Plants_ by dfhdhdhdhjr


									PLANTS – Section 9-1 Notes
    Read pg. 242-247
1. Think about what you know
   about plants

2. In your science notebook create a
   detailed scientific illustration of a
   plant (it can be general or

3. Indicated color, sizes, and label as
   many parts of the plant as you
   can recall.
              A. Plant Cells
1. Plant cells have: cell walls- which
   provides structure and protection.
2. Most plant cells contain: chlorophyll
   (green pigment)
  a. Photosynthesis- process uses chlorophyll to
      make food
  b. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplast
        Plant Cells Continued
3. Many plant cells contain carotenoids- red,
  yellow, or orange pigments that are also
  used in photosynthesis
B. Scientists think that plants evolved from
    green algae in the sea because:
1) Plants and green algae have the same
    types of pigments
2) Fossils of early plants are similar to
    ancient green alage
    C. When plants moved to land,
         they had to adapt:
1. More sunlight and carbon dioxide were available
2. To reduce water loss, plants developed cuticles
   (waxy protective layer to hold water in)
3. Cell walls developed cellulose (compound that
   provides structure and support)
4. To reproduce plants developed water-resistant
   spores and seeds
      D. Plant Classification
1. Vascular Plants- use tubelike structures
  to carry water and nutrients throughout
  the plant
2. Non-Vascular plants – Use other ways to
  move water and nutrients.

 Open Your Textbook to Page 246 to View
           Plant Classification
     Quick Check!

What makes plant
cells different
from animal cells?
    Read First! Chapter 9, Section 1
        Then Define: Vocabulary
            (Page 242-247)
•   Cellulose
•   Cuticle
•   Vascular & Non Vascular Plants
•   Photosynthesis
•   Chloroplast
•   Chlorophyll
•   Carotenoids
Section 9.3 Seed Plants
   A. Seed Plants Characteristics
1. Have leaves, stems, roots,
   and vascular tissue
2. Reproduce by seeds-
   which contains an embryo
   and stored food

**Label the picture of the
  seed & leaf**
• Seed consists of an embryo, stored food,
  and a protective seed coat.
• The stored food is used by the embryo
  begins to grow into a plant.
             Seed Dispersal
• Seeds are dispersed by wind, gravity,
  animals, and water.
  – Bees, bats, birds, and other insects are major
    players in pollination of angiosperms.
  – Many seeds have developed characteristics that
    allow them to travel easily over long distances
    in the air or water.
  – Some seeds need to go through an animal
    digestive tract before germination will occur.
• Germination is a series of events that result
  in the growth of a plant from a seed. It is
  marked by the swelling and splitting of the
  seed coat.
• Environmental conditions can affect
  germination. (Temperature, light, moisture,
  and amount of oxygen are factors.)
    B. Leaves- trap light & undergo
                 p. 254
1. Epidermis- thin layer of cells on both sides
  of leaves
  – May have waxy cuticle coat
  – Have stomata- small openings allow for
    exchange of CO2, water, and oxygen
  – Each stomata surrounded by 2 guard cells that
    open and close it
                B. Leaves
2. Palisade layer- contains chloroplasts (where
  food is made)
3. Spongy layer-loosely arranged cells and air
                D. Roots
• Collect water and nutrients from the ground
• Anchor plants
• May store food and water
           • Move materials
C. Stems     between leaves and
           • Above ground
           • Support
           • May store food
           • A) Herbaceous stems-
             soft and green
           • B) Woody stems-hard,
             rigid, and woody
         E. Vascular tissue
1. Xylem- transports water from
   roots throughout the plant
2. Phloem- moves food from
   where it is made to other parts
   of the plant
3. Cambium tissue- produces
   new xylem and phloem cells
             F. Gymnosperms
•   Produce seeds that are not protected by fruit
•   Oldest trees alive
•   No flowers
•   Leaves are needlelike, scalelike, evergreens
•   4 main groups: Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes,
    and gnetophytes
              G. Angiosperms
•   Have flower and fruit that contains seeds
•   Fruit develops from flower
•   Most fruit contain seeds
•   2 groups:
    – Monocots- 1 cotyledon inside their seeds
    – Dicots- 2 cotyledons inside their seeds
• Life Cycles: Annual (1/yr), Biennial (2/yr),
  Perennial (more then 2 years to grow)
Chapter 10 Section 3 Notes

    Seed Plant Reproduction
         Section 1-3 Vocabulary
1.   Pollen         9. Germination
2.   Seed           10. Ovary
3.   Pollination    11. Cotyledons (p.260)
4.   Embryo
5.   Ovules
6.   Stamen
7.   Pistil
        Seed Plant Reproduction
• Pollen grains- parts that produce sperm cells and are
  protected by a water-resistant covering.
• Pollen grains are carried to the female part of a plant by
  gravity, wind, water, or animals.
• Pollination occurs when the pollen grains are transferred
  to the female part of the plant.
• The pollen grain then grows a pollen tube to the female
  ovary and the sperm travels through the tube to the egg
• Following fertilization , the female part can develop into a
• Gymnosperms develop seeds in cones.
• A pine tree or shrub is a plant that produces male
  and female cones.
• A female cone has two ovules which produce
• Male cones produce and release pollen.
• When pollen blows into a female cone,
  fertilization can occur and seeds formed.
• Seed release by a female cone can take 2-3 years
• Angiosperms are plants that produce
  flowers for sexual reproduction.
• The stamen is the male reproductive organ.
  It is composed of 2 parts, the anther and
• The pistil is the female reproductive organ
  and consists of the stigma, style, and ovary.
Flower Structure
• The appearance of the plant’s flower can
  give clues about how the plant is pollinated.
• After pollination and fertilization, a zygote
  forms and grows into the plant embryo.
Pollination / Fertilization
How does human life depend on
        seed plants?
• Wood for construction and paper products
  from conifers
• Angiosperms form the basis of diets for
  most animals and humans
Genetic Engineering (p 296-297)
1) What other methods could be used to transfer
   genes from one species to another without using
2) What are some of the fears associated with the
   technology of genetic engineering?
3) What are some of the benefits associated with
   the technology of genetic engineering?
4) Pick a fruit or vegetable and list some of the
   traits that you wished that item had.

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