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									                         ARA0103 Aðferðafræði Rannsókna

                            ARA0103 Tölvutími 1
Dæmi 1
Sheepskin Mattress Cover Experiment/Tilraun
In a long stay ward (langtímadeild), ten patients laid on a mattress covered with a
normal sheet (Control/Samanburðarhópur), while another ten patients laid on a
sheepskin covered mattress (Intervention/Inngrip). After three months, the number of
pressure sores (fjöldi legusára) for each patient were:

      Control              10, 8, 12, 13, 11, 10, 15, 7, 11, 10

      Intervention         6, 4, 8, 7, 5, 6, 5, 10, 7, 5

Using Excel, perform an independent t-test/Gera óháð t-próf. (2-tailed test/tvíhliða
próf, assume unequal variances/gera ráð fyrir ójafnar dreifingar).

What significant level (marktektarstig) is reached? __________

What is the size of the effect (stærð áhrifa)? __________

Use the t-test calculator at Do you
obtain the same answers (eru svör eins)?

Dæmi 2
Informed Consent/Upplýst Samþykki

It is important that forms for informed consent are easy to read. Calculate the Flesch-
Kincaid Grade Level Score readability for each item in the informed consent form
given below. (Only the first eight items of fifteen required items are provided in this
exercise.) The scores can be calculated in Microsoft Word. Make sure Show
readability statistics is checked in Tools, Options, Spelling&Grammar. You may
need to first set Check grammar with spelling.

   1. Participant status
      You will be receiving what is normally referred to by the medical profession as
      routine medical care during this study, the only difference being that you will
      be lying on a mattress cover selected by our highly experienced team of
      research investigators who will use the data provided by you for research
   2. Study goals
      The goal of the research is to determine if a particular kind of mattress cover
      reduces the number of pressure sores. A nurse will count the pressure sores
      over your whole body after three months.

                          ARA0103 Aðferðafræði Rannsókna


   3. Type of data
      The study will collect only data about the number of pressure sores and the
      type of mattress cover you have been lying on.
   4. Procedures
      A nurse will examine you in a private room in the ward. Your whole body will
      be examined for pressure sores and it may be necessary to remove all your
      normal bedclothes.
   5. Nature of commitment
      Contact with all members of our highly experienced research team will be kept
      to an absolute bare minimum there being an anticipated single contact to
      count bed sores which we estimate will take typically between 8 and 12
      minutes and certainly no more than a quarter of an hour.
   6. Sponsorship
      No government agency or company is sponsoring this study. This study is
      being undertaken by a student as a requirement of taking a degree in nursing.

   7. Participant selection
      You have been selected for this study because you are a long-stay patient.
      Twenty long-stay patients are in this study.
   8. Potential Risks
      You may suffer an allergic skin reaction if you are exposed directly to a
      mattress cover. A plain sheet will be used on top of the mattress cover to
      prevent this.

Use the readability calculator at: Do you obtain
the same answers (eri svör eins)?
From Microsoft Word Help:

 Rates text on a U.S. school grade level. For example, a score of 8.0 means that an eighth
 grader can understand the document. For most documents, aim for a score of approximately
 7.0 to 8.0.
 The formula for the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score is:
 (.39 x ASL) + (11.8 x ASW) – 15.59
 ASL = average sentence length (the number of words divided by the number of sentences)
 ASW = average number of syllables per word (the number of syllables divided by the
 number of words)


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