PLANTS – Section 9-1 Notes Read pg. 242-247 1. Think about what you know about plants 2. In your science notebook create a detailed scientific illustration of a plant (it can be general or specific). 3. Indicated color, sizes, and label as many parts of the plant as you can recall. A. Plant Cells 1. Plant cells have: cell walls- which provides structure and protection. 2. Most plant cells contain: chlorophyll (green pigment) a. Photosynthesis- process uses chlorophyll to make food b. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplast Plant Cells Continued 3. Many plant cells contain carotenoids- red, yellow, or orange pigments that are also used in photosynthesis B. Scientists think that plants evolved from green algae in the sea because: 1) Plants and green algae have the same types of pigments 2) Fossils of early plants are similar to ancient green alage C. When plants moved to land, they had to adapt: 1. More sunlight and carbon dioxide were available 2. To reduce water loss, plants developed cuticles (waxy protective layer to hold water in) 3. Cell walls developed cellulose (compound that provides structure and support) 4. To reproduce plants developed water-resistant spores and seeds D. Plant Classification 1. Vascular Plants- use tubelike structures to carry water and nutrients throughout the plant 2. Non-Vascular plants – Use other ways to move water and nutrients. Open Your Textbook to Page 246 to View Plant Classification Quick Check! What makes plant cells different from animal cells? Read First! Chapter 9, Section 1 Then Define: Vocabulary (Page 242-247) • Cellulose • Cuticle • Vascular & Non Vascular Plants • Photosynthesis • Chloroplast • Chlorophyll • Carotenoids Section 9.3 Seed Plants A. Seed Plants Characteristics 1. Have leaves, stems, roots, and vascular tissue 2. Reproduce by seeds- which contains an embryo and stored food **Label the picture of the seed & leaf** Seeds • Seed consists of an embryo, stored food, and a protective seed coat. • The stored food is used by the embryo begins to grow into a plant. Seed Dispersal • Seeds are dispersed by wind, gravity, animals, and water. – Bees, bats, birds, and other insects are major players in pollination of angiosperms. – Many seeds have developed characteristics that allow them to travel easily over long distances in the air or water. – Some seeds need to go through an animal digestive tract before germination will occur. Germination • Germination is a series of events that result in the growth of a plant from a seed. It is marked by the swelling and splitting of the seed coat. • Environmental conditions can affect germination. (Temperature, light, moisture, and amount of oxygen are factors.) B. Leaves- trap light & undergo photosynthesis p. 254 1. Epidermis- thin layer of cells on both sides of leaves – May have waxy cuticle coat – Have stomata- small openings allow for exchange of CO2, water, and oxygen – Each stomata surrounded by 2 guard cells that open and close it B. Leaves 2. Palisade layer- contains chloroplasts (where food is made) 3. Spongy layer-loosely arranged cells and air D. Roots • Collect water and nutrients from the ground • Anchor plants • May store food and water • Move materials C. Stems between leaves and roots • Above ground • Support • May store food • A) Herbaceous stems- soft and green • B) Woody stems-hard, rigid, and woody E. Vascular tissue 1. Xylem- transports water from roots throughout the plant 2. Phloem- moves food from where it is made to other parts of the plant 3. Cambium tissue- produces new xylem and phloem cells F. Gymnosperms • Produce seeds that are not protected by fruit • Oldest trees alive • No flowers • Leaves are needlelike, scalelike, evergreens • 4 main groups: Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes, and gnetophytes G. Angiosperms • Have flower and fruit that contains seeds • Fruit develops from flower • Most fruit contain seeds • 2 groups: – Monocots- 1 cotyledon inside their seeds – Dicots- 2 cotyledons inside their seeds • Life Cycles: Annual (1/yr), Biennial (2/yr), Perennial (more then 2 years to grow) Chapter 10 Section 3 Notes Seed Plant Reproduction Section 1-3 Vocabulary 1. Pollen 9. Germination 2. Seed 10. Ovary 3. Pollination 11. Cotyledons (p.260) 4. Embryo 5. Ovules 6. Stamen 7. Pistil Seed Plant Reproduction • Pollen grains- parts that produce sperm cells and are protected by a water-resistant covering. • Pollen grains are carried to the female part of a plant by gravity, wind, water, or animals. • Pollination occurs when the pollen grains are transferred to the female part of the plant. • The pollen grain then grows a pollen tube to the female ovary and the sperm travels through the tube to the egg cells. • Following fertilization , the female part can develop into a seed. Gymnosperms • Gymnosperms develop seeds in cones. • A pine tree or shrub is a plant that produces male and female cones. • A female cone has two ovules which produce eggs. • Male cones produce and release pollen. • When pollen blows into a female cone, fertilization can occur and seeds formed. • Seed release by a female cone can take 2-3 years Angiosperms • Angiosperms are plants that produce flowers for sexual reproduction. • The stamen is the male reproductive organ. It is composed of 2 parts, the anther and filament. • The pistil is the female reproductive organ and consists of the stigma, style, and ovary. Flower Structure Flowers • The appearance of the plant’s flower can give clues about how the plant is pollinated. • After pollination and fertilization, a zygote forms and grows into the plant embryo. Pollination / Fertilization How does human life depend on seed plants? • Wood for construction and paper products from conifers • Angiosperms form the basis of diets for most animals and humans Genetic Engineering (p 296-297) 1) What other methods could be used to transfer genes from one species to another without using viruses? 2) What are some of the fears associated with the technology of genetic engineering? 3) What are some of the benefits associated with the technology of genetic engineering? 4) Pick a fruit or vegetable and list some of the traits that you wished that item had.
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