Latino Children and Families in Oregon Challenges and Promises

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					Latino Children and Families in Oregon:
        Challenges and Promise


       Charles R. Martinez, Jr., Ph.D.
             Formative Studies
• Latino Youth Survey
  –   Community and youth directed school survey project
  –   Mentoring component
  –   Instruments designed by students
  –   Data analyses and presentation conducted by youth
  –   N = 563 Latino and non-Latino youth and parents

• Latino Youth and Family Empowerment (LYFE-I)
  – Three-year intervention development and feasibility study
    (NIDA R21)
  – N = 73 families (two parents and focal middle-schooler)
  – Articulation of intervention adaptation model
         Formative Studies (cont.)
• Adolescent Latino Acculturation Study (ALAS)
  – 5-year prospective longitudinal study (NIDA R01)
  – N = 225 recently immigrated Latino families
  – Captures data across 14 years of time in residency cross-
    sectionally and follows individual families for three years
  – Multiple methods and agents (including family observations)

• LYFE-II
  – Randomized efficacy trial with longitudinal follow-up
    (NIDA R01)
  – Five waves of assessment with two year follow-up
  – N = 240 families (mixed family structure types)
  – Blocked by adolescent nativity
  Context matters…


in understanding impact of
 system-level challenges
      Context of Immigration
• Heterogeneity of immigration experiences
  – Reason for immigration
  – Length of stay expectations
• Legal status is complex
• Regional effects and segmented
  assimilation
• National political environment
                                 National Perspective
     • 47 million Latinos in U.S. (15.5% of
       population)
     • 55% of adult population estimated to be
       citizens (higher for youth)
     • Of estimated 45% of non-citizen adults,
       45% are legal residents
     • 53% of all Latinos worry that they, a family
       member, or close friend could be deported
Source: Pew Hispanic Center (2007). National Survey of Latinos
                             Oregon Public School
                             Minority Enrollment
  90,000
  80,000              Hispanic (+211%)
  70,000              African American (+37%)
                      American Indian (+27%)
  60,000
                      Asian/Pac. Islander (+64%)
  50,000
                   White (-10%)
  40,000
  30,000
  20,000
  10,000
         0
             3

                      4

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           -9

                    -9

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         92

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                                   95

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                                                     97

                                                             98

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                                                                                      01

                                                                                             02

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Source: Oregon Report Card 2005-2006: An Annual Report to the Oregon
Legislature on Oregon Public Schools. Oregon Department of Education.
     Sociodemographic Features of
       Latino Families in Oregon
•   80-95% of adults are recent immigrants
•   Average age of 29 years when adults arrived in U.S.
•   16% arrive in U.S. alone
•   95% of adults are monolingual Spanish speaking
•   95% trace family roots to Mexico
•   At least 55% of youth born in the U.S.
•   Most youth are bilingual
       Socioeconomic Context
• Large percapita yearly income disparity ($5973
  vs. $13,527)
• 63% of families send money home
• 70% of adults have education of eighth grade or
  less
• 76% receive no financial assistance
• 64% come to U.S. for better opportunities
• 61% also indicate work as major reason for
  immigration
       Results of Rapid Growth
•    Social, health, education, and political systems
     are unprepared leading to discrimination and
     access problems

•    Latino youth at greater risk for:
    – Substance use, delinquency, depression, and
       suicidality (especially U.S. born and highly
       acculturated youth)
    – Juvenile justice system involvement
    – School dropout
                Behavioral
Sociocultural
                 Health
  Context
                Outcomes
                  Family
                Environment




                              Behavioral
Sociocultural
                               Health
  Context
                              Outcomes
Acculturation Gap

  KIDS


      PARENTS
                          Differential Acculturation
                          Predicting Substance Use
                     e4                                              e1        R² =.14
                              R² = .01
                                                                                                                                  .22*
                                                                    -.25*             Effective
                               Family/Cultural                                        Parenting
                                  Stress                                               Factor                       Youth                Youth
                                                                                                                  U.S.Nativity         Americanism



                                                                                                                                  1t




                                                                                                                    1*
                            .09                               *)                              -.27*
                                                         9*                    .1 6                                            -.2




                                                                                                                - .2
                                                    (-.2                           t( .2
                                         -.   2 7**                                     0*)
                                                                                                                                            .65
                                                                                                                                 Tobacco          e2




                                                                                                                           1
                                                                                                                         .8
                 Youth-Parent                                                                         Youth
                 Americanism                                       .15(.32*)                      Substance Use
                     Gap                                                                            Likelihood                              .77
                                                                                                                         .88      Alcohol         e3
                                                                                                      R² =.34

              2 (4) = 1.92, p = .75, CFI = 1.00, tp < .10, *p < .05, **p < .01                                  d1



       Martinez, C. R., Jr., (2005). Effects of differential family acculturation on Latino youngsters’ substance use. Paper submitted, Family
Relations.
         Intervention Curriculum
•   Latino Roots, Values, and Strengths
•   Latino Parent and Spouse Roles
•   Effective Family Communication
•   Family Problem Solving
•   Coping with Acculturation Stress and Conflict
•   Giving Good Directions
•   Skill Encouragement
•   Discipline and Limit Setting
•   Monitoring and Supervision
•   Promoting School Success
•   Dealing with Structural Barriers
•   Planning for the Future
        Intervention Foundations
•   Family empowerment
•   Therapist as “entrenador”
•   Focus on practicing skills in session
•   Family tailoring through trial and error
•   Home practice
•   Social support
Bridging Cultures
                LYFE Intervention Outcomes
        • Intervention related improvements in parenting practices:
                – General Parenting, F(1,51) = 3.53*
                – Skill Encouragement, F(1,51) = 3.83*
                – Overall Effective Parenting, F(1,51) = 2.79*
        • Intervention related improvements in youngster outcomes:
                –    Aggression, F(1,50) = 5.40*
                –    Externalizing, F(1,50) = 5.30*
                –    Likelihood of smoking, F(1,50) = 2.85*
                –    Likelihood of marijuana and other drug use, F(1,50) = 2.04t
        • 3-way interactions with nativity status:
                – Appropriate Discipline, F(1,51) = 5.04*
                – Skill Encouragement, F(1,51) = 3.64*
                – Depression, F(1,50) = 8.32**

   Martinez, C. R., Jr., & Eddy, J. M. (2005). Effects of culturally adapted parent management training on Latino youth behavioral health
outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(4), 841-851.