HydroVisions Newsletter - Fall 2004 by wuxiangyu


									     Volume 13, No. 3                           GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION                                                        Fall 2004
                                                                 OF CALIFORNIA

           ClO4- 2004 Symposium Profiles Latest    INSIDE
        Developments on Perchlorate in Groundwater President’s Message                                                                          2

                          BY THOMAS K.G. MOHR, WITH CONTRIBUTIONS                                Upcoming Events                                3
                                                                                                 Technical Corner                               4

              early 300 groundwater
              professionals from 16                                                              California Legislative Corner                  5
              states attended the
     August 4th Symposium, ClO4-                                                                 California Regulatory Corner                   6
     2004:Perchlorate in California’s
     Groundwater,        the     11th
     Symposium in GRA’s Series on                                                                Federal Legislative/Regulatory Corner          7
     Groundwater Contaminants.
     The meeting was held at the                                                                 Education Corner                               8
     Glendale Hilton Hotel, with
     experts      from     academia,                                                             Alliance Corner                               10
     consulting, regulatory and
                                       Ralph Beck of Komex H20 Science presents an
     water utility agencies, and local
     governments presenting recent
                                       overview of southern California perchlorate sites.        Organizational Corner                         12
     findings in a wide range of                   moderators, may be found online at
     topics. The Southern California Branch        http://www.grac.org/ClO4_2004_Article.pdf.
     held a dinner meeting the evening prior,                                                    100 years. At several key perchlorate
                                                                                                 contamination sites, fertilizer has been
     featuring a comprehensive overview on         Perchlorate Forensics                         suggested as a possible second source of
     perchlorate by Dr. Bill Motzer of D.K.
     Todd Engineers.                               Three talks by Richard Hurst (Hurst &         perchlorate impacting groundwater.
                                                   Assoc.), Max Coleman (CalTech-JPL), and       However, subtle shifts in the ratio of two
        Due to space limitations, this article     Neil Sturchio (UI Chicago), featured          strontium isotopes, 87Sr/86Sr, can be used
     presents only a sampling of the many          forensic techniques using naturally           to distinguish the naturally occurring
     excellent presentations made. A longer        occurring stable isotopes of chloride,        perchlorate found in the Atacama from
     article, summarizing the conference and       strontium, oxygen, and hydrogen. Shifts in    industrially generated perchlorate used in
     including contributions from the session      the mass ratios of rare isotopes to           propellant formulations.
                                                   abundant isotopes can be leveraged to
                                                                                                    Dr. Sturchio presented data from Bao
                                                   distinguish source waters and different
                                                                                                 and Gu’s publication (ES&T, 2004 – in
                                                   sources of perchlorate. An isotope of
                                                                                                 press) showing that natural perchlorate has
                                                   chloride, 37Cl, becomes enriched by up to
The Groundwater Resources Association                                                            a pronounced 17O excess, suggesting that
                                                   50% during biodegradation of perchlorate,
                                                                                                 perchlorate occurrence in the Atacama
of California is dedicated to resource             and different perchlorate production
                                                                                                 desert may have an atmospheric origin due
management that protects and improves              processes may produce different 37Cl mass
                                                                                                 to upper atmosphere ozonation or other
groundwater through education and                  ratios due to isotope fractionation that
                                                                                                 natural processes. Widespread occurrence
                                                   occurs during crystallization.
technical leadership.                                                                            of perchlorate in groundwater at
                                                       The Atacama Desert in Chile is the        concentrations as high as 50 ppb across the
                                                   source of sodium nitrate (“Bulldog Soda”)     Texas panhandle and portions of New
                                                   fertilizer, exported to US growers for over
                                                                                                                         Continued on page 14
                              President’s Message                                                                                        HYDROVISIONS is the official publication
                                                                                                                                         of the Groundwater Resources Association of
                                                                                                                                         California (GRA). GRA’s mailing address is 915
                                                                                                                                         L Street, Suite 1000, Sacramento, CA 95814.
                              BY TOM JOHNSON                                                                                             Any questions or comments concerning this
                                                                                                                                         publication should be directed to the
                                                                                                                                         newsletter editor at editor@grac.org or faxed
                                                                                                                                         to (916) 442-0382.

                                                                                                                                                       EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
“Paradigm Shift”                                                      Madison, expanding an existing landfill in                                   President, Thomas M. Johnson
                                                                                                                                                         LFR Levine Fricke
                                                                      San Diego, or “cleaning up” an old one in

                                                                                                                                                       Phone: 510-652-4500
         raveling so much during the past 25                          Portland. There have been articles by an                                      Email: tom.johnson@lfr.com
         years, I have accumulated more than a                        investigative    journalist     on    MTBE                                     Vice President, Tom Mohr
         million miles on at least one airline.                       contamination at a gas station in Kansas                                    Santa Clara Valley Water District
Most of this travel has been in the U.S., much                        City; TCE from a semiconductor facility in
                                                                                                                                                         Tel: 408-265-2607
                                                                                                                                                   Email: tmohr@valleywater.org
of it associated with teaching at various                             San Jose; or, most recently, Prozac from a                                   Treasurer, Robert A. Van Valer
seminars for NGWA or visiting various                                 pharmaceutical plant in Berlin. Certainly,                                       Roscoe Moss Company
company offices and clients in Boston, Los                            there were also periodic articles about water                                       Tel: 323-263-4111
                                                                                                                                                 Email: rvanvaler@roscoemoss.com
Angeles, Chicago, Honolulu, San Francisco,                            shortages or drought, especially in certain
Nashville, Denver and countless other cities.                         parts of the country; and those stories were
                                                                                                                                                     Secretary, Jim Strandberg
                                                                                                                                                        Malcolm Pirnie, Inc.
One thing I usually have been able to count                           often front-page news in the areas that were                                       Tel: 510-735-3020
                                                                                                                                                   Email: jstrandberg@pirnie.com
on in my travels it seems, regardless of the                          most impacted. However, at that time, it
city, is an article in the local newspaper that                       seemed water contamination made better                                                DIRECTORS
day about some environmental issue.                                   front-page news than water shortage.                                          David Abbott, Todd Engineers
                                                                                                                                                         Tel: 510-595-2120
    For decades these articles commonly                                                                                                              Email: jorysue@msn.com
related to concerns about waste disposal and                          Water Wars
                                                                                                                                                 Jim Carter, EMAX Laboratories, Inc.
groundwater contamination, frequently                                 Things have changed since then. For the past                                   Tel: 310-618-8889, ext. 105
                                                                                                                                                    Email: jcarter@emaxlabs.com
reflecting the paradox of trying to address                           year or so I have been collecting news articles
too many sites and issues with too little                             from various cities across the U.S. that have                            Susan Garcia, Colin L. Powell Academy
                                                                                                                                                        Tel: 310-631-8794
money, whether at the national or local level.                        one common theme, an increased awareness                                       Email: ssgarcia55cs.com
However, during this past year I have noticed                         of the challenges facing property owners,                                 Stephanie Hastings, Hatch & Parent
a change in reporting, in both local and                              water purveyors and government at all levels                                      Tel: 805-882-1415
                                                                                                                                                Email: shastings@hatchparent.com
national news. Groundwater supply                                     in finding, providing, managing and
problems and challenges are now front-page                            controlling adequate supplies of clean,                               Jim Jacobs, Environmental Bio-Systems, Inc.
                                                                                                                                                         Tel: 415-381-5195
news, with an even more important challenge                           sustainable water. Recent headlines include:                                Email: augerpro@sbcglobal.net
of providing clean, sustainable water                                 “Sweetheart Water Deals- New Studies Warn                                Vicki Kretsinger, Luhdorff & Scalmanini
resources to dramatically increasing                                  of Water Scarcity” (Sacramento Bee), “Water                                         Tel: 530-661-0109
                                                                                                                                                    Email: Vkretsinger@lsce.com
populations.                                                          District Calls it Quits” (San Diego North
                                                                                                                                                            Brian Lewis
                                                                      County Times), “Grand Jury Urges New                                   Cal/EPA, Dept. of Toxic Substances Control
Love Canal to Prozac                                                  Ground Water Plan” (Santa Rosa Press                                              Tel: 916-255-6532
                                                                                                                                                    Email: blewis@dtsc.ca.gov
In the late 1970s, front pages carried stories                        Democrat), “Water Supply Critical Limit to
                                                                      Development” (Chicago Tribune), “Water                               Tim Parker, CA Department of Water Resources
about New York’s Love Canal, the Valley of                                                                                                               Tel: 916-651-9224
the Drums in Kentucky, or PCBs in Missouri;                           Transfer Raises Flags” (Monterey County                                      Email: tparker@water.ca.gov
this was followed by a decade or more of                              Herald), “Water, Water Everywhere and Not                                Bill Pipes, Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
stories chronicling the efforts of Congress                           a Drop to Drink?,” “Nevada’s Plan to                                                Tel: 559-264-2535
                                                                                                                                                    Email: wpipes@geomatrix.com
and U.S. EPA to implement CERCLA, which                               Develop the Desert” (Los Angeles Times),
                                                                      and, to top them all, “Scientists say Risk of                              Sarah Raker, RWQCB, SFB Region
was to provide funds to “clean up” these                                                                                                                Tel: 510-622-2377
sites; and RCRA, to provide “cradle to                                Water Wars Rising”(Reuters-Stockholm).                                       Email: slr@rb2.swrcb.ca.gov
grave” care for hazardous wastes. There were                          These articles all describe critical concerns                             Martin Steinpress, Brown & Caldwell
local stories about siting a new landfill in                                                                                                             Tel: 925-937-9010
                                                                                                    Continued on page 17                        Email: msteinpress@brwncald.com

                                                                                                                                                      EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
                                                                                                                                                           Kathy Snelson
The statements and opinions expressed in GRA’s HydroVisions and other publications are those of the authors and/or contributors,         (916) 446-3626 - Email: executive_director@grac.org
and are not necessarily those of the GRA, its Board of Directors, or its members. Further, GRA makes no claims, promises, or
guarantees about the absolute accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the contents of this publication and expressly disclaims
liability for errors and omissions in the contents. No warranty of any kind, implied or expressed, or statutory, is given with respect                      Floyd Flood
to the contents of this publication or its references to other resources. Reference in this publication to any specific commercial                     Email: editor@grac.org
products, processes, or services, or the use of any trade, firm, or corporation name is for the information and convenience of the
public, and does not constitute endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the GRA, its Board of Directors, or its members.                     WEB AND DATABASE MANAGER
                                                                                                                                                    Kevin Blatt, ihappi Web Design
                                                                                                                                           Tel: (510) 845-9623 - Email: grac@inreach.com

     Arsenic in                                                        Upcoming Events
   Groundwater:                                                                 GRA Proudly Presents:
Impacts on a Critical                                The 13th Symposium in the Series on
     Resource                                             Groundwater Contaminants
   October 18-19 in Fresno, CA
                                                  Investigation and Remediation of Dry Cleaner Release Sites
                                             NOVEMBER 10TH, 2004 – RADISSON HOTEL, NEWPORT BEACH, CALIFORNIA

        roundwater. A critical resource.

        Possibly the most critical local             ry cleaner operations are as            will feature new speakers focusing on
        resource in the Western U.S.                 ubiquitous as gas stations, yet         technologies for rapid and effective
Here in California and the West, we are              the well-documented potential           screening         and      subsurface
increasingly relying on groundwater for      for dry cleaners using perchloroethylene        characterization of former and current
our     domestic,     industrial,   and      (PCE) to impact soil and groundwater            operations, forensic techniques for
agricultural water supply as water           has not been met with a commensurate            identifying contributors to PCE
demand increases and surface water           regulatory response for water quality           contamination, and a wide variety of
supplies decrease. As more surface           protection. Unlike your corner gas              innovative technologies for the
water is mandated for environmental          station leaking underground storage             remediation of PCE releases from dry
purposes and as drought conditions           tank site, California currently has             cleaners. Case studies from Southern
strangle the West, groundwater and our       neither regulations nor funding                 California and other dry cleaner release
alluvial aquifers become our insurance,      mechanisms for the detection and clean          sites will be featured, representing the
as we bank it, store it, and pump it to      up of dry cleaner release sites.                gamut of challenges posed by dry
augment surface water supplies. In                                                           cleaner releases in both drinking water
                                                 Typically, dry cleaner releases are         and air quality. Panel discussions will
California, 30% of our water supply is
                                             only discovered in the course of Phase II       include     regulators,     consultants,
from groundwater, up to 40% in dry
                                             investigations for property transactions,       research scientists, attorneys, water
years. That number could be up to
                                             or when PCE shows up in nearby                  purveyors, and dry cleaning industry
60% within 20 years as the state’s
                                             groundwater         monitoring       wells.     representatives.
population is estimated to increase by
                                             Unfortunately, the first indication of a
two-thirds.                                                                                     The Symposium Planning Committee
                                             dry cleaner release has too often been
    Enter arsenic. An odorless, tasteless,   the detection of PCE in water supply            has issued a Call for Papers & Posters.
naturally occurring and ubiquitous           wells. While dry cleaners are held to           For additional questions, please feel free
element on earth. Arsenic is present in      stringent regulatory standards for air          to call the Committee co-chairs Alistaire
groundwater, in some cases, due to           emissions, sewer discharges, and                Callender, 714-278-0992 x3015, or
human activity, but primarily because        hazardous materials handling, there are         Jim Carter, 310-618-8889 x105.
there are many natural sources of            currently no California regulations             Information on exhibiting, sponsoring,
arsenic, including over 100 rocks and        requiring ongoing monitoring of ground-         or attending this event may be obtained
minerals that contain it. We have long       water to detect releases from dry cleaners.     at www.grac.org or by calling GRA at
been aware that very high levels of                                                          916-446-3626.
                                                 GRA will be hosting a one-day
arsenic are poisonous to humans, but
                                             technical and policy seminar focusing
recent studies are showing that chronic
                                             upon dry cleaner impacts to
exposures to much lower levels of
                                             groundwater and indoor air. The event
arsenic also can cause human health
                                             will further examine issues profiled at
effects. The pertinent federal and state
                                             another GRA Symposium by the same
regulatory agencies have responded to
                                             title held on April 7th, 2004 in
this health threat by lowering the
                                             Sacramento, where we had over 260
drinking water standard for arsenic.
                                             attendees from 18 states. This seminar
                  Continued on page 17

 Fate and Transport                                                    Technical Corner
 of Pharmaceuticals                           http://www.ngwa.org/publication/gwmr/      These developments have brought the
    and Endocrine                             2004-02foreward.shtml.                     issues pertaining to fate and transport of
                                                                                         these compounds to the attention of
      Disrupting                              Overview
                                              Releases of pharmaceuticals to the
                                                                                         regulators and consumers. California
                                                                                         has shown a strong interest in these

 Compounds During                             environment are likely to continue as
                                              the human population increases and
                                                                                         issues and is considering adopting
                                                                                         regulations that would require
                                                                                         operators of groundwater recharge
     Groundwater                              ages, new drugs are formulated and
                                              promoted, and more wastewater is
                                              generated. EDCs are of particular
                                                                                         (reuse) programs to perform annual
                                                                                         monitoring of EDCs. Florida also has
       Recharge                               concern as these can interfere with
                                              metabolism and elimination of
                                                                                         shown interest in establishing
                                                                                         regulations pertaining to injection of
                                                                                         gray water for the purposes of reuse.
     BY ROBERT W. MASTERS,                    hormones in the body. Residues and
                                                                                         Nevertheless, it may take anywhere
   INGRID M. VERSTRAETEN, AND                 metabolites of pharmaceuticals and
                                                                                         from years to decades to establish new
        THOMAS HEBERER                        EDCs have been detected in untreated
                                                                                         drinking water regulations as the
                                              and treated waste water at sewage
                                                                                         sources, occurrence, and fate and
                                              treatment plants and in surface waters
                                                                                         transport of these compounds are better
                                              receiving sewage effluents. Residues of

        ne      important        emerging                                                understood, and our understanding of
        groundwater issue is the              selected pharmaceuticals have also been
                                                                                         the effects of exposure to these
        occurrence, fate, and transport       detected at low concentrations in
                                                                                         compounds on human health improves.
of pharmaceuticals and endocrine              ground and drinking water.
disrupting compounds (EDCs) in the
                                              Research Under Way                         Contents of Special GWMR Issue
environment. Some pharmaceuticals
are not completely metabolized after                                                     The special GWMR issue contains
                                              Research is under way in several
consumption by humans or animals and                                                     papers discussing persistence of
                                              countries to evaluate waste water
are excreted in their original form, while                                               pharmaceuticals and organic waste
                                              treatment processes and their potential
others are transformed into other                                                        water compounds and pathogens during
                                              for removing pharmaceuticals and
compounds (conjugates). Many of the                                                      recharge; fate and transport of selected
                                              EDCs. Moreover, waste water reuse has
conjugates may be cleaved to release the                                                 pharmaceuticals and estrogenic steroids
                                              become a focal point in managing water
parent compound during the physical                                                      during bank filtration or artificial
                                              resources in order to provide sufficient
and chemical treatment of sewage.                                                        groundwater recharge; estrogenic
                                              drinking water supplies worldwide. In
                                                                                         activity originating from waste water
   This National Ground Water                 the past, waste water reuse was thought
                                                                                         effluents in groundwater at recharge
Association (NGWA) article provides           to be a water resources issue limited to
                                                                                         sites; the degradation of selected EDCs
excerpts from the Forward written for a       the southwestern United States.
                                                                                         during SAT/ASR; the biological
special issue of Ground Water                 Recently, however, reuse of gray water
                                                                                         attenuation of selected EDCs,
Monitoring & Remediation (GWMR)               has become a focal point in the
                                                                                         pharmaceuticals, and personal care
(Spring 2004; Volume 24, No. 2). The          southeastern and even northeastern
                                                                                         products using biologically active sand
special issue contains papers that evaluate   United States during periods of extreme
                                                                                         and continuous flow simulated ASR
the effect of groundwater recharge            drought. SAT, aquifer storage and
                                                                                         experiments; and other related topics.
techniques, on the fate and transport of      recovery (ASR) projects, or direct
                                                                                         Increased water demand and reuse of
pharmaceuticals and EDCs, and was             injection of waste water are the most
                                                                                         waste water for industrial and drinking
made possible by NGWA’s Third                 common processes employed for
                                                                                         water require that environmental and
International        Conference         on    conditioning of waste water to create
                                                                                         human health scientists, regulators, and
Pharmaceuticals        and      Endocrine     drinking water. Finally, urban growth
                                                                                         consumers improve the understanding
Disrupting Compounds in Water held in         has led to concerns pertaining to
                                                                                         of the fate and transport of
Minneapolis, Minnesota, in March 2003.        contamination of domestic drinking
                                                                                         pharmaceuticals and EDCs in the near
For the complete Forward, including           water due to releases of contaminants
                                                                                         future, ultimately conveying this
numerous references on pharmaceuticals        such      as    microorganisms      and
                                                                                         information to resource managers and
and EDC findings and issues, see              pharmaceuticals from septic systems.
                                                                                                            Continued on page 18

     California                                       California Legislative Corner
Performance Review                         part of the roundtable discussion. We       consolidating state government into 11
     GRA TO WEIGH IN ON CPR                will draft initial comments on behalf of
                                           GRA based on the public hearings and
                                                                                       departments and eliminating nearly 120
                                                                                       of the state’s 300 boards and
                                           Annual Meeting session, and post them       commissions. The report focuses on
                                           on the website for your further             making California government more
                                           comments before they are finalized and      customer        service focused    and
                                           sent to the Commission.                     streamlining government to eliminate

        RA      is    attending    and
        participating in the California
                                           Short Summary                                  Three of the 11 departments will
        Performance Review (CPR)           The California Performance Review’s         house all water and environmental
hearings, providing comments on CPR,       recently released report recommendations,   programs. These departments include:
and is available to provide technical      if fully implemented, are described as      Infrastructure,      Environmental
opinions and assistance on any             saving Californians over $32 billion        Protection, and Natural Resources.
implementation measures to ensure the      dollars in the next five years. These       Through this consolidation the
protection and management of our           savings would be achieved by                                 Continued on page 18
State’s groundwater resources.
   Our Legislative Advocates, Hatch &
Parent, have provided a Preliminary
Overview of the CPR Report (a
complete copy is available on the GRA
                                                           Legislative Committee Update
webpage), and are attending the CPR

hearings to collect more information as       n May, the Committee led the             groundwater policy and practices could
the public review process develops. The       Annual GRA Legislative Symposium         be improved or harmed. Given the far-
Legislative Committee will also hold a        at the State Capitol. During our         reaching impacts of CPR, the
session on the CPR Report at the           June meeting, the Committee debriefed       Committee asked our Legislative
Annual Meeting in September. Chris         the Legislative Symposium and               Advocates to attend the hearings; we
Reynolds, CPR Team Leader for the          concluded that it was a great success; we   plan to provide comments on the CPR
Resource Conservation and Protection       had a good turnout of members and a         Report on behalf of GRA (comments
Team will provide an overview on the       number of very successful meetings with     will include issues identified during our
Report’s recommendations and be            our State legislators. The Committee        roundtable discussion on September 25
available to answer questions. We will     also received an update on water and        at the GRA Annual Meeting). The
also have what promises to be a lively     groundwater related legislation from        Committee also received an update on
roundtable discussion with panel           our Legislative Advocates. The              water and groundwater related
participants including Senator Denise      Committee began to plan for the             legislation (see the GRA website for an
Ducheny, a member of the CPR               legislative session of the Annual           end of the year report).
Commission; Gail Delihant, Legislative     Meeting in September 2004 and selected         For information on the legislative
Director for Assemblymember Greg           the California Performance Review to        issues GRA is monitoring, link to
Aghazarian; Richard Katz, State Water      be the focus of the session.                www.grac.org and click on Legislative
Resources Control Board Member;               During our August meeting, the           and Regulatory Update. For the most
David Spath, Ph.D., Chief, Division of     Committee discussed the preliminary         recent changes to a bill or for other
Drinking Water and Environmental           analysis of the CPR Report provided by      legislative information go to the
Management, Department of Health           our Legislative Advocates. The              Legislature’s         portal       at
Services; Sujatha Jahagidar, Legislative   preliminary analysis is posted on the       http://www.legislature.ca.gov/.
Advocate, Clean Water Program,             GRA website, and summarized in a
Environment California; and, Rob                                                          Questions?        Contact GRA’s
                                           separate article in this issue of HV. The   Legislative Advocates, Chris Frahm and
Saperstein, Water Practice Group           Committee discussed some of the many
Leader, Hatch & Parent.                                                                Jennifer Carbuccia, at Hatch & Parent
                                           CPR Report’s proposed government            (assistant@hatchparent.com).
  We will also take your questions and     structural modifications that could
welcome input from the membership as       occur in California, and how water and

     CCGO Highlights                                   California Regulatory Corner

                                                            California Water Plan Update
        he recent document, “California
        Performance Review” (CPR
                                                                        BY KAMYAR GUIVETCHI, P.E.
        Report) has triggered a number
of concerned inquiries from CCGO
members, GRA, and the Association of

                                                   o continue to be relevant to          California’s regions in water planning
Engineering Geologists (AEG). GRA’s                California water policy, the          and project implementation; (2) the
Legislative Advocates have done a                  process for developing the Water      evolving role of State Government;
preliminary       analysis     of    this   Plan Update and the information it           (3) rehabilitating aging water
controversial report, and have posted it    contains must change — and is                infrastructure; (4) diversifying regional
on the GRA website, www.grac.org,           changing. The Water Plan is becoming         strategies for water management; and 5)
and written a short summary article in      a strategic planning document that           improving data and analytical tools to
this issue of HV. The three California      better reflects the roles of the State and   reduce uncertainty and risk.
Sections of AEG (Southern California,       the growing role of regionally-based
San Francisco, and Sacramento                                                               DWR plans to distribute the Public
                                            integrated resource planning in              Review Draft in October 2004 and a
Sections) have established a team to        California water management.
study      the     CPR       to     make                                                 Final California Water Plan in March
recommendations to members for a               In Jan 2001, Department of Water          2005. Information on the Water Plan is
course of action. CCGO has sent out an      Resources      (DWR)     significantly       available at www.waterplan.water.ca.
email to organizational, business, and      expanded the public forum for                gov/b160/indexb160.html .
individual members informing them of        preparing the California Water Plan,            Kamyar Guivetchi, P.E., is currently
the general provisions of interest to all   including an Advisory Committee (AC)         the Manager of Statewide Water
geoscientists, and of the provisions with   (65), Extended Review Forum (350),           Planning, Department of Water
respect to the licensure board. The         and other interested members of the          Resources. He was appointed Manager
email requests their level of interest in   public (2000). The AC and DWR have           of DWR’s Statewide Water Planning
the issues surrounding the CPR, and for     developed a new planning framework           Branch in November 2000, and during
input on concerns from their                for preparing this and future Water          his 26 years with DWR, he has worked
membership.                                 Plans, which includes comprehensive          on projects with the Office of State
                                            Water Portfolios, Regional Reports,          Water Project Planning, and most
   A notice has also been sent out to       multiple Future Scenarios, and 25
California AEG members asking for                                                        recently the Division of Environmental
                                            Resource Management Strategies.              Services as Program Manager of DWR’s
input. AEG plans to have speakers at
the September 17 meeting of the CPR            Key themes emerging in the Water          Suisun Marsh Program.
Review Panel in Fresno to express its       Plan include: (1) the central role of
position. More information will be
posted on the CCGO website
www.ccgo.org, as it becomes available.
   Jane H. Gill-Shaler, RG (CA and
NC) is the Executive Director of
CCGO.       She can be reached at
                                                              DWR Awards AB303 Grants

                                                   he California Department of Water Resources (DWR) recently announced the
                                                   award of the Fiscal Year 2003-2004 grants under the Local Groundwater
                                                   Assistance Program (AB303). A total of $6.2 million was awarded in amounts
                                            up to a maximum of $250,000 each to a total of 28 water agencies. The money can
                                            be used for groundwater data collection, modeling, monitoring and management
                                            studies; monitoring programs and installation of equipment; basin management; and
                                            development of information management systems. The FY 2004-2005 funding cycle
                                            will begin in Fall 2004. For more information, go to www.grantsloans.

 Current Happenings                                   Federal Legislative/Regulatory
   at the Federal
     Government                                                USGS and the Private Sector

                                                      hroughout the 125-year history        including water supplies available from
12 Federal Agencies Collaborate                       of the U.S. Geological Survey         rivers and aquifers, patterns of water
to Create Science Portal                              (USGS), collaboration with State      use, quality of water in relation to
                                              and local government agencies has been        human health, hazards from floods and

     cience.gov, made possible through        fundamental to our mission of                 droughts, and quantity and quality of
     the collaboration of 12 major            providing reliable scientific information     water to meet ecological needs.
     science agencies, is the gateway to      to describe and understand the Earth;
reliable information about science and                                                          Historically, the CWP has worked
                                              minimize loss of life and property from       closely with water-resource agencies at
technology from across federal                natural disasters; manage water,
government organizations.          While                                                    all levels of government to set priorities
                                              biological, energy, and mineral               for work and funding activities. In
retaining the content and advances            resources; and enhance and protect our
originally unveiled in December 2002,                                                       collaborating      with     our     many
                                              quality of life. The collaborative            stakeholders, the USGS often addresses
now Version 2.0 will search 47 million        relationship related to water resources
pages of government R&D results,                                                            issues that have private sector
                                              was officially recognized by Congress in      involvement as well. As a result, we
rapidly returning focused and relevant        1895 with the establishment of the
information for users. For more                                                             continually assess what activities are
                                              Federal-State Cooperative Program (now        appropriate in fulfilling our mission and
information, go to http://www.science.gov.    known as the Cooperative Water                which are more appropriate for
                                              Program or CWP). Central to the CWP           commercial consulting firms. First and
Source Water Protection and Underground       is: (1) recognition that governments at       foremost, the USGS undertakes projects
Storage Tanks: Program Integration and        all levels share a common interest in         that support our role as the principal
Partnership Opportunity                       obtaining reliable data to better             Federal provider of hydrologic data,
                                              understand water resources that are           scientific theory, research, and new
EPA’s Offices of Ground Water and             critical to human and ecological needs,       technology for the Nation. In order to
Drinking Water and Underground                and (2) recognition that water-resources      avoid competition with the private
Storage Tanks are working together to         information developed jointly by the          sector, projects undertaken with funding
reduce the risks of underground storage       USGS and non-Federal cooperators is of        partners must align with the broader
tanks to drinking water sources. A July       great value to the public at large, and       mission goals of the CWP, which
2004       joint     memo       outlined      must be made publicly accessible. This        include:
recommended actions to determine              common interest is reflected in the CWP
whether USTs are one of the risks to          by jointly funding data collection and           expanding knowledge of the regional
drinking water sources in their Region,       interpretive studies conducted by the            hydrologic system;
and to coordinate work to make the            USGS. For much of the history of the             advancing field        or    analytical
best use of resources and increase public     CWP, the cost-share ratio was 50:50.             methodology;
health protection.           For more         During the last decade, however, the
information, see: http://www.epa.gov/         proportion of Federal funding has                increasing scientific understanding of
safewater/protect/pdfs/memo_swp_usts          declined in comparison to the non-               hydrologic processes;
wppartnership.pdf.                            Federal share, resulting in a current cost-      providing data or results useful to
                                              share ratio of 33:67. In 2003, the CWP           multiple parties in potentially
Handbook of Groundwater Protection and        involved about 1,400 State, local, and           litigious inter-jurisdictional conflicts
Cleanup Policies for RCRA Corrective Action   Tribal cooperators, and funded about             over water resources;
                                              4,200 streamgaging stations and 750
The Handbook of Groundwater                   interpretive projects. These projects            delivering hydrologic data required
Protection…contains EPA’s latest              focus on hydrologic issues with broad            for interstate and international
interpretation of policies on such topics     regional or national public interest,                           Continued on page 19
                  Continued on page 18

                                                                    Education Corner
                          Awesome Aquifers for Science Olympiad
                                  BY SHARON LIEN, THE GROUNDWATER FOUNDATION

     tudents throughout the country will    competition, students use their models to  the complexity of an aquifer, and that it
     be learning about groundwater by       demonstrate an understanding of the        is an important water source. In fact,
     building model aquifers as part of     hydrologic cycle, the physical makeup of   more than 85 percent of the students
The Groundwater Foundation’s new            an aquifer and changes to the              indicated that the event influenced them
Science Olympiad event “Awesome             groundwater system. Students can earn      to conserve or protect groundwater.
Aquifers.” Science Olympiad is an           bonus points for demonstrating possible
                                                                                                        Because of the success
international program that                                                                          and enthusiasm of the
encourages middle and high                                                                          students at this past year’s
school students to learn an                                                                         events, Awesome Aquifers
area of science and then                                                                            has been accepted as an
compete as individuals and                                                                          official Science Olympiad
teams at local, state and                                                                           middle school event for the
national        tournaments.                                                                        next three school years.
During the last school year,                                                                        This is a particularly
approximately two million                                                                           important development
students at 14,000 schools                                                                          because it is an opportunity
from all 50 states and                                                                              to teach some of the
Canada participated in                                                                              nation’s brightest young
Science Olympiad. Events                                                                            scientists about a resource
cover all science disciplines,                                                                      that is critical to human
and include both paper tests                                                                        and environmental health
and events that require                                                                             at a time when earth
students to build models or Two enthusiastic middle school students experiment with                 science programs are being
demonstrate their abilities to an aquifer model.                                                    reduced in many schools.
use scientific tools. Science
Olympiad, which is typically a school       contamination remediation techniques,         During the next year, The
club, also offers students opportunities to such as using an intervening well to       Groundwater Foundation will be calling
meet and work with working scientists,      intercept a contaminant plume, chemical    on groundwater enthusiasts throughout
who often serve as program mentors or       or physical treatment, or pump and         the country to support the Awesome
event judges.                               aeration treatment. While students are     Aquifers movement. There will be a
                                            required to demonstrate certain            need for people to help promote the
   Because an event on groundwater          concepts, there are almost no restrictions event to Science Olympiad teams in
didn’t exist in the Science Olympiad        on how they build their models, so the     each state and assist at local and state
program, The Groundwater Foundation         event encourages student creativity.       tournaments as event supervisors and
created Awesome Aquifers. This event is                                                judges. For more information on how
designed      to     increase    students’     During the 2003-2004 school year
                                                                                       you can be involved with Awesome
understanding of groundwater concepts       Awesome Aquifers was a trial event at
                                                                                       Aquifers for Science Olympiad, please
by providing hands-on, experience-based     the Missouri and Nebraska State
                                                                                       call The Groundwater Foundation at 1-
groundwater education to students that      Science Olympiad Tournaments, and at
                                                                                       800-858-1844,         email     Sharon@
participate in Science Olympiad             the National Science Olympiad
                                                                                       groundwater.org or visit our website at
tournaments. Prior to the tournament,       Tournament. Students that have
students conduct groundwater research,      participated      in    these      events
then design and build a groundwater         overwhelmingly indicated on the               Sharon Lien is the Education
flow model, according to standardized       evaluation forms that they learned         Development Director of The
Science Olympiad rules. During              about the importance of groundwater,       Groundwater Foundation.

                                                                     Education Corner
                            Susan Garcia, Teacher and GRA Director,
                               Honored for Groundwater Science
     usan Garcia, seventh grade science
     teacher at Powell Academy and
     former professional hydrogeologist,
was recently honored for her outstanding
efforts to bring alive the science of
groundwater for young students. Garcia
was presented the Distinguished Service
Award from the Water Replenishment
District of Southern California. She
involved students in essay and poster
contests about the water cycle, brought
in water experts for school presentations
and organized a field trip to a water
treatment plant, a desalination facility
and a spreading ground for replenishing
    For 14 years Garcia worked as a
                                             Susan Garcia, center, is presented the Distinguished Service Award from WRD.
hydrogeologist, making contaminant
assessments of property and proposing           This article was edited and reprinted   lbusdpio@lbusd.k12.ca.us with questions
remediation efforts for businesses and       from a press release by the Long Beach     or comments.
organizations such as UPS and NASA.          Unified School District. Contact
After being laid off following a downturn
in business, she assessed her corporate
skills in educating and training clients
and put them to use in a north Long
Beach classroom. With five years
experience at Powell, she remains active
in hydrogeology. She is a state registered
geologist and certified hydrogeologist
and serves as a board member of GRA.
   She believes teaching middle school
students gives her maximum opportunity
to affect their lives for the better.
“Whatever happens on the surface
impacts what happens to the
groundwater, now and in the future,” she
said. “Students can realize that
everything is interrelated and that small
changes can have big consequences. With
groundwater—and with life—I want
them to be able to make a benefit/cost
analysis, in order to understand
consequences and be equipped to make
informed decisions.”

       International                                                          Alliance Corner
      Association of
     Hydrogeologists                              California Groundwater Association Notes
           Notes                                              BY MIKE MORTENSSON, CGA EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR

      BY LENNY KONIKOW, IAH                   Concern on Proposed DHS Regulations             is to be aired this fall. The TV show’s
                                                                                              producers selected the home after hearing

                                                      GA and GRA have been working            from the family’s teenage daughter who

       he 33rd Congress of the                        together          to          make      had not had a normal life for six years
       International Association of                   recommendations to DHS on their         since she became allergic to sunlight.
       Hydrogeologists (IAH) will be          proposed Waterworks Standard that
held in Zacatecas City, Mexico, during        includes a section regarding aquifer               High nitrate levels in the water supply
October 11-15, 2004. The overall              capacity testing in hard rock well areas for    required the construction of a new well
theme of the meeting is “Groundwater          public water systems. A task force with         and water system. The task involved five
Flow Understanding: From Local to             contractors and technical members of both       CGA contractors working in concert and
Regional Scales.” The Congress will           CGA and GRA proposed an alternative be          20 manufacturer/supplier members who
also include symposia on transboundary        added to the DHS draft that allows public       provided the needed system components.
aquifers, arsenic in groundwater, and         water systems to utilize the services of a      The entire makeover project was done in
groundwater and metal mining. To find         California registered geologist or a            a week. The family came home on July
out more details about the meeting, go        California licensed engineer with               14th to a new 2000 sq. ft. home, well
to the Congress Web site at:                  groundwater hydrology experience to             system, covered outdoor pool and spa,
http://www.igeograf.unam.mx/aih/.             manage and evaluate aquifer and well tests      entertainment           center     building,
                                              to ascertain well capacity. Although DHS        landscaping and a new septic system. The
    An international conference and field     appeared supportive of such an alternative,     well is a first for the show and they said it
seminar on “Water Resources &                 they have not included it as of this writing.   would be a key element in the storyline.
Environmental Problems in Karst” will         What is in place are basic formula              The show is tentatively set to air on
be held in Belgrade and Kotor, Sept. 14-      approaches of 3 day and 10 day tests with       Sunday, October 10th on ABC-TV.
19, 2005. It is being organized by the        subsequent reduction of capacities by 50-
IAH National Committee of Serbia &            75% for the final approved capacity. CGA        CGA Seminars Scheduled
Montenegro. More information is               has expressed concern that these
available from the conference web site                                                        CGA will again offer a number of
                                              approaches are not in the best interest of      seminars at its 56th Annual Convention
at: http://www.cvijic-karst2005.org.yu.       the general public. Further actions on this     and Trade Show on November 4-6 at
    A new IAH book on “Nitrates in            matter are underway. Contact CGA or             the Silver Legacy Resort Casino in
Groundwater” was recently announced.          David Abbott of GRA if this issue is of         Reno. More details are available at the
It includes 27 chapters and provides an       concern to you.                                 CGA website www.groundh2o.org. The
extensive overview of studies of nitrates                                                     McEllhiney Lecture by Hank Baski on
in groundwater, including chemical and        CGA Well Project Coming to TV this Fall         the subject of “Groundwater: Fallacies
physical processes affecting the fate of      It started with a phone call about an           and Facts” will also be held on Saturday
nitrate, and detailed case studies from       existing water treatment system and             morning.
Europe. The book is available from            ended with the construction of a new
Balkema Publishers (http://balkema.ima.nl).                                                      CGA will conduct Water Well
                                              well, storage tank, booster pumps and           Destruction workshops for regulatory
   Another new book is also available         filtration system…IN 2 DAYS!!!                  personnel in both northern and
now, published by the Netherlands IAH             CGA members recently completed a            southern California on Sept 22 and 29
Committee, on “Management of Aquifer          critical portion of an ABC-TV Extreme           under a US EPA contract. These
Recharge and Sustainable Storage.” It         Makeover Home Edition project in                workshops follow upon the highly
provides a summary of recent                  Sonoma County. Ty Pennington, star of           successful    Basic     Water    Well
developments in managed recharge.             the show got drenched with well                 Construction workshops for regulatory
Copies are available from the Netherlands     development water (intentionally) while         agency personnel held in 2003.
IAH (email: j.heederik@nitg.tno).             filming a key segment of the show, which

                                                                        Alliance Corner
         2004 and 2005 GSA Birdsall-Dreiss Distinguished Lecturers
                                           BY VICKI KRETSINGER, GRA DIRECTOR

        he Birdsall-Dreiss Distin-                                                             Groundwater             Modeling,
        guished Lectureship,                                                                   Simulation of Flow and Advective
        sponsored        by     the                                                            Transport      (1992)    that    is
Geological Society of America                                                                  distributed worldwide.         Dr.
(GSA) Hydrogeology Division and                                                                Woessner is the co-founder and
funded by the GSA Foundation                                                                   Acting Director of the University
and now in its 27th year, brings                                                               of Montana Center for Riverine
eminent hydrogeologists to higher                                                              Science         and        Stream
education and research institutes                                                              Renaturalization. The Center,
on a mission to educate others on                                                              created in 2002, is an
the latest hydrogeologic research,                                                             interdisciplinary research group
promote       the      study     of                                                            whose mission is to advance the
hydrogeology and scientific                                                                    knowledge of natural stream
exchange, and act as an                                                                        function and develop methods and
ambassador of goodwill on behalf                                                               procedures to mitigate impacted
of GSA. On May 12, 2004, the                                                                   stream systems.
San Francisco Branch had the GSA Birdsall-Dreiss lecturer William W. Woessner.                     To request a visit, contact
pleasure of hosting the 2004                     awarded to William W. Woessner, a             William Woessner, The University
Birdsall-Dreiss Distinguished Lecturer.          geology professor of the University of  of Montana, 32 Campus Dr. #1296,
This year’s esteemed recipient was Dr.           Montana since 1981. He teaches classes  Missoula, MT 59812-2341, (406) 243-
Barbara Bekins, from the U.S.                    in applied hydrogeology, advanced       5698, e-mail: woessner@umontana.edu.
Geological Survey in Menlo Park,                 hydrogeology, groundwater modeling,     Dr. Woessner is offering the following
California. Dr. Bekins provided the              applied groundwater modeling, surface   lectures:
Branch with her presentation on The              water-groundwater interaction, and
Influence of Hydrogeology on 25 years                                                        Examining the Exchange of
                                                 groundwater remediation. His research       Groundwater           with       the
of Natural Attenuation at a Crude Oil            includes quantifying flow systems in
Spill Site. See the San Francisco Branch                                                     Stream/Floodplain System: Physical,
                                                 intermountain valleys; water resources      Thermal        and      Geochemical
Highlights for the abstract of Dr. Bekins        systems analyses, including ground
presentation.                                                                                Approaches with Ties to Stream
                                                 water-surface water interactions at         Renaturalization
   For 2005, the prestigious GSA                 lakes,    wetlands     and    streams;
Birdsall-Dreiss lectureship has been             contaminant transport (including virus      Occurrence, Transport and Fate of
                                                                       transport); and       Viruses and Pharmaceuticals in
                                                                       the development       Groundwater Impacted by Septic
                                                                       and application       System          Effluent:       The
                  Environmental Bio-Systems, Inc.                      of groundwater        Hydrogeologists and Human Health
                  www.EBSinfo.com        Nationwide, since 1989        flow and con-         Watch for announcements where Dr.
                                                                       taminant models.  Woessner may be providing a lecture
                                                                       He and Mary P.    near you and plan to attend!
    In-Situ Remediation: bench tests to full scale remediation
    • Chemical Oxidation                                               Anderson      co-
    • Enhanced Bioremediation                                          authored      the
    • Geochemical Stabilization of Metals                              popular reference
                                                                       text     Applied
   Jim Jacobs, RG, CHG, CPG            Tel: (415) 381-5185
   Hydrogeologist          e-mail: augerpro@sbcglobal.net

 Call for Nominations                                           Organizational Corner
   for GRA Director                                                                                        the material to
 Seats Open in 2005                                                                                        Kathy Snelson, GRA
                                                                                                           Executive Director,
                                                                                                           via email (executive_

       he Association is now soliciting
       nominations for GRA Board of                                                                        fax (916-442-0382)
       Director candidates to run for                                                                      or mail (915 L
seats that commence service January 1,                                                                     Street, Suite 1000,
2005. The Nominating Committee has                                                                         Sacramento,       CA
established the following criteria for                                                                     95814) no later than
nominating and selecting candidates for                                                                    October 8, 2004.
the final ballot that will be presented to                                                                     Should you have
the GRA membership for voting.                 The GRA Directors relax after the August 21, 2004 Board      any questions or
                                               Meeting in Pt. Richmond.                                     need     additional
Minimum Qualifications for Director Nominees                                                                information about
                                                     skills, fund-raising, financial     the    GRA      Director    Call   for
   Active Regular Member of GRA at
                                                     management, etc)?                   Nominations, please contact Kathy
   the time of nomination.
                                                 – What experience do you have           Snelson at (916) 446-3626.
   Recognized leader in a groundwater-
                                                   serving on similar boards of
   related field, which may include
   regulation, evaluation, development,
   remediation or investigation of               – What level of time commitment
                                                                                                GRA Extends Sincere
   groundwater, groundwater supplies or            can you make to GRA?                    Appreciation to its Symposium
   related technology; science education;
   and groundwater law or planning.
                                                 Current curriculum vitae.                 Co-Chairs and Sponsors for its
                                                 A letter of recommendation from a
   Significant contributor to the field of
                                                 current Director or Regular Member.
                                                                                            2004 Series on Groundwater
   groundwater resources in California.
                                                 The Nominating Committee will               Contaminants Symposium,
                                                                                            “ClO4- 2004: Perchlorate in
   Prior contributions and leadership role
                                                 review all nominations and evaluate
   in GRA Branch, GRA committees or
                                                 the nominees based upon on their
   other similar GRA activities.
                                                 response to the above questions and         California’s Groundwater“
                                                 their qualifications. The Committee
Nominating Guidelines and Procedures             will conduct interviews, if deemed              Symposium Co-Chairs
   Directors and members of GRA are              necessary.                                           Tom Mohr,
   eligible to nominate candidates for                                                      Santa Clara Valley Water District
                                                 The Nominating Committee shall
   Board appointment.                                                                                 Bill Motzer,
                                                 recommend a slate of nominees for
   Nominations must be submitted in              presentation to the GRA Board of                   Todd Engineers
   writing to GRA and accompanied                Directors for approval.          The                  Co-Sponsors
   by: A statement from the nominee              recommended slate of nominees shall              Arcadis G & M, Inc.
   addressing the following questions:           correspond to the number of available    Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc.
                                                 Director openings each year.                    GeoSyntec Consultants
   – Why are you interested in serving
     on the GRA Board of Directors?              The approved slate of nominees shall                Kleinfelder, Inc.
                                                 be presented to the GRA                   Santa Clara Valley Water District
   – What       qualifications  and
                                                 membership in ballot form in                     Luncheon Sponsor
     experience do you have for
                                                 accordance with the GRA bylaws.              Calgon Carbon Corporation
     serving as a Board member?
                                                  To declare your desire to be                    Refreshment Sponsor
   – What specific skills or expertise
                                               nominated or to nominate someone                  Chemical Risk Sciences
     do you bring to GRA and the
                                               other than yourself, please follow                     International
     GRA Board (e.g., leadership
                                               the guidelines above and forward

           An Annual                                             Organizational Corner
          Celebration                         address the majority of members’ needs        If you weren’t able to participate in
      BY KATHY SNELSON, GRA                   (current and prospective). In addition,    GRA’s 13th Annual Meeting, I hope you
       EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR                     an annual meeting is often structured to   will participate in GRA’s 14th Annual
                                              offer social events that encourage face-   Meeting. This perpetual GRA event
                                              to-face contact (a refreshing balance to   encapsulates what Jim Collins states
                                              the usual, fast paced electronic-based     about enduring companies, “Enduring

        RA’s 13th Annual Meeting will         communications we have become              great companies preserve their core
        have concluded by the time this       accustomed to) and participatory           values and purpose while their business
        edition of HydroVisions is            educational activities that highlight      strategies and operating practices
circulated. Nevertheless, it seemed like      local industry issues and operations. As   endlessly adapt to a changing world.
an appropriate time to write about the        Jim Collins writes in his book Good to     This is the magical combination of
collaborative     development       and       Great, “It is not any one variable in      preserve the core and stimulate
collective work that goes into executing      isolation that makes a company great; it   progress.” At the least, GRA’s Annual
an annual meeting.                            is the combination of all of the pieces    Meeting is a celebration of continuous
    An annual meeting is much like an         working together in an integrated          “dedication to protecting and improving
abbreviated version of an organization.       package consistently and over time.”       groundwater in California.” Not so
It is a two-to-three day snapshot of          An annual meeting is a microcosm of        “small”, when you think about it. It is
what an organization is like throughout       the organization it symbolizes and the     reason enough to join GRA’s annual
the year – many things to many                members it represents.                     celebration each and every year!
members with a variety of needs. It is a
forum in which an organization’s entire
leadership and most of the active
volunteers are often present, readily
available and looking forward to
exchanging       ideas      and     sincere
pleasantries with as many members and
stakeholders as possible. It is an
established time to honor exceptional
achievements by special individuals and
organizations. And, very importantly, it
is a once-a-year opportunity for members
to directly experience the organization
they belong to and believe in, to evaluate
its performance, and to assess if it still
has what it takes to envision and pursue
the vast possibilities that can achieve the
organization’s mission.
   While an annual meeting might not
always be the highest revenue-
generating program, or include all of the
“hottest” industry topics, it is an
excellent example of significant,
relevant work accomplished by a
collective, dedicated group of
volunteers. The result is most often a
comprehensive program that addresses
several facets and issues involved with
an organization’s principal purpose and
related industry – a sincere effort to

ClO4- 2004 Symposium Profiles Latest Developments on Perchlorate in Groundwater – Continued from Page 1
Mexico, spanning an area as large as        would be getting more perchlorate per day         effects at levels higher than about 250,000
California’s Sacramento Valley, is also     than EPA’s draft toxicity threshold of 1 ppb      ppb. Pleus notes that the common dietary
believed to have a natural origin, possibly in drinking water from milk consumption           ingredients nitrate and thiocyanate, which
due to deposition with precipitation.       alone. Cal-EPA assumed in its Public              are found in most vegetables, meats, and
                                            Health Goal (PHG) document that                   dairy products, also inhibit iodide uptake.
   Dr. Andrew Eaton of MHW
                                            perchlorate exposure from food sources            He emphasizes that IUI is several steps
Laboratories profiled three new analytical
                                            comprises 40% of total exposure. EWG              removed from an adverse irreversible effect,
methods for perchlorate testing. EPA
                                                                 questions whether that       and that the contribution of the levels of
Method 314.1 is an ion
                                                                 level may underestimate      perchlorate found in most perchlorate-
technique much like
                            “Perchlorate has now been total exposure, and                     contaminated drinking water sources to IUI
                               identified…in at least a          whether              the     is negligible when compared to the dietary
314.0, but with an
                                                                 Uncertainty      Factor      contribution to IUI.
online preconcentration      dozen food products and
                                                                 applied in establishing
system     to     permit           two feed crops”                                               Dr. Richard Bull, lead author of UC
                                                                 the PHG may be too
analysis of large sample                                                                      Irvine’s Urban Water Resource Center
volumes       for    low                                                                      report on perchlorate, presented his views
reporting limits (0.2 ppb). A second           Dr. Philip Smith of Texas Tech                 on the development of an MCL for
technique, Method 330.0, will use ion-      University profiled his research on               perchlorate. Based on available data, he
chromatography with mass spectrometry       perchlorate movement from plants, soil            proposes 100 µg/L as the level below which
using an electrospray interface to obtain   and water into mammals, noting that soil          IUI will not occur in normal, healthy
low reporting limits even in samples with   may be a greater source of perchlorate            adults. He compared the IUI effects of
high salt concentrations. Method 331.0,     exposure in rodents living in perchlorate         perchlorate to other anions, such as nitrate,
commercially available today, uses liquid   affected areas than vegetative matter.            commonly found in drinking water. The
chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass       Analysis of tissue residue in exposed prairie     regulatory threshold equivalence of nitrate
spectrometry to achieve a method            voles and deer mice suggested perchlorate         to the California perchlorate PHG of 6
reporting limit of 0.02 ppb. Using a        in food may be less available for                 µg/L based on potential IUI would be 11
double-blind study, labs had generally good adsorption than perchlorate in water.             mg/L rather than the current MCL of 45
performance for quantifying perchlorate                                                       mg/L. Since nitrate is a much more
                                               In another presentation, Dr. Richard
below 1 ppb in deionized water, but                                                           abundant contaminant in groundwater
                                            Pleus of Inertox and U. Nebraska Medical
accuracy and precision degraded                                                               than     perchlorate,      the    economic
                                            Center classifies the iodide uptake
considerably in samples with higher total                                                                  considerations for a consistent
dissolved solids.                                                                                          regulatory framework seeking
                                                                                                           to protect drinking water
Toxicology of Perchlorate                                                                                  consumers from IUIs warrants
                                                                                                           detailed examination before
The Environmental Working Group’s
                                                                                                           establishing an MCL.
(EWG) Renee Sharp presented data and
policy implications of perchlorate
detections in edible food crops, cattle feed,
                                                                                                          Keynote Speaker
and milk. Perchlorate has now been                                                                      Following       the    morning
identified through grab-sample spot                                                                     discussions on the toxicology
surveys in at least a dozen food products                                                               of perchlorate, Dr. Gina
and two feed crops, with plant tissue                                                                   Solomon of UCSF and the
perchlorate bioconcentration factors as                                                                 Natural Resources Defense
high as 1200-fold over irrigation water                                                                 Council presented the Keynote
concentrations. Perchlorate test data in 34                                                             speech, in which effects of IUI
commercial milk samples from milk                                                                       in the developing fetus were
suppliers across the state analyzed by the      Symposium sponsors and attendees enjoy a conversation emphasized. Perchlorate may
California Department of Food and               in the exhibit hall.                                    interfere with fetal IUI in three
Agriculture had detectable perchlorate, and                                                             ways: decreased transfer of
31 of 32 milk samples analyzed for EWG          inhibition (IUI) effects of perchlorate     iodide across the placenta, prevention of
showed presence of perchlorate levels at        exposure as reversible or ‘pre-adaptive’    iodide uptake in the developing thyroid,
concentrations lower than those tested by       from drinking water concentrations up to    and decreased maternal thyroid production
the California Department of Food and           17,000 ppb, adaptive and producing          on which the fetus depends. In the first
Agriculture (CDFA). EWG concludes that          thyroid hormone level changes to >100,000   trimester, a mother’s thyroid hormone
half the children from ages 1 to 5 years        ppb, and presumed neurodevelopmental        production must increase 30 to 50%, as

the fetus does not yet have a functioning       exchange resins, and may also allow smaller    typically represent a variety of clients,
thyroid. Numerous neuro-developmental           footprints for resin equipment.                including water utilities, industry or land
affects may result in the developing fetus                                                     owners. The panelist presentations and
                                                    Kleinfelder’s David Jenkins presented an
with insufficient thyroid hormone                                                              occasional sidebars accurately reflected the
                                                innovative in situ treatment technology
availability. Dr. Solomon notes that infants                                                   very divergent views of opposing parties in
                                                that includes delivery of an electron donor
are much more susceptible to IUI than                                                          complex litigation cases involving
                                                in vapor phase using acetic acid (vinegar)
adults, and the baby’s thyroid stores only a                                                   perchlorate in groundwater, public
                                                in vapor form. Electron donor sparging
24-hour reserve of iodide. In adults, iodide                                                   drinking water supplies, and extremely
                                                using vapor addition avoids biofouling, is
stored in the thyroid lasts several months.                                                    large monetary sums at stake.
                                                effective in low permeability and
An infant consumes 6-times the amount of
                                                heterogeneous soils, and capitalizes on           Andrew Yamamoto, of Nossaman
liquid an adult does on a bodyweight-
                                                buoyancy forces to assist with distribution   Guthner Knox & Elliott, who
adjusted basis, and Dr. Solomon advises
                                                of the donor. The                                                represents water
that a great deal more caution is needed for
                                                stoichiometrics of                                               purveyors, portrayed
neurotoxicants like perchlorate, asserting
that the inter-individual uncertainty factor
                                                acetic acid addition                Litigation over              litigation         over
                                                predict that one gallon              groundwater                 g r o u n d w a t e r
used by Cal-EPA to set the Public Health
                                                of household vinegar                                             contamination as a
Goal, 3 to 10, is not sufficiently protective
                                                at 5% solution can
                                                                                 contamination [is] a            “high-stakes game of
of all of California’s drinking water                                             “high-stakes game
                                                treat up to 860,000                                              poker.” He described the
consumers. US EPA and the State of
                                                gallons of groundwater                 of poker”                 litigation    “bluffing”
Massachusetts set their uncertainty factors
                                                contaminated with 100                                            strategy used by alleged
ranging from 30 to 300 to account for
                                                µg/L perchlorate.                                                “polluters” to claim that
inter-individual variations and database
                                                                                              plaintiff water companies are liable for
uncertainties, and set their advisory               Jess Brown presented the Carollo team’s
                                                                                              perchlorate contamination from pumping
exposure levels at 1 µg/L, which Dr.            work on evaluating pilot-scale fixed bed
                                                                                              or water-spreading activities, and that the
Solomon believes is more appropriate.           reactors to design full-scale design criteria
                                                                                              “bluff” had been “called” recently when a
                                                and operating parameters, and the
                                                                                              court rejected that argument in southern
Innovative Remediation Methods                  potential        for      system     upsets.
                                                                                              California, and the Regional Water Quality
                                                Microorganisms indigenous to the Saugus
Dr. Baohua Gu of Oak Ridge National                                                           Control Board issued a CAO requiring
                                                Aquifer, which supplies water to the
Laboratory, and Dr. Sam Bryan of Pacific                                                      replacement water in northern California.
                                                Castaic Lake Water Agency’s municipal
Northwest National Laboratory presented                                                       “Wild cards” in this “game” include
                                                supply wells, were used in the pilot-scale
their research in a platform talk and a                                                       possible bankruptcy of defendants and
                                                bioreactor. The bioreactor successfully
poster, respectively, on highly efficient                                                     insurance options for cost recovery.
                                                removed perchlorate to below detection,
perchlorate selective resins coupled with
                                                and was not impacted by episodic loading          Lawrence Hilton, of Hewitt & O’Neil,
point of use determination of resin bed
                                                of perchlorate. The bioreactor also proved    represents a landowner of a site with
loading using Raman spectroscopy. The
                                                to be immune to short-duration (one day)      historical perchlorate contamination, and
perchlorate selective resins were originally
                                                interruptions of electron donor feed, as      understandably took issue with the use of
developed to remove the radioisotope
                                                well as extended system shutdown.             the term “polluter,” when many such
pertechnate at the ppt level in Paducah,
                                                Biologic treatment provides the advantage     defendants in lawsuits may have acquired a
Kentucky. Pertechnate, TeO4- is an analog
                                                of avoiding costly brine disposal.            property with historical contamination. He
to perchlorate.      At 50 ppb influent
                                                                                              raised many important issues in such
perchlorate, ORNL’s perchlorate selective           Various other innovative remediation
                                                                                              lawsuits filed by water purveyors,
resin can treat 100,000 bed volumes to          methods were discussed and detailed,
                                                                                              including the actual extent of damages vs.
below 1 ppb, compared with 500 bed              including treatment by ion exchange resins
                                                                                              the water utility “wish list,” and the
volumes for carbon and Type II acrylic          (Carollo Engineer’s Lina Boulos); tailored
                                                                                              possible responsibility and potential
resins, or 3,000 bed volumes for styrenic gel   carbon (Dr. James Graham of US Filter
                                                                                              liability of plaintiffs and other possible
resins. Regeneration of resin beds is           Weststates); and electron-donor sparging
                                                                                              parties in such cases.
accomplished using a solution of FeCl3 in       (David Cook of Kleinfelder). A detailed
HCl, which rapidly desorbs perchlorate in       description may be found on the GRA website.      Steven Hoch, of Hatch & Parent,
less than 2 bed volumes of regenerant                                                         represents water purveyors and stressed the
solution. The regenerant solution chemically    Recent Legislation, Regulations,              importance of thorough investigation and
reduces perchlorate, thereby eliminating it,    and Legal Issues                              documentation when evaluating whether
and the spent regenerant solution can be                                                      Chilean nitrate fertilizer or other
reused with no secondary waste production.      This very interesting and often               alternative sources of perchlorate could
This approach can lead to greater than 60%      controversial panel discussion featured       have impacted groundwater at any
cost reduction over conventional ion            four noted California attorneys who
                                                                                                                     Continued on page 16

ClO4- 2004 Symposium Profiles Latest Developments on Perchlorate in Groundwater – Continued from Page 15
particular site, particularly in the vicinity of   available to satisfy long-term water           at the Rancho Cordova perchlorate sites.
a larger known source of perchlorate, such         treatment or source-specific remedies.         VOCs were removed under regulatory
as an aerospace manufacturer. This should          However, the panelists shared differing        order but perchlorate, while previously
include historical fertilizer use in the area,     opinions on the benefits and detriments of     identified in the area in 1959 and 1979,
including Chilean nitrate fertilizer, and          potential listing on the National Priorities   was not considered a contaminant of
evaluation whether any other sources of            List and Superfund designation.                concern.     The reinjection of treated
perchlorate could have impacted                                                                   groundwater from which perchlorate had
groundwater.                                       Case Studies                                   not been removed, at locations
                                                                                                  downgradient of the treatment systems, led
    Earl Hagstrom, of Sedgwick Detert             A number of detailed case studies, covering
                                                                                                  to further spreading of perchlorate and
Moran & Arnold,                                                       r e m e d i a t i o n
                                                                                                  ultimate shutdown of numerous municipal
represents an industrial                                              technologies and
                                                                                                  supply wells. Davis demonstrated through
defendant        in      a         “Cooperation between               general investigative
                                                                                                  groundwater modeling that using a
perchlorate litigation in            regulators, impacted             techniques, were
                                                                                                  different hydraulic capture approach, in
northern California. He         purveyors and potentially presented throughout                    which off-site discharge of treated water is
raised the important                                                  the conference. These
question of whether                  responsible parties is           case studies, two of
                                                                                                  prevented, will avoid unforeseen future
                                     necessary in order to                                        problems       from      new      emerging
there is any “damage” if                                              which are described
                                                                                                  contaminants or lower cleanup standards.
regulatory criteria have           restore the aquifer and            below, presented the
not been exceeded, and                 meet water supply              actual results of field        The remaining case studies are detailed
suggested that it is                      challenges”                 work, and detailed the      on our website.
premature to pursue                                                   problems and solutions
litigation to determine                                               associated with some        Thanks to our Committee Members
liability and allocate monetary damages           interesting      and      complex      cases.
                                                                                                     GRA thanks the Committee members
before scientific studies are completed and       Presentations included an overview of
                                                                                                  who volunteered their time to plan and
regulatory criteria, such as health-based         various field applications of soil treatment
                                                                                                  ensure the success of this symposium: Bill
standards, are established.                       remedial technologies, including in situ and
                                                                                                  Motzer, Co-Chair (Todd Engineers), Jon
                                                  ex situ (GeoSyntec’s Evan Cox); and the
                                                                                                  Rohrer (Komex), Mark Fenner and Barry
Continuing Problems for Water Utilities           regulatory aspects of adopting a new Order
                                                                                                  Molnaa (Arcadis), Tom Johnson and Scott
                                                  for a solid rocket motor plant in San Jose
Although the Symposium touched on                                                                 Seyfried (LFR Levine Fricke), Elie Haddad
                                                  (Keith Roberson of The San Francisco Bay
numerous notable perchlorate plumes, one                                                          (Locus Technologies), Peter Murphy
perchlorate impacted area in the Inland                                                           (Kennedy Jenks), and George Cook (Santa
Empire involves many of the technologies,             Carollo Engineer’s Joon Min presented       Clara Valley Water District). This event
challenges and new developments related           the Carollo team’s work to assist the City of   was co-sponsored by Arcadis G&M Inc.,
to perchlorate discussed during the day.          Ontario with managing the dual challenges       Daniel B. Stephens Inc., GeoSyntec
Perchlorate detected in water wells for the       of perchlorate and nitrate contamination.       Consultants, Kleinfelder Inc., and the Santa
City of Colton, Fontana Water Company,            A detailed strategy using distribution          Clara Valley Water District.
City of Rialto and West Valley Water              system modeling and optimization analysis
                                                                                                     Thomas Mohr is GRA’s Vice President,
District covers over one-half century of          provided       an    acceptable      solution
                                                                                                  Seminar Committee Co-Chair, and
time, more than 20 potentially responsible        emphasizing blending of water from
                                                                                                  Perchlorate Symposium Chair. Jon Rohrer,
parties, three regulatory agencies and at         different sources to achieve drinking water
                                                                                                  of Komex H2O Science; Elie Haddad, Vice
least 20 impacted wells.                          standards. This approach required a
                                                                                                  President of Locus Technologies, Inc.; and
                                                  complete understanding of the system’s
    Four distinguished panelists represent-                                                       Tom Johnson, Vice President of LFR Levine-
                                                  supply and demand parameters under
ing the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality                                                          Fricke, also contributed to this article.
                                                  the full range of operating conditions.
Control Board and each of the water
                                                  Logistics for treatment technology
purveyors noted above discussed the
                                                  installation, including brine storage and
challenges associated with providing
                                                  disposal, siting and space requirements, and
drinking water within this impacted region.
                                                  routing water to achieve both blending and
The common theme in many discussions
                                                  treatment, were evaluated using the model
was that cooperation between regulators,
                                                  Carollo developed to solve Ontario’s
impacted purveyors and potentially
                                                  perchlorate problem.
responsible parties is necessary in order to
restore the aquifer and meet water supply             Dan Davis of D.B. Stephens &
challenges. In addition, all panelists agreed     Associates presented his analysis of the
that there is not enough funding currently        reinjection of partially treated groundwater

President’s Message – Continued from Page 2      Arsenic in Groundwater: Impacts on a Critical Resource – Continued from Page 3
over how to provide, manage, sustain or          Unfortunately, the drinking water standard        water consumers, the impacts that new
control our most important resource.             is below arsenic concentrations naturally         regulations will have on private well
                                                 found in groundwater in many locales in           owners, and the impacts the new arsenic
    Groundwater resource sustainability is
                                                 California and the West. Critics of the new       standard is expected to have on ground-
becoming one of the most important issues
                                                 arsenic in drinking water standard say that       water management and conjunctive use.
facing California. This is reflected by recent
                                                 our reliance on groundwater may come
Grand Jury hearings on water planning                                                                 Day two will open with a keynote
                                                 with a very stiff price as water suppliers
issues in Sonoma County, increased litigation                                                      presentation by Steve Hall, Executive
                                                 throughout the nation will have to consider
over water rights in the Santa Maria area,                                                         Director of the Association of California
                                                 some hard choices; either construct very
and disputes over the increased export of                                                          Water Agencies. The morning will then
                                                 expensive treatment facilities, attempt to
water to the Los Angeles area. GRA and its                                                         focus on the Remediation of Arsenic in
                                                 obtain new supplies, or turn off the spigots.
members must play an important role in                                                             Groundwater.        Presentations will be
helping to find, provide, protect and                                                              delivered on aquifer chemistry and pumping
maintain supplies of clean water for
                                                 The Symposium                                     well remediation, POU/POE treatment
California’s ever increasing population. I       This fall, GRA will be holding a                  methods,      co-occurrence      of    other
encourage you to get involved at the state or    symposium on this important topic.                contaminants in groundwater, waste
local level; attend water-planning meetings,     “Arsenic in Groundwater: Impacts on a             disposal following treatment, and the results
follow and support state legislation and local   Critical Resource” is the 12th in GRA’s           of pilot projects currently being conducted
ordinances that protect groundwater, and get     important and very popular Contaminants           by agencies throughout the west.
more involved in GRA. Your participation in      in Groundwater Series, and a follow-up to
                                                                                                      The keynote speaker for the luncheon
GRA professional meetings, committee             the successful arsenic symposium held by
                                                                                                   on the second day will be Jeffrey Wright,
activities, and outreach activities will help    GRA in 2001. The symposium will be held
                                                                                                   Dean of Engineering at the new University
keep the subject in the news. Accordingly,       October 18-19 in Fresno, California, and
                                                                                                   of California campus in Merced. Following
GRA’s 13th Annual Meeting in Sonoma              will focus on the continuing and escalating
                                                                                                   lunch, the symposium will close with a
County on September 23-24, entitled              problems associated with this problem.
                                                                                                   panel discussion on the Consequences of
“Aquifer protection, Replenishment and           Experts and researchers from academia,
                                                                                                   Arsenic Cleanup in Groundwater where
Treated Water Reuse,” will provide an            consulting, regulatory agencies, water
                                                                                                   panel members will discuss the intended,
important forum to address those issues.         purveyors, and the legal arenas will present
                                                                                                   and unintended, consequences of the new
GRA also expects to publish the completely       papers, poster sessions, and provide panel
                                                                                                   arsenic regulations, including the impact to
revised Second Edition of the “California        discussions. The symposium begins at
                                                                                                   the groundwater supply, the costs for the
Groundwater Management” manual this fall         noon on the first day and concludes at 3
                                                                                                   water suppliers, the expected benefits to the
(orders for this publication can be placed at    pm on the second day.
                                                                                                   consumer, and other issues, such as
                                                    Sessions on the first day include              disposal of the hazardous waste likely to
   I welcome your feedback, and look             Overview:       Regulatory       Framework,       result from some of the treatment options.
forward to seeing you at GRA events. I also      Occurrence, and Chemistry, where the
                                                                                                      GRA’s last arsenic conference attracted
welcome you to contact me by email at            federal and state PHG level for arsenic and
                                                                                                   more than 160 attendees from throughout
tom.johnson@lfr.com or by phone at (510)         development of drinking water standards
                                                                                                   California and the Western U.S., and the
596-9511.                                        will be discussed, followed by presentations
                                                                                                   2004 event is expected to once again be
                                                 on arsenic chemistry, arsenic sampling and
                                                                                                   California’s leading arsenic event, presenting
                                                 analytical methods, and the distribution of
                                                                                                   the latest technical information and dynamic
                                                                           arsenic in ground
                                                                                                   policy discussions. The cost of the two-day
                                                                           water in the San
                                                                                                   symposium is $295 for GRA members and
                                                                           Joaquin Valley
                                                                                                   $345 for nonmembers.              For more
                                                                           and in Kern Fan
                                                                                                   information and registration, please go to
                                                                           sediments. The
                                                                                                   www.grac.org, or call GRA’s main offices in
                                                                           second session on
                                                                                                   Sacramento @ (916) 446-3626.
                                                                           the first day will
                                                                           be Impacts on              William Pipes is Vice President and
                                                                           Beneficial Use and      Principal Geologist of Geomatrix
                                                                           Public Health. In       Consultants, Inc. and is based in Fresno,
                                                                           this session, experts   California. He serves on the GRA Board of
                                                                           will discuss risk       Directors and is the founding President of
                                                                           communica-              the San Joaquin Valley Branch of GRA.
                                                                           tion of the
                                                                           arsenic issue with

California Performance Review – Continued from Page 5                                                             Fate and Transport of
                                                                                                                  Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine
SWRCB, Regional Boards, Colorado River                             books, and issues and recommendations.
Board, Reclamation Board, California Water                         The streamlined government would include       Disrupting Compounds During
Commission, Department of Toxic Substance                          the following departments:
Control and others will cease to exist.
                                                                                                                  Groundwater Recharge –
                                                                      Commerce and Consumer Protection
   Hearings began in Riverside on August                                                                          Continued from Page 4
                                                                      Correctional Services
13th, covering the infrastructure and
resource recommendations. Following a                                 Education and Workforce Preparation         consumers to ensure proper management
series of scheduled hearings, including a                                                                         of resources and improved confidence in
                                                                      Environmental Protection
hearing on resource conservation and                                                                              our water supply.
environmental protection scheduled for                                Food and Agriculture
September 17th in Fresno, the Little                                                                              October 13-15, 2004 Conference
                                                                      Health and Human Services
Hoover       Commission       will    make
recommendations on the package presented                              Infrastructure                              On October 13-15, 2004, the Fourth
to the Governor. The Governor will then                                                                           Annual Conference on Pharmaceuticals
                                                                      Labor and Economic Development              and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals will
present his package at the beginning of next
session as part of his State of the State                             Public Safety and Homeland Security         be held in Minneapolis, MN. This NGWA
address. The real battle will occur in the                                                                        conference is being co-sponsored by the
                                                                      Natural Resources                           U.S. EPA National Risk Management
Legislature, where this 2,500 page report
has already been pronounced “dead on                                  Veterans Affairs                            Research Laboratory, U.S. Geological
arrival” by Senate President Pro Tempore                                                                          Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology
                                                                      The fourth volume of the report             Program, German Federal Institute for
John Burton and where certain provisions
                                                                   contains 279 government issues with over       Risk Assessment, Minnesota Department
have been sharply criticized by the
                                                                   1,200 recommendations that have the            of Health, the KWB-Berlin Centre of
Democratic majority in the Assembly.
                                                                   potential to save the state $32 billion over   Competence for Water, and the Technical
  The report is in four volumes, including                         the next five years.                           University of Berlin. For program details,
a summary of findings, outline for                                                                                see the NGWA web site at http://www.
government streamlining, keeping the                                                                              ngwa.org/e/conf/0410125013.shtml.
                                                                                                                     Robert Masters is the Conference
                                                                                                                  Manager for the National Ground Water
Current Happenings at the Federal Government – Continued from Page 7
                                                                                                                     Ingrid Verstraeten is a Supervisory
as cleanup goals, the role of groundwater                                                                         Hydrologist, Water-Resources Discipline,
                                                                   Guidelines for Evaluating Ground-Water         at the U.S. Geological Survey Maryland
use, point of compliance, source control,
and monitored natural attenuation. This
                                                                   Flow Models                                    District.
Handbook ties 15 different topics together                         Ground-water flow modeling is an                  Thomas Heberer is on the faculty of the
with an overall Groundwater Protection                             important tool frequently used in studies of   Technical University of Berlin.
and Cleanup Strategy that emphasizes a                             ground-water systems. A new USGS report
phased, results-based approach to cleaning                         provides guidelines and discussion on how
up contaminated groundwater. For more                              to evaluate complex ground-water flow
information, go to http://www.epa.gov/                             models used in the investigation of ground-
correctiveaction/resource/guidance/gw/gwh                          water systems. For more information, see
andbk/gwhndbk.htm                                                  http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/sir/2004/5038/.
                                                                      John Ungvarsky is an Environmental
National Study of Impacts from Hydraulic                           Scientist at the U.S. Environmental
Fracturing of Coalbed Methane Reservoirs                           Protection Agency, Region 9. He works in
EPA published in June a final report evaluating                    the Water Division’s Ground Water Office,
the potential threat to underground sources of                     and his responsibilities include Animal
drinking water (USDWs) from injection of                           Feeding Operations Coordinator and
hydraulic fracturing fluids into coalbed                           Source Water Protection, with an emphasis
methane production wells. The report                               on ground water issues. For information
concluded that the practice poses minimal                          on any of the above topics, please contact
threat to USDWs. For more information, see                         John at 415-972-3963 or ungvarsky.
h t t p : / / w w w. e p a . g o v / s a f e w a t e r / u i c /   john@epa.gov.

USGS and the Private Sector –
Continued from Page 7
                                                      California Colloquium on Water, Fall 2004

   compacts, Federal law, court decrees,              he California Colloquium on Water         October 12 – “Fluids and Faulting:
   and congressionally mandated studies;              is a lecture series sponsored by the   Water and Earthquakes in California:”
                                                      Water Resources Center Archives, a     Mark Zoback, Professor of Geophysics,
   furnishing hydrologic data or
                                               system-wide unit of the University of         Stanford University
   information that contribute to
   protection of life and property; and        California Division of Agriculture &             November 9 – “When Myth Trumps
                                               Natural Resources. Scholars of distinction    History: The Reclamation Bureau and the
   providing standardized, quality-assured     in the fields of natural sciences,            Family Farm, 1902-1935;” Donald Pisani,
   data in national databases available to     engineering, social sciences, humanities,     Merrick Professor of History, University of
   the public and in published reports.        law, and environmental design offer           Oklahoma
   Other measures that the USGS has            monthly lectures. The goal of the
                                               Colloquium       is    to    increase   the      December 7 – “Water Follies: The
taken to help ensure that we remain
                                               understanding and appreciation of water       Environmental         Consequences    of
sensitive to the issue of competition
                                               resources and to contribute to informed       Groundwater Pumping;” Robert Glennon,
include: (1) disseminating a policy
                                               decisions about water in California.          Morris K. Udall Professor of Law & Public
memorandum on avoiding competition
                                                                                             Policy, University of Arizona
with the private sector; (2) requiring that        The       Groundwater        Resources
all new project proposals contain              Association (GRA), one of the financial          For more information, contact the
statements describing the Federal interest     supporters of the Colloquium, is pleased to   Water Resources Center Archives at (510)
in the proposed work; and (3) requesting       provide you with information about the        642-2666 or waterarc@library.berkeley.
external review of the CWP. The external       fall series. Receptions for each of the       edu, or check out the Colloquium
review was requested in 1999 through the       lectures are from 4:45-5:30pm at the Water    web site: http://lib.berkeley.edu/WRCA/
Advisory       Committee      for     Water    Resources Center Archives, 410 O’Brien        ccow.html.
Information (ACWI).           The ACWI         Hall. The lectures are from 5:30-7pm in 10
convened a task force of associations          Evans Hall.
representing varied interests in the water-
resources community, including several
representatives from the private sector. A
total of 59 recommendations were made
for improving the CWP, including some
suggestions related to the issue of
competition. We have again asked ACWI
to convene an external review task force to
work with the USGS to evaluate our
progress      in   implementing       those
recommendations. The task force, which
again includes several members from the
private sector, will be presenting its
findings to the ACWI later this year.
   For additional information on the
Cooperative Water Program, including the
USGS memorandum on competition,
please visit the CWP web site:
   Glenn G. Patterson is the Coordinator
of the Cooperative Water Program with
the U.S. Geological Survey, 409 National
Center, Reston, VA. He can be reached at
gpatter@usgs.gov, or 703-648-6876.
   Editors Note: This article is a follow-up
to the workshop on this subject at GRA’s
Artificial Recharge Conference in San Jose
in April 2003.

                               Increased Interest in Banked Water in Texas
                                                        BY JANE GILL-SHALER, CCGO

       m e r i c a n P u r e Te x Wa t e r          increasing value of water in this area.        regarding cost and availability of water in
       Corporation (PureTex), based in              Oilman and speculator T. Boone Pickens         the projected source area, according to the
       H o u s t o n , Te x a s , r e c e n t l y   has updated an old plan to transport           San Antonio Express-News.
announced its acquisition of 24 trillion            groundwater from the Panhandle to San
                                                                                                      Other projects are in the works to
gallons of water currently stored in aquifers       Antonio through a pipeline, then into the
                                                                                                   ensure long-term water supply to the area,
in Austin, Colorado, and Wharton counties           Brazos River, and back through a pipeline
                                                                                                   according to the SAWS website
in Texas. The group of private investors at         to San Antonio, a distance of nearly 700
                                                                                                   (http://www.saws.org/). Among these are:
PureTex is headed by George Abbey, who              miles. Pickens has projected a cost for this
                                                                                                   bringing in water from other aquifers;
formerly directed the Johnson Space Center.         proposal of $650 per acre-foot, less than
                                                                                                   exploring the use of surface water in
                                                    other proposals.
   In two related articles in the Houston                                                          conjunction with southwestern area River
Business Journal (HBJ) and San Antonio                 However, according to the San Antonio       Authorities; investigating the feasibility of
Express News this summer, Abbey said                Express-News, San Antonio Water System         Edwards Aquifer Recharge; and desali-
“Water will be a critical and limiting              (SAWS) Board Chairman James Mayor              nation as potential new water sources.
factor for growth in these areas.”                  indicated that they had new proposals
                                                                                                      Information for this article was gathered
Officials at the City of Houston did not            nearly every week. “There are a lot of
                                                                                                   from the San Antonio Water System
agree, however, according to the HBJ,               people out there wanting to sell water right
                                                                                                   website and articles in the San Antonio
and indicated that available water                  now. But we have a policy that they have
                                                                                                   Express-News and the Houston Business
supply and pending rights permits                   to prove the science–that it’s sustainable,
                                                                                                   Journal.     Links of interest are at
would serve Houston through the                     that it doesn’t affect the neighbors where
middle of the 21st century. “We have no             they’re drawing it from.” According to
                                                                                                   ries/2004/07/19/story2.html, http://www.
immediate need to develop such a                    Mayor, the price has to be favorable for the
                                                                                                   waterwebster.com/BusinessNews.htm and
groundwater         supply       project,”          ratepayers. Susan Butler, SAWS water
spokesman Wes Johnson of Houston                    resources director, is reported to say that
Public Works is quoted in HBJ, which                the Texas Legislature’s 7-year-old               Jane Gill-Shaler is the Executive
also indicated that Houston Public                  restrictions on selling water from one river   Director of the California Council of
Works      and     Engineering      Water           basin to another have limited the types of     Geoscience Organizations.
Production representatives had not met              offers. In addition, she indicated concerns
with PureTex. However, in the same
article, Abbey is quoted as saying that
PureTex has met with members of
communities in west Harris County,
north Harris County, Fort Bend County,
and San Antonio regarding future water
supply issues.
   As the population of Texas is projected
to increase by 100% by 2050, other
speculators are also attracted to the

         Earth Science Week October 10-16, 2004                                                                               GRA Names
                                                 BY ANN BENBOW, AGI                                                       Recipients of 2004
                                                                                                                            Annual Awards
      arth Science Week, October 10-16,                                    There are many ways to celebrate.
      2004, is a time when geoscientists                                Teachers and students explore earth
      around the world will be sharing                                  science with activities and experiments

their knowledge and love of earth science                               or by having scientists visit their                  he purpose of the GRA Annual
with their communities. Earth Science                                   classrooms. Museums and science                      Awards Program is to recognize
Week was established by the American                                    centers host earth science exhibits, and             noteworthy projects and unique
Geological Institute (AGI) in 1998 to raise                             field    stations     and     university      individual contributions related to the
awareness of earth and environmental                                    departments hold open houses for the          protection    and     management     of
sciences and their importance to society.                               public. In 2003, earth scientists and         groundwater in California.
During this week, geoscientists work with                               educators organized more than 200                 The Lifetime Achievement Award is
students and the general public to help                                 events in all 50 states and in nine           presented to individuals for their
them discover the earth sciences and                                    additional countries.                         exemplary       contributions     to     the
become engaged in scientific exploration.                                   Your participation can be as simple as    groundwater       industry,     and      for
    The theme for Earth Science Week 2004                               sending an Earth Science Week kit to a        contributions that have been in the spirit of
is “Living on a Restless Earth.” The global                             science teacher you know. The kits contain    GRA’s mission and organization objectives.
community is affected by the restless                                   classroom activities, a teacher’s guide,      Individuals that receive the Lifetime
nature of our planet every day. Natural                                 posters, bookmarks, and other materials       Achievement Award have dedicated their
hazards such as earthquakes, storms,                                    that help teachers celebrate the week in      lives to the groundwater industry and have
volcanoes and landslides threaten our                                   classrooms. For more information about        been pioneers in their field of expertise.
homes and businesses, but they also                                     Earth Science Week, and to find out how       The recipient of the 2004 Lifetime
provide evidence of the incredible power                                you      can     get     involved,    visit   Achievement Award is John Bredehoeft.
and beauty of our planet. Earth scientists                              www.earthsciweek.org.                            The Kevin J. Neese Award recognizes
study dramatic phenomena such as these to                                  Ann Benbow is the Director of              significant accomplishment by a person or
understand their causes and minimize their                              Outreach and Education, American              entity within the most recent 12-month
impacts on society. You can share your                                  Geological Institute. This article was        period that fosters the understanding,
knowledge and enthusiasm about our                                      reprinted from GSA Today, September           development, protection and management
dynamic Earth with others by getting                                    2004.                                         of groundwater. The recipient of the 2004
involved in Earth Science Week.                                                                                       Kevin J. Neese Award is the California
                                                                                                                      Department of Water Resources for
                                                                                                                      publication of Bulletin 118 and related
                                                                                                                      actions to further effective groundwater
 TO ADVERTISE IN HYDROVISIONS CALL 916-446-3626 TODAY                                                                 management.
                                                                                                                         Details about the recipients and pictures
                                                              2004 Advertising Rates                                  of the 2004 awards ceremony at GRA’s
                                                                                                                      13th Annual Conference will follow in the
                                        4 Issues Annually                                                             winter edition of HydroVisions.
   Blue & White cost per issue                     1x                                  4x
                                                                                                                         Editors Note: Letters to the editor are
        Business Card                             85.00                             80.00 PER                         welcomed and should be submitted to Floyd
        1/4 page                                 175.00                            150.00 PER                         Flood at editor@grac.org. Please include
        1/2 page                                 350.00                            275.00 PER                         your name, address and daytime phone
        Full page                                700.00                            550.00 PER                         number. Letters are typically limited to 200
                                                                                                                      words. Letters may not be published or may
                       Color advertisements are additional based on current printing rates.                           be edited and republished in any format at
                  The above prices assume advertisements are received camera ready (via film).
       For additional information, visit GRA’s Web site at www.grac.org or contact Kathy Snelson,                     the sole discretion of the GRA. All letters
                 GRA Executive Director, at executive_director@grac.org or 916-446-3626.                              submitted become the property of GRA.

                          GRA Welcomes the Following New Members
                                            JANUARY 24, 2004 – AUGUST 27, 2004

Abadie, Victor                                                   Fox, Keary           Weiss Associates
Abuye, Chanie        Santa Clara Valley Water District           Francis, Tom         East Bay MUD
Achour, Farid        Environ International Corporation           Fricke, Rodney       Aerojet
Aispuro, Cristina    Roscoe Moss Company                         Fudacz, Fred         Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott LLP
Aldern, Joseph       Kleinfelder, Inc.                           Galleni, Andrew      ENV America Incorporated
Amini, Hassan        Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.                 Giuntoli, Chris      GeoTrans, Inc.
Anderson, Stephen    Tetra Tech, Inc.                            Greger, Joel         Piers Environmental
Armendariz, Joseph   Valley County Water District                Hamer, Greg          Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
Arteaga, Karen       GeoSyntec Consultants                       Haroun, Lynne        Environ International
Ayres, John          Camp Dresser and McKee                      Harrington, Robert   Inyo County Water Department
Bailey, Brett        Sedgwick, Detert, Moran & Arnold            Harris, Victor       MWH Americas, Inc.
Baker, Jeff          Vironex Inc.                                Heald, Scott         West Yost & Associates
Barry, Denis                                                     Hekimian, Kenneth    HVN Environmental
Barter, Hale         Errol L. Montgomery & Assoc.                Heningburg, Ben      ENSR International
Beer, Alex           Beveridge & Diamond, P.C.                   Hickling, Katie      ENSR International
Bekins, Barbara      USGS                                        Holguin , Dolores    Valley County Water District
Besemer, Marjorie                                                Holmes, Tara         SCS Engineers
Bjorklund, Brian     ERM                                         Holt, Matthew        Treadwell & Rollo
Blanke, Jim          WRIME, Inc.                                 Hoose, Seena         Santa Clara Valley Water District
Bradford, Alan       GeoSyntec Consultants                       Hosangadi, Vitthal   Tetra Tech FW
Brathwaite, Sam      Adverus, Inc.                               Houser, Chuck        Petra Geotechnical, Inc.
Brewer, Steven       Camp Dresser & McKee                        Howell, Richard      Tetra Tech EM, Inc.
Briones, Raul        ENV America                                 Hurst, Richard       Hurst & Associates, Inc.
Brode, Elizabeth     Schlumberger Water Services                 Iovenitti, Joe       Weiss Associates
Bullock, Douglas     Gallet & Associates, Inc.                   Jamison, Dennis      Komex H2O Science
Burrell, Frank       Swenson & Associates                        Jasperse, Jay        Sonoma County Water Agency
Burrows, Malia       SJSU / SCVWD                                Jenkins, Dave        Kleinfelder, Inc.
Cannon, Melissa      ENSR                                        Joffe, Lawrence      Shaw Environmental
Carlton, Stephen     GeoTrans, Inc.                              Johnson, Peter       Johnson Wright, Inc.
Choi, Jongsok        Tetra Tech, Inc.                            Kalve, Erica         LFR Levine-Fricke
Coblish, Dean        Cascade Drilling Inc.                       Kayhan, Nicholas     Filice, Brown, Eassa, & McLeod, LLP
Contreras, Alfonso   Valley County Water District                Kellman, Heather     Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
Cook, Tim            W.A. Craig                                  Kelson, Vic          WHPA, Inc.
Cook, David          Kleinfelder, Inc.                           Kibel, Paul          Fitzgerald, Abbott & Beardsley, LLP
Cox, Randy           City of Beverly Hills                       Kimura, Laurence     Provost & Pritchard Engineering Group
Crenshaw, Steve      Jacobson Helgoth Consultants                Klein, Josh          Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
Daftary, Homayoun    Shaw Environmental                          Knight, Ken          Aera Energy LLC
Davis, Andrea        Applied Research Associates, Inc.           Koehnen, John        TechLaw, Inc.
Deane, Thomas        Wildermuth Environmental                    Ladd, Larry          Community Advisory Group
Dettloff, Dennis     BSK Associates                              Lake, Kimberly       ERM-West, Inc.
Dittman, Wayne       URS Corporation                             Lake, Mariana        Valley County Water District
Dodson, Steve        Tetra Tech, Inc.                            Lawson, Kristina     Miller, Starr & Regalia
Dow, Brian           Tetra Tech, Inc.                            LeClaire, Joseph     Wildermuth Environmental
Dresen, Michael      Weiss Associates                            Lutton, Kris         Leighton Consulting, Inc.
Drewelow, David      Drewelow Remediation Equipment, Inc.        Mack, Karin          ENV America
Duffy, Mark          Cameron-Cole                                Malone, Andrew       Wildermuth Environmental
Eggers, Margaret     Eggers Environmental, Inc.                  Marasovich, Gerald   Ruen Drilling, Inc.
Espino-Guerrero,                                                 Mast, William        PES Environmental, Inc.
  Catalina           Bonkowski & Associates, Inc.                Mayes, Keith         Twining Laboratories, Inc.
Filice, Gennaro      Filice, Brown, Eassa, & McLeod, LLP         McCue, Gary          TRC
Flowers, Trey        Exponent Failure Analysis Associates        McGrath, Angus       SECOR International
Fortuna, John        GeoSyntec Consultants                       McKenna, Ben         BSK Associates
Fowler, Bill         Crawford Consulting, Inc.                   Meeks, Steve         Delta Environmental Consultants, Inc.

Metteer, Jeff          Columbia Analytical Services                  Skowronek, John         Montgomery Watson Harza
Minton, Shaun          Inw, Inc.                                     Smith, Jon              Delta Environmental Consultants, Inc.
Mizobe, Terri          Valley County Water District                  Smith II, Alfred        Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott LLP
Molnar, Aniko          Dominion Environmental                        Smith Sr., Michael J.   Drewelow Remediation Equipment, Inc.
Morgan, Craig          Avalex                                        Sobieraj, Justin        Adverus, Inc.
Morrill, Art           Krazan & Associates, Inc.                     Stallard, Mary          Weiss Associates
Morss, Christopher     USFilter                                      Staples, Kevin          Kleinfelder, Inc.
Murdoch, Bob           City of Stockton, M.U.D.                      Steinmetz, Scott        Fireman's Fund Insurance Co.
Naing, Thet            Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.                   Sterling, Jenny         Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc.
Needoba, Richard       Precision Sampling, Inc.                      Stewart, Craig          Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
Neshvad, Guilda        Positive Lab Service                          Stivers, Jeff           Locus Technologies
Netto, Steven          Hargis & Associates, Inc.                     Stolfi, Frank           Vironex Inc.
Ng, Hoover             Water Replenishment District of So. CA        Stout, Kristin          Leighton Consulting, Inc.
Noravian, Sako         E2C, Inc.                                     Strong, Ken             Gordon & Rees
Oberlander, Phil       Oberlander Consulting                         Szweminska, Maria       ENVIRON International Corporation
O'Brien, Keith         PES Environmental, Inc.                       Tabatabai, Bita         ENVIRON International Corporation
O'Brien, Kent          Winzler & Kelly Engineers                     Thompson, Kimberly      Calgon Carbon Corporation
O'Brien, Aaron         Tamalpais Environmental                       Torrens, Jake           Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
Ohland, Grant          Geomatrix Consultants                         Tourre, Sarah           URS Corporation
Padula, Danielle                                                     Tovar, Tony             City of Stockton, M.U.D.
Page, Cheri            Dominion Environmental                        Tutt, Nicole            Nossaman Guthner Knox & Elliott LLP
Paul, Jason            Twining Laboratories, Inc.                    Underwood, Dave         Sacramento County Water Resources
Pearce, Wayne          Jacobson Helgoth Consultants                  Valen, Stephen          Filice, Brown, Eassa, & McLeod, LLP
Peterson, Paul         Earth Tech Inc.                               Van Winkle, Derral      Brown & Caldwell
Pexton, Rob            CH2M Hill                                     VanderKwaak, Joel       Arcadis
Phyu, Thandar          Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.                   Velazquez, Manny        Severn Trent Laboratories, Inc.
Pierce, Wendy          Severn Trent Laboratories, Inc.               Veronda, Brenda         Carus Chemical Company
Pierri, Alfredo        Weck Laboratories, Inc.                       Villemaire, Genevieve   CH2M Hill
Price, Kendall         E2C, Inc.                                     Wagstaff, Glenn         Earth Tech Inc.
Prokop, Chip           Dominion Environmental, LLC                   Weitzman, Morley        MACTEC E&C
Pyle, Peter            Stetson Engineers, Inc.                       Wilcox, Alan            City of Vacaville
Raport, Ezra                                                         Wildermuth, Mark        Wildermuth Environmental
Rayner, Robert         Calgon Carbon Corp.                           Wildrick, Paul          Adverus, Inc.
Reblando, Gemma        Geocon Consultants, Inc.                      Williams, Mark          Drewelow Remediation Equipment, Inc.
Rees, Rick             Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.                   Williams, Kristina      ERM
Regan, Tom             Bookman-Edmonston                             Wittman, Greg           Kleinfelder, Inc.
Reilly, Maureen        Todd Engineers                                Wittman, Jack           WHPA, Inc.
Roberson, Keith        California Regional Water Quality             Wolff, Else             Tetra Tech, Inc.
                       Control Board, SF Bay Region                  Wong, Karyn             Schlumberger Water Services
Rodgers, Clay          Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.                   Woyshner, Mark          Balance Hydrologics, Inc.
Rodriguez, Rey         H2O-R2 Consulting Engineers, Inc.             Wuerl, Benjamin         ARCADIS
Romolo, Andrew         LFR Levine Fricke
Rooze, Tom             Zone 7 Water Agency
Rosen, Jamey           GeoSyntec Consultants
Rubio, Estela          Valley County Water District
Rumbolz, Tim           ENSR International
Sabadell, Gabriel      TSC Group, Inc.
Sadeghi, Venus         URS Corporation
Salazar, Jr., Joseph   Mayall, Hurley et al
Samudrala, Jagan       Entech Analytical Labs
Schmidt, Casey         Brown & Caldwell
Seyfried, James        LFR, Inc.
Shafer, Nathan         Air Toxics Ltd.
Shah, Rashmi           Severn Trent Laboratories, Inc.

     BOOK REVIEW – Two Related Books on Sediment and Erosion Control
                                   BY JAMES A. JACOBS, ENVIRONMENTAL BIO-SYSTEMS, INC.

       esigning for Effective Sediment and    a major regulatory challenge, in that            former. As many contractors know, great
       Erosion Control on Construction        construction sites, including environmental      erosion control designs on paper do not
       Sites; and the related Field Manual    remediation activities, may contain a            always translate into terrific sediment and
on Sediment and Erosion Control Best          variety of natural and man-made                  erosion control systems in the field. The
Management Practices for Contractors and      contaminants that could exceed regulatory        cooperation of the innovative erosion
Inspectors; both by Jerald S. Fifield,        levels. These sites are locations where          control professional with the practical
Ph.D., CPESC, Forester Communications         special erosion control measures may be          contractor has the greatest chance for
Inc., Santa Barbara, California,              needed to prevent storm-water runoff and         success, and it is from this sensible
www.foresterpress.com.                        sediment buildup in nearby waterways and         perspective that these two books on
                                              groundwater recharge areas.                      sediment and erosion control were written.
   These books are a worthy and practical
addition to the libraries of those involved       The history of erosion control is one           James Jacobs, R.G., C.H.G., is Chief
with erosion control and construction         written not only by engineers and                Hydrogeologist with Environmental Bio-
projects. Surface water and groundwater       scientists, but also by contractors who are      Systems, Inc. and can be reached at
impact from non-point pollution sources is    out in the field, testing out the ideas of the   augerpro@sbcglobal.net.

                B      R      A      N          C     H             A      C       T      I      V    I     T      I     E     S
                                                    last 5 years. The decline in salmon               populations and associated benzene
               Sacramento                           population has been linked to a decrease in       degradation capabilities vary with
                                                    river flows during the fall migration season      permeability. The Bemidji results show
            Branch Highlights                       caused by overdraft of the regional aquifer.      that thorough characterization of the
                                                    To develop a better understanding of the          hydrogeology of a site is essential for
           BY STEVE PHILLIPS                        critical relationship between the river and       understanding the subsurface microbial
          BRANCH SECRETARY                          aquifer system, a 3D heterogeneous model          populations, their activities, and the
                                                    of the river-aquifer system was constructed       associated effects on water quality.
                                                    based on detailed geostatistical realizations
                                                                                                          On June 16, 2004, Dr. Jean Moran
                                                    of the alluvial stratigraphy.

       or our April meeting, Rob Swartz                                                               from the Lawrence Livermore National
       discussed the state of the                                                                     Laboratory      presented     “Comparing
       groundwater basin underlying                                                                   contamination vulnerability using isotopic
northern Sacramento County. Rob is a                                                                  and trace analytical techniques in two
Senior Project Manager overseeing the                                                                 urban groundwater basins.” Dr. Moran
Groundwater Management Program for                                                                    reviewed the work being done for the
the Sacramento Groundwater Authority,                          San Francisco Bay                      Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and
prior to which he worked for the                                                                      Assessment (GAMA) program, sponsored
California Department of Water Resources                       Branch Highlights
                                                              SAN FRANCISCO BAY                       by the California State Water Resources
for more than ten years. The Sacramento                                                               Control Board (SWRCB). This program
Groundwater Authority has adopted a new                        BY MARY MORKIN                         aims to assess water quality and to predict
groundwater management plan, developed                        BRANCH PRESIDENT                        relative susceptibility of groundwater
a recent state of the basin report, and                                                               resources to contamination based on
facilitated the construction of facilities by                                                         analyses that are not routinely carried out
local water purveyors. A key goal behind

                                                            s a change from its usual Oakland         at public water supply wells: ultra low-
these activities is the sustainable expansion               location, the San Francisco Bay           level measurement of volatile organic
of the overall water supply by better                       Branch held two talks this past           compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age
management of surface water and                     quarter in the heart of Silicon Valley in San     dating. These analyses help define the flow
groundwater supplies.                               Jose. Many thanks to Mark Wheeler for             field of a groundwater basin, and indicate
   In May, Thomas Harter discussed                  selecting the speakers, organizing these          the degree of vertical connection between
results from intensive studies on nitrogen          meetings and helping us to reach more             near-surface sources of contamination and
fate and transport underneath dairies,              South Bay members. The following is a             deeper groundwater pumped at high
which in California produce 20% of US               brief summary.                                    capacity production wells.
milk. Thomas is an Associate Cooperative                On May 12, 2004, the Branch hosted               Upcoming talks for the San Francisco
Extension Groundwater Hydrology                     the 2004 Birdsall-Dreiss Distinguished            Bay Branch include: October 20, 2004
Specialist at UC Davis, who focuses on              Lecturer, sponsored by the GSA                    “Nitrate in California Groundwater:
applying advanced modeling techniques to            Hydrogeology Division and funded by the           Sources, Sinks and Transport” by Brad
address groundwater quality and resource            GSA Foundation. This year’s recipient was         Esser, Lawrence Livermore National
issues in rural and agricultural areas.             Dr. Barbara Bekins, from the U.S.                 Laboratory; and November 17, 2004 –
Extensive monitoring of nitrogen in soil            Geological Survey in Menlo Park,                  “Aquitards and Contamination” by John
and crops grown on a dairy field, coupled           California. Dr. Bekins presented on “The          Cherry. Watch for the announcements and
with monitoring of shallow groundwater              influence of hydrogeology on 25 years of          on-line registration at www.grac.org.
on 5 dairies in the northeastern San                natural attenuation at a crude oil spill site.”
Joaquin Valley, provided a rich dataset for         Below is the abstract for Dr. Bekin’s talk.
analysis using statistical and innovative
modeling tools at multiple scales.                     The Bemidji results show that
                                                    groundwater flow plays a central role in
   Salmon was the topic of our June                 regulating subsurface microbial activity
meeting, where Jan Fleckenstein discussed           during natural attenuation. Microbial
the declining population of the endangered          populations and reaction rates are
Chinook salmon in the Cosumnes River.               inextricably     linked   to    recharge,
Jan is finishing his Ph.D. with Prof.               permeability, and hydraulic gradient. At
Graham Fogg in Hydrologic Sciences at               the Bemidji site, degradation rates for
UC Davis, and has worked on                         constituents of non-aqueous crude oil vary
groundwater- surface water interactions             strongly with recharge rates. In addition,
along the lower Cosumnes River for the              the temporal evolution of microbial

                B      R     A      N      C     H            A      C      T     I      V    I     T      I    E      S
                    SA                            We took July and August for vacation.
          San Joaquin Valley                   On September 16 in Fresno we will be                       Southern California
                                               welcoming this year’s NGWA McEllhiney
           Branch Highlights
          N JOAQUIN VALLEY                     Distinguished Lecturer, Hank Baski,                         Branch CALIFORNIA
                                               President of Baski Inc., a Denver-based
            BY BILL PIPES                      company that designs and manufactures                    BY DARRYL THOMPSON
          BRANCH PRESIDENT                     equipment for the ground water industry.                  BRANCH PRESIDENT
                                               He will be discussing “Ground Water:
                                               Fallacies and Forecasts” that hinder
                                               optimal development of water wells, as

W                                                                                             O
          e meet for dinner every 3rd                                                                 n August 3, 2004, the Southern
          Thursday of the month, usually       well as new technologies and innovations               California Branch of GRA held its
          in Fresno, but we are starting to    that are expected to impact the water well             chapter meeting at the Glendale
also meet in other San Joaquin Valley          industry over the next decade.                 Hilton on the eve of the August 4th
cities. One of those other locations is           We will be hosting the next GRA             Symposium, ClO4-•2004:Perchlorate in
Bakersfield, where we always seem to have      Contaminants Series in Fresno on October       California’s Groundwater. The keynote
our best turnout. One of the fastest           18-19, 2004, “Arsenic in Groundwater:          speaker was William E. Motzer, Ph.D., RG,
growing cities in California, Bakersfield      Impacts on a Critical Resource.” The           Senior Geochemist at Todd Engineers. Mr.
has a significant population of geologists,    symposium will look at arsenic in              Motzer presented a talk entitled
engineers, and environmental scientists        groundwater issues, impacts the new            “Perchlorate in the Environment: What We
supporting Kern County’s petroleum,            standards will have on this critical Western   Know in 2004 and Where Do We Go From
agriculture, and aerospace industries.         U.S. resource, and possible solutions to       Here?” Attendance at the chapter meeting
Groundwater plays a significant role in the    mitigate these impacts. Please check out       was terrific, exceeding 70 people. We
Southern San Joaquin Valley as it makes up     the GRA web site for meeting                   would like to extend a big thank you to our
a substantial portion of the municipal,        announcements and other updates from           speaker and to Mary Megary and Kathy
agriculture, and industrial supply. CSU        the San Joaquin Valley Branch.                 Snelson for assisting us in arranging the
Bakersfield has excellent geology and                                                         chapter meeting as part of the Symposium.
hydrogeology programs, and just a few                                                         We are looking forward to hosting another
miles northwest of Bakersfield sits one of                                                    chapter meeting immediately prior to the
the largest water banking projects in the                                                     November Dry Cleaner Symposium in
world – the Kern Water Bank.                                                                  Newport Beach, CA. Stay tuned for more
   Our May meeting was held in
Bakersfield at the Woolgrowers (Basque)
Restaurant. Dr. Dirk Baron, Associate
Professor of Geology at CSUB, presented
“Distribution and Sources of Arsenic in
Sediments from the Southern San Joaquin
Valley, California.” Dr. Baron’s research is
focused on the behavior of trace elements
in natural and contaminated subsurface
   In June we returned to Fresno where we
had a presentation given by Gary Corbell,
Owner and President of Welenco, and one
of the founders of the GRA San Joaquin
Valley Branch. Gary’s presentation was on
“Recent Advances in Geophysical Logging
for the Groundwater Industry.” Gary
recently has developed the software for a
highly acclaimed drift and alignment
calculation package which now includes
Flo-Pac, a spinner flowmeter interpretation
module. Supplementing this software
package are special viewer modules for
uses by the industry.

                               B      R    A   N   C       H             C      O        N     T   A   C      T       S

       Central Coast Branch                               San Francisco Bay Branch                                San Joaquin Valley Branch
      e-mail: cc.branch@grac.org                            e-mail: sf.branch@grac.org                             e-mail: wpipes@geomatrix.com

      President: Terry L. Foreman                              President: Mary Morkin                                  President: Bill Pipes
               CH2MHill                                            Malcolm Pirnie                                   Geomatrix Consultants, Inc.
          (805) 371-7817, x27                                      (510) 735-3032                                        (559) 264-2535
         tforeman@ch2m.com                                      mmorkin@pirnie.com                                   wpipes@geomatrix.com

Vice President: Stephanie Osler Hastings                     Vice President: J.C. Isham                           Vice President: Tom Haslebacher
            Hatch and Parent                                      The Shaw Group                                     Kern County Water Agency
          (805) 963-7000, x415                                     (925) 288-2087                                          (661) 871-5244
      shastings@hatchparent.com                            julian.isham@theitgroup.com                                thaslebacher@bak.rr.com

  Secretary: William (Bill) O’Brien, PE                       Secretary: Bill Motzer                                Secretary: Mary McClanahan
 Applications International Corp. (SAIC)                         Todd Engineers                                      California Water Institute
         (805) 966-0811 x3208                                    (510) 595-2120                                           (559) 278-8468
           obrienw@saic.com                                bmotzer@toddengineers.com                                 mmcclana@csufresno.edu

        Treasurer: Ryan Harding                               Treasurer: David Abbott                             Treasurer: Christopher Campbell
            Tetra Tech, Inc.                                      Todd Engineers                                      Baker Manock & Jensen
            (805) 681-3100                                        (510) 595-2120                                          (559) 432-5400
      ryan.harding@tetratech.com                            dabbott@toddengineers.com                                    clc@bmj-law.com

                                                       South Bay Coordinator: Mark Wheeler                 Technical Advisory Member: Barbara Houghton
                                                               Crawford Consulting                                  Houghton HydroGeolgic, Inc.
                                                                 (408) 287-9934                                           (661) 398-2222
        Sacramento Branch                                 mark@crawfordconsulting.com                              barbara@houghtonhydro.com
  e-mail: rshatz@geiconsultants.com
                                                   Technical Advisory Member: Bettina Logino                Technical Advisory Member: Gres Issinghoff
       President: Richard Shatz                              Geomatrix Consultants                                RWQCB, Central Valley Region
   Bookman Edmonston Engineering                                (510) 663-4100                                            (559) 488-4390
           (916) 852-1300                                  blongino@geomatrix.com                                  issinghoffg@r5f.swrcb.ca.gov
                                                   Technical Advisory Member: Janet Peters                   Technical Advisory Member: Bruce Myers
      Vice President: Kelly Tilford                    ARCADIS Geraghty & Miller, Inc.                            RWQCB, Central Valley Region
           Golder Associates                                    (510) 233-3200                                           (559) 488-4397
             (916) 786-2424                                jpeters@arcadis-us.com                                   myersb@r5f.swrcb.ca.gov
                                                       Technical Advisory Member: Jim Ulrick
        Secretary: Steve Phillips                                Ulrick & Associates
                  USGS                                              (510) 848-3721
            (916) 278-3002                                        julrick@ulrick.com
          sphillips@usgs.gov                                                                                      Southern California Branch
                                                           Past President: Linda Spencer
     Treasurer: David Von Aspern                              lindageo@earthlink.net                                 President: Darrel Thompson
      Wallace Kuhl & Associates                                                                                          Shaw Environmental
           (916) 372-1434                                                                                                   (949) 660-7510
    dvonaspern@wallace-kuhl.com                                                                                   darrell.h.thompson@shawgrp.com

      Member at Large: Pat Dunn                                                                                     Vice President: Peter Murphy
     Jacobson Helgoth Consultants                                                                                    Kennedy/Jenks Consultants
           (916) 985-3353                                                                                                  (949) 261-1577
         pfdunn@pacbell.net                                                                                       petermurphy@kennedyjenks.com

   Member at Large: Juliana Harris                                                                                   Treasurer: Robert Ruscitto
   Bookman Edmonston Engineering                                                                                   ARCADIS Geraghty& Miller, Inc.
           (916) 852-1300                                                                                                 (714) 278-0992
   jharris@navigantconsulting.com                                                                                    rruscitto@arcadis-us.com

    Member at Large: Steve Lofholm
         Golder Associates
           (916) 786-2424

                                          Dates & Details
                                       GRA MEETINGS            AND     KEY DATES
                   (Please visit www.grac.org for detailed information, updates, and registration unless noted)

  GRA Workshop                  September 27-29, 2004                 GRA Symposium                     November 10, 2004
  Model Calibration &           San Francisco, CA                     Investigation and                 Newport Beach, CA
  Predictive Uncertainty                                              Remediation of Dry
  Analysis Using PEST                                                 Cleaner Release Sites

  GRA Symposium                 October 18-19, 2004                   GRA Board of Directors            January 15-16, 2005
  Arsenic in Groundwater:       Fresno, CA                            Strategic Planning Meeting        Santa Barbara, CA
  Impacts on a Critical
  Resource                                                            EIMS - Environmental              January 26, 2005
                                                                      Information Management            Northern California
  GRA Board of                  November 6, 2004                      Systems
  Directors Meeting             Irvine, CA

                                                                                                                       First Class Mail
                                                                                                                       U.S. Postage Paid
                                                                                                                       Sacramento, CA
GROUNDWATER RESOURCES ASSOCIATION                                                                                      Permit No. 1277
            OF CALIFORNIA
       915 L STREET, SUITE 1000

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