016
Initial Information
Annual demand (salads)                   3,314.00     3,314.00     3,314.00     3,314.00     3,314.00     3,314.00
Investment                 12,000.00
Interest (discount) rate
(10%)                      0.10


Cash Flows
Revenue                                  970,915.84   970,915.84   970,915.84   970,915.84   970,915.84   970,915.84
Expenses: Variable
costs                                    882,652.42   869,694.68   869,694.68   869,694.68   869,694.68   869,694.68
Expenses: Fixed costs                    68,760.00    68,760.00    68,760.00    68,760.00    68,760.00    68,760.00
Depreciation ( D)                        1,200.00     2,160.00     1,728.00     1,382.40     1,106.40     884.40


Pre-tax income                           18,303.42    30,301.16    30,733.16    31,078.76    31,354.76    31,576.76
Taxes(14.5%)                             2,654.00     4,393.67     4,456.31     4,506.42     4,546.44     4,578.63


Net operating income
(NOI)                                    15,649.42    25,907.49    26,276.85    26,572.34    26,808.32    26,998.13
Total cash flow ( NOI +
D)                                       16,849.42    28,067.49    28,004.85    27,954.74    27,914.72    27,882.53




         Folding Bike
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                                   Table (4.5):Cash flow table (b)
Item                                2017           2018              2019        2020                2021
Initial Information
Annual demand (salads)             3,314.00       3,314.00       3,314.00       3,314.00        3,314.00
Investment
Interest (discount) rate(10%)


Cash Flows
Revenue                          970,915.84      970,915.84     970,915.84     970,915.84
Expenses: Variable costs         869,694.68      869,694.68     869,694.68     869,694.68
Expenses: Fixed costs             68,760.00      68,760.00       68,760.00      68,760.00
Depreciation ( D)                  786.00          786.00            786.00      786.00          394.80


Pre-tax income                  31,675.16      31,675.16      31,675.16       31,675.16        -394.80
Taxes(14.5%)                    4,592.90       4,592.90       4,592.90        4,592.90         -57.25


Net operating income ( NOI)     27,082.26      27,082.26      27,082.26       27,082.26        -337.55

Total cash flow ( NOI + D)      27,868.26      27,868.26      27,868.26       27,868.26        57.25




         Folding Bike
                                                                                           Page 81
Sample calculation:
i: interest rate = 10%
Price of the bike =(cost/unit) * profit margin
                    =266*(266*10%) = 293 NIS
Revenue = demand*unit price
          =3314*293=970915.85 NIS
Depreciation (D):
D=depretiation allowance * initial cost
  = 10% * 12000
  =1200 NIS


Pre_tax income=revenue –variabe cost-fixed cost-D
                 =970,915.84 - 882,652.42 - 68,760.00 - 1,200.00=18,303.42 NIS
taxes = 14.5%*18303.42
      =4592.90 NIS
NOI= pre_tax incom – taxes
   =18303.42 -4592.42
   = 15649.42
Total cash flow = NOI + D
               =15649.42 + 1200
               = 16849.42




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                                                                                 Page 82
                           Table(4.6):Modified Acrs Description Allowance

                                   Modified Acrs Depreciation Allowances

          Year         1       2        3      4       5      6      7      8      9     10     11

          10-year    10.00   18.00    14.40   11.52   9.22   7.37   6.55   6.55   6.55   6.55   3.29




     Three basic financial analysis techniques are used:


1.          The net prsent value method.
2.          The internal rate of return method.
3.          The payback method.




     Folding Bike
                                                                                                  Page 83
The net prsent(value method).
The net present value (NPV) method is used to evaluate an investment by calculating the
present values of all after- tax total cash flows and then subtracting the original investment
amount (which is already a present value ) from their total. The difference is the project’s net
present value. If it is positive for the discount rate used, the investment earns a rate of return
higher than the discount rate. If the net present value is negative, the investment earns a rate
of return lower than the discount rate. Most firms set the discount rate equal to the overall
weighted average cost of capital, which becomes the lowest desired return on approved. The
discount rates that represent the lowest desired return on investment is thought of as a hurdle
over which the investment must pass and is often referred to as the hurdle rate.




                               Table (4.7): Calculation of NPV
                            year       cash flow    pf(10%)
                            2011         16,849      0.9091      15,318
                            2012         28,067      0.8264      23,195
                            2013         28,005      0.7513      21,040
                            2014         27,955       0.683      19,093
                            2015         27,915      0.6209      17,332
                            2016         27,883      0.5645      15,740
                            2017         27,868      0.5132      14,302
                            2018         27,868      0.4665      13,001
                            2019         27,868      0.4241      11,819
                            2020         27,868      0.3855      10,743
                            2021           57        0.3505        20
                                                      Total     161,603
                                         NPV =      149,603




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                                                                                          Page 84
          Sample Calculation:
          NPV=(15318+23195+21040+19093+17332+15740+14302+13001+11819+10743+20)-12000
              =149603 NIS
          Because the NPV is positive, the recommendation would be to approve the project.




          Internal Rate of Return Method
          A related technique involves calculating the internal rate of return (IRR), which is the
          discount rate that makes the NPV of a project zero. It is "internal" because it depends only on
          the cash flows of the investment, not on rates offered elsewhere. Which this method, a project
          is acceptable only if the IRR exceeds the hurdle rate. The IRR is a single number that
          summarizes the merits of the investment. It can be used to rank multiple projects from best to
          worst, so it is particularly useful when the budget limits new investment in any year.
          You can find the IRR by trial and error. Start with a low discount rate and calculate the NPV.
          If it exceeds 0, increase the discount rate and try again. The NPV will eventually go to 0and
          later to a negative value. When the NPV is near 0, you have found the IRR.




                                 Table (4.8): Initial cost of a business for each year
  Initial
cost of a      2011       2012        2013       2014       2015       2016       2017     2018         2019     2020
business
     -
 12,000        16,849     28,067       28,005    27,955     27,915     27,883     27,868    27,868      27,868   27,868




             IRR= 174%


          This result is not very informative may be for the following reasons:
         low initial cost comparable with the variable cost which was the highest one, that refers to a
          complete dependence on getting a ready bikes and remanufacture them.
         The nature of the building was renting that lead to reduce the initial cost.



          Folding Bike
                                                                                                     Page 85
Payback method
The other commonly used method of evaluating projects is the payback method, which
determines how much time will elapse before the total of after-tax cash flows will equal, or
pay back , the initial investment.
The payback method also has been criticized for its failure to consider the time value of
money. for these reasons we recommend that payback analysis be combined with a more
sophisticated method such as NPV or IRR in analyzing the financial implications of a project.
In this project the payback period is very short.




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                                                                                      Page 86
                CHAPTER FIVE
        RECOMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS




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                                        Page 87
     5.1 Recommendations and Conclussions                                                      .
     Our aim in this project definition to the idea of people were not familiar to the majority ,
     the idea of designing a folding bike with a study the feasibility of marketing the product
     locally .
     Through our study of the project we faced some problems Such as the difficulty in finding a
     bicycle with single frame , So was reached several recommendations to be introduced to
     achieve what is desired from the project.


1. Implement the design on a bike has a single frame to minimize number of cutting points and
     achieve the purpose of minimizing the overall size.
2. Make sure that there is suppliers for bikes to provide the required amounts have needed
     specifications.
3.     Make good and complete study for the local market before manufacture the product to
     ensure about the success of it.
4. Make great advertisement to let people know the new product , its benefits before marketing
     it.
5. Design the bike from its initial components to minimize the initial cost and increase profits.




     Folding Bike
                                                                                               Page 88
5.2 Expectations of the project in the future                                                  .


We hope in the near future implementation of the project is actually on the ground ... And if it
is applied then the project will be successful and this is what we achieved through the
feasibility study, which was the aim of obtaining a pointer that would have succeeded or was
it better to stop this work.


The work has been very useful and the results were amazing based on what we have done a
study of the project completed .




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                                                                                          Page 89
‫‪5.3 Appendix‬‬                                                                                                         ‫.‬


‫‪To be more familiar with the concept of folding Bick in Palestine these questioners will be‬‬
‫.‪distributed for both buyers and sellers‬‬


                                                                                                        ‫األخٕح ٔاألخٕاد انكشاو‬


                ‫ػهًٛخ فمط يٍ أخم دساسخ إيكبَٛخ انسٕق انفهسطُٛٙ السزٛؼبة يجذأ انذساخخ‬                ‫ْزِ االسزجبَخ ٔضؼذ ألغشا‬
                      ‫انمبثهخ نهطٙ ٔاسزخذايٓب ٔرنك ضًٍ اإلػذاد نًششٔع انزخشج (لسى انُٓذسخ انصُبػٛخ_خبيؼخ انُدبذ).‬




                                             ‫ثؼذ انطٙ‬                              ‫لجم انطٙ‬
‫انًذُٚخ /انجهذح: .........................‬          ‫انًحبفظخ :..................‬          ‫1-‬


‫انًُطمخ انسكُٛخ:‬               ‫2-‬
                                                                                                   ‫ة- خجهٛخ‬                 ‫أ- سٓهٛخ‬


                                                                                                                          ‫3- انؼًش:‬
                          ‫ج- 62 -04‬                              ‫ة- 31-52‬                     ‫أ- 6-21‬                    ‫د- فٕق 04‬


                                                                                                                  ‫4- يدبل انؼًم .‬
                     ‫أ- يٕظف حكٕيٙ/خبص‬                                  ‫ة-طبنت‬           ‫د- ػبطم ػٍ انؼًم ج- أػًبل حشح‬
                                                                                                        ‫5- يسزٕٖ انذخم األسش٘‬
                            ‫ج- فٕق 108 دُٚبس‬                     ‫ة- 105-008 دُٚبس‬                       ‫002-005 دُٚبس‬             ‫أ-‬


                                                                                         ‫6- ْم رشغت ثششاء دساخخ لبثهخ نهطٙ ؟‬
                                                                                                          ‫ة- ال‬               ‫أ- َؼى‬

‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
                                                                                                                           ‫09 ‪Page‬‬
                                                                                                      ‫إرا كبنذ إخبثزك نعى :‬
                                      ‫*يب انًٛضاد انزٙ رشغت ثزٕفشْب فٙ ْزِ انذساخخ(ًٚكٍ رحذٚذ أكثش يٍ خٛبس)‬
                                                              ‫ج- سهخ خهفٛخ‬         ‫ة- رٕفٛش لفم يؼٓب‬            ‫أ- خفخ انٕصٌ‬
                               ‫ج- إضبفبد :......................................................................................‬


                                                                        ‫* سؼش انذساخخ انمبثهخ نهطٙ انزٙ رشغت ثششائٓب‬
                                               ‫ج- فٕق 102دُٚبس‬              ‫ة- 101-002 دُٚبس‬             ‫أ- 05-001 دُٚبس‬


                                                                     ‫7-ْم رسزخذو دساخخ حبنٛب (أسجك أٌ اسزخذيزٓب )‬
                                                ‫ة- ال / انسجت:...................................‬                         ‫أ-َؼى‬
                                                                                                         ‫إرا كبنذ إخبثزك نعى‬
                                                                                                            ‫*سجت االسزخذاو‬
                          ‫د- فٙ يدبل انؼًم‬        ‫ج- ػُذ انضشٔسح‬             ‫سٚبضٛخ‬        ‫ة-أغشا‬         ‫رشفٛٓٛخ‬      ‫أ- أغشا‬


                                                                                   ‫*- ػذد يشاد االسزخذاو فٙ األسجٕع :‬
                                      ‫ج- أكثش يٍ 11 يشاد‬             ‫ة- 3-01 يشاد‬                        ‫أ- ألم يٍ 3 يشاد‬


                                                                     ‫*- سؼش انذساخخ انزٙ رًزهكٓب حبنٛب(أٔ اسزخذيزٓب )‬
                   ‫ج- فٕق 001 دُٚبس‬                           ‫ة- 15-57 دُٚبس‬                              ‫أ- 52-05 دُٚبس‬


‫شكشا نزؼبَٔكى‬
‫األخٕح ٔاألخٕاد انكشاو‬




‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
                                                                                                                     ‫19 ‪Page‬‬
    5.3.1 SPSS Analysis                                                                                                     ‫انزحهُلم‬
    ٍ‫اإلحصبئ‬


    Questionnaire for Customers:
                                                              ....................: ‫1- انًحبفظخ:...................... انًذُٚخ/ انجهذح‬


                 Table & Bar chart (5.1): proportion of each city to use the folding bike


                                                            MAINTAIM

                                                                                                   Cumulativ e
                                               Frequenc y      Percent        V alid Percent        Percent
                      V alid    jenin                100           20.0                 20.0             20.0
                                nublus               100           20.0                 20.0             40.0
                                tulkarm              100           20.0                 20.0             60.0
                                qalqelia             100           20.0                 20.0             80.0
                                ram allah            100           20.0                 20.0            100.0
                                Total                500          100.0               100.0




                                    MAINTAIM
                               30




                               20




                               10
            Percent




                               0
                                         jenin       nublus         tulkarm       qalqelia     ram allah


                                    MAINTAIM




   Note that all of cities is the same her

    Folding Bike
                                                                                                                           Page 92
                                                                                        ‫2-انًنطقخ انسكنُخ‬


                                                                   ‫2- خجهٛخ‬                      ‫1- سٓهٛخ‬




              Table & Bar chart (5.2): The ratio of residential areas and mountain



                                                       AREA

                                                                                   Cumulativ e
                                          Frequenc y    Percent    Valid Percent    Percent
                   Valid      flat              161         32.2            32.7         32.7
                              mountain          331         66.2            67.3        100.0
                              Total             492         98.4          100.0
                   Mis sing   System              8          1.6
                   Total                        500        100.0




                                   AREA
                              70


                              60


                              50


                              40


                              30


                              20
               Percent




                              10


                               0
                                                flat                mountain


                                   AREA




          Note that the higher proportion of mountain areas and this is due to the nature of the
    geographical area
    Folding Bike
                                                                                                  Page 93
                                                                                                            ‫3- انعًش‬


         ‫د- فىق‬                           40- 26 -‫ج‬                             25-13 -‫ة‬                    12-6 -‫أ‬



            Table & Bar chart (5.3) : The proportion of age groups in the use of bike



                                                             AGE

                                                                                              Cumulativ e
                                              Frequenc y     Percent    Valid Percent          Percent
                     Valid          6-12             80          16.0            16.1               16.1
                                    13-25           276          55.2            55.4               71.5
                                    26-40           106          21.2            21.3               92.8
                                    >40              36           7.2             7.2              100.0
                                    Total           498          99.6          100.0
                     Mis sing       System            2            .4
                     Total                          500         100.0




                                    AGE
                             60


                             50


                             40


                             30


                             20
           Percent




                             10


                                0
                                             6-12          13-25        26-40           >40


                                    AGE




         Note that the highest one is the youth /(13-25)

    Folding Bike
                                                                                                             Page 94
                                                                                                   :‫4- يدبل انعًم‬


    ‫د- عبطم عن انعًم‬                  ‫ج- أعًبل حشح‬                      ‫ة-طبنت‬             ‫أ- يىظف حكىيٍ/خبص‬




      Table & Bar chart (5.4) : the proportion of people who use the bike all by field work




                                                        WORK

                                                                                           Cumulativ e
                                           Frequenc y      Percent       Valid Percent      Percent
              Valid          employee             62           12.4               12.5           12.5
                             student             269           53.8               54.2           66.7
                             w ork of free       149           29.8               30.0           96.8
                             unemploy ed          16            3.2                3.2          100.0
                             Total               496           99.2             100.0
              Mis sing       System                4             .8
              Total                              500          100.0




                                      WORK
                                 60


                                 50


                                 40


                                 30


                                 20
                   Percent




                                 10


                                  0
                                         employee    student   work of free   unemployed


                                      WORK




         Note that the highest percentage is the percentage of students

    Folding Bike
                                                                                                          Page 95
                                                                                            :ٌ‫5- يسزىي انذخم األسش‬


             ‫ج- فىق 100 دَنبس‬                               ‫ة- 105-000 دَنبس‬                      ‫أ- 002-005 دَنبس‬


                             Table & Bar chart (5.5) : Rates the level of family income



                                                              INCOME

                                                                                            Cumulativ e
                                                 Frequenc y    Percent     V alid Percent    Percent
                   V alid         0                      5          1.0               1.1           1.1
                                  200-500              266         53.2              58.3         59.4
                                  501-800              146         29.2              32.0         91.4
                                  >801                  39          7.8               8.6        100.0
                                  Total                456         91.2            100.0
                   Mis sing       System                44          8.8
                   Total                               500        100.0




                                        INCOME
                                   70


                                   60


                                   50


                                   40


                                   30


                                   20
                   Percent




                                   10

                                    0
                                                  200-500        501-800          >801


                                        INCOME




         Note that the highest percentage is the percentage of individuals ranging from the rate
    of household income between 200-500

    Folding Bike
                                                                                                           Page 96
                                                                      ‫6- هم رشغت ثششاء دساخخ قبثهخ نهطٍ ؟‬


                                                                                        ‫ة- ال‬       ‫أ- نعى‬


    Table & Bar chart (5.6) : Ratios indicate the willingness of people to buy a folding bike




                                                       FOLDING

                                                                                  Cumulativ e
                                       Frequenc y      Percent    Valid Percent    Percent
                   Valid     Yes             281           56.2            56.2         56.2
                             No              219           43.8            43.8        100.0
                             Total           500          100.0          100.0




                                    FOLDING
                               60



                               50



                               40



                               30



                               20



                               10
                   Percent




                               0
                                                Y es                    No


                                    FOLDING




         Note that the proportion who wish to purchase higher.




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                  Page 97
                                                                                                  :‫إرا كبنذ إخبثزك نعى‬
                             .)‫* يب انًُزاد انزٍ رشغت ثزىفشهب فٍ هزه انذساخخ(ًَكن رحذَذ أكثش ين خُبس‬
                                                         ‫ج- سهخ خهفٛخ‬        ‫ة- رٕفٛش لفم يؼٓب‬             ٌ‫أ- خفخ انٕص‬
                                                                                          ........................‫د- إضبفبد‬


    Table & Bar chart (5.6.1) : proportion of each feature people want to be available in the
                                                       folding bike


                                                        FEATURE

                                                                                            Cumulativ e
                                          Frequenc y       Percent       Valid Percent       Percent
                Valid        XXX                215            43.0               47.3            47.3
                             light              138            27.6               30.3            77.6
                             lock                38             7.6                8.4            85.9
                             shopping            33             6.6                7.3            93.2
                             all                 24             4.8                5.3            98.5
                             add                  7             1.4                1.5           100.0
                             Total              455            91.0             100.0
                Mis sing     System              45             9.0
                Total                           500           100.0




                                    FEATURE
                               50



                               40



                               30



                               20



                               10
                   Percent




                                0
                                        XXX    light       lock   shopping   all    add


                                    FEATURE




          Note that Top warned those who did not put the check required.
    Folding Bike
                                                                                                                 Page 98
                                                                         .‫* سؼش انذساخخ انمبثهخ نهطٙ انزٙ رشغت ثششائٓب‬
                                                      ‫ج- فٕق 102دُٚبس‬         ‫ة- 101-002 دُٚبس‬      ‫أ- 05-001 دُٚبس‬




          Table & Bar chart (5.6.2) : price ratio they wish to purchase a folding bike



                                                           PRICE2

                                                                                         Cumulativ e
                                              Frequenc y     Percent    V alid Percent    Percent
                   V alid      XXX                  216          43.2             43.3         43.3
                               50-100               179          35.8             35.9         79.2
                               101-200               91          18.2             18.2         97.4
                               >201                  13           2.6              2.6        100.0
                               Total                499          99.8           100.0
                   Mis sing    System                 1            .2
                   Total                            500         100.0




                                     PRICE2
                                50



                                40



                                30



                                20



                                10
                     Percent




                                 0
                                               XXX         50-100   101-200      >201


                                     PRICE2




         Note that the majority of people want to buy a bike at less than 50 JD .




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                             Page 99
                                                                   .)‫7- ْم رسزخذو دساخخ حبنٛب (أٔ سجك أٌ اسزخذيزٓب‬


                                                              ........................‫ة- ال/ انسجت‬          ‫أ- َؼى‬



         Table & Bar chart (5.7) : the proportion of individuals who use a bike now or
                                                previously used.




                                                       USEING

                                                                                       Cumulativ e
                                        Frequenc y     Percent    Valid Percent         Percent
                        Valid   Yes           285          57.0            57.0              57.0
                                No            215          43.0            43.0             100.0
                                Total         500         100.0          100.0




                                      USEING
                                 60



                                 50


                                 40



                                 30



                                 20
                   Percent




                                 10


                                  0
                                                 Yes                      No


                                      USEING




         Note that the highest percentage of category used .


    Folding Bike
                                                                                                        Page 100
                                                                                                           ‫إرا كبنذ إخبثزك نعى‬


                                                                                                              :‫سجت االسزخذاو‬


                                         ‫د- فٙ يدبل انؼًم‬      ‫ج- ػُذ انضشٔسح‬        ‫سٚبضٛخ‬       ‫ة-أغشا‬    ‫رشفٛٓٛخ‬     ‫أ- أغشا‬


     Table & Bar chart (5.7.1) : Ratios indicating the reason for individuals to use folding
                                                                     bike


                                                                REASON

                                                                                                    Cumulativ e
                                                     Frequenc y       Percent     Valid Percent      Percent
                      Valid          XXX                   215            43.0             43.1           43.1
                                     rec reational         125            25.0             25.1           68.1
                                     sporting               78            15.6             15.6           83.8
                                     neces sary             65            13.0             13.0           96.8
                                     w ork                  16             3.2              3.2          100.0
                                     Total                 499            99.8           100.0
                      Mis sing       System                  1              .2
                      Total                                500           100.0




                                     REASON
                              50



                              40



                              30



                              20



                              10
        Percent




                                 0
                                            XXX       recreational     sporting   necessary       w ork


                                     REASON




                 Note that the majority of people use the bike for recreational purposes

    Folding Bike
                                                                                                                      Page 101
                                                                                    :‫ػذد يشاد االسزخذاو فٙ األسجٕع‬


                                               ‫ج- أكثش يٍ 11 يشاد‬     ‫ة- 3-01 يشاد‬                ‫أ- ألم يٍ 3 يشاد‬




                    Table & Bar chart (5.7.2) : ratios indicate the number of usage times



                                                         TIM ES

                                                                                    Cumulativ e
                                         Frequenc y    Percent      Valid Percent    Percent
                         Valid   XXX           215         43.0              43.0         43.0
                                 <3             75         15.0              15.0         58.0
                                 3-10          107         21.4              21.4         79.4
                                 >11           103         20.6              20.6        100.0
                                 Total         500        100.0            100.0




                               TIMES
                          50



                          40



                          30



                          20



                          10
       Percent




                           0
                                         XXX            <3             3-10          >11


                               TIMES




                Note that the most users are using the bike for less than 3 .



    Folding Bike
                                                                                                         Page 102
                                                                        .)‫سؼش انذساخخ انزٙ رًزهكٓب حبنٛب(أٔ اسزخذيزٓب‬


                              ‫ج- فٕق 001 دُٚبس‬                    ‫ة- 15-57 دُٚبس‬                    ‫أ- 52-05 دُٚبس‬




                      Table & Bar chart (5.7.3) : prices of bicycles owned by the user

                                                         PRICE1

                                                                                      Cumulativ e
                                           Frequenc y     Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
                      Valid      XXX             215          43.0            43.3          43.3
                                 25-50           168          33.6            33.9          77.2
                                 51-75            84          16.8            16.9          94.2
                                 >100             29           5.8             5.8         100.0
                                 Total           496          99.2          100.0
                      Mis sing   System            4            .8
                      Total                      500         100.0




                              PRICE1
                         50



                         40



                         30



                         20



                         10
      Percent




                          0
                                        XXX             25-50        51-75            >100


                              PRICE1




               Note that the most users have bikes with price less than 25 JD .

    Folding Bike
                                                                                                          Page 103
                                                               . ‫اننسجخ انًئىَخ نهطهت فٍ كم يحبفظخ عهً حذا‬


                       Table & Bar chart (5.8) : The demand for each City

                                 MAINTAIM * FOLDING Cros s tabulation

                       Count
                                                         FOLDING
                                                     Y es        No                   Total
                       MA INTA IM     jenin               67        33                   100
                                      nublus              53        47                   100
                                      tulkarm             56        44                   100
                                      qalqelia            57        43                   100
                                      ram allah           49        51                   100
                       Total                            282        218                   500




                           70




                           60




                           50




                           40



                                                                                      FOLDING
                           30

                                                                                         Y es
               Count




                           20                                                            No
                                    jenin   nublus   tulkarm   qalqelia   ram allah


                                MAINTAIM




                                                                                                76% ‫ثُسجخ‬      ٍُٛ‫خ‬
                                                                                                76 % ‫ثُسجخ‬    ‫لهمٛهٛخ‬
                                                                                                77 % ‫طٕنكشو ثُسجخ‬
                                                                                                75 % ‫ثُسجخ‬    ‫َبثهس‬
                                                                                                94 % ‫ساو اهلل ثُسجخ‬

Folding Bike
                                                                                                          Page 104
                                                                                              ‫اإلخٕح ٔاألخٕاد انكشاو:‬
                  ‫ػهًٛخ فمط يٍ أخم دساسخ إيكبَٛخ انسٕق انفهسطُٛٙ السزٛؼبة يجذأ‬                  ‫ْزِ اإلسزجبَخ ٔضؼذ ألغشا‬
        ‫انذساخخ انمبثهخ نهطٙ ٔاسزخذايٓب ٔرنك ضًٍ اإلػذاد نًششٔع انزخشج (لسى انُٓذسخ انصُبػٛخ_خبيؼخ انُدبذ).‬




                               ‫ثؼذ انطٙ‬                                 ‫لجم انطٙ‬


                                          ‫انًذُٚخ/انجهذح: ....................‬         ‫1- انًحبفظخ :...........................‬


                                                                                         ‫2- ػذد انذسخبد انًجبػخ شٓشٚب :‬
                              ‫فٕق13‬       ‫ج-‬                        ‫01-03‬         ‫ة-‬                        ‫ألم يٍ01‬         ‫أ-‬


                                                                                          ‫3- اإللجبل ػهٗ ششاء انذساخبد :‬
                                                                    ‫ج- يشرفغ‬            ‫ة- يزٕسط‬                       ‫أ- لهٛم‬


                                                                                                      ‫4- انفئبد األكثش إلجبال:‬
                                                              ‫ج- 62 -04‬                  ‫ة- 31-52‬                  ‫أ- 6-21‬


                                                                                       ‫5- يسزٕٖ أسؼبس انذساخبد انحبنٛخ:‬
                                    ‫ج- فٕق 001 دُٚبس‬                             ‫ة- 15 -57‬                    ‫52-05‬          ‫أ-‬


                                                                      ‫6- ْم سجك ٔ أٌ سًؼذ ثبنذساخخ انمبثهخ نهطٙ :‬
                                                                                              ‫ة- ال‬                     ‫أ- َؼى‬


                                                                  ‫7- ْم سجك ٔاٌ طهت يُك ششاء دساخخ لبثهخ نهطٙ :‬
                                                                                        ‫ة- ال‬                           ‫أ- َؼى‬



‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
                                                                                                                  ‫501 ‪Page‬‬
                                                ‫8- ْم نذٚك انشغجخ ٔاالسزؼذاد نهزؼبيم يغ ْزا انُٕع يٍ انذساخبد :‬
                                                                                ‫ة- ال‬                    ‫أ- َؼى‬


                           ‫9- فًٛب نٕ طشذ ْزا انُٕع يٍ انذساخبد فٙ انسٕق يب ْٙ رٕلؼبرك فًٛب ٚخض اإللجبل ػهّٛ :‬
                                                     ‫ج- يشرفغ‬              ‫ة- يزٕسط‬                ‫أ- لهٛم‬


                                                                         ‫01- فئبد األسؼبس انًًكٍ انزؼبيم يؼٓب :‬
                       ‫ج- فٕق 102 دُٚبس‬                   ‫ة- 101-002 دُٚبس‬                  ‫أ- 05-001 دُٚبس‬


           ‫شكشا نزؼبَٔكى‬




‫‪Folding Bike‬‬
                                                                                                    ‫601 ‪Page‬‬
    Questionnaire for Vendors :


                                                                                                     : ‫1- انًحبفظبد‬


     Table & Bar chart (5.9) : Percentage distribution of questionnaires to all the shops in
                                                       every city



                                                       MAINTAIM

                                                                                           Cumulative
                                               Frequency    Percent      Valid Percent      Percent
                   Valid         jenin                13        33.3              34.2           34.2
                                 nublus                9        23.1              23.7           57.9
                                 tulkarm               4        10.3              10.5           68.4
                                 qalqelia              7        17.9              18.4           86.8
                                 ram allah             5        12.8              13.2          100.0
                                 Total                38        97.4            100.0
                   Missing       System                1         2.6
                   Total                              39       100.0




                                MAINTAIM
                           40




                           30




                           20




                           10
         Percent




                           0
                                       jenin       nublus     t ulkarm     qalqelia      ram allah


                                MAINTAIM




             Note that the The highest rate in jenin.
    Folding Bike
                                                                                                          Page 107
                                                                                             ‫2- ػذد انذسخبد انًجبػخ شٓشٚب‬
                                            31‫فٕق‬     -‫ج‬                 30-10   -‫ة‬                       10ٍ‫ألم ي‬     -‫أ‬




                     Table & Bar chart (5.10):The number of bikes which sold monthly .




                                                           PRICE1

                                                                                              Cumulative
                                           Frequency        Percent      Valid Percent         Percent
                      Valid         25-50         21            53.8              56.8              56.8
                                    51-75         11            28.2              29.7              86.5
                                    >100           5            12.8              13.5             100.0
                                    Total         37            94.9            100.0
                      Missing       System         2             5.1
                      Total                       39           100.0




                                   NUMDER
                              60



                              50



                              40



                              30



                              20



                              10
        Percent




                              0
                                               <1 0            10 -3 0                >3 1


                                   NUMDER




                 Note that the highest percentage of bikes sold per month between 10-30.




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                               Page 108
                                                                                     : ‫3- اإللجبل ػهٗ ششاء انذساخبد‬
                                                                     ‫ج- يشرفغ‬    ‫ة- يزٕسط‬                    ‫أ- لهٛم‬




                          Table & Bar chart (5.11): The extent of demand for bicycles

                                                         BUY

                                                                                       Cumulative
                                             Frequency   Percent     Valid Percent      Percent
                      Valid         low             10       25.6             27.0           27.0
                                    mid             26       66.7             70.3           97.3
                                    high             1        2.6              2.7          100.0
                                    Total           37       94.9           100.0
                      Missing       System           2        5.1
                      Total                         39      100.0



                                   BUY
                              80




                              60




                              40




                              20
        Percent




                              0
                                              low              mid              high


                                   BUY




                 Note that rate of demand for bikes average




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                         Page 109
                                                                                          :‫4- انفئبد األكثش إلجبال‬
                                                              40- 26 -‫ج‬             25-13 -‫ة‬           12-6 -‫أ‬




               Table & Bar chart (5.12): The Category of people who are buying the bike.


                                                        AGE

                                                                                      Cumulative
                                            Frequency   Percent Valid Percent          Percent
                       Valid         6-12          21       53.8         55.3               55.3
                                     13-25         17       43.6         44.7              100.0
                                     Total         38       97.4       100.0
                       Missing       System         1        2.6
                       Total                       39      100.0




                                     AGE
                               60



                               50



                               40



                               30



                               20



                               10
         Percent




                                 0
                                                 6-12                     13 -2 5


                                     AGE




                  Note that the most popular to buy Bicycle between 6-12.


    Folding Bike
                                                                                                      Page 110
                                                                    :‫5- يسزٕٖ أسؼبس انذساخبد انحبنٛخ‬
                                      ‫ج- فٕق 001 دُٚبس‬          75- 51 -‫ة‬             50-25       -‫أ‬



                         Table & Bar chart (5.13): The price of the bikes.

                                                 PRICE1

                                                                            Cumulative
                               Frequency          Percent Valid Percent      Percent
              Valid     25-50         21              53.8         56.8           56.8
                        51-75         11              28.2         29.7           86.5
                        >100           5              12.8         13.5          100.0
                        Total         37              94.9       100.0
              Missing   System         2               5.1
              Total                   39             100.0




                             PRICE1
                        60



                        50



                        40



                        30



                        20



                        10
            Percent




                        0
                                      25-50          51-75        >100


                             PRICE1




         Note that highest prices are 25-50 .



    Folding Bike
                                                                                          Page 111
                                                                    : ٙ‫6- ْم سجك ٔ أٌ سًؼذ ثبنذساخخ انمبثهخ نهط‬
                                                                                     ‫ة- ال‬                ‫أ- َؼى‬


     Table & Bar chart (5.14): The number of people who heard or know the folding bikes

                                                          KNOW

                                                                                   Cumulative
                                              Frequency   Percent Valid Percent     Percent
                      Valid          YES             24       61.5         63.2          63.2
                                     NO              14       35.9         36.8         100.0
                                     Total           38       97.4       100.0
                      Missing        System           1        2.6
                      Total                          39      100.0




                                     KNOW
                                70


                                60


                                50


                                40


                                30


                                20
            Percent




                                10

                                0
                                                   Y ES                  NO


                                     KNOW




         Note that proportion of those who have an idea about the bike folding top




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                     Page 112
                                                                  : ٙ‫7- ْم سجك ٔاٌ طهت يُك ششاء دساخخ لبثهخ نهط‬
                                                                                   ‫ة- ال‬                  ‫أ- َؼى‬


     Table & Bar chart (5.15): The proportion of vendors who had asked them folding bike



                                                       ORDER

                                                                                     Cumulative
                                           Frequency   Percent     Valid Percent      Percent
                    Valid         YES              7       17.9             18.4           18.4
                                  NO              31       79.5             81.6          100.0
                                  Total           38       97.4           100.0
                    Missing       System           1        2.6
                    Total                         39      100.0




                                  ORDER
                            100



                            80



                            60



                            40



                            20
          Percent




                              0
                                                Y ES                      NO


                                  ORDER




          Note that most sellers say that have never been asked to folding bike .




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                     Page 113
                                                     : ‫8- ْم نذٚك انشغجخ ٔاالسزؼذاد نهزؼبيم يغ ْزا انُٕع يٍ انذساخبد‬
                                                                                     ‫ة- ال‬                    ‫أ- َؼى‬


             Table & Bar chart (5.16): The Over the desire and willingness to deal with



                                                      ABILITY

                                                                                      Cumulative
                                         Frequency      Percent     Valid Percent      Percent
                    Valid         YES           20          51.3             52.6           52.6
                                  NO            18          46.2             47.4          100.0
                                  Total         38          97.4           100.0
                    Missing       System         1           2.6
                    Total                       39         100.0




                                 ABILITY
                            60



                            50



                            40



                            30



                            20



                            10
          Percent




                            0
                                              Y ES                          NO


                                 ABILITY




            Note that who are the ability to deal with folding bike .




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                         Page 114
                                   : ّٛ‫9- فًٛب نٕ طشذ ْزا انُٕع يٍ انذساخبد فٙ انسٕق يب ْٙ رٕلؼبرك فًٛب ٚخض اإللجبل ػه‬
                                                             ‫ج- يشرفغ‬               ‫ة- يزٕسط‬               ‫أ- لهٛم‬



           Table & Bar chart (5.17) : Expectations for the marketing of the product



                                                          EXPECT

                                                                                         Cumulative
                                          Frequency         Percent Valid Percent         Percent
                     Valid         low           19             48.7         50.0              50.0
                                   mid           19             48.7         50.0             100.0
                                   Total         38             97.4       100.0
                     Missing       System         1              2.6
                     Total                       39            100.0




                                   EXPECT
                             60



                             50



                             40



                             30



                             20



                             10
           Percent




                               0
                                                   low                        mid


                                   EXPECT




         Note that the Expectations medium .




    Folding Bike
                                                                                                            Page 115
                                                                    : ‫01- فئبد األسؼبس انًًكٍ انزؼبيم يؼٓب‬
                         ‫ج- فٕق 102 دُٚبس‬              ‫ة- 101-002 دُٚبس‬                ‫أ- 05-001 دُٚبس‬


                Table & Bar chart (5.18): The price categories can be handled by

                                                     PRICE2

                                                                                  Cumulative
                                         Frequency    Percent    Valid Percent     Percent
                 Valid         50-100           33        84.6            86.8          86.8
                               101-200           5        12.8            13.2         100.0
                               Total            38        97.4          100.0
                 Missing       System            1         2.6
                 Total                          39       100.0




                               PRICE2
                         100



                         80



                         60



                         40



                         20
      Percent




                           0
                                            50-100                    101-200


                               PRICE2




               Note that the most can be handled by between 50-100


    If the results of the feasibility study are favorable, it is logical to proceed with it.
    Whereas on the other hand, if the results are not favorable, no businessman will
    take a risk on it.


    Folding Bike
                                                                                               Page 116
       5.4 Gant chart:                                                           .

                                                        MONTH

TASK                            Sep.   Oct.    Nov.    Dec.   Jan.   Feb.   March April

problem initiation

investigation of folding bike
select and implement
appropriate design
design and manufacture main
components

manufacture and assembly

conduct feasibility study

writing of thesis




                                              Passed
                                              tasks




       Folding Bike
                                                                            Page 117
     References:

1. Mechanical Engineering Design : Myer Kutz
2. Operation management :concept and strategy (krajewski-and Ritzman)
3. http://www.patentstorm.us
4.   http://www.dahon.com/components
5. http://www.yankodesign.com

6. http://www.appropedia.org/Tin_Bicycle_-_The_Design_Contest_Motivation
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_design
8. http://www.ecogeek.org/content/view/397/
9. http://www.engineersedge.com/calculators.htm
10. http://www.montaguebikes.com/2010-folding-bikes/
11. http://www.method123.com/feasibility-study.php
12. http://www.nycewheels.com/if-mode-folding-bike-review.html




     Folding Bike
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Folding Bike
               Page 119

								
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