PLANTS – Section 9-1 Notes
Read pg. 242-247
1. Think about what you know
2. In your science notebook create a
detailed scientific illustration of a
plant (it can be general or
3. Indicated color, sizes, and label as
many parts of the plant as you
A. Plant Cells
1. Plant cells have: cell walls- which
provides structure and protection.
2. Most plant cells contain: chlorophyll
a. Photosynthesis- process uses chlorophyll to
b. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplast
Plant Cells Continued
3. Many plant cells contain carotenoids- red,
yellow, or orange pigments that are also
used in photosynthesis
B. Scientists think that plants evolved from
green algae in the sea because:
1) Plants and green algae have the same
types of pigments
2) Fossils of early plants are similar to
ancient green alage
C. When plants moved to land,
they had to adapt:
1. More sunlight and carbon dioxide were available
2. To reduce water loss, plants developed cuticles
(waxy protective layer to hold water in)
3. Cell walls developed cellulose (compound that
provides structure and support)
4. To reproduce plants developed water-resistant
spores and seeds
D. Plant Classification
1. Vascular Plants- use tubelike structures
to carry water and nutrients throughout
2. Non-Vascular plants – Use other ways to
move water and nutrients.
Open Your Textbook to Page 246 to View
What makes plant
from animal cells?
Read First! Chapter 9, Section 1
Then Define: Vocabulary
• Vascular & Non Vascular Plants
Section 9.3 Seed Plants
A. Seed Plants Characteristics
1. Have leaves, stems, roots,
and vascular tissue
2. Reproduce by seeds-
which contains an embryo
and stored food
**Label the picture of the
seed & leaf**
• Seed consists of an embryo, stored food,
and a protective seed coat.
• The stored food is used by the embryo
begins to grow into a plant.
• Seeds are dispersed by wind, gravity,
animals, and water.
– Bees, bats, birds, and other insects are major
players in pollination of angiosperms.
– Many seeds have developed characteristics that
allow them to travel easily over long distances
in the air or water.
– Some seeds need to go through an animal
digestive tract before germination will occur.
• Germination is a series of events that result
in the growth of a plant from a seed. It is
marked by the swelling and splitting of the
• Environmental conditions can affect
germination. (Temperature, light, moisture,
and amount of oxygen are factors.)
B. Leaves- trap light & undergo
1. Epidermis- thin layer of cells on both sides
– May have waxy cuticle coat
– Have stomata- small openings allow for
exchange of CO2, water, and oxygen
– Each stomata surrounded by 2 guard cells that
open and close it
2. Palisade layer- contains chloroplasts (where
food is made)
3. Spongy layer-loosely arranged cells and air
• Collect water and nutrients from the ground
• Anchor plants
• May store food and water
• Move materials
C. Stems between leaves and
• Above ground
• May store food
• A) Herbaceous stems-
soft and green
• B) Woody stems-hard,
rigid, and woody
E. Vascular tissue
1. Xylem- transports water from
roots throughout the plant
2. Phloem- moves food from
where it is made to other parts
of the plant
3. Cambium tissue- produces
new xylem and phloem cells
• Produce seeds that are not protected by fruit
• Oldest trees alive
• No flowers
• Leaves are needlelike, scalelike, evergreens
• 4 main groups: Conifers, cycads, ginkgoes,
• Have flower and fruit that contains seeds
• Fruit develops from flower
• Most fruit contain seeds
• 2 groups:
– Monocots- 1 cotyledon inside their seeds
– Dicots- 2 cotyledons inside their seeds
• Life Cycles: Annual (1/yr), Biennial (2/yr),
Perennial (more then 2 years to grow)
Chapter 10 Section 3 Notes
Seed Plant Reproduction
Section 1-3 Vocabulary
1. Pollen 9. Germination
2. Seed 10. Ovary
3. Pollination 11. Cotyledons (p.260)
Seed Plant Reproduction
• Pollen grains- parts that produce sperm cells and are
protected by a water-resistant covering.
• Pollen grains are carried to the female part of a plant by
gravity, wind, water, or animals.
• Pollination occurs when the pollen grains are transferred
to the female part of the plant.
• The pollen grain then grows a pollen tube to the female
ovary and the sperm travels through the tube to the egg
• Following fertilization , the female part can develop into a
• Gymnosperms develop seeds in cones.
• A pine tree or shrub is a plant that produces male
and female cones.
• A female cone has two ovules which produce
• Male cones produce and release pollen.
• When pollen blows into a female cone,
fertilization can occur and seeds formed.
• Seed release by a female cone can take 2-3 years
• Angiosperms are plants that produce
flowers for sexual reproduction.
• The stamen is the male reproductive organ.
It is composed of 2 parts, the anther and
• The pistil is the female reproductive organ
and consists of the stigma, style, and ovary.
• The appearance of the plant’s flower can
give clues about how the plant is pollinated.
• After pollination and fertilization, a zygote
forms and grows into the plant embryo.
Pollination / Fertilization
How does human life depend on
• Wood for construction and paper products
• Angiosperms form the basis of diets for
most animals and humans
Genetic Engineering (p 296-297)
1) What other methods could be used to transfer
genes from one species to another without using
2) What are some of the fears associated with the
technology of genetic engineering?
3) What are some of the benefits associated with
the technology of genetic engineering?
4) Pick a fruit or vegetable and list some of the
traits that you wished that item had.