checklist by keralaguest

VIEWS: 9 PAGES: 36

									Introduction
1. Basic Model for Community Research and Survey Design
2. Local Community Surveys
3. Community Research Objectives
4. Management and Implementation Comittees
5. Development of a Survey Technique
6. Data Collection Categories / Questions
7. What Type of Questions will you use?
8. How will you Structure your Questions?
9. Data Analysis
10. How to Ensure your Survey is Valid
Conclusion
References
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 - 6.1 Demographic questions
Appendix 2 - 6.2 Community awareness questions
Appendix 3 - 6.3 Community perception questions
Appendix 4 - Community perception of library services: focus opening hours
Appendix 5 - 6.4 Library services questions
Appendix 6 - 6.5 Library resource questions
Appendix 7 - 6.6 Human resource questions
Appendix 8 - 6.7 Library facilities and environment
Appendix 9 - Technological service provisions
Appendix References




State Library of Queensland                                                  Version 1.0
INTRODUCTION
Data research and analysis are required to operate an effective client focused library service. While
"observation" can be regarded as a relevant research technique, today’s organisations operate in an
environment of management accountability, benchmarking, performance indicators and the provision
of services responsive to community needs. "Observation" can no longer provide the quantitative
and qualitative data required to direct and support management objectives.
Survey instruments are excellent tools with which to obtain both quantitative and qualitative
primary data. Many local governments choose to outsource the survey process. This option is
expensive and denies staff research and development (R & D) opportunities. An equally important
outcome of in-house research and development is the process of consultation between library staff,
users and non-users, who work together for the future development of their library service.
This handbook has been prepared by the Public Library Services, State Library of Queensland to
assist local government librarians to develop their own survey instruments. The handbook outlines
research methodology and provides checklist options. Contact with the Public Library Services is
encouraged to make the best use of this guide.
Compiled by:
Local Government Services
Public Library Services




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1. MODEL FOR COMMUNITY RESEARCH
The following model indicates steps involved in undertaking community research. Sample time frames
have been included. However, time frames will differ due to site specific variations, complexity and
volume of data research.




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2. LOCAL COMMUNITY SURVEYS
Local Government recognises the importance of client focus in the delivery of their services. The
perceptions of the general public about local issues, services and programmes are important input
to the formulation of public policy. Local Government councillors are elected representatives of their
local community. One of the most effective ways for councillors to better understand the attitudes of their
communities to programmes, activities and objectives in the area of public library services is to interview
selected samples of community members. Information obtained from survey enables Local
Government employees to develop strategies to ensure community expectations are met.
The decision to survey your clients can originate from varied sources: a Council directive, informal/formal
discussions between staff or an external consultant’s report.
3. COMMUNITY RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
The formulation of objectives is the first stage of data research and analysis. Objectives should be
considered by the library manager prior to the establishment of a steering committee and may include
one or more of the following options:
         identification of community attitudes towards existing library services
         political (i.e. the introduction of new library services)
         evaluation of existing library services
         identification of users/non-users
         justification for library services
         TQM
         establishment of client based performance indicators
         other.
4. MANAGEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION COMMITTEES
4.1 Steering Committee
Objectives should drive membership of your steering committee. For example, if you are collecting
your data to identify and justify the introduction of new services, decision makers, including directors
and councillors, should be part of the design process.
Membership may include:
               councillors
               chief executive officers
               directors
               library managers
               librarians
               members of the public
               representatives from key community organisations.
Inclusion of members of the public and organisational representation will solicit input from potential
respondents and other knowledgeable persons regarding:
               focus of the survey
               public reaction to your methodology
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               public opinion on instrument design.


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The responsibilities of this group should remain at the policy level and concentrate on issues such
as clarification of research objectives, recommending sub-committee members, establishment
of time frames, approval of research methodology, budget allocations, pre-testing of the
survey instrument and endorsement of the final report.
4.1.1 Budget Allocations
The steering committee will need advice from the project sub-committee regarding their
recommended research methodology before a budget allocation can be determined. The
following issues should be considered.
Budget allocations should be considered early in the project. Identify and cost all stages of the
study, including:
         staff time
         a timetable for the entire project to indicate programme budget instalments
         time to be costed for pre-testing instrument, editing and coding responses, processing and
          analysing data, including coding
         follow up expenses in the event of low response rate
         depth of the study will determine your level of effort and affect costings
         size; the larger the population, the larger the sample size
         cost of telephone calls/printing surveys and final report
         cost of interviewing focus groups
         cost of additional followup forms
         cost of employing a data or computer analysis to develop a method of response
Mail surveys have proven to be the least costly, while personal interviews are the most
           2
expensive.
Fixed costs do not vary with sample size. Fixed costs include cost to design the survey, analyse
the results, write a final report.
Variable costs increase with sample size. Variable costs include printing, collecting and entering
      3
data.
4.2 Project Sub-Committee
The responsibilities of this group will focus on preparation of a research model, location of
primary/secondary data, identification of clients to be surveyed, development, pre-testing and
implementation of the survey instrument. This committee should also provide the steering committee
with budget estimates, action plans, responsibilities, time frames and be responsible for preparation
of the draft final report.
Membership may include:
         the library manager
         librarians
         library technicians
         library assistants.
This group will need to consult with a data analyst or computer programmer to determine response
coding methodology.



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4.2.1 Preparation of a Research Model
The development of a research model should be of primary concern to the project sub-committee,
as this model will detail methodology and stages involved in undertaking the community research
project.




4.2.2 Location of Primary of Secondary Data
Gathering existing data is important.
Only data relevant to your stated
objectives should be gathered.
Existing primary data may include:
         library on-line statistics
         structured observation of economic conditions, i.e. mix of business, farming,
          manufacturing and service sectors; tax base and economic trends; growth, decline and
          boom/bust cycles
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         structured observation of local social condition, i.e. educational and cultural institutions,
          clubs, societies, interest groups, religious groups and community history
         structured observation of local informational and educational services, i.e.other
          libraries, primary, secondary and higher education institutions, open learning centres,
                           4
          media sources.
Existing secondary data may include:
         local and state government planning profiles
         planning documents developed by schools, tourism agencies, school education boards,
          national parks etc.
         ABS demographic profiles
         Statistical Bulletin: Library Board of Queensland
         publications, including local directories, telephone books (discs), atlases and
                                                5
          newspapers are all possible sources.
4.2.3 Who, What, How?
Identification of primary/secondary data will indicate areas where additional data is required. This will
influence how you structure your questions and the way you develop your survey.
Survey objectives will determine whether you need to collect data internally, externally or a
combination of both. Internal surveys focus on existing clients. As such, this form of survey is
valuable for evaluation, identification or justification of existing or future library services. This type of
survey is less expensive and likely to yield a high response rate.
External surveys are valuable for market analyses of library users and non-users, special interest
groups, promotion and analysis of future library service. This type of survey is cost effective if a mail
survey implement is used. However, response rates may not be as high. Follow up contact is often
required.
5. DEVELOPMENT OF A SURVEY TECHNIQUE
Several techniques are available to obtain primary data. These include:
         observation
         focus groups
         interviews
          o     door-to-door
          o     onsite
          o     phone
         surveys
          o     mail
          o     electronic
          o     suggestion boxes
          o     onsite client questionnaires
Observation, focus groups, interview and mail survey methodology will be discussed.
5.1 Observation
Observation data collection may use the concept of "behaviour settings". Behaviour settings are
places such as study and reading, reference and circulation service desks, periodical stacks, on-line
facilities, community meeting rooms, children’s areas, collection genre areas etc. According to this
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theory, one can predict or examine recurring or predictable patterns of behaviour in certain settings.
Misfits between people, place and usage can result in poor working conditions and discomfort for
                                                6
users as well as inefficient use of facilities.
Design a checklist to record your observation objectives: (Examples below)

                                  Staff       Client      Client uses Client Time          Fiction
                              Interact with Request       Reference in Selecting            Titles
                                  Client    Assistance    Collection    Fiction           Selected

             Client 1

             Client 2

             Client 3

To undertake this form of survey, it is important to:
         list problems requiring observation
         pre-test form/checklists
         use objective and trained observers
         prepare timetable and length of period for observation
                                              7
         determine the size of your sample
         list desirable behaviours, e.g. location, type of user, resources being used, their
          behaviours, material left on table and carrels etc.
         divide your library into specific areas for observation, e.g. public study areas, special
                                                   8
          purpose areas, circulation and stacks.
5.2 Focus Groups
A focus group is normally a randomly selected group of 8 to 12 customers (usually external to the
organisation) who are invited to share their observations and ideas. To create a successful group, it is
necessary to develop an action plan.
Develop an action plan by considering:
         How many focus group meetings will you hold?
         Who will facilitate the meetings?
         Who will prepare discussion agenda?
         Will the meeting be structured/unstructured?
         How will you interpret or rate data?
         Will the focus group be your survey instrument based on issued raised?
Additional Checklist
         Hold the meeting on neutral ground.
         Notify participants on where, when and why the group is meeting.
         Provide a relaxed atmosphere.
         Provide refreshments.
         Arrange casual and interactive seating.
         Provide name tags and introductions.
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         Keep session short and interactive.
         Allow equal opportunity for all participants to interact.
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         Provide follow-up feedback to participants on outcomes.
5.3 Interviews
Interviewing as a methodology has unique advantages and disadvantages. Some surveys are more
suited to interview, others to mail/online/onsite questionnaires. Interviews can be door to door, onsite,
offsite at selected venues or telephone interviews.
Consideration should be given to the following:
         Resources
          o     How much money, time and staff do you have at your disposal? In person interviewing is
                more expensive than mail, online or telephone because of travelling time, the number of
                people required to undertake the interviews and the size of your sample.
                A cost analysis conducted by Berdie indicated that "mail surveys with effective follow up
                                                               10
                cost about the same as do telephone surveys".
         Survey Objectives
          o     The sensitivity of your topics will determine which data collection technique should be
                used. Surveys of a sensitive nature may not be suited to personal contact.
         Bias
          o     Interviewer bias can come to the fore in both in-person and telephone interviews.
         Lifestyles of People
          o     Are the people you want to interview likely to be at home if you phone or call in person?
         Time
          o     Personal interviews can be time consuming compared with other survey techniques.
         Personalised
          o     Interviews may appear more personalised and also allow for expanded feedback.
         Clarification
          o     This technique allows for clarification of questions and responses.
         Response Rate
          o     Response rate is usually high with interviews.
         Client Responses
          o     Staff may be subjected to abusive client responses.
         Management
          o     Staff involved with interviews should be advised of the most suitable hours to conduct
                interviews, how to introduce themselves and be provided with official letters of
                introduction.
In conclusion, interviews work more effectively when recall and recognition questionnaires are linked
together, e.g. you might wish to ask what factor is the most important when deciding to visit the
library? This open ended question could be followed by several specific questions relating to your
                                                 11
client’s usage or non-usage of library services.




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5.4 Mail Surveys
Mail surveys are the most commonly used technique because of their comparatively low cost and
ability to obtain data from large sample areas. However, this is only true where "mail surveys do not
                                                                      12
involve extensive followup activity to promote a high response rate".
         Advantages of mail surveys:
          o     One or two people can manage the data collection phase of even fairly large samples,
                e.g. 3,000 mail surveys.
                They require limited level of literacy.
                They can avoid interview bias.
                Rating scales are versatile in mail surveys.
                Privacy and confidentiality for respondents.
         Disadvantages of mail surveys:
          o     poor response rates
                respondents may misinterpret questions
                do not provide avenue for discussion
                mail surveys may appear impersonal
                questionnaire may be completed by someone other than the intended person
                                              13
                limited questionnaire length.
         Points to Remember:
          o     structure clear questions
          o     make the questionnaire visually appealing
          o     make the instrument as short as possible
          o     group questions in logical order
          o     do not put important questions at the end of the instrument
          o     include brief clear instructions
          o     provide self-addressed stamped return envelopes
          o     include a date for completion.
6. Data collection categories/questions
Your information needs will determine which of the following categories you will use.
     1. demographic profile
     2. community awareness of services/facilities
     3. community perception of services/facilities
     4. evaluation of library services
     5. evaluation of library resources
     6. evaluation of human resources
     7. evaluation of library facilities and environment
     8. evaluation of technological service provisions.
6.1 Demographic Questions
In order for library staff to analyse and report on trends and demographic patterns in library
usage/non-usage, it is necessary to collect information profiling your community.
                                                                                     14
Questions focus on nationality, sex, age, educational level, location, income etc.        (Please refer to
Appendix 1 for sample questions).
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6.2 Community Awareness Questions
Questions in this category focus on community awareness of the library services you offer and
current library policies and planning documents.
Users may be unaware of current policies/planning documents so it may be necessary to state each
policy/service and follow it with an evaluation question.
                                                                                                       15
Poor results in this area indicate a need to market your library services, especially to non-users.
(Please refer to Appendix 2 for sample questions).
6.3 Community Perception Questions
In order to obtain feedback from your community about your library and its operations, it is necessary
to ask attitude questions. Generally, perception seeking questions remain at the broad overall level
rather than specific. (Please refer to Appendices 3 and 4 for sample questions).
6.4 Library Services Questions
Library statistics will provide quantitative data on usage of various library services. However,
qualitative data can be obtained from inclusion of questions from this area in library surveys.
Questions should focus on rating services, determining levels of user dissatisfaction and reason for it,
                                            16
prioritising service delivery to the public. (Please refer to Appendix 5 for sample questions).
6.5 Library Resource Questions
In order to determine community satisfaction with resource provisions, it is often necessary to first
identify resources currently available.
Circulation data should be analysed to establish if your library service already collects data in this
area, e.g. circulation per capita figure. The following data may also be available:
         Title- Fill Rate
          o     Percentage of specific titles requested by library users and available in the library at the
                time of request.
         Subject - Fill Rate
          o     Percentage of times a user finds material and specific subject available in the library at
                the time of request (search).
         Browsing - Fill Rate
          o     Percentage of people who find something they want during browsing, compared to the
                total number who browse.
         Currency of the Collection
                                       17
          o     Date of publication.        (Please refer to Appendix 6 for sample questions).
6.6 Human Resource Questions
Public libraries image is very dependent on community perception of staff. To ensure service delivery
to the community, a balance of skilled professional, para-professional and clerical staff should be
employed.
The following data can be used to indicate quantity of services:
         staff ratio per capita
         staff ratio per target group
         population service by qualified staff
         circulation per staff member
         manned reference desk hours.
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Qualitative data can be obtained from observation and survey questions. (Please refer to Appendix 7
for sample questions).
6.7 Physical Facilities and Environment
Library buildings and environments should be designed so that they provide a balance between the
convenience of the user and the efficient management of the library. Feedback from users can assist
to identify problem areas. (Please refer to Appendix 8 for sample questions).
6.8 Technological Service Provisions
The provision of equipment, facilities and systems is an integral feature of today’s public library.
Without access to current technology, optimum access to information and excellence in customer
service provision cannot be provided. (Please refer to Appendix 9 for sample questions).
7. What type of questions will you use?
Your information needs will influence the type of questions you use.
To quote Bruce Siemon from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, "Question design is a matter of art
rather than science. The main tools are: a knowledge of the survey population and the subject
                                         18
matter, common sense and pilot work.
Questions can be categorised as the following:
         classification questions
         factual questions
         knowledge questions
         hypothetical questions
         opinion questions.
7.1 Classification questions
are excellent for your demographic profile data and identify your respondents age, sex, status etc.
7.2 Factual questions
seek information from a respondent rather than an opinion, e.g. (Do you use the library?) Factual
questions are often used as fillers for opinion questions.
For example, if you want to know your respondent’s opinion about library services, it would be useful
to first identify whether or not he/she is a library member.
7.3 Knowledge questions
identify your respondents knowledge in identified areas and are useful in analysing and interpreting
responses, e.g. (What type of resources are stocked in your local public library?)
7.4 Hypothetical questions
consist of (What if .............) type of questions.
7.5 Opinion questions
are used on focus groups or in surveys where the interviewer has direct contact with the respondents.
19


8. How will you structure your questions?
Your information needs will influence how you structure your questions. Questions can be
presented in the following formats.
closed questions
open questions
pre-coded questions
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8.1 Closed Questions
This type of question usually requires a direct Yes/No response.
Examples:
Would you use international telephone directories YES NO 
                                                                                        20
If YES, which countries? .............................................
The inclusion of a hypothetical comment question in this case allows you to obtain additional
information from your respondent.
8.2 Open Questions
Open questions allow the respondent to provide an unlimited amount of response which will have to
be interpreted or coded by the interviewer/data analyst.
Example:
What problems are you having accessing this library’s fiction collection?
.....................................................................................
This type of question is not recommended for mail surveys due to coding problems and the
possibility of interviewer bias.
8.3 Pre-coded Questions
This question type offers a list of possible answers. These questions assist respondents by providing
                                                                                         21
them with clear options, allows multiple choices and are easy for data analyst purposes.
Example:
Do you find external library signage appropriate? (Please tick one or more boxes).
Street signage
Library hours at library entrance
Published handouts.
8.4 Multiple-choice Questions
This type of questions offers several choices and the respondent is asked to select the most correct
one. To avoid options you may have missed, you can add "none of the above", although it won’t tell
           22
you much.
Example:
How often do you use the following technologies? (Please circle one number per line)

                                                      Regularly                         Rarely   Never

 Online searches                                             1                               2     3

 Internet                                                    1                               2     3

 Cd-rom services                                             1                               2     3

 Catalogue searches                                          1                               2     3

 Home pages                                                  1                               2     3

8.5 Likert Scales
This method is used to measure attitude toward a concept or idea. It allows the respondent to agree,
                                                                                        24
disagree, or indicate the degree of agreement (usually on a five or seven point scale).
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Example:
Please rate the quality of the service your enquiry received?
* Time you had to wait. (Please tick one box).

                                                                 

                                                   Below
  Excellent          Very Good     Average                        Poor
                                                  Average

9. DATA ANALYSIS
Consultation with a data analyst or computer programmer early in the development of the
questionnaire is recommended.
Issues for consideration:
            Computer analysis required a precise method of response coding.
            A coding system compatible with your computer programme is vital:
                 o    Can your programme process multiple answers to a single question?
                 o    Can you use letters or non-numerical characters?
                 o    Can you quantify or code responses to open-ended questions?
                 o    Do you need to enter data twice for verification purposes and compare results?
                 o    Do you need a check-off list to record questionnaires, e.g. ID number, date sent,
                      date received?
                 o    Can you establish pre-coded response measures to questions?
                                                                                               25
            Allow sufficient resources to cover possible debugging of computer programmes.
Co-ordinate with your data analyst/computer programmer to establish coding responses format.
10. How to ensure your questionnaire survey is valid
10.1 What do you want to know?
            List the issues you want public input to determine
            Develop the questions that provide you with that information.
            Design the questions so that they include a mixture of open/closed/pre-coded/Likert scale
             multiple choice/factual/knowledge/hypothetical etc. type questions. This prevents boring your
             respondents and stops people marking the same column in each question out of habit.
            Test and pre-test your survey instrument.
10.2 How many people do you survey?
            What is the size of your populations, catchment area etc?
            Check the following table for a recommended number to survey.
            Remember: you almost never need more than a few hundred responses, even for a
                                       26
             population of one million.
A sample size table for proportions

                     Degree of Accuracy                                       Confidence Level
                                                   Proportion of
                          = +/- .05                                                = 95%
                                                 sample size = 0.5
                         Population                                          Survey Sample Size


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                               1,000                                              277
                               1,500                                              305
                               2,000                                              322
                               3,000                                              340
                               5,000                                              356
                              10,000                                              369
                              20,000                                              376
                              50,000                                              381
                              70,000                                              382
                              120,000                                             382
                              160,000                                             382

                          1,000,000                                               383

Source: Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rick C. Business research: an informed guide. 1994. p.66.
10.3 Response Rates
Response rates are important to ensure validity of your survey. Tim and Farr state that experts differ
on the level of response necessary for reliability. However they suggest the following range for
smaller populations

                                        - 60% or more       Excellent

                                        - 50% - 59%         Very Good

                                        - 35% - 49%         Good

                                        - 25% - 34%         Questionable
                                                                         27
                                        - Below 25%         Unreliable

CONCLUSION
Use this guide as a reference for your own research and study on survey instrument design and
survey methodology. It cannot be stressed enough that this process is consultative between all levels
of staff, councillors and the public.
Test your instrument, know how you will use your data and please:
                                           REMEMBER: Do not ask questions
                                         if you do not intend using the results
REFERENCES
1
    Berdie, Doug R. et al. Questionnaires: design and use (2nd Ed), 1986. pp.7-8.
2
    LCED sample size for community needs and resource assessment survey.
http://www.ag.vlvc.edu/-lced/needsize.html. p.1.
3
    Berdie, Doug R. et al. Questionnaires: design and use (2nd Ed), 1986. pp.8-9.
4
 McClure, Charles R. et al. Planning and role setting for [public libraries: a manual of options and
procedures, 1987. p.18.
5
 McClure, Charles R. et al. Planning and role setting for [public libraries: a manual of options and
procedures, 1987. p.22.
6
 Schneekloth, Lynda and Keale, Eileen. Evaluation of library facilities: a tool for managing change,
[n.d.] p.5.
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7
 Schneekloth, Lynda and Keale, Eileen. Evaluation of library facilities: a tool for managing change,
[n.d.] p.5.
8
 Schneekloth, Lynda and Keale, Eileen. Evaluation of library facilities: a tool for managing change,
[n.d.] p.5.
9
    Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rick C. Business research: an informal guide, 1994. pp.84-86.
10
     Berdie, Doug R. et al. Questionnaires: design and use (2nd Ed), 1986. p.14.
11
     Berdie, Doug R. et al. Questionnaires: design and use (2nd Ed), 1986. pp.13-21.
12
     Berdie, Doug R. et al. Questionnaires: design and use (2nd Ed), 1986. p.14.
13
    Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rich D. Business research: an informal guide, 1994. pp. 49-53.
14
    Mercer, Colin. Navigating the economy of knowledge, 1995. pp. 28-31.
15
  Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs
survey.[n.d.] p.4-5.
16
     Siemon, Bruce. Questionnaire design course, [n.d.] p.1.
17
  Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs survey.
[n.d.] p.16.
18
    .Siemon, Bruce. Questionnaire design course, [n.d.] p.1.
19
     Siemon n, Bruce. Questionnaire design course, [n.d.] p.1.
20
    Logan City Council, Libraries survey, 1995.
21
    Siemon, Bruce. Questionnaire design course, [n.d.] p.6.
22
     Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rick C. Business research: an informal guide, 1994. p.60.
23
  Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs
analysis.[n.d.] p.10.
24
    Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rick C. Business research: an informal guide. 1994. p.61.
25
     Berdie, Doug R. et al. Questionnaires: design and use (2nd Ed), 1986. pp.64-66.
26
     Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rich C. Business research: an informal guide, 1994. p.65.
27
     Tim, Paul R. and Farr, Rich C. Business research: an informal guide, 1994. p.54.
28
  Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs
analysis.[n.d.] pp.4-5.
29
    Revelations Pty Ltd. Redcliffe library survey. Redcliffe City Council, 1997.
30
    Mercer, Colin. Navigating the economy of knowledge, 1995. pp. 9-10.
31
    Logan City Council. Libraries survey, 1995.
32
    Mercer, Colin. Navigating the economy of knowledge, 1995. p. 10.
33
    Auckland Public Library. Survey of citizen satisfaction. APLIS (2) June 1992. p.88.
34
    Logan City Council. Libraries survey, 1995.
35
    Palmour, V.E. et al. A planning process for public libraries, 1980. p.32.
36
    Maroochy Shire Library Service. Community survey, 1993.
37
    Logan City Council. Libraries survey, 1995.
38
    Sutherland Shire Council. Customer survey. [n.d.]
39
    Sutherland Shire Council. Customer survey. [n.d.]

State Library of Queensland                                                                     Version 1.0
40
  Logan City Council. Libraries survey, 1995.
41
  Logan City Council. Libraries survey, 1995
42
  Logan City Council. Libraries survey, 1995
43
  Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs survey.
[n.d.] p.16.
44
  Sutherland Shire Council. Customer survey. [n.d.]
45
  Revelations Pty Ltd. Redcliffe library survey. Redcliffe City Council, 1997.




State Library of Queensland                                                               Version 1.0
                                                    Appendix 1
6.1 Demographic questions
     Questions in this area focus on obtaining data on demographic patterns in library
     usage/non/usage.
     Client Details (sex, age, nationality):

Q.1 Are you?                                                         Male                  Female      

Q.2 Are you a member of this library service?                        Yes                   No          

Q.3 What is your age grouping?                                       15-19                 50-59       

                                                                     20-29                 60-69       

                                                                     30-39                 70 +        

                                                                     40-49                 Refuse to   
                                                                                            Comment

Q.4 Were you born in Australia?                                      Yes                   No          

If NO, please go to Question 6.


Q.5 Are you Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander?                    Yes                   No          


Q.6 If your answer to Question 4 is NO, please indicate your ............................
country or origin:                                           ........

Location of Client:

Please record the postcode where you reside:                                  

Q.8 If you are a library user, which branch do you use?

     A. Helensvale                                                            

     B. Mermaid Waters                                                        

     C. Nerang                                                                

     Demographic questions can also include questions on:
               educational level
               Length of residence in this local government
               work commitments
               number of people in the household
               occupation
               current student status
               household equipment, e.g. fax, cd players, computers income level.
     Alternative Option:
State Library of Queensland                                                                             Version 1.0
     Location of clients can be determined by distributing different coloured questionnaires to people
     in identified demographic/user groups, e.g.:

                              Helensvale          blue questionnaires

                              Mermaid Waters      green questionnaires

                              Nerang              yellow questionnaires




State Library of Queensland                                                                      Version 1.0
                                                   Appendix 2
6.2 COMMUNITY AWARENESS QUESTIONS
      The user may be unaware of current library policies/services, so it may be necessary to state
                                                                     28
      each policy/service and follow it with an evaluation question.
      Q.1 Are you aware of the following library policies? (Please tick those policies of which you are
      aware)

1.1      Libraries and Cultural Services

         Strategic Plan                                                           YES               NO 

         If YES, go to Question 1.3.
         If NO, please answer Question 1.2.



1.2      Are you interested in viewing this document?                             YES               NO 

         If YES, please leave your contact phone number:                          Work: ..............................

                                                                                  Home: ..............................

         If NO, please comment:

1.3      How does this policy document rate as the recommended future development for this local
         government’s library services? (Please tick one box)

                                                                                                     
               Excellent       Above Average           Average        Below Average                    Poor

         Please comment:

      Similar questions could be asked of all library policy documents e.g.:
                    by-laws
                    business plans
                    collection development policies
                    procedure manuals
                    policy documents on opening hours, loans, extensions etc.
      Alternatively:
      Questions on policy could be structured in the following manner:
      Q.2 Are you aware of the following library policies? (Please tick those policies of which you are
      aware)
          Policy on opening hours
          How do you rate this policy? (Please circle one letter)

A.                    B.              C.                D.               E.

Excellent             Very            No Comment        Very Unfair      Poor

State Library of Queensland                                                                                      Version 1.0
     The opening hours of the library are from ....... to ....... Monday to Friday, excluding public
     holidays.
     Do you find these hours convenient? (Please circle one letter)

A.                    B.            C.                 D.                E.

Excellent             Above Average Average            Below Average Poor




State Library of Queensland                                                                            Version 1.0
                                                           Appendix 3
6.3 COMMUNITY PERCEPTION QUESTIONS
     Questions in this area focus on obtaining data regarding community attitudes towards the public
     library system.
     Q.1 Which of the following services should be provided by local government? (Please tick as
     many boxes as necessary)

                   Bookshops                                                                     

                   Public libraries                                                              

                   Art galleries                                                                 

                   Swimming pools                                                                

                   Community centres                                                             

         Q.2. Which, if any, of the following amenities would you use? (Please tick appropriate boxes
                                                     below)

Bookshop                           Art Gallery                  Library               

Coffee Shop                        Museum                       Internet Cafe         
                                                                                            29
Childcare Centre                   Community Centre             None                  

     Q.3 If you are a member of your local public library, how would you rate your most recent visit?
     (Please tick one box)

                                                                                 
                                                                                                 30
     Enjoyable                Boring          Instructive       Intimidating   None of these

     Q.4 If you are not a member of your local public library, why not? (Please tick one box)

                                                                                 

                                           Read on site do      Did not know                     31
 Not interested Too far to travel                                              None of these
                                             not borrow            about it

     Q.5 What is your opinion of public libraries? (Please tick one box)

a.   Libraries are vital for an informed society and the new Internet age.          

b.   Libraries’ role as information/service providers is increasing.                

c.   No opinion.                                                                    

d.   Libraries’ role as information/service providers is decreasing.                
                                                  32
e.   Libraries are outdated institutions.                                           

     Q.6 Overall, how would you rate this local government library service? (Please tick one box)


State Library of Queensland                                                                           Version 1.0
a.                      Very good.                

b.                      Good.                     

c.                      Acceptable.               

d.                      Bad.                      

e.                      Very bad.                 



 COMMUNITY PERCEPTIONS OF LIBRARY SERVICES CAN ALSO BE OBTAINED BY REQUESTING
                               VISUAL FEEDBACK.
    THIS FORM OF QUESTIONING IS MORE SUITABLE FOR FOCUS GROUP INTERVIEWS.

     Q.1 Request users and non-users to draw their impressions of the inside of their local public
     library.
                                                           OR
     Q.2 Ask people to identify from a series of photographs (variety of personality types) the most
     likely library users, non-users.
                                                           OR
     Q.3 Ask people to select from a series of photographs the type of person who would work in a
             33
     library.
                                                           OR
     Q.4 Ask people to select from a list of statements the statement that describes their local public
             7
     library.
                                                           OR
     Q.5. How do our library staff treat you? (Please indicate by ticking one or more boxes)

           Friendly

           Efficient

           Neutral

           Incompetent
                          34
           Unfriendly

     Data can also be collected on:
                    Satisfaction with library service
                    library service/resource preferences
                    library service/resource priorities
                                                                                      35
                    attitudes towards proposed new services/library locations etc.




State Library of Queensland                                                                       Version 1.0
                                                     Appendix 4
6.4 Community perception of library services: opening hours
                                           SAMPLE SURVEY QUESTIONS

                                  Sample questions for client usage and library hours.
                              (Please evaluate these questions form your own context and
                                                   survey objectives)

     1. Do you reside in this area? (Please tick one box)
          YES
          NO
     2. Are you a member of (library name) library service? (Please tick one box)
          YES - Please go to Questions 4,5,6
          NO
     3. If NO, would a change to opening hours encourage you to join or use your local Library?
     (Please tick one box)
          YES
          NO
     4. Is your Library open at weekends? (Please tick one box)
          Yes
          No
          Do not know
     5. Would you prefer to use the Library on weekends or weekdays or both? (Please tick one or
     more boxes)
          Weekends
          Week days
          Both
     6. How often do you use the Library? (Please tick one box)
          Daily
          Weekly
          Fortnightly
          Monthly
          Seldom
     7. What times are you most likely to use the library? (Please tick one or more boxes)
          Morning
          Lunchtime
          Afternoon
          Evening



State Library of Queensland                                                                   Version 1.0
     8. Are you satisfied with the existing opening hours of the Library you use most? (Please tick
     one box)
           YES
           NO
     9. If NO, what changes would you recommend?
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     10. If NO, what changes would you like? (Please tick one or more boxes)
           Earlier week day openings
                 One early morning at 8.30am
                 Daily early mornings at 8.30 am
           Later week day openings
                 One extra late night to 9.00pm
                 Two or more extra late nights to 9.00pm
           Half day Saturday
                 9.00-12.00 Opening
                 OR
                 1.00-4.00 Opening
           All day Saturday
           Half day Sunday
                 9.00-12.00 Opening
                 OR
                 1.00-4.00 Opening
           All day Sunday




State Library of Queensland                                                                                 Version 1.0
                                                                         Appendix 5
6.5 Library services questions : examples
     Are you aware of the following services provided by this library system? Where applicable, please
     rate/comment on each service (please tick your responses).

     Q.1 Information Help Desk YES  NO 
     Overall, how would you rate this service? (Please tick appropriate box)

                                                                                                         

     Excellent            Above Average                    Average              Below Average               Poor

     Please comment:
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     Q.2 Computer Catalogue YES NO 
     Overall, how would you rate this service? (Please tick appropriate box)

                                                                                                         

     Excellent            Above Average                    Average              Below Average               Poor

     Please comment:
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     Q.3 Children’s Programmes YES NO 
     Overall, how would you rate these programmes? (Please tick appropriate box)

                                                                                                         

     Excellent            Above Average                    Average              Below Average               Poor

     Please comment:
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     Q.4 Library Usage Questions
     Why do you use the library? (Please tick each appropriate box; you can tick more than one box)
     borrowing
     relaxation
     study/homework
     reading in the library
     photocopying
     research
                                   36
     use of computers
     because it is airconditioned
State Library of Queensland                                                                                        Version 1.0
     to bring another member of the family, friend
     to attend activities
                                             37
     to read the newspapers
     Other (please comment):
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     Q.5 Please write in the space provided what would be the most important reason you use your
     local public library? (please comment):
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     ....................................................................................................
     Similar questions can be asked of the following services, e.g:
                       Opening hours
                       Loan periods
                       Reservations (internal)
                       Inter-library loans (external)
                       Newsletters
                       Current Awareness Bulletin
                       Community information
                       Council information
                       Special needs Services
                       Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islanders
                       Literacy
                       People from non-English speaking background
                       People with disabilities
                       Displays (adult)
                       Displays (junior)
                       Services to the elderly
                       Client request for purchases.
                       Use or non/use of computer catalogues




State Library of Queensland                                                                                 Version 1.0
                                                Appendix 6
6.6 Library resource questions : examples
Q.1 What resources do you use? (please tick each appropriate box; you can tick more than
one box)
     Adult books - Fiction
     Adult books - Non-Fiction
     Reference collection
     Art prints
     Books in languages other than English
     Children’s books - Fact
     Children’s books - Fiction
     Young Adult Collection
     Picture books
     Toys
     Large Print books
     Literacy collection
     Magazines
     Newspapers
     Newspapers in other languages
     Pamphlets
     Telephone Directories
     Genealogy
     Photocopying facilities
     Fax facilities
     Microfiche reader
     Microfilm reader
     Printers
     TTY and telephone typewriters
     Speech synthesiser
     CD player
     CD (compact discs)
     Internet
     Videos
     Captioned videos
     Talking books
Q.2 Can you usually find the above resources? (Please tick one box)
     YES NO 
     If NO, please go to Question 2.1 and 2.2
State Library of Queensland                                                          Version 1.0
     If YES, please go to Question 2.3
2.1 Do you ask for staff assistance? YES NO 
2.2 Please comment on why you cannot locate the above library resources:
          ..................................................................................
          ..................................................................................
2.3 I can locate resources in the library because: (Please comment):
          ..................................................................................
          ..................................................................................
          ..................................................................................
     Patrons can also be requested in onsite surveys to evaluate the overall QUALITY of library
     resource collections, e.g.:
     Please rate the overall quality of the service you received today.
Q.3 Tidiness of the shelves (please tick one box):

                                                                                            

     Excellent           Above Average                   Average               Below Average   Poor

Q.4 Layout and signage for materials (please tick one box):

                                                                                            

     Excellent           Above Average                   Average               Below Average   Poor

Q.5 Range of material that interested you (please tick one box):

                                                                                            

     Excellent           Above Average                   Average               Below Average   Poor

Q.6 Ability to find something to borrow/use (please tick one box):

                                                                                            

     Excellent           Above Average                   Average               Below Average   Poor

Q.7 Quality of the physical condition of the material you borrowed (please tick one box):

                                                                                            

     Excellent           Above Average                   Average               Below Average   Poor

     Similar questions could be asked regarding:
               number of items purchased
               category of items purchased
               purchasing of new items


     REMEMBER: Do not ask questions if you do not intend using the results.

State Library of Queensland                                                                           Version 1.0
                                                                       Appendix 7
6.7 Human resource questions : examples
     Q.1. Have you requested assistance from our staff? (Please tick one box)
     YES  NO 
     If you answered NO, please go to Question 1.1.
     If you answered YES, please go to Question 1.2.
          1.1 If NO, why not? (Please comment)
          ..................................................................................
          1.2 Please rate the quality of the service your enquiry received?
          Time you had to wait (Please tick one box)

                                                                                                 

     Excellent              Very Good                    Average               Below Average        Poor



Effectiveness of our staff in answering your query (Please tick one box)



                                                                                                 

     Excellent              Very Good                    Average               Below Average        Poor



Friendliness of staff in dealing with your query (Please tick one box)



                                                                                                 
                                                                                               39
     Excellent              Very Good                    Average              Below Average         Poor

     Q.2. When borrowing library material, please rate the length of time you had to wait:
     (Please tick one box)

                                                                                                 

     Excellent               Very Good                   Average              Below Average         Poor

              Q.3. Have you ever telephoned the library for information (Please tick one box):
     YES NO
     3.1 If YES, how would you rate the level of service you received (Please tick one box):

                                                                                                 
                                                                                                           40
     Excellent              Very Good                    Average               Below Average        Poor

     Q.4. If you are dissatisfied with library services, do you (Please tick one box):
State Library of Queensland                                                                                     Version 1.0
     complaint to staff
     complain to others
     complain in writing
     leave
     do nothing
     other:
     ..................................................................................
     Q.5. Have you ever complained about library services?
                          41
     YES NO 
     5.1 If yes, do you feel your complaints are taken seriously? (Please tick one box)
     YES NO 
     Q.6. Do you think library staff are: (Tick all that apply)
     friendly
     efficient
     helpful
     concerned
     other:
                                                                                          42
     ..................................................................................
     Q.7. How would you describe library staff? (Please tick one box)

                                                                                                     

                                                                                   Helpful and     Efficient - know
     Too strict             Unwelcoming               None of these
                                                                                    friendly           their job

     Q.8. Do you find staff can provide upon request professional information in any of the
     following specialist service areas? (Please tick as many boxes as applicable)

                                                                                                         YES          NO

               Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Services                                                     

               Adult Reference Services                                                                              

               Children’s/Young People’s Services                                                                    

               Literacy                                                                                              

               Local History                                                                                         

               Community Language Services                                                                           

               Disabilities Services                                                                                 

               Genealogy Advice                                                                                      



State Library of Queensland                                                                                                Version 1.0
                                                                         Appendix 8
6.8 Library facilities and environment : examples
     Q.1 Do you find the following facilities adequate for your use? (Please tick one box and comment
     where appropriate)

               Facilities                          Yes               No                   Please Comment

 Layout of the Collections

 Lighting

 Shelving Height

 Access to Shelves

 Internal Signage

 Study Areas

 Seating

     Q.2 Do you find the distance between aisles satisfactory? (Please tick one box)
     Yes  No 
     If No, please comment as to where the aisle distance is unsuitable:
     ..................................................................................
     Q.3 Do you think the shelving is of satisfactory condition? (Please tick one box)
     Yes  No 
     Q.4 Do you think the library needs refurbishing? (Please tick one box)
     Yes  No 
     If Yes, which areas of the library? (Please tick one or more boxes. Please comment where
     appropriate.)
     Entrance:
     ..................................................................................
     Circulation desk:
     ..................................................................................
     Adult Collection Area:
     ..................................................................................
     Junior Collection Area:
     ..................................................................................
     Adult Study Area:
     ..................................................................................
     Adult Reading Area:
     ..................................................................................
     Adult Reference Section:
State Library of Queensland                                                                                Version 1.0
     ..................................................................................
     Junior Study Area:
     ..................................................................................
     Junior Reading Area:
     ..................................................................................
     Junior Reference Section:
     ..................................................................................
     Internet Section:
     ..................................................................................
     On-line Catalogue Areas:
     ..................................................................................
     The whole internal environment:
     ..................................................................................
     Q.5 Do you find the location of this library convenient? (Please tick one box. If No, please
     comment.)
     YES  NO 
     ..................................................................................
     Q.6 Do you find external library signage appropriate? (Please tick one or more boxes)
     Street signage
     Library hours at library entrance




State Library of Queensland                                                                         Version 1.0
                                                  Appendix 9
6.9 Technological service provisions : examples
     Q.1 Are the following equipment facilities available for public use? (Please tick one or more
     boxes)
     Internet
     Automated circulation system
     Catalogue via dial-up
     CD player
     Fax machines
     Microcomputers
     Microfiche reader
     Microfilm reader
     Opac terminals
     Printer
     Photocopying services
     Speed synthesiser
     TTY - telephone typewriter
     VCR.
     Q.2 Have you used the computer catalogue? (Please tick one box)
     Yes - If Yes, please go to Question 2.1.
     No - If No, please go to Question 2.2, and 2.3.
          Q.2.1 If Yes: Could you rate the quality of the capacity of the computer catalogue to meet
          your needs? (Please circle one number on each line)

                                           Very            Averag               Very
                                                   Good               Poor
                                           Good              e                  Poor

             Ease of use                    1        2         3        4         5

             Speed of response              1        2         3        4         5

             Easy to understand             1        2         3        4         5

             Provided me with the
             information I wanted on        1        2         3        4         5
             the subject/book/author.

          Q.2.2 If No: Which of the following options best describes why you do not use the
          computer catalogue? (Please tick one or more boxes)
          Don’t know how to use it.
          Can never find what I want on the catalogue.
          Find it too difficult to use.
          Have never used a computer.

State Library of Queensland                                                                      Version 1.0
          Never needed to use the computer catalogue.
          Fear of computers
          No terminals free.
                                                  45
          Have never been shown how to use it.
          Q.2.3 If the library conducted training courses on using the computer catalogue/services,
          would you attend? (Please tick one box)
          YES NO 
          If Yes, which times would best suit? (Please tick one or more boxes)
          mornings
          afternoons
          evenings
          weekends
     Q.3 How often do you use the following technologies? (Please circle one number per line)

                                                         Regularly    Rarely       Never

                      Online searches                       1            2           3

                      Internet                              1            2           3

                      CD-rom services                       1            2           3

                      Catalogue searches                    1            2           3

                      Home Pages                            1            2           3

                      Photographic images                   1            2           3

     Q.4 Do you self check out your own book? (Please tick one box)
     YES  NO 
     If No, please indicate why you do not use this service. (Please tick one or more boxes)
     Like to converse with desk staff.
     Prefer library staff to check out books.
     Do not like impersonal nature of self check out.
     Not fast
     Do not know how to use self check out.




State Library of Queensland                                                                      Version 1.0
                                        APPENDISX REFERENCES
1. Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs survey.
(n.d.) pp.4-5.
2. Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs survey.
(n.d.) p.5.
3. Revelations Pty Ltd., Redcliffe Library Survey. Redcliffe City Council. 1997
4. Mercer, Colin. Navigating the economy of knowledge. 1995. p.10.
7. Thompson, Jan. Auckland Public Library: survey of citizen satisfaction. APLIS 5(2). June 1992. P.88.
8. Logan City Council. Libraries survey. 1995.
9. Palmour, V.E. et al. A planning process for public libraries. 1980. p.32.
10. Maroochy Shire Library Service. Community survey.1995.
11. Logan City Council. Libraries survey. 1995.
12. Sutherland Shire Council. Customer survey. (n.d.)
13. Sutherland Shire Council. Customer survey. (n.d.)
14. Logan City Council. Libraries survey. 1995.
15. Logan City Council. Libraries survey. 1995.
16. Logan City Council. Libraries survey. 1995.
17. Sutherland Shire Council. Customer survey. (n.d.)
18. Revelations Pty Ltd. Redcliffe Library survey. Redcliffe City Council. 1997.
19., Council of Queensland Government Corporate Libraries. Guide to developing a user needs survey.
(n.d.) P.L.S.




State Library of Queensland                                                                   Version 1.0

								
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