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Renfrewshire Council Educational Outdoor Activities

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					                                                                        Agenda Item No   .....
                             Renfrewshire Council
To:     Education Policy Board

On:     25 February 2010

                                        Report
                                          by
                          Director of Education and Leisure

                      Educational Outdoor Activities

1.     Summary

1.1    Under statute and common law, responsibility for safety in maintained
       establishments rests mainly with local authorities. This includes schools, outdoor
       centres, community education groups, youth groups and Duke of Edinburgh
       Award schemes where the council is the operating authority. Education and
       leisure services are obliged, therefore, to ensure that clear arrangements are
       made for the approval of outdoor activities and that procedures are in place to
       ensure that parents and guardians of students and other young people are fully
       informed of the details of the activities and that they give their consent for the
       involvement of their children.

1.2    This paper sets out guidance to supports schools to provide education beyond
       the classroom. Given the range of subjects which can and do use out of school
       experiences.
       This document has been written to offer a framework of checks for all staff and
       volunteers engaged in educational outdoor activities.


2.     Recommendations

2.1.   The education policy board is asked to approve the education and leisure
       services Educational Outdoor Activities report.


3.     Background

3.1    Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
       Employers are responsible for the health and safety of their employees. They
       have a duty of care to ensure, so far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety
       and welfare of their employees. This extends to pupils in schools and includes
       participants in off site activities. The law also requires that certain arrangements
       be put in place to achieve adequate standards of safety. In particular, The
       Management of Health and Safety At Work regulations 1999 requires that
       suitable and sufficient risk assessments be carried out. It is the responsibility of

                                         Page 1 of 3
      education and leisure services to ensure that a robust system of risk assessment
      is in place.

3.2   The education and leisure Educational Outdoor Activities Revised Standard
      Circular 33 is attached as appendix 1 to this report.


Implications of this report

1.     Financial Implications
       – None

2.     Personnel Implications
       – None

3.     Community Plan/Council Plan Implications
       Wealthier and  - None.
       Fairer
       Smarter        - This process contributes to the effective and efficient
                        delivery of the service.

       Healthier         - Promotes supporting education beyond the classroom.

       Safer and         - It will support the maintenance of a safe working
       Stronger            environment for employee and service users; and

                          It will allow the department to manage risk as effectively as
                          possible and where reasonably practicable will support the
                          elimination or control of identified risks.

       Greener           - None.

       Developing our    - It will support continuous review of the health and safety
       Organisation        performance which will lead to improved service provision.


4.     Legal Implications
       Compliance with relevant legislation and the Council‟s risk management policy.

5.     Property Implications
       – None

6.     Information Technology Implications
       – None

7.     Equal Opportunities Implications
       – None


                                       Page 2 of 3
8.        Health and Safety Implications
          This report demonstrates the department's commitment to the health and well-
          being of all employees and service users.

9.        Procurement Implications
      -   – None
      -
10.       Risk Implications
          Managed through this report.

11.       COSLA Policy Position
          – Not Applicable



Education and Leisure Services
IT/AG
29 January 2010



             (author:   Ian Thomson, Education Manager (Estates), tel 0141-842 5584)




                                            Page 3 of 3
                                                                                  Appendix 1
                                                                  Revised Standard Circular 33


                          Renfrewshire Council
______________________________________________________________________

                                 Education and Leisure Services
                                     Renfrewshire House
                                         Cotton Street
                                             Paisley
                                            PA1 1LE




To: Heads of All Educational Establishments




Dear Colleague

EDUCATIONAL OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

The attached Standard Circular has been written to offer detailed advice and support for
all those involved in organising and delivering adventure activities and outdoor pursuits.
The document is divided in to three sections. Sections one and two are relatively brief
and should be read by all heads of establishment and those who organise and lead
outdoor adventure activities.

Section three offers detailed information and advice on those activities which fall within
the scope of this document. Sample risk assessments are also offered for each activity,
although leaders in charge should note that each excursion or activity offers its own
risks and these must be assessed independently as part of the preparation and
organisation of the activity.

Before sanctioning such activities, Heads of Establishment should also ensure that their
arrangements comply with the requirements of Standard Circular 48 which relates to the
general organisation and supervision of educational visits and excursions.

Where the activity falls outwith the scope of this document, advice should be sought
from the Director of Education and Leisure Services.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                            Page 1 of 251
Once again, I wish to express my support and encouragement to all those who instruct
and lead young people in outdoor adventure activities. Young people derive an
enormous amount of enjoyment and personal satisfaction from these activities while at
the same time benefiting from a rich variety of learning experiences which are simply
not possible with the confines of the classroom.

I hope that your adventure activity is safe and enjoyable.

Yours sincerely




John Rooney
Director of Education and Leisure Services




IT/AG
February 2010




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                            Page 2 of 251
Contents
Section 1                Educational Outdoor Activities ............................................................... 7
   1.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................. 7
   1.2 Legal framework ..................................................................................................... 7
   1.3 Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 ................................................................ 7
   1.4 Licensed Activities: The Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA) ............. 8
   1.5 Procedures ............................................................................................................. 9
   1.6 Emergency Procedures: Checking In/ Late Returns ............................................. 10
   1.7 The Use of Outdoor Education Centres ................................................................ 10
   1.8 External Providers of Activities ............................................................................. 10
   1.9 For further information Head of establishment should contact: ............................ 11
   1.10 Definitions and Exclusions .................................................................................. 11
Section 2               General Guidance on Safety during Educational Outdoor Activities ..... 13
   2.1 Activities involving exposure to strong sunlight .................................................... 13
   2.2 Activities involving the use of natural waters ........................................................ 14
   2.3 Qualifications and Instructional Awards ................................................................ 18
Section 3               Specific Approved Outdoor Activities .................................................... 20
   3.1 General Advice and Guidance on Educational Field Visits ................................... 20
   3.2 Bathing in Natural Water ...................................................................................... 21
   3.3 Hillwalking Guidelines ........................................................................................... 27
   3.4 Paddlesports: Canoeing and Kayaking ................................................................ 38
   3.5 Horse Riding ......................................................................................................... 48
   3.6. Cycling .................................................................................................................. 56
   3.7 Orienteering .......................................................................................................... 64
   3.8 Race Rowing Activities ......................................................................................... 69
   3.9 Rock Climbing and Abseiling ................................................................................ 76
   3.10 Dinghy Sailing ..................................................................................................... 86
   3.11 Windsurfing......................................................................................................... 92
   3.12 Miscellaneous Use of Boats/ Power Boating ...................................................... 98
   3.13 Snowsports and Skiing Activities ...................................................................... 105
   3.14 Caving Activities ............................................................................................... 119
   3.15 Camping Activities ............................................................................................ 124
   3.16 Angling ............................................................................................................. 132

________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                    Page 3 of 251
   3.17 Combined Rock and Water Activities ............................................................... 137
   3.18 Other Adventurous Activities ........................................................................... 143
Appendix A .................................................................................................................... 149
   Planning the off site activity ............................................................................................. 149
Appendix 1 .................................................................................................................... 150
   Risk Assessment. Abseiling. Hazards, Risks and Controls .......................................... 150
Appendix 2 .................................................................................................................... 153
   Risk Assessment, Angling: Common Hazards, Risks and Controls ............................ 153
Appendix 3 .................................................................................................................... 154
   Risk Assessment: Camping Activities. Common Hazards, Risks and Controls ........ 154
Appendix 4 .................................................................................................................... 156
   Risk Assessment. Camping: Hazards, Risks and Controls .......................................... 156
Appendix 5 .................................................................................................................... 158
   Risk Assessment. Camping: Caving Activities: Hazards, Risks and Controls ............ 158
Appendix 6 .................................................................................................................... 160
   Risk Assessment. Artificial Climbing Walls: Hazards, Risks and Controls ................. 160
Appendix 7 .................................................................................................................... 163
   Risk Assessment. Accompanied – On Road: Hazards, Risks and Controls .............. 163
Appendix 8 .................................................................................................................... 164
   Risk Assessment. Off Road Cycling: Hazards, Risks and Controls ............................ 164
Appendix 9 .................................................................................................................... 167
   Risk Assessment. Cycling, Supervised, Unaccompanied, On Road: Hazards, Risks
       and Controls ....................................................................................................... 167
Appendix 10 .................................................................................................................. 168
   Risk Assessment. Dinghy Sailing at Castle Semple: Risk Assessment, Hazards,
       Risks and Controls ............................................................................................. 168
Appendix 11 .................................................................................................................. 171
   Risk Assessment. Educational Walking Excursions: Hazards, Risks and Controls.. 171
Appendix 12 .................................................................................................................. 172
   Risk Assessment in the Freshwater and Marine Environment: Common Hazards,
       Risks and Controls ............................................................................................. 172
Appendix 13 .................................................................................................................. 174
   Risk Assessment. General Outdoor: Common Hazard, Risks and Controls .............. 174
Appendix 14 .................................................................................................................. 178
   1     GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – ALL EDUCATIONAL VISITS:                                                  .................. 178
Appendix 15 .................................................................................................................. 182
   2     GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – TRAVEL ON EDUCATIONAL VISITS                                                         ..... 182
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                  Page 4 of 251
Appendix 16 .................................................................................................................. 186
   3     GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – RESIDENTIAL VISIT (ACCOMMODATION) 186
Appendix 17 .................................................................................................................. 188
   4     GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – USE OF A PROVIDER/TOUR OPERATOR/188
   ARRANGED PROGRAMMES .................................................................................. 188
Appendix 18 .................................................................................................................. 190
   5     GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – SPORTS MATCHES ................................... 190
Appendix 19 .................................................................................................................. 192
   6     GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT: ACTIVITIES LOCAL TO THE
         ESTABLISHMENT .................................................................................................... 192
Appendix 20 .................................................................................................................. 197
   Risk Assessment. Hill Walking: Common Hazards, Risks and Controls. .................... 197
Appendix 21 .................................................................................................................. 200
   Risk Assessment. Multi Pitch Rock Climbing: Hazards, Risks and controls ............... 200
Appendix 22 .................................................................................................................. 203
   Risk Assessment. Paddlesport Activities: Common Hazards, Risk and Controls 1. .. 203
Appendix 23 .................................................................................................................. 213
   Risk Assessment. Race Rowing Activities: Hazards, Risks and Controls .................. 213
Appendix 24 .................................................................................................................. 215
   Risk Assessment. Horse Riding: Hazards, Risks and Controls ................................... 215
Appendix 25 .................................................................................................................. 218
   Risk assessment: Combined Rock and Water Activities ............................................. 218
Appendix 26 .................................................................................................................. 220
   Risk assessment. Sailing: Hazards, Risks and Controls .............................................. 220
Appendix 27 .................................................................................................................. 225
   Risk Assessment. Scrambling; Hazards, Risks and Controls ...................................... 225
Appendix 28 .................................................................................................................. 229
   Sea Kayaking: Hazards, Risks and Controls ................................................................. 229
Appendix 29 ...................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Risk assessment. Single Pitch Rock Climbing: Hazards, Risks and Controls ............ 231
Appendix 30 ...................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
   Risk Assessment. Dry Slope Environment: Hazards, Risks and ControlsError! Bookmark not defin
Appendix 31 .................................................................................................................. 236
   Risk Assessment. Snowsports on Snow: Hazards, Risk and Controls ....................... 236
Appendix 32 .................................................................................................................. 240
   Outdoor Activity Risk Assessments .......................................................................... 240

________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                 Page 5 of 251
Appendix 33 .................................................................................................................. 245
   Risk Assessment. Summer Hill Walking Environment: Hazards, Risks and Controls 245
Appendix 34 .................................................................................................................. 247
   Risk Assessment in the Terrestrial Environment: Common Hazards, Risks and
       Controls....................................................................................................................... 247




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                        Page 6 of 251
Section 1       Educational Outdoor Activities

1.1     Introduction

       This document has been written to offer a framework of checks for all staff and
       volunteers engaged in educational outdoor activities. Few outdoor activities are
       completely risk free. Indeed, education in the management of risk should be an
       integral part of the educational process. However, it is the responsibility of heads
       of establishment to ensure that all agencies and persons responsible for the
       organisation of activities on their behalf are suitably experienced and competent.
       Where the head of establishment is doubtful as to the appropriate qualification
       required for any activity, advice should be sought from the relevant member of
       staff appointed by the Director of Education and Leisure Services. Likewise, while
       the complete elimination of risk is impossible, it is important that all reasonable
       precautions are taken and that where the safety of pupils is involved all sensible
       preparatory procedures are employed. Furthermore, where the activity includes
       pupils and young people with additional support needs and where a question of
       safety arises, more favourable staff /pupil ratios should apply.

1.2     Legal framework

        Under statute and common law, responsibility for safety in maintained
        establishments rests mainly with local authorities. This includes schools, outdoor
        centres, community education groups, youth groups and Duke of Edinburgh
        Award schemes where the council is the operating authority.
        Education and Leisure Services are obliged, therefore, to ensure that clear
        arrangements are made for the approval of outdoor activities and that procedures
        are in place to ensure that parents and guardians of students and other young
        people are fully informed of the details of the activities and that they give their
        consent for the involvement of their children.

1.3     Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974

       Employers are responsible for the health and safety of their employees. They
       have a duty of care to ensure so far as reasonably practicable, the health, safety
       and welfare of their employees. This extends to pupils in schools and includes
       participants in off site activities. The law also requires that certain arrangements
       be put in place to achieve adequate standards of safety. In particular, The
       Management of Health and Safety At Work regulations 1999 requires that
       suitable and sufficient risk assessments be carried out. It is the responsibility of
       Education and Leisure Services to ensure that a robust system of risk
       assessment is in place.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                            Page 7 of 251
1.4     Licensed Activities: The Adventure Activities Licensing Authority (AALA)

       The Activity Centres (Young Persons Safety) Act 1995 and the associated
       Adventure Activities Licensing Regulations (1996) require providers to be
       licensed when providing activities within the scope of the Act. This includes
       commercial operators as well as trusts, local authorities and schools if certain
       charges are levied or other staff are employed to deliver the activity or the activity
       is offered to pupils from other schools. A licence is not required by:

              Voluntary organisations offering activities to their members only (e.g. scout
              groups and local canoe clubs);

              Schools and colleges offering activities only to their own pupils or students;

              Activities where youngsters are accompanied by their parent or legal
              guardian (does not include teacher or youth leader)

        The Register of Licence Holders can be checked on www.aals.org.uk.

        However, it must be noted that all Council Services, fall within the requirements
        of the Health and Safety at Work Act and The Management of Health and Safety
        at Work Regulations, and the fact that an AALS licence is not required does not
        diminish the standard of safety management required. The standard of safety
        management required is the same for all Educational Outdoor Activity providers.

       The activities that are currently in scope (2006) and relevant to this document
are:

             Climbing including abseiling, ice climbing, gorge walking, ghyll scrambling
            and sea level traversing but not climbing on a purpose built wall or
            tower;

             Trekking, including hillwalking, mountaineering, fell running, orienteering,
            pony trekking, mountain biking and off-piste skiing. Any expedition
            undertaken in a remote area of moorland or mountain country (more than 30
            minutes walk from the nearest road or refuge) also falls within the scope of
            this document;

            Watersports such as canoeing, rafting or sailing on tidal waters or turbulent
            waters or any body of water greater than 100 metres across;

            Caving and potholing, including underground exploration in natural caves,
            potholes and mines.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                            Page 8 of 251
1.5     Procedures

        Guidance in seeking approval for outdoor activities is detailed in the flow diagram
        attached (Appendix A).

       It is recognised however, that heads of establishment may sometimes require
       additional advice before sanctioning an activity. In these circumstances, guidance
       should be sought from the person designated by the Director of Education and
       Leisure Services.

       The main concerns of the head of establishment should be that adequate child
       protection procedures are in place and where appropriate Disclosure Scotland
       vetting is undertaken. Circumstances in which Disclosure Scotland checks are
       required are detailed in Standard Circular 48. (Careful forward planning will be
       required to allow time for such checks to take place).

       Establishment heads should also be satisfied that the arrangements made are
       sensible and properly planned, that an approved risk assessment is available and
       that the qualifications and experience of leaders are appropriate for the
       responsibilities that they plan to undertake. They should ensure that staff and
       parents are fully informed of the relevant Council insurance arrangements and
       that parental information and consent forms are issued so that parents are fully
       aware of all relevant circumstances including emergency contacts, special
       arrangements, levels of difficulty, formal and informal activities planned and
       expectations with regard to behaviour etc.

       The attention of heads of establishments is also drawn to the detailed instructions
       relating to school excursions and educational visits as laid down in Standard
       Circular 48.

       Group leaders and supervisors should be satisfied as far as is practicable that
       participants are physically capable of the activity involved and that any relevant
       medical circumstances relating to particular individuals have been recorded.
       Group leaders should obtain permission from the head of establishment before
       undertaking to organise any activity. Appropriate risk assessments should be
       carried out as detailed and approved by the head of the establishment.
       Heads of establishment and group leaders must have regard to the guidance and
       instructions as laid out for specific approved activities in Section 3 of this
       document. Reference should also be made to the Scottish Executive‟s document
       “Health and Safety on Educational Excursions” (HASEE) and to “A Practical
       Guide to Safe School Trips” published by the Scottish School Board Association.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                            Page 9 of 251
1.6     Emergency Procedures: Checking In/ Late Returns

       Emergency procedures must be established for all off-site activities. (See
       Standard Circular 48 for details). All staff involved in the provision of off-site
       activities must have a working knowledge of these procedures. Heads of
       establishment are responsible for ensuring that these procedures are followed in
       the event of an emergency.
       As part of the planning process and risk assessment, group leaders and
       organisers must include measures to be taken in the event that a party fails to
       return at the agreed time. This should include:

                   specifying a place and expected time of arrival;

                   identifying a contact or liaison in the home base who will implement
                   emergency procedures in the event of a party failing to return and
                   commence emergency procedures as appropriate to the situation;

                   establishing good lines of communication with the home base so that in
                   the event that the party is safe, but unable to make the estimated arrival
                   time, the home base liaison can be contacted who will in turn advise the
                   participants‟ emergency contacts.


1.7    The Use of Outdoor Education Centres

       Education and Leisure Services make use of outdoor education centres such as
       Ardentinny Centre which is licensed to operate under the Adventure Activity
       Licensing Authority. Heads of establishment should satisfy themselves that all
       proposed activities and arrangements are compliant with the Council‟s Health
       and Safety Policy and meet the requirements of Standard Circular 48.


1.8     External Providers of Activities

       There will be many occasions when groups and individuals will make use of
       agencies not operated by Renfrewshire Education and Leisure Services, for
       example Outward Bound Centres, National Sports Training Centres and
       commercial and voluntary outdoor activity holiday providers.
       There will also be occasions when groups of young people travel abroad under
       the auspices of Education and Leisure Services and wish to participate in outdoor
       activities referred to in this circular. In these circumstances the head of
       establishment has a duty to be satisfied, as far as is reasonably practicable, that
       the operating standards and the qualifications of leaders and instructors are at
       least comparable with those described in this document.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 10 of 251
1.9     For further information Head of establishment should contact:

        For confirmation of a provider‟s licence details, call the Adventure Activities
        Licensing Authority (AALA) on 029 2075 5715 or fax 029 2075 5757

        For a list of licensed providers contact AALA at www.aala.org.uk

        Scottish Education Department publication “Safety in Outdoor education” 1989
        (HMSO)

        Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet No. 1 (Revised) “Personal
        Buoyancy Equipment on Inland and Inshore Waters”

       Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet No.13 “Combined Water and
       Rock Activities”

       Health and Safety Executive Information Sheet No.14 “Supervision of Ropes
       Courses”

        Standard Circular 31 “Insurance Cover”

        Standard Circular No. 48 “Excursions and Educational Visits”

        Guidance on the Provision of Health Care in Schools

        Safety in Outdoor Pursuits

        The Administration of Medicines in Schools. Scottish Executive 2001

        Safe Practice in Physical Education – The British Association of Advisers and
        Lecturers in Physical Education. www.baalpe.org/publications.htm


1.10    Definitions and Exclusions

       The head of establishment is defined as the person in charge of an establishment
       which is organising the activity and to which participants belong or are
       associated.
       Consequently, the head of establishment can be a head teacher of a school or
       early years establishment, an officer in charge of a school hostel, a community
       education officer or a principal of an Outdoor Education Centre.
       The leader or organiser is the named person who has overall responsibility for
       the supervision and conduct of the particular activity or trip.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 11 of 251
       Because of their hazardous nature, certain activities are not covered by the
       Council‟s insurance. These activities are:

        Bungee jumping

        Canyoning

        Certain forms of Skiing and Snowboarding (see Snowsports)

        Go karting

        Hang Gliding and para gliding

        Jet skiing

        Paint balling

        Parachuting

        Racing on horseback

        Sand yachting

        Shooting

        Sub aqua diving

        White water rafting

        Any activities not referred to in this document.

        These activities can be organised through external providers, conditional upon
        them having the appropriate licence, insurance and personnel with the
        appropriate competencies for this purpose. Heads of establishment should
        contact the Health Support Manager for further advice.

        Heads of establishment should also refer to the document “Health and Safety in
        Physical Education Revised Code of Practice." Which covers the conduct of
        archery in schools.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 12 of 251
Section 2       General Guidance on Safety during Educational Outdoor Activities


2.1     Activities involving exposure to strong sunlight


2.1.1 In the light of warnings from the medical profession on the hazards of exposure
      to sunlight, the following guidance is offered to heads of establishment. The
      guidance is not intended to curtail outdoor activities, but it is issued in order to
      reduce the incidence of avoidable injuries arising from the excessive exposure to
      sunlight.

        Although the hazard may be thought to be very small in the climate of the United
        Kingdom, the very unpredictability of the weather often results in a state of
        unpreparedness that makes sunburn not at all uncommon and heads of
        establishment should bring the following information and guidance to the
        attention of all staff directly responsible for groups involved in activities out of
        doors, both at home and abroad.

        Present medical opinion is that skin cancer is associated with episodes of
        sunburn during recreational activities. It is believed that a reduction in the
        incidence of sunburn will reduce the risk of contracting skin cancer in later life.


2.1.2 Actions to avoid sunburn injuries during outdoor activities:

              Participants should have available some form of head cover such as peaked
              “baseball style” hat that gives shade to the face, especially the nose. In
              conditions of very strong direct sunlight, the hat should have a brim that
              provides shade for the top of the ears.

              Participants should have available clothing that offers full limb cover, and
              should only expose legs and arms to the sun for short periods of time.

              Participants should not be permitted to go on land based expeditions
              wearing only shorts and T shirts.

              During water based activities participants should not be permitted to
              undertake extended periods of activity wearing only swimming costumes or
              shorts and vests or short sleeved T shirts because it is in circumstances
              such as these that cases of severe sunburn occur.

              Participants should be encouraged to wear sunglasses during water based
              activities on bright sunlit days, because the damage to eyes arising from
              exposure to bright sunlight reflected from water and sails can be significant.



________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 13 of 251
              Groups involved in activities on snow, even on overcast days, should wear
              sunglasses or goggles, head cover appropriate to the conditions, and use
              photo protective sun block creams that give adequate levels of protection to
              the face, particularly under the chin, the nose, ears and lips.

              The risk of sunburn from diffused sunlight reflected from water and snow
              even on overcast days exists at any time of the year. Leaders should have
              special regard to the risk of burns to areas of pale skin not normally
              exposed to sun, such as under the chin, and the backs of legs and arms.
              The precautionary use of photo protective creams should not, therefore, be
              abandoned because the sun is not visible.

              Participants in land based activities out of doors during the summer months,
              especially when abroad, should be advised to wear photo protective
              creams, and to regularly re-apply the protection to exposed areas of skin in
              accordance with manufacturer‟s recommendations.

              Persons responsible for groups involved in activities out of doors during the
              summer should have with them high factor photo protective sun creams, of
              a non-allergic variety, as part of the First Aid Provision.

2.1.3 The occurrence of severe sunburn should be reported in the appropriate “incident
      report” form of Education and Leisure Services. It is important that such records
      are kept because the incidence of avoidable sunburn injuries may in future have
      legal implications.


2.2     Activities involving the use of natural waters


2.2.1 It is essential that in programmes of educational activities, where water related
      hazards might be encountered, safe practices are adopted at every stage of
      training, participants adhere to safety procedures and young people are
      encouraged to show the utmost vigilance for the safety of each other. Group
      leaders should assess the risks and consider an appropriate supervision level. In
      normal circumstances, a ratio of 1 adult to 8 pupils should be considered a
      minimum for the purposes of supervision.

       However, depending on circumstances and individual needs a more generous
       ratio may be required. Group leaders should also be aware that many young
       people who drown are strong swimmers. They should, therefore ensure that all
       safety measures are in place irrespective of the participants‟ swimming ability.
       (Group leaders should also refer to section 3.2 “Bathing in Natural Waters”)




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 14 of 251
2.2.2 The Royal Society for The Prevention of Accidents has identified a series of
      factors that contribute towards drowning and other incidents. These are:

                ignorance, disregard or misjudgement of potential hazards and dangers;

                a poor understanding of what constitutes a dangerous situation;

                allowing those who are ill equipped to cope, to access dangerous
                situations;

                absence of adequate supervision;

                lack of the means or the knowledge of how to help oneself and others in
                danger.

       Leaders are urged to keep these factors in mind during the conduct of any
       activity, but especially those associated with water, and to adopt a preventative
       approach.

2.2.3 The inadequate level of control exercised by the leaders and the lack of self-
      discipline and responsibility shown by young people themselves have been
      identified as further contributory factors to certain accidents.

        One of the essential outcomes of any programme of outdoor education should be
        that participants should be able to recognise danger and to understand how, by
        forethought and careful planning it can be minimised or eliminated.

2.2.4 The sites used for water based activities should be familiar to the leader or
      supervisor of such activities, and should have been checked for any hazards so
      that the appropriate risk assessments can be carried out. The leader should be
      aware of the meaning of the conventional safety signs and flags.

2.2.5 The water environment presents a number of potential hazards of which any
      person responsible for the health and safety of others should be fully aware.
      These are too numerous to list, but it is essential that leaders understand the
      significance of both the effect of wind and tide and the risk of hypothermia
      associated with undertaking activities in cold water especially on cold, wet, windy
      days.

        More obviously, the presence of such hazards as steep overhanging banks,
        hidden underwater obstructions, thick weed, strong currents, off shore winds, ebb
        tides and pollution should be noted and avoided as far as possible.

        Badly discoloured waters should be avoided because it is not easy to determine
        the depth, the existence of underwater obstructions or the degree of pollution.


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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 15 of 251
2.2.6 A number of additional safety principles apply particularly to the conduct of
      water based activities:

                group leaders should ensure that participants have not eaten (at least half
                an hour) before swimming;

                the activity should only be conducted in suitable weather and tidal
                conditions;

                only suitably experienced and qualified leaders or instructors should be
                used to oversee and manage the activity, as indicated in section 3.2;

                only appropriate and reliable equipment should be used;

                all equipment used should be subject to routine safety checks and be
                adequately maintained;

                the activity should be appropriate to the level of the participant‟s water
                confidence;

                activity sites that are to be used for bathing or other activities where there
                is a high probability of participants ingesting water through mouth or nose
                should always be checked for pollution visually or by smell in the first
                instance. If doubt exists as to the water quality, further advice may be
                gained from the Scottish Environmental Protection Agency at
                www.sepa.org.uk

2.2.7 The hazards of associated with polluted water which have been brought to the
      attention of the Council arise from:

                Raw, untreated sewage and industrial waste
                Any beach or river should be checked for the presence of untreated
                sewerage and industrial waste before it is used for water based activities.

                Untreated farmyard manures and slurries
                As part of the risk assessment it may also be appropriate to check the
                contributories to any stream or river for the presence of farmyard manures
                before the river is used for bathing or activities involving immersion or
                capsize practice. The risks of disease for water sports participants are
                reported to be highest during periods of drought, in stagnant canals and
                ponds, and after flash floods when high concentrations of pollutants can
                be washed into rivers and streams. It should be noted that water sports
                participants who do not capsize regularly, and remain relatively dry, are
                less at risk.


                Blue green algae


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                If participation in water sports involves a high degree of contact with water,
                such as when paddling, wind surfing, swimming, water skiing or canoeing,
                then water that is discoloured bright green should be avoided.

       Water sports participants are advised to avoid all contact with water which has a
       blue green paint-like scum on its surface.

2.2.8 All participants involved in water based activities should adopt the normal
      precautions that are recommended to avoid infection:

                all cuts and grazes should be covered with waterproof plasters;

                a shower should be taken at the end of the activity;

                all clothing used for the activity should be routinely washed in clean fresh
                water after use;

                every attempt should be made to avoid ingesting water (and infection)
                through mouth or nose;

                where there is a possibility of infection then full immersion should be
                avoided;

                appropriate footwear should be used at all times to avoid cutting feet;

                hands must always be washed before eating anything;

                any symptoms that would suggest an infection has occurred after
                participation in water based activities should be immediately brought to the
                attention of a doctor.

2.2.9 Whenever there is a risk of young people getting into difficulty during activities in
      close proximity to areas of natural water, the leader should have available an
      appropriate means of rescue, such as a long stick or a buoyant object attached
      to a floating line, that can be used to effect a rescue. There are a number of
      commercially produced items on sale, such as “throw bags” which are now
      widely used by canoeists, that can be purchased for such a purpose from
      specialist water sports suppliers.




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2.2.10 In the event of an incident requiring a casualty to be rescued the rescuer should
       avoid entering the water unless absolutely necessary and either:

                   REACH out to the casualty;

                   THROW them a floating line connected to a buoyant object;

                   WADE out to them, but retain contact with the bank;

                   ROW out and use the boat to tow the casualty to the shore;

                   Refer also to section 3.2 “Bathing in Natural Waters”.

        Note: Heads of establishment and leaders in charge can get further information
        on safety procedures relating to activities involving water from The Royal Society
        for the Prevention of Accidents (ROSPA), the Scottish Accident Prevention
        Council and the Royal Life Saving Society (RLSS).

         The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (Scotland)
         www.rospa.com

         Royal Life Saving Society
         www.lifesavers.org.uk

         Scottish Canoe Association
         www.canoescotland.com

         Scottish Rafting Association
         www.scottish-rafting-association.org.uk


2.3     Qualifications and Instructional Awards

2.3.1    It has become the practice for certain leadership and instructional awards to be
         subject to regular renewal. This has led to some confusion about the validity of
         certain awards, and whether they continue to be recognised by the Council. In
         principle, the Council recognises the awards as long as they are accepted as
         valid by the awarding organisations identified in the relevant parts of section 3
         which deal with specific approved outdoor activities.

2.3.2    First Aid Certificates and Life Saving Awards

         These awards must be kept up to date and valid. Unless otherwise stated, the
         level of First Aid Training required by the Council for all activities is the
         „Standard‟ First Aid course, comprising 24 hours of instruction and which meets
         the requirements of the Health and Safety (First Aid) regulations 1981.

2.3.3    Instructional Awards
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         It is recognised that in practice it is very difficult for leaders and instructors of a
         number of activities to keep all their awards up to date and current. The Council
         recognises that young people will not be exposed to any significant risk in
         circumstances where a qualification has recently lapsed and the guidance
         contained in this document has been correctly followed. Heads of establishment
         should, therefore, exercise their judgement as to whether a trusted and
         experienced leader or instructor, whose particular activity award has temporarily
         lapsed, should continue being responsible for activities.

         It is recommended, however, that an award should not have lapsed for more
         that 3 years.

2.3.4    Leaders and instructors are strongly advised to remain a member of any
         organisation that has awarded them a qualification, so that they continue to
         receive the sporting body‟s coaching literature and keep up to date with safety
         procedures and proper coaching methods.

Note     Heads of establishment and leaders in charge can get further information
         concerning the conditions which limit the validity of any awards specified in this
         document by contacting the awarding organisation.

         Addresses and phone numbers can be found in section three, “Specific
         Approved outdoor Activities”.




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Section 3       Specific Approved Outdoor Activities


3.1     General Advice and Guidance on Educational Field Visits


3.1.1    Heads of establishment and instructors should have regard to the following
         information relevant to their outdoor activity.

3.1.2    The requirements of Standard Circular 48 “Excursions and Educational Visits”
         must be fully complied with before the field visit can go ahead.

3.1.3    It is recommended that the leaders of educational field visits using remote
         moorland, wild country or exposed coastal areas should have attended a course
         in safety and leadership procedures for practical fieldwork. Activity leaders and
         organisers should also refer to the guidelines for hillwalking in section 3.3.

3.1.4    Education and Leisure Services recognise that lower standards of experience
         and training are sufficient for supervision and leadership during day excursions
         or walking activities, taking place in less elevated or rugged environments. No
         formal qualification is required, providing the leader in charge can demonstrate
         appropriate competence and experience and the activity is confined to low level,
         recognised paths or forest walks below 300 metres, remaining in populated
         country or rural areas. Prior knowledge of the area would also be required in
         order to adequately assess the risks involved.

         At least one member of the leadership team should hold a valid Standard First
         Aid Certificate.

3.1.5     In preparation and prior to an activity, leaders should:

                 with reference to the Scottish Outdoor Access Code, obtain any
                 necessary permission for access to the proposed fieldwork area.
                 (www.outdooraccess.scotland.com)

                 arrange for a preliminary examination or investigation of the area to
                 assess any hazards and to prepare the necessary programme of work. A
                 risk assessment should be prepared as appropriate.
                   (See attached risk assessment sheets)

                 advise participants on the nature of the activity, any risks or hazards
                 involved, the type of clothing to be worn and the equipment required. This
                 should include clothing that can provide full arm and leg cover. (See
                 section 2.1 “Activities involving exposure to strong sunlight”).

                 check the health and safety file in the establishment and ensure that
                 participants comply with the regulations and specific Codes of Practice
                 therein, as they relate to particular disciplines.
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                 consider carefully the staff to student ratio appropriate to the needs of the
                 pupils, and the nature of the activity. This should be adjusted accordingly
                 if pupils with additional support needs are involved.
                  (See Standard Circular 48 for ratios).

3.1.6    When engaged in the activity the leader should:

                   carry a list of all participants;

                   have available a contact phone number for the head of establishment;

                   be in possession of a suitable First Aid kit;

                   ensure that pupils have access to all personal medication they may
                   require during the excursion.

3.1.7    If the field study involves hillwalking, boating or sea angling then the relevant
         parts of this document must also be referred to for further guidance.

3.1.8    Heads of establishment must exercise discretion when authorising individual
         field studies undertaken by senior students. The nature and location of these
         projects must be clearly indicated, examined and, if necessary, specialist advice
         should be sought prior to authorisation.

3.1.9    Leaders should get a weather forecast before departure and give careful
         consideration to whether the activity should proceed as planned if the weather
         is expected to be particularly inclement.

3.2     Bathing in Natural Water

         The categories of activities covered by the guidance in this section are:

                   bathing in areas of natural waters which are unsupervised by a
                   professional lifeguard service;

                   outdoor activity groups incidentally using beaches, river pools and lakes
                   for casual bathing or paddling;

                   outdoor groups involved in excursions, physical activities or
                   environmental investigations in close proximity to areas of natural water.


3.2.1    Those involved in the supervision of these activities will not need to be
         reminded of the high incidence of fatalities during activities involving water. It is
         imperative that sensible safety precautions are adhered to and the utmost
         vigilance applied when bathers are actually in the water.


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         There are no formal qualifications for the full range of activities that have been
         subsumed under the guidance provided in this section. Therefore, the guidance
         should be understood to be indicative of good practice and provided to raise
         leaders‟ awareness of the factors that have to be considered if a high standard
         of safety is to be achieved. Swimming and paddling in the sea or other natural
         waters are potentially dangerous activities. They should only be allowed as
         formal and supervised activities and in recognised bathing areas that have
         official surveillance i.e. qualified lifeguard cover. Nonetheless, participants
         should always be in sight of their supervisors. One supervisor should always
         stay out of the water for better surveillance.

         Heads of establishment and leaders in charge should also have regard to
         section 2.1 of this document concerning activities involving exposure to strong
         sunlight.

3.2.2    Many drowning accidents are associated with the consumption of alcohol or on
         the onset of hypothermia. Therefore, swimming and bathing activities should not
         take place:

                   soon after a meal;

                   if there is reason to believe alcohol or drugs have been consumed by
                   participants;

                   in very cold waters;

                   after nightfall;

                   on cold, wet or windy days.

3.2.3    Leaders in charge must also make sure that nobody goes swimming alone and
         unsupervised, and that young people do not forcibly throw others into cold water
         against their will. Inflatable toys and air beds should not be used on tidal waters
         and open lochs, but may be used on very confined areas of still water with an
         area of less than a hundred square metres.

3.2.4    Before undertaking bathing activities, the leader in charge of the group should
         have referred to section 2, part 2.2 of this circular and have fully considered the
         actions that might need to be taken in the event of participants getting into
         difficulties. This should include the actions needed to contact appropriate
         emergency services.

3.2.5    Qualifications

         Groups involved in bathing in natural waters should always be supervised by a
         person holding at least a saving qualification equivalent to a Royal Life Saving
         Society (RLSS) Bronze Medallion (General) or be a life guard holding formal
         qualifications of equivalent standard recognised as suitable to the task. (See
         list, paragraph 3.2.14)
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3.2.6    Recognition of other national qualifications

         If the activity takes place outwith the UK, the qualification of any foreign
         lifeguard deployed for supervisory purposes should be one officially recognised
         by the country in which the activity takes place, appropriate to the situation
         being supervised and be at least equivalent to the RLSS Bronze Medallion
         standard.

3.2.7 Ratios

        The maximum number of people in the water at any one time should not exceed
        8 per qualified lifesaver or lifeguard. The lifesaver or lifeguard and the leader in
        charge of the group should be constantly watching bathers from a safe point,
        either outwith or on the water, from which all the bathers are visible.

3.2.8   Risk assessment

        Before any bathers enter the water, the leader in charge of the group must have
        careful regard for any hazards that might contribute to participants being put at
        risk. These might include the cleanliness of the water, the wind and tidal
        conditions, the presence of surf and waves that might imply the presence of
        undertow or strong currents, the temperature of the water, the depth and clarity,
        and the presence of any hidden rocks or obstructions. The number of other
        people in the water may also be significant, if this makes it difficult to keep a
        proper watch over members of the group. The leader in charge should also be
        aware of the significance of any hazard warning signs or flags displayed in the
        beach area.

3.2.9 Limiting the bathing area

         A limited area should be identified for the bathers to stay within and this should
         be delineated by clearly identifiable physical features or flags. The area
         identified should be such that the leader or leaders in charge can feel confident
         that a rescue can be effected without they themselves being exposed to
         unnecessary danger.



         If the leader in charge is unfamiliar with the swimming ability of the participants,
         the area identified should be limited to one within which the bathers will remain
         within their depth. The limited area should not generally exceed 1.25 metres in
         depth. If the water is generally deeper than 1.25 metres, and the surface of the
         water is greater than 100 square metres, a boat should be at hand for rescue
         purposes.

3.2.10 Use of a “Buddy” system


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         The participants should be paired and the individuals in each pair should be
         asked to watch out for the welfare of each other while in the water. Bathers
         should be made aware of an appropriate method of alerting the supervising
         lifeguard from the water in the event of an emergency.

3.2.11 Distance swimming

         Bathers wishing to swim long distances should be instructed to swim back and
         forward parallel to the shore within a clearly delineated area and not far out to
         sea, so that should an emergency arise, a rescue could be effected.

3.2.12 Diving

         Diving is forbidden.

3.2.13 Particular Bathing Activities

          a)    Bathing in areas of water which are unsupervised by a professional
                lifeguard service:

                       Means of rescue

                       The life saver or life guard supervising the bathers should have
                       close at hand and available for immediate use a long pole, or a
                       floating throw line with a buoyant object attached that can be thrown
                       to a bather experiencing difficulty, and used to draw them to the
                       shore, without the rescuers themselves entering the water and being
                       put at risk.

                       Lifejackets and Buoyancy Aids

                       To help to ensure his or her own safety the life saver or lifeguard
                       should have, close at hand, a life jacket or buoyancy aid to wear in
                       the event of having to enter the water to assist a bather.




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                       Spare clothing

                       It is advised that the group should have appropriate equipment and
                       clothing to use in the event of any bather(s) becoming cold and
                       showing symptoms of hypothermia.


         b)     Outdoor activity groups incidentally using beaches, rivers and lakes for
                casual bathing.

                        The leader in charge should have regard to the guidance in the
                        preceding paragraphs.

                        Groups should only go bathing if supervised by an appropriately
                        qualified lifesaver or lifeguard, as defined in paragraph 3.2.5 above.

                        The waters should be well known to the person in charge of the
                        group and free of hazards. In the case of lochans situated high in
                        the mountains, special regard should be paid to the temperature of
                        the waters.

                Leaders must ensure that bathers do not swim out of their depth or dive
                into deep cold pools because the water temperature below the surface is
                seldom much above freezing.

                        The number in the water should not exceed 8 per supervising
                        lifesaver at any one time.

                        The limited area of water to be used should be clearly identified.

                        If the water is anywhere deeper than 1.25 metres, a floating throw
                        line and buoyant object should be available.

                        The group should have with them spare warm clothing and
                        provision to make a hot drink in case group members show
                        symptoms of hypothermia.

         c)     Outdoor activity groups involved in excursions, physical or environmental
                investigations in close proximity to areas of natural water.

                This guidance would apply to groups wading in shallow waters and
                crossing shallow burns in the course of other activities. Where a water
                hazard is believed to exist leaders must ensure that every possible care is
                taken and the following guidance is indicative of the matters that must be
                given consideration.



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                        Leaders in charge should have regard to the preceding paragraphs
                        and must familiarise themselves with the area to be used in
                        advance of the visit, and assess the area for likely hazards.

                        The leader should be particularly aware of such things as; stagnant
                        water, steep slippery banking, deep pools, fast flowing streams and
                        rivers, undercut banks, and overhanging trees and bushes.

                        Potential hazards should be brought to the attention of the
                        members of the group at an appropriate time and the actions they
                        should take in the event of an incident explained.

                        If in the initial visit to the area a leader believes that there may be a
                        significant degree of risk because of the existence of areas of
                        potentially hazardous natural waters, then the action to be taken in
                        the event of an emergency should be carefuly considered.

                Consideration should be given to:

                        The need for a lifesaver, holding an appropriate life saving
                        qualification to accompany the group (see list below in Paragraph
                        3.2.14).

                        Whether a throw line, flotation aid, and lifejacket or buoyancy aid
                        should be at hand in case of an incident.

                        Whether there is a need to have a day sack containing spare warm
                        clothing and a flask of hot drink available, in case anybody
                        accidentally becomes immersed in cold water.

                        The locations of the nearest means of communicating with
                        emergency services.

                        The group should always be expected to work in at least pairs, and
                        no individual must be allowed to go off alone.

                        The leader must apply the utmost vigilance and not lose sight of
                        any member(s) of the group.

                        If the visibility in the area is poor because of the topography or
                        trees and undergrowth, the members of the group should be
                        supplied with whistles to attract attention in the event of an incident
                        occurring.




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3.2.14 Other acceptable Lifesaving and Lifeguard qualifications:

         The Corps of Canoe Lifeguards Canoeing Safety Test
         The Corps of Canoe Lifeguards Rescue Test
         The Royal Life Saving Society Bronze Medallion (General)
         The Surf Life Saving Association Bronze Award

        Any qualification that is of an equivalent or higher standard to any of those
        detailed above.

         Note:     Heads of establishment and leaders of parties may gain further
                   information concerning safety procedures appropriate to particular
                   activities that take place in or near areas of natural water, by contacting
                   The Royal Life Saving Society, The Royal Society for the Prevention of
                   Accidents, or the Scottish Council for the Prevention of Accidents.

         The Royal Life Saving Society (RLSS)
         www.royallifesavingsociety.com

         Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (ROSPA) and Water &
         Leisure Safety Department
         www.rospa.com

         Scottish Accident Prevention Council
         www.sacp.org.uk

3.3     Hillwalking Guidelines

3.3.1    For the purposes of this document, hillwalking or rambling is defined as taking
         part in a walk, ramble or expedition in unenclosed moorland, hill or mountain
         country. The terrain need not be particularly elevated to be considered
         hillwalking terrain.

         Hillwalking may be undertaken for a range of reasons. It may involve finding
         one‟s way across natural unmanaged environments with rough conditions
         underfoot, or negotiating steep ground and unbridged water courses. In the
         environment in which it takes place, it is not unusual for communications to be
         poor and access difficult by means other than on foot. It can be strenuous, tiring
         and expose participants to more extreme weather conditions than those
         normally experienced in the lowlands. It can involve distance from shelter or
         assistance.

         Introductory hillwalking may involve following established paths and rights of
         way through enclosed and managed lowland up to a height of 450 metres, or
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         walking on low open hill and moorland up to 3 kilometres from substantial
         communities within 30 minutes reach.

         This sort of activity is regarded as less serious as it does not involve significant
         remoteness or distance from assistance. However, it may expose participants to
         hazards similar to those encountered when walking in more remote or
         wilderness environments.

         More general hillwalking involves walking in unenclosed elevated wild country,
         to the tops of hills or mountains above 600 metres and up to a 1000 metres,
         and on terrain which is not given a technical climbing grade.

         More serious hillwalking may also involve visiting isolated and uncultivated
         lowlands where isolation from habitation and difficulties of communication add a
         degree of seriousness to the undertakings, for example, uninhabited country, on
         the islands of the Hebrides, Orkney & Shetland, around the coasts and in the
         glens of the Highlands and Southern uplands.

         Hillwalking may also involve multi-day camping expeditions, both accompanied
         and unaccompanied, by a leader. Unaccompanied groups will always be
         „supervised‟ from a distance by appropriately qualified people.

         It should be noted that many elevated and narrow or steep ridges are given a
         climbing grade of „easy‟ or „moderate e.g. some ridges on Arran, in Glencoe, on
         Ben Nevis and the Isles of Rum & Skye.‟ This implies they are rock climbs, not
         easy hill walks.
         Ascent and traversing of such terrain is not hillwalking, but rock climbing and
         mountaineering.
         Reference should be made to the “Environment and Qualifications” table in the
         Leadership Requirements section (below).

         IMPORTANT NOTE
         Activities such as scrambling, rock climbing, abseiling and mountaineering
         which are often associated with hillwalking are considered in other sections of
         this document. It must be recognised that different skills, qualifications and
         remits apply to the leading and supervision of groups participating in
         these activities.

3.3.2 National Representative Bodies

         The Mountaineering Council of Scotland (MCofS) and the British
         Mountaineering Council (BMC) are the representative bodies for informal and
         recreational hillwalking in the UK and can advise on good practice in relation to
         safety, access and conservation issues.

         Mountain Leader Training Scotland (MLTS) and Mountain Leader Training UK
         (MLTUK) award vocational qualifications relating to hillwalking and

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         mountaineering activities based on standards defined by the MCofS and the
         BMC.

         The Central Council for Physical Recreation (CCPR) created a scheme of
         training called the Basic Expedition Leader Award (BELA) which is operated by
         Sports Leaders UK. However, the CCPR and Sports Leaders UK are not expert
         bodies on matters relating to hill walking in Scotland.

          It should be noted that this award does not signify competence to take
         responsibility for hillwalking activities in elevated, remote or wild country. It is
         not a mountain leader award.

3.3.3    Qualifications and Awards: Hillwalking and Rambling

         Basic Expedition Leader Award. [BELA]

         This scheme, created by CCPR is intended for use in non remote rural
         countryside, on established tracks and marked footpaths. It is not suitable for
         use on mountainous, or remote, wilderness terrain, whatever the altitude.

         The Council has recognised this award as indicative of competence to lead
         walks and excursions in rural countryside and farmland close to habitation
         which is neither very elevated nor remote, and where participants will not
         normally be exposed to the hazards associated with hillwalking.

         British Hill Walking Leaders Certificate [BHLC] www.bhlc.org.uk

         This scheme is offered by a commercial provider in the Lake District at levels 1,
         2 & 3 for summer conditions only. It is intended to meet the health and safety
         requirements of employers. It is not currently recognised by AALA and is absent
         from their qualifications grid. For the time being its status is not recognised by
         Renfrewshire Council, but remains under review.

         Walking Group Leader Award. [WGL]

         This is intended for use in less elevated open, uncultivated, non-mountainous
         wild country described variously as moor, bog, fell, hill or down. It is suitable for
         leaders operating on low hills surrounding the Clyde and Ayr basins. It is not
         suitable for the hills in the Highlands or Southern Uplands. The training scheme
         is operated by Mountain Leader Training Scotland and other national MLTBs
         who endorse the competence of award holders.




         Mountain Leader Summer Award. [MLS]



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         This is intended for use in summer conditions, on all upland, mountain and
         remote low ground wilderness throughout the UK. It is suitable for leaders
         operating anywhere in the UK.

         It does not indicate competence to take responsibility for any scrambling or
         climbing activity requiring the use of rock climbing techniques. The training
         scheme is operated by Mountain Leader Training Scotland and other national
         MLTBs, who endorse the competence of award holders.

         Mountain Leader Winter Award. [MLW]

         This is intended for use in winter conditions on mountains throughout the UK,
         during the winter months from October to March, and where and when winter
         conditions prevail at other times of the year. It is suitable for leaders operating in
         the winter months and on the higher mountain tops of Scotland at other times of
         the year when winter conditions commonly prevail [early October to the end of
         May].

         It does not indicate competence to take responsibility for any mountaineering
         activity requiring the techniques of snow or ice climbing. The training scheme is
         only operated by the Scottish Mountain Leader Training Scotland which alone
         endorses the competence of award holders.

         Mountaineering Instructor Award and Mountain Instructor Certificate.
         [MIA & MIC]

         These awards are intended for use by professional instructors engaged in the
         teaching of mountaineering activities involving the techniques of rock climbing,
         and snow and ice climbing respectively. Possession of a Mountain Leader
         Award is a prerequisite for entering the Mountain Instructor scheme and so
         holders are experienced and competent to be responsible for hill walking
         activities. The training scheme is operated by Mountain Leader Training UK
         which alone endorses the competence of award holders.

3.3.4    Alternatives to qualifications (Site /activity specific training)

         In circumstances where a walking or hillwalking activity takes place regularly
         along the same route, close to the home establishment, in a non remote
         environment, and follows well established tracks and the local path network,
         then the Council will recognise familiarity with the local environment and a
         careful risk assessment by the leader in charge as adequate „qualification‟ to be
         responsible for such activities.



         Where activities are part of the regular delivery of the curriculum the Council will
         consider „Site Specific‟ training on a site by site and individual by individual
         basis as a substitute for the holding of an award where otherwise the risk
         assessment would indicate an award would be required.
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         Site specific training and „in house‟ endorsement of activities will only be
         provided for sites and activities which are commonly regarded as largely
         mundane, ordinary and requiring no special level of technical expertise.

         Site specific training for any walking or hill walking activity will be delivered by a
         „technical expert‟ recognised by MLTS.

         The activity of individuals who have a site /activity specific endorsement from
         the Council will be overseen by the holder of an award appropriate for the
         purpose. This would normally be the award otherwise indicated as required for
         the site or activity in question.

         An endorsement of competence following „site specific‟ training will only be
         considered„ in force‟ during activities authorised by the Council. The Council
         does not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained member of staff
         for deployment by any other organisation.

3.3.5    Guide to the deployment of Hillwalking Awards

         To be deployed during hillwalking activities provided under the aegis of
         Renfrewshire Council.


          Environment               Seasonal conditions             Award or Qualification

          Lowland, rural            All year round in safe and      Site specific risk
          countryside               normal conditions –             assessment by leader in
          tracks & rights of        halting of activity based       charge, with
          way, forest tracks        on risk assessment              authorisation of head of
          & sign posted                                             establishment
          walks, field study
          sites & familiar
          country walks in
          vicinity of
          establishment

          Non-remote walks          Summer conditions               Basic Expedition Leader
          in the vicinity of        during summer months            Award (BELA)
          enclosed farmland         (normally April to
          in rural lowland          October)
          areas close to
          habitation

          Environment               Seasonal conditions             Award or Qualification




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 31 of 251
          Low areas of              All the year round when         Mountain Leader
          moorland, hill or         winter conditions do not        (Summer) Award
          unenclosed land           prevail e.g. snow &             Training plus validation
          less than 3 hours         blizzard.                       by technical adviser or
          walk from a road          Halting activity based on       Walking Group Leader
          or habitation,            risk assessment                 Award
          without significant                                       (WGL)
          hazards
          associated with
          steep ground or
          water

          All mountainous &         Throughout the year             Mountain Leader
          wilderness terrain        where full winter               (Summer) Award
          throughout the UK,        conditions do not prevail       Assessment
          except terrain            which require the use of        (MLS)
          which has been            ice axe, crampons &
          graded as a rock          winter skills
          climb

          Mountainous &             Throughout the year and         Mountain Leader
          wilderness terrain,       in full winter conditions       (Winter) Award
          throughout the UK         requiring the use of ice        Assessment
          at any time, and in       axe, crampons & winter          (MLW)
          full winter               skills
          conditions, except
          winter climbs

          Mountainous &             All mountaineering              Mountaineering
          wilderness terrain,       activity in summer              Instructor Award
          throughout the UK         conditions, throughout          Assessment
          including graded          the year                        (MIA)
          rock climbs

          Mountainous &             All mountaineering              Mountaineering
          wilderness terrain,       activity throughout the         Instructor Certificate
          throughout the UK         year                            Assessment
          including graded                                          (MIC)
          rock climbs, and
          winter climbs

        It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
        believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within
        the scope of the Health & Safety at Work Act - this has precedence over any
        other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis
        of the Council.



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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 32 of 251
        All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
        risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
        has been foreseen - whatever the qualification of the leader.

       The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.3.6 Technical Adviser

       MLTUK has adopted the approach that a person holding a more advanced award
       would be recognised as a trainer or assessor for a lower award. This person
       would be qualified by experience and skill to advise on matters related to the
       deployment of the awards for which they train candidates.

       For hillwalking activities persons holding either a Mountaineering Instructors
       Award, [MIA] or a Mountaineering Instructors Certificate [MIC] are regarded as
       appropriate technical experts, for mountain walking or other mountaineering
       activities. The Health Support Manager has also been designated by the Council
       as a suitable person to provide advice to Heads of Establishment, and will
       consult with other technical experts if required.

3.3.7 Supervisory Ratios for Hillwalking Awards

       Heads of establishment and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should
       be given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance
       of proper discipline and child protection.

       For some expeditions a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a group
       to ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.

        In the case of mixed groups, leaders of both sexes should be the norm

       The guidance in the matrix below indicates the ratios required for safety, rather
       than the supervision demanded by other considerations. In many circumstances
       an additional leader should be considered, who may not be a qualified leader.

        Table of Supervisory Ratios for Hillwalking




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 33 of 251
      Environment                      Seasonal Conditions                  Award or Qualification
                                       Summer           Winter
      Lowland, rural                   1:12       1:12                      Site specific risk
      countryside                                                           assessment by leader in
      tracks & rights of way,                                               charge, with authorisation
      forest tracks & sign                                                  of head of establishment
      posted walks, field study
      sites & familiar country
      walks in vicinity of the
      establishment
      Non-remote walks in the          1:12           1:12                  Basic Expedition Leader
      vicinity of enclosed                            or less as            Award (BELA)
      farmland in rural lowland                       conditions
      areas close to habitation                       dictate
      Low areas of moorland,           1:12           1:12                  Mountain Leader
      hill or unenclosed land                         or less as            (Summer) Award Training
      less than 3 hours walk                          conditions            plus validation by
      from a road or habitation,                      dictate               technical adviser or
      without significant                                                   Walking Group Leader
      hazards associated with                                               Award (WGL)
      steep ground or water
      All mountainous &                1:10           1:10                  Mountain Leader
      wilderness terrain                              or less as            (Summer) Award
      throughout the UK,                              conditions            Assessment
      except terrain which has                        dictate               (MLS)
      been graded as a rock
      climb


      Mountainous &                    1:10           1:8                   Mountain Leader (Winter)
      wilderness terrain,                             or less as            Award Assessment
      throughout the UK at any                        conditions            (MLW)
      time, and in full winter                        dictate
      conditions, except winter
      climbs



      Mountainous &                    1:10           1:8                   Mountaineering Instructor
      wilderness terrain,              applicable     applicable only       Award Assessment
      throughout the UK                only to hill   to hill walking       (MIA)
      including graded rock            walking
      climbs




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 34 of 251
      Environment                      Seasonal Conditions                  Award or Qualification
                                       Summer               Winter
      Mountainous &                    1:10         1:8                     Mountaineering Instructor
      wilderness terrain,              applicable applicable only           Certificate Assessment
      throughout the UK                only to hill to hill walking         (MIC)
      including graded rock            walking
      climbs, and Winter climbs

3.3.8 Hillwalking - Activity Risk Assessment.

       See attached tables for guidance on carrying out risk assessments for hillwalking
       activities.

       Leaders in charge should note that common causes of Mountain Rescue team
       call outs are:

                   slips and stumbles, often on popular tracks, during ascent and descent
                   involving a range of minor to serious immobilising injuries;

                   late returns and benightments;

                   falls from a height on steep ground resulting in head injuries, which
                   often prove fatal;

                   becoming lost and consequently becoming exposed to hazards for
                   which the casualties were unprepared.

       These call outs seldom involve parties who are the responsibility of qualified
       leaders. Not withstanding, the Council asks leaders to be cautious to avoid
       incidents of this description.

3.3.9 Seasonal Factors affecting the Activity

       The summer hillwalking season will normally be from 1 May to 31 October.
       Outside this period visits to the most elevated and remote hills by holders of the
       WGL or MLS Summer Award must cease. Hillwalking on more local „front line‟
       hills in the immediate vicinity of Inverclyde and Renfrewshire may continue
       subject to risk assessment, for example in the Loch Lomond & Trossachs
       National Park area.

       Taking into consideration weather and underfoot conditions, the period may be
       extended for excursions to non remote low country and activities in close
       proximity to the home establishment. Decisions should be based on the risk
       assessment.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 35 of 251
       However, severe conditions can occur at any time of the year on Scottish hills.
       On occasions when weather and / or underfoot conditions prevail which are more
       hazardous than is usual in summer, or are similar to those of winter time, leaders
       should modify their plans.
       Excursions and activities should take place on lower less exposed terrain, with
       easier access, where the risk of harm accords with the risk assessment upon
       which the activity was originally authorised. The lower hills surrounding the
       Clyde Basin may, in such circumstances, often be found more suitable, for
       example; Clyde Muirshiel, the Kilpatrick Hills and Campsies.

       Leaders in charge should be particularly aware of the sudden shortening of the
       daylight hours towards the end of October and the onset of winter conditions.
       It should also be noted that in the month of May winter conditions still prevail on
       north facing slopes of higher hills. These factors should be taken into account
       when planning.

       Leaders in charge should also keep in mind that weather conditions become very
       disturbed, with more violent conditions at the onset of winter and the beginning of
       spring, with high winds and violent squally wintry showers. During these times it
       is advisable to pay particular heed to the weather forecast and plan and prepare
       for the worst conditions.

3.3.10 Fail safes

                Notification and approval procedure

            In order to comply with the requirements of the Council‟s AALA licence, a
            system of notification and approval of hillwalking activities must be followed.
            To monitor the safety of all hillwalking activities, and to resolve any ambiguity
            whether an activity falls within the scope of AALA or not, all such activities
            should be notified to the Health Support Manager for approval.
            This should be done in sufficient time for a response to be made, which may
            necessitate modifications to the planned activity. This would not apply to
            activities contracted with external providers, who should have their own
            AALA licence and heads of establishment should check this is in place.

                Reporting in procedure

            Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
            procedure whenever groups are remote from the home establishment. This
            procedure should require the leader in charge to leave details of the planned
            activity with a liaison person, and to contact him/her before starting and when
            a hillwalk finishes.

            Leaders in charge are asked to plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
            undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
            when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, tired, wet and cold

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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 36 of 251
            waiting for transport has been known to precipitate already uncomfortable
            participants into mild hypothermia.

                Communications

            Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone so that
            communications can be facilitated.
            There may be many places on a hillwalking route where communication by
            mobile phone may not be possible. However, there will be other places
            where it may be possible to make contact earlier than would be the case if a
            descent to a public phone had to be made.

                First Aid

            The leader in charge should ensure that during any hillwalking activity an
            adequate First Aid kit is available. During hillwalks in remote places which
            are difficult to access other than on foot, a person with a Standard First Aid
            Certificate should accompany the group.

            Wherever the leader in charge holds a hillwalking award, the holding of a
            current Standard First Aid certificate is regarded as a necessary condition of
            the validity of the award.

                Emergency Equipment

            All participants should carry some spare clothing and ample food for the
            journey, and on hillwalks in remote and elevated terrain a personal orange
            plastic survival bag.

            As part of their usual day-sack equipment, leaders-in-charge should carry:
            an appropriate First Aid kit, spare food, spare clothes (including gloves and a
            hat), a warm drink (depending on conditions), a map, compass, head torch,
            whistle, note book and pencil, and either an orange plastic survival bag
            suitable for two people, or a „group shelter‟ suitable for 4 to 6 people.


3.3.11 Emergency Action Plan

         Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an
         emergency. The most important element of this should be a means of quickly
         contacting emergency services and the home base and to keep the head of
         establishment fully informed of the progress of events.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 37 of 251
          It should be noted that the leader in charge may be required to accompany a
          casualty to hospital; consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
          competent person to quickly make their way to the incident site to take
          responsibility for other participants. For this reason, whenever practicable, a
          minimum of two accompanying leaders are advised when hillwalking in remote
          areas distant from the home establishment.

3.3.12 Advice on the use of outside providers

          It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
          hillwalking activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be
          expected of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge
          of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

          These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
          qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved
          do match.

          In addition it should be established whether the activity falls within scope of the
          AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence for that
          activity.

          The Liability Insurance of all outside providers should meet the minimum level
          required by Renfrewshire Council

3.3.13     Contacts
           Mountaineering Council of Scotland: www.mountaineering-scotland.org.uk
           Mountain Leader Training Scotland: www.mltuk.org/docs/MLTS.html
           Mountain Leader Training UK: www.mltuk.org
           British Mountaineering Council: www.thebmc.co.uk


3.4      Paddlesports: Canoeing and Kayaking

3.4.1     Paddlesports have grown in popularity and diversity to include a wide variety of
          activities and craft, linked by the use of a paddle as the means of propulsion.
          These craft include kayaks, canoes, surf skis, bell boats, dragon boats, duckies,
          river bugs and white water rafts. The British Canoe Union identifies 14
          disciplines within the sport, not all of which have coaching or leadership awards.

          For the purposes of risk assessment, the activities included here are those
          which Renfrewshire Council has judged appropriate to be provided by its staff,
          i.e. the use of kayaks, canoes and bellboats. They do not include dragon boats,
          duckies, river bugs and white water rafts. Those activities which are not
          included would have to be contracted with external providers, with appropriate
          checks on their safety management and insurance cover.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 38 of 251
3.4.2    Types of canoe and Kayak

         For the purposes of this document, three types of craft are recognised:

                Closed Cockpit Kayak
                Kayaks designed for use on white water or the sea where a large measure
                of control is gained by the use of the lower body, using the knees and
                thighs to firmly grip the boat. (Decked canoes also come within this
                definition)

                Canoe
                An open boat propelled with a single blade paddle which can also be poled
                or sailed.

                Open Cockpit Kayak
                Kayaks designed for touring or racing which have large cockpits, where
                the knees are not engaged under the deck. In the event of capsize, the
                occupant falls out freely.

                Bellboats
                The bellboat is a 9 metre long catamaran which is essentially like two long
                Canadian canoes joined by a platform, making a very stable craft for use
                in placid water. It can accommodate up to 8 adults or 14 children.

3.4.3    National Governing Bodies

         The British Canoe Union (BCU) is the National Governing Body for
         paddlesports and their coaching awards in the UK. The Union has a federal
         structure and the Scottish Canoe Association is the National Governing Body
         for paddlesports in Scotland.

3.4.4    Leadership Qualifications

         There are five levels of coaching qualification for teaching canoeing and
         kayaking (levels 1 to 5). The qualifications are subdivided to cater for the
         different disciplines.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 39 of 251
  LEVEL AND DISCIPLINE                                                          CAN ALSO
                                                                                SUPERVISE
Level One Coach          Closed Cockpit Kayak                                   Canoes and Open
                                                                                Cockpit Kayaks
Level One Coach          Canoe
Level One Coach          Placid Water (Open Cockpit)                            Canoes used for
                                                                                racing
Level Two Coach         Closed Cockpit Kayak                                     Canoes and
                                                                                Open Cockpit
                                                                                Kayaks
Level Two Coach         Canoe
Level Two Coach         Placid Water (Open Cockpit)                             Canoes used for
                                                                                racing
Level Three Coach Closed Cockpit Kayak also                                     Canoes and Open
                  subdivided into:                                              Cockpit Kayaks on
                     White Water,                                               sheltered waters
                     Sea,
                     Surf,
                     Canoe,
                  Placid Water (Open Cockpit Kayak).

Level Four Coach        As for Level Three
Level Five Coach        As for Level Three (except for placid water


3.4.5 Technical adviser

       Following currently accepted practice, the technical adviser for an activity should
       be at least one qualification above that of the leader/instructor supervising that
       activity.

3.4.6 Guide to the deployment of Paddlesport Qualifications and Awards
      (To be deployed during activities provided under the aegis of Renfrewshire
      Council)




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 40 of 251
Environment                        Environmental                 Minimum Qualification
                                   Conditions
Swimming pool                                                    Level 2 coach and pool specific
                                                                 training
Very sheltered water               Not in winter conditions      Level 1 coach
Quiet canals with easy             or very low water             Level 2 trainee coach
bank access. Small lochs.          temperatures.
Specified sites on gentle          Wind no more than F2.
slow rivers.
Sheltered Inland Water             Not in winter conditions      Level 2 coach
Lochs, flat water rivers,          or very low water             Level 3 coach trainee
flowing rivers, but no weirs       temperatures. Wind no
or rapids.                         more than F3 or F2 if
                                   offshore.
Moderate Inland Water              Not in winter conditions      Level 3 coach (inland)
Up to grade 2 white water          or very low water
and equivalent weirs               temperatures.
Advanced Inland Water              Not in winter conditions      Level 4 coach (inland)
Grade 3 and above and              or very low water
very large lochs                   temperatures.
Sheltered Tidal Waters             In favourable wind and        Level 2 coach or Level 3 coach
Small enclosed bays or             weather conditions.           trainee
harbours with minimal
chance of being blown
offshore
Moderate Tidal Water               Wind not above F3 or          Level 3 coach (sea)
Stretch of coast or estuary        F2 if offshore.
close to shore with easy
landing
Advanced Sea                       Difficult sea states          Level 4 coach (sea)
Any journey where tide             and/or strong wind
races cannot be avoided.           more than force 4
Stretches of coast where
landings are difficult.
Moderate Surf                      Wind not above F3 or          Level 3 coach (surf)
Small to moderate waves,           F2 if offshore.
less than 1 metre. Free of
significant hazards.

Advanced Surf                      Difficult sea states          Level 4 coach (surf)
Surf height less than 1            and/or strong winds
metre or where there are           more than F4.
strong winds, cold
conditions, rips, rocks or
longshore drift. Surfing of
reefs, points and offshore
features.


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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 41 of 251
3.4.7    It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
         believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling
         within the scope of the Health & Safety at Work Act - this has precedence over
         any other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the
         aegis of the Council.

3.4.8    All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
         risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
         has been foreseen - whatever the qualification of the leader.

         The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and
         not to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.4.9    Site Specific Training

         In some circumstances where a paddlesport activity takes place regularly at a
         very low risk venue, in very placid water, the Council will consider “site specific”
         training on a site by site and individual by individual basis as a substitute for the
         holding of a current award where otherwise the risk assessment would indicate
         an award would be desirable.

         Site specific training and „in house‟ endorsement of activities will only be
         provided for sites and activities which are commonly regarded as largely
         mundane, ordinary and requiring no special level of technical expertise.

         Site specific training for any paddlesport activity will be delivered by a „technical
         expert‟ recognised by BCU/SCA.

         The activity of individuals who have a site /activity specific endorsement from
         the Council will be overseen by the holder of an award appropriate for the
         purpose. This would normally be the award otherwise indicated as required for
         the site or activity in question.

         An endorsement of competence following „Site specific‟ training will only be
         considered„ in force‟ during activities authorised by the Council.
         The Council does not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained
         member of staff for deployment by any other organisation.

3.4.10 Seasonal Factors affecting the Activity

         The summer season would normally be from 1 May to 31 October. However,
         winter conditions often prevail outwith these periods. Winter conditions will be
         understood to prevail when snow or ice are prevalent or are forecast.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 42 of 251
         During the winter season, weather conditions, especially air and water
         temperatures, water levels and wind have a higher likelihood of being extreme
         and changeable. This would make it much less advisable to plan activities for
         novices and greater risk control measures would have to be adopted, especially
         the option of abandoning or cancelling activities.

          Should paddlesports take place between October and April, it is strongly
          recommended that wet suits or dry suits be worn in addition to waterproofs.
          This could also be the case in the summer if risk assessment of the conditions
          suggests that immersion hypothermia is a significant risk.



     Environment                  Minimum award or qualification             Group size
     Very sheltered water         Level 1 coach (kayak or canoe)             Up to 8 students
     Quiet canals with easy       as assistant to level 2 coach or           at “taster” level
     bank access. Small           above.                                     only.
     lochs. Specified sites
     on gentle slow rivers.
     Sheltered Inland             Level 2 coach (kayak or canoe)             Up to 8 students
     Water                        Level 2 coach trainee (Kayak or
     Lochs, flat water            Canoe) under direct supervision
     rivers, flowing rivers,      of level 3 coach.
     but no weirs or rapids.
     Moderate Inland              Level 3 coach (Inland kayak or             Up to 6 students
     Water                        canoe)
     Up to grade 2 white
     water and equivalent
     weirs
     Advanced Inland              Level 4 coach (Inland                      Up to 4 students
     Water                        kayak/canoe)
     Grade 3 and above
     and very large lochs
     Sheltered Tidal              Level 2 coach trainee (kayak or            Up to 6 students
     Waters                       canoe) as assistant to level 3
     Small enclosed bays          Level 2 coach (Kayak or canoe)
     or harbours with
     minimal chance of
     being blown offshore
     Moderate Tidal               Level 3 coach (sea)                        Up to 6 students
     Water
     Stretch of coast or
     estuary close to shore
     with easy landing



     Advanced Sea                 Level 4 coach (sea)                        Up to 4 students
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 43 of 251
     Any journey where
     tide races cannot be
     avoided. Stretches of
     coast where landings
     are difficult.
     Moderate Surf            Level 3 coach (surf)                           Up to 6 students
     Small to moderate
     waves,
     Less than 1 metre.
     Free of significant
     hazards.
     Advanced Surf            Level 4 coach                                  Up to 4 students
     Surf height more than
     1 metre or where
     there are strong
     winds, cold conditions,
     rips, rocks or
     longshore drift.
     Surfing of reefs, points
     and offshore features.

3.4.11 Supervisory Ratios for Paddlesports

         Heads of establishment and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
         sufficient to ensure the health and safety of all participants. Consideration
         should be given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the
         maintenance of proper discipline and child protection.

         In the case of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

         The guidance in the matrix above indicates the ratios required for safety, rather
         than the supervision demanded by other considerations. In many
         circumstances an additional leader should be considered, who may not be a
         qualified leader. It is recognised that trainee coaches working with qualified
         coaches are an important means of developing experience.

3.4.12 Paddlesports - Activity Risk Assessment

         See attached tables for guidance on carrying out risk assessments for
         paddlesport activities.

3.4.13 Personal Water Confidence (Cold Water Immersion and Capsizes)

         Although the ability to swim is highly desirable, it is not uncommon or
         unreasonable for non-swimmers to be involved in introductory water activities.
         Water-confidence during immersion in cold water while wearing a personal
         flotation device (PFD) is more important than the ability to swim. Instructors
         should ensure non-swimmers and novices are closely supervised on or near the
         water at all times.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 44 of 251
         Introductory water activity sessions should only be carried out in a tightly
         controlled situation and in a location appropriate to the abilities of the
         participants.

         Introductory sessions should last no longer than a day and the instructors in
         charge should satisfy themselves that participants can manage adequately in
         the prevailing conditions and also in the event of immersion in cold water.

         Where the activity lasts longer than a day participants must demonstrate at the
         outset the standard of water confidence required by the relevant National
         Governing body.

         A swim test in a heated swimming pool is not sufficient by itself.

         Capsize drills

         Novices must have practised and understood capsize drills under controlled but
         realistic conditions during initial training, before moving on to exposed or open
         water, If canoeing is to take place in deep water then novices should have
         undertaken deep water capsize and have experience of being rescued before
         progressing out on to areas of water that are distant from the shore.

3.4.14 Fail safes

        Notification and Approval Procedure

       In order to comply with the requirements of the Council‟s AALA licence, a system
       of notification and approval of paddlesport activities must be followed. All such
       activities should be notified to the Health Support Manager for approval.
       This should be done in sufficient time for a response to be made, as it may be
       necessary to make modifications to the planned activity. This would not apply to
       activities contracted to external providers who have their own AALA licence and
       heads of establishment should check that this is in place.

        Reporting In Procedure

       Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in procedure
       whenever groups are remote from the home establishment. This procedure
       should require the leader in charge to leave details of the planned activity with a
       liaison person and to contact him/her before starting out on the activity and on
       completion of the activity.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 45 of 251
       Leaders in charge are asked to plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
       undertakings so that they start and finish at the estimated time, particularly when
       they are being picked up by transport. Standing tired, wet and cold waiting for
       transport has been known to precipitate already uncomfortable participants into
       mild hypothermia.

       Communications

       Notifying the Coastguard

       The coastguard should be notified whenever passages remote from the normal
       canoeing or kayaking base are planned or involve:

                an expedition or journey crossing areas of exposed open sea;

                an extended coastal journey which will involve participants being more
                than 500 metres offshore;

                areas of water on which it is possible to drift 1 km offshore;

                areas of water which can be subject to hazardous conditions of wind and
                tide;

                capsize and rescue exercises taking place away from the usual kayaking
                base which could cause such concern to casual observers that they raise
                the rescue services.

       The coastguard should also be notified of the successful conclusion of activities
       when all participants are safely off the water.

       Whenever possible, a leader should carry a mobile phone/marine VHF so that
       communication can be facilitated.

       First Aid

       The leader in charge should ensure that during any paddlesport activity an
       adequate First Aid kit is available. During paddling activities remote from facilities
       and which are difficult to access by foot, one person with a Standard (HSE) First
       Aid Certificate should lead or accompany the group. This is necessary to satisfy
       the obligation of the Council to provide adequate First Aid Cover.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 46 of 251
        BCU/SCA Coach                  BCU/SCA First Aid             Comments
        Level                          Level
        Level one                      Minimum 4 hours               Including CPR and
                                                                     EAV
        Level two                      Minimum 4 hours               Including CPR and
                                                                     EAV
        Level three                    Minimum 8 hours               Including CPR and
                                                                     EAV
        Level four                     Minimum 8 hours               Including CPR and
                                                                     EAV
        Leader in charge               Minimum 24 hours/4            Including CPR and
        whatever level                 day HSE recognised            EAV

         The holding of a current First Aid Certificate is regarded as a necessary
         condition for the validity of paddlesport awards. Leaders in Charge are required
         to hold a Standard First Aid Certificate (24 HSE recognised).

3.4.15 Equipment

         The equipment carried by coaches may vary according to location, time of the
         year, nature of the group and aims of the session. However, as part of their
         usual paddling equipment they should carry an appropriate First Aid kit, whistle,
         safety knife, tow line, spare paddle, spare clothes, a warm drink – in cool
         conditions, a survival bag suitable for two people, gloves and a spare hat.

         Depending on circumstances, coaches may need to consider including the
         following items to be carried with the group: throw line, map, chart, compass,
         head torch, note book and pencil, mobile phone/VHF radio, flares, slings,
         karabiners, folding saw, paddle hook, a “group shelter” suitable for 4 to 6
         people, and spare equipment for emergency boat repairs.

         Boats should conform to the appropriate BSI standard. Instructors are
         responsible for inspection of the boats before use. Standards should include
         sufficient buoyancy (minimum 25 kg) distribution to ensure the boat floats
         horizontally when waterlogged. The end grabs (handles for toggles) should not
         trap hands and must allow a karabiner to be attached easily and quickly. Full
         plate bulkhead footrests are the best type and all footrests should be secure –
         so that they do not trap feet. Deck lines on sea kayaks should be tight and
         secure.

         Adequate personal buoyancy must be worn on the water. It should conform to
         EN 359 150N/CE for lifejackets or CEN 50N for buoyancy aids and be
         appropriately sized and fitted to the weight and size of the paddler. Buoyancy
         aids and lifejackets should be subject to an annual buoyancy test.




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         Appropriate paddlesport helmets (CE 1385) must be worn for all activities on
         moving river waters, surfing activities and journeys on rough open water close
         to rocky shores. Only helmets designed for canoeing or kayaking should be
         worn. Helmets with faceguards should be worn for Polo sessions.

3.4.16 Weather and Tidal Conditions

         Paddlesport instructors using areas of exposed open waters, subject to
         hazardous wind or tidal conditions should always obtain a weather forecast and
         check tidal predictions before deciding to proceed with the planned activity.

3.4.17 Size of the Group

         For kayaking and canoeing, there should be a minimum of two raft afloat at all
         times. The maximum number of participants in one group should not exceed 12.

3.4.18 Emergency Action Plan

         Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an
         emergency.

         The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
         emergency services and the home base and to keep the head of establishment
         fully informed of the progress of events.

         It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
         casualty to hospital; consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
         competent person to quickly make their way to the incident site to take
         responsibility for other participants. For this reason, whenever practicable, a
         minimum of two accompanying leaders are advised when taking part in
         paddlesports activities.

3.5     Horse Riding

3.5.1    The riding of horses and ponies, in an educational context, can embrace a
         range of disciplines within the sport of equestrianism. These include riding,
         jumping, trekking and hacking. Renfrewshire Council does not have its own
         facilities for riding. Therefore any riding should take place at a riding
         establishment or pony trekking school that is recognised by the British Horse
         Society (BHS), the Trekking and Riding Society of Scotland (TRSS) or the
         Association of British Riding schools (ABRS).

         These guidelines do not cover competitive aspects of riding such as racing,
         eventing, showjumping, polo and polocrosse, tetrathlon and modern pentathlon.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 48 of 251
         Horses can be very independent animals with a mind of their own. They are
         powerful and can be unpredictable and these factors make riding a higher risk
         activity. Accidents can happen, and can be severe, making the control of risks
         especially important. However, with awareness and appropriate risk control
         measures, these risks can be kept to an acceptable level.

3.5.2.   National Governing Bodies

         The British Horse Society: www.bhs.org.uk
         The BHS is concerned with the welfare of equines, professional qualifications
         for the equestrian industry, safer off road riding and recreational competitions. It
         runs a qualifications scheme for horse care, riding and riding tuition. It also runs
         an approval scheme for riding establishments which lays down standards and
         promotes good practice.

         The BHS has a regional structure and BHS Scotland (www.bhsscotland.org.uk)
         looks after Scottish affairs, and as it negotiates with the Scottish Executive and
         other agencies, in some respects it is regarded as a national governing body.

         The Scottish Equestrian Association: www.equinesport.org.uk/sea/web/
         The SEA is the governing body for equestrian sports in Scotland, recognised by
         Sportscotland.

         The Trekking and Riding Society of Scotland: www.ridinginscotland.com
         The TRSS has as its primary objective to encourage and assist the
         development of all forms of equestrian tourism in Scotland and to set and
         maintain standards of excellence. It does by running training courses, the
         awarding of appropriate qualifications to all levels of staff employed in centres,
         by inspecting member centres regularly and by running an advisory service.

         The Association of British Riding Schools: www.abrs-info.org
         The ABRS also has a riding school approval scheme. It represents professional
         riding school proprietors and has an examination and testing regime for the
         riding school industry.

         The Pony Club: www.pcuk.org
         The PC is a membership based voluntary organisation for young people
         interested in riding. It has a coaching programme for delivery of proficiency
         schemes and various branch activities. Coaching awards are specific for PC
         activities, and therefore are not appropriate for delivery to external educational
         groups.




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3.5.3 Leadership, Instructor and Coaching Awards

        BHS AWARDS

                  The BHS Preliminary Teachers Certificate.
                  Holders of this award are trained in instructing basic techniques. They
                  will be in the process of completing 500 hours teaching practice leading
                  to the award of the Assistant Instructor Certificate.

                  The BHS Assistant Instructor
                  Holders of this award are qualified to teach riders in dressage to novice
                  level, lunging and jumping to Stage 2 level.

                  The BHS Intermediate Instructor
                  Holders of this award are qualified to teach riders up to Elementary Level
                  Dressage, Novice Horse Trials and Newcomers Showjumping.

                  BHS Instructor
                  Holders of this award are qualified to teach riders to the level of
                  Advanced Medium Dressage, Intermediate Horse Trials and Foxhunter
                  Level Showjumping.

                  BHS Fellow
                  Holders of this award are qualified to teach riders at the highest level
                  within their chosen discipline. Riders and students can turn to them for
                  advice on the equine industry.

       TRSS AWARDS

                   TRSS Ride Leader Qualification
                   Holders of this award are competent to lead a trek or hack of up to 2
                   hours duration, and assist the Senior Ride Leader on longer treks or
                   hacks.

                   TRSS Senior Ride Leader Qualification
                   Holders of this award are competent to take charge of all treks and
                   hacks, whatever the duration or level.

                   TRSS Centre Operator Qualification
                   Holders of this award are competent to manage all aspects of a riding
                   and trekking centre including leading all kinds of treks and hacks.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 50 of 251
       ABRS AWARDS

                   ABRS Initial Teaching Award
                   This is a foundation level qualification for teaching basic levels in a
                   riding school, but not jumping.

                   ABRS Teaching Certificate
                   This award is for experienced teachers

                   ABRS Advanced Teaching Diploma
                   This award is for very experienced teachers working at an advanced
                   level.

       Other Qualifications

       Readers should consult the BHS for international equivalents of the BHS UK
       awards.

3.5.4 Technical Adviser

       The general principle is that advice on a particular activity can be given by an
       adviser qualified at the level above that of the activity concerned.

3.5.5 Guide to the Deployment of Awards

          Activity        Group Leader                                        Ratio
                                                                              Leader:
                                                                              participants
          Basic           BHS Preliminary Teachers Certificate                1: 6 max
          riding in       or higher
          a riding        ABRS Initial Teaching Award or higher
          school
          premises
          Trekking        TRSS Ride Leader                                    1: 6 max
          or              ABRS Teaching Certificate is for
          hacking         experienced teachers
          up to 2
          hours
          Trekking        TRSS Senior Ride Leader or Centre                   1: 6 max
          or              Operator
          hacking
          over 2          ABRS Teaching Certificate is for
          hours           experienced teachers




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       It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
       believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within
       the scope of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any
       other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the
       aegis of the Council.

       All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessments suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
       weather).

       The duty of qualified instructors is to ensure the safety of participants, not to
       enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.5.6. Site/activity specific training

       The Council does not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained
       member of staff for riding activities.

3.5.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

       As with most outdoor activities, riding can be affected by adverse weather, more
       likely in the winter months. Conditions of wet, cold and wind affect both riders and
       horses.

       The nature of the riding surface may also be affected in freezing or very wet
       conditions. However very hot weather can also lead to hyperthermia,
       dehydration or sunburn. All these factors should be considered in the risk
       assessment process.

3.5.8 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

       For some activities a minimum two adults may need to accompany a group to
       ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       The Guidance in the matrix above indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety during activities, rather than the supervision
       demanded by other considerations. In many circumstances an additional leader
       should be considered, who need not be a qualified riding leader.
       It should be noted that the number of participants has a bearing on the safety of
       the group, as well as the ratio of instructors to participants.

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3.5.9 Risk Assessments

       See attached sheets on generic risks assessments for riding activities. These will
       need to be supplemented by an assessment of any additional risks related to the
       specific activities proposed.

3.5.10 Fail safes

                 Reporting in procedure

                 Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
                 procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
                 procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
                 planned activity with a liaison person, and contact him/her before starting
                 and after finishing the activity.
                 Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
                 undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated,
                 particularly when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet,
                 cold and tired, waiting for transport has been known to progress from
                 discomfort into mild hypothermia.

                 Communications

                 Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone or
                 radio so that communications can be facilitated. If several staff are
                 involved they should exchange their phone numbers.
                First Aid

                 Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any riding activity, an
                 adequate First Aid kit is available.

                 Whenever the leader responsible holds a NGB award, the holding of an
                 appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the
                 validity of the award.

                Emergency Equipment

                 Depending on the nature of the activity and the location of the ride,
                 participants may require a supply of spare clothing and food for the
                 journey. The nature of the activity will also dictate whether additional
                 equipment (as required for hillwalking) will be required.

                Clothing and Personal Equipment

                 It is the responsibility of instructors to ensure their students are
                 appropriately equipped and clothed for the activity and prevailing
                 conditions. This includes adequate warm clothing with protective outer
                 layer. Full body cover should be worn, especially in woodland and on
                 narrow tracks.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 53 of 251
                 In wet weather, waterproof clothing should be worn for riding, trekking
                 and hacking. Hoods on jackets can tangle on branches or catch on the
                 horses hoof in the event of a fall. Such hoods should be fastened away.
                 Jewellery, especially earrings can catch on branches or other
                 obstructions, and should not be worn. Long hair should be contained
                 within the riding helmet or a hair net.

        A riding helmet should be worn that conforms to one of the following standards:

         BS PAS 015 1998
         BS EN 1384
         ASTMF 1163 95

       Body protection is increasingly used by riders, and is required for some forms of
       competition where the risks might be much higher. In a non-competitive
       educational context it is unlikely that basic level activities would suggest that
       body or shoulder protection are required.

       Advice in section two of this document on the exposure to strong sunlight should
       also be followed.

3.5.11 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a minimum of two
       accompanying leaders or supervisors are advised.

3.5.12 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
       riding activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be expected
       of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge of the
       group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.




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       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match. It should be established that the provider has the appropriate AALA
       licence for that activity.

       Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

3.5.13 Students with disabilities

       Where staff are considering riding or trekking for students with disabilities, it
       should be noted that arrangements can only proceed under the auspices of the
       Riding for The Disabled Association. Heads of Establishment should, in the first
       instance contact the Regional Chairman of the Riding for the Disabled
       Association for advice.

       Regional Chairman for West and Central Scotland
       Riding for The Disabled Association
       Mollan House
       Thornhill
       STIRLING
       FK8 3QJ

       Further sources of advice on horse riding activities:

       The British Horse Society
       16-17 Stoneleigh Deer Park
       KENILWORTH
       CV8 2XZ
       Phone 0870 120 2244
       www.bhs.org.uk
       Association of British Riding Schools
       Queens Chambers
       38-40 Queen st
       Penzance
       Cornwall TR 18 4BH
       Phone 01736 369 440
       www.abrs-info.org

       The Sandyflats Riding for The Disabled Association
       Riding Stable
       Caldercuilt Road
       GLASGOW
       G23 5NA
       Phone 0141 945 1369
       E mail: rdaglasgow@btconnect.com


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3.6.    Cycling

3.6.1 Cycling can take place on roads and off roads. Off-road cycling can take place in
      most places where it is possible to walk, including cycle routes, forest roads,
      tracks, paths, woodland and open country. It is characterised by the participants
      using their own physical effort to travel from place to place usually by a linear
      route with an element of route choice. It can be strenuous and very tiring.

       In both cases, the danger of vehicular road traffic is significant and should form
       part of the Risk Assessment.

       A wide range of activities may be run as part of a cycling programme. These can
       be:

            supervised bike rides;

            activities based at an off-road venue such as a cycle control skills course,
            obstacle courses and team competitions;

            on-road cycle training;

            activities at specialist cycling venues i.e. a BMX track, a Velodrome or a
            Mountain Bike course;

            bike maintenance;

            Safe Routes to School.

   For the purpose of this document a cycle can be a road racing bike, a touring bike or
   a mountain bike. It does not include mono-cycles or historical machines such as
   penny-farthings.

   While road racing bikes are best suited to roads and cycle routes, touring and hybrid
   bikes are better suited to roads and more moderate off-road routes, and mountain
   bikes are best suited to off-road applications. However there are no hard and fast
   rules and there is considerable scope for crossover of cycles and terrain.

   Due to the speeds involved, the act of cycling exposes participants to hazards not
   found while walking. The effect of impacts and collision will be much more severe.
   Moreover, the motion of the participant creates its own wind, increasing the cooling
   wind chill effect, especially during a hill descent. At other times, especially during
   ascent, muscular effort can produce an excess of heat, leading to profuse sweating,
   wet clothing and dehydration.




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3.6.2    For the purposes of training and assessing the competence of leaders, cycling
         can be graded into three levels:

              Level one

              Introductory cycling activities for children or novice adults in a safe
              environment. It includes basic on-road cycle training for children using
              schemes such as the Scottish Cycle Training Scheme, Megabike, Impruv
              Challenge etc.

              Level two

              Off-road cycling or trail cycle rides along off-road cycle paths, rights of way
              and public highways. The routes chosen must be of low to medium
              technical difficulty, no more than 30 minutes walk from help and at a height
              above sea level of no more than 600 metres. This is the limit of the terrain
              before the activity comes into the scope of the Adventure Activities
              Licensing Authority.

              Level three

              More serious trail cycling or mountain biking rides along off-road cycle
              paths, rights of way, tracks and public highways. The routes chosen can be
              of high technical difficulty, be more than 30 minutes walk from help and can
              be in excess of 600 metres above sea level. This brings the activity within
              the scope of the Adventure Activities Licensing Authority.

         Cycling may involve multi-day camping expeditions, both accompanied and
         unaccompanied, by a leader. This will require extra skills and competencies,
         both on the part of leaders and participants. Unaccompanied groups must
         always be supervised from a distance by appropriately qualified people

3.6.3    National Governing Bodies

         The National Governing Body of Cycling in Scotland is the Scottish Cyclists‟
         Union, and is the Scottish component of the British Cycling Federation. The
         Scottish Mountain Bike Leaders Association is the representative body for
         mountain bike and trail cycle leaders.




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3.6.4    Cycling Leader Qualifications and Awards

              Level One Cycle Coach and Leader

              This award covers cycling in a safe environment. It is ideal for youth and
              community workers, teachers and after-school care personnel. It is aimed
              at those wishing to deliver cycling activities to children or novice adults in a
              safe environment, sports development officers or anyone else interested in
              running cycling activities or assisting a club coach with a cycling
              programme.

              Level one coaches can also help deliver basic on-road cycle training to
              children using schemes such as the Scottish Cycle Training Scheme,
              Megabike etc. However, before this can take place, additional training and
              familiarisation with these particular schemes should be provided by a Road
              Safety Officer.

              Level Two Trail Cycle Leader

              This award is aimed at those wishing to lead cycle rides along off-road cycle
              paths, rights of way and public highways. The routes chosen must be of low
              to medium technical difficulty, no more than 30 minutes walk from help and
              no more than 600 metres above sea level. It is ideal for youth and
              community workers, teachers, outdoor education leaders, cycling
              development officers and those interested in leading cycle rides as a safe
              and enjoyable activity.

              Level Three Mountain Bike Leader

              This award is aimed at those wishing to lead cycle rides along off-road cycle
              paths, rights of way, tracks and public highways. The routes chosen can be
              of high technical difficulty, may be more than 30 minutes walk from help and
              can be more than 600 metres above sea level.

3.6.5    Technical Adviser

         It is now normal practice for National Governing Bodies to adopt the approach
         that a person holding a more advanced award has the appropriate level of
         competence to advise on lower awards i.e. a level two coach can advise a level
         one coach and so on.

         If in doubt, Heads of Establishment should consult the Health Support Manager.

3.6.6    Guide to the deployment of Cycling Awards

        (To be deployed during cycling activities provided under the aegis of
        Renfrewshire Council.)


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        Environment                                  Ratio        Award, qualification or
                                                                  validation
        Safe, off-road, confined area, e.g. a        1:12         In-house training approved
        playground for cycle proficiency                          by Council Road Safety
        training, Scottish Cycle Training                         Trainers
        Scheme, Megabike etc


        Safe, off-road, confined area                1:12         Level One Cycle Activity
        location, e.g. playground for cycle                       Leader
        proficiency training, Scottish Cycle
        Training Scheme Megabike etc
        Day trips on off-road cycle paths,           1:8          Level Two Cycle Activity
        rights of way and public highways.                        Leader
        Routes of low to medium technical
        difficulty, no more than 30 minutes
        from help and below 600m altitude
        As above but including overnight             1:8          Level Two Cycle Activity
        camping                                                   Leader with Expedition
                                                                  Endorsement
        Day trips on off-road cycle paths,           1:8          Level Three Mountain Bike
        rights of way and public highways.                        Leader
        Routes of low to medium technical
        difficulty, more than 30 minutes
        from help and up to any altitude
        As above but including overnight             1:8          Level Three Mountain Bike
        camping                                                   Leader with Expedition
                                                                  Endorsement


       It should be noted the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council believes
       is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within the
       scope of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any other
       opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis of
       Renfrewshire Council.

        All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessments suggest that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the leader.

       The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.




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3.6.7 Site/activity specific training

        In circumstances where a cycling activity takes place regularly, along the same
        route, close to the home establishment, in a non-remote area, and follows well
        established roads and cycle tracks, then Renfrewshire Council will recognise
        familiarity with the local environment and a careful risk assessment by the leader
        in charge as adequate „qualification‟ to be responsible for such activities.

        Where activities are part of a regular delivery of the curriculum the Council will
        consider „Site specific‟ training on a route by route and individual by individual
        basis as a substitute for the holding of an award, where otherwise, a risk
        assessment would indicate an award would be desirable.

        Site specific training and an „in-house‟ endorsement of activities will only be
        provided for sites and activities regarded as mundane, ordinary and requiring no
        special level of technical expertise.

        Site or route specific training for any cycling activity will be delivered by a
        „technical adviser‟ recognised by the SMBLA.

        Leaders who have a site/route specific endorsement by the Council will be
        overseen by the holder of an award appropriate for the purpose. This would
        normally be the award otherwise indicated as required for the site/route in
        question.

        An endorsement of competence following site/route specific training will only be
        considered „in force‟ during activities authorised by Renfrewshire Council. The
        Council does not endorse the competence of a site/route specific trained member
        of staff for deployment by any other organisation.

3.6.8   Seasonal factors affecting the activity

        Most cycling activities will tend to take place between 1 May and 31 October.

        Outside this period the risks and hazards may be increased by cold, wet and
        windy weather conditions and shorter day length. Consequently these factors
        must be adequately built in to the risk assessment, whatever the level of the
        activity.

        Cycling activities should not normally take place if winter conditions prevail or are
        forecast. This will be more likely for visits to elevated and remote routes (Level 3)
        than for local routes at lower levels (1 and 2). Nevertheless the hazard to cyclists
        of ice, especially when hidden under fresh snow, and in poor light, are not to be
        underestimated.

        During periods of hot dry weather, cycling can lead to profuse water loss, with
        consequent dehydration and hyperthermia. At this time drinkable water sources
        can be hard to find in some areas, so an adequate supply of regular hydration is
        even more important than usual.
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3.6.9 Supervisory ratios

        Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

       In the case of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       Even for small expeditions, a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a
       group to ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.
       Depending on the size of the group and the nature of the activity, there may be a
       requirement for a responsible person to supervise participants at the front and
       back of the group to avoid the group being too widely dispersed.

       The Guidance offered in the matrix indicates the ratio required for safety
       purposes, rather than the supervision demanded by other considerations. In
       many circumstances an additional leader should be considered, who may not be
       a qualified leader.

3.6.10 Cycling activity risk assessments

       The accompanying tables give details of recommended activity specific control
       measures at the appropriate levels of terrain.

       In planning an activity, certain sections of a route and locations may present
       hazards that require enhanced control measures. These should be identified on
       the basis of local knowledge and/or a pre-visit, and appropriate control measures
       identified and recorded. These must be submitted to the Head of Establishment
       for consideration before consent for the excursion can be granted.

3.6.11 The Duke of Edinburgh Award Scheme: Expedition Section

       If expeditions involve the use of „on road‟ cycles then the above guidelines should
       be carefully followed during the process of training the award scheme
       candidates. The supervisor of any planned unaccompanied practice or qualifying
       expedition should be confident that the candidates can be relied upon to follow all
       the procedures necessary to reasonably secure their own safety. The supervisor
       of an unaccompanied cycling expedition should monitor the process of the
       participants through prearranged checkpoints. The progress of the participants
       along any section of road shared with a significant amount of motorised traffic
       should be continuously monitored from a distance, in order that the emergency
       services can be quickly mobilised in the event of a traffic accident involving the
       participants.




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       It is recommended that in the event of the participants ignoring safety advice and
       acting in a way that may be a threat to their own safety, the expedition should be
       terminated or continued as an accompanied training expedition in accord with the
       above guidelines.

3.6.12 Fail safes

              Reporting in procedure

              Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a “reporting back”
              procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
              procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
              planned activity with a liaison person, to be contacted before starting out
              and after finishing the activity.

              Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
              undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
              when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
              waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
              hypothermia.

              Communications

              Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone to
              facilitate communications. While there may be places on a cycle route
              where there is no mobile phone reception, there are normally other places
              where reception is possible, enabling much earlier contact than having to
              find a working public phone.

              First Aid

              Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any cycling activity, an
              adequate First Aid kit is available.
              When cycling in remote areas which are difficult to access other than on
              foot or cycle, a person with a Standard First Aid Certificate should
              accompany the group.

              Whenever the leader responsible holds a cycling award, the holding of a
              valid First Aid qualification is a necessary condition for the validity of the
              award.




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              Emergency Equipment and clothing

              All participants should carry some spare clothing and ample food for the
              journey, and on cycle trips in remote terrain, a personal orange plastic
              survival bag. For excursions involving the use of public roads, brightly
              coloured, high visibility clothing should be worn by front and back markers.

              Cycling helmets must be worn by all participants

              Leaders in charge should carry as part of their usual equipment an
              appropriate First Aid kit, spare food, spare clothes, a warm drink (in cool
              conditions), map, compass, head torch, whistle, note book and pencil, and
              either an orange plastic survival bag suitable for two persons or a group
              shelter for 4-6 persons, spare gloves and spare warm hat.

              Cycle repair kit

              Leaders should be equipped and competent to carry out commonly
              encountered trail-side repairs, such as punctures, broken chain, tightening,
              adjusting brake and gear mechanisms, and securing other loose
              components such as mudguards and pedals.

3.6.13 Emergency action planning

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan of action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants
       For this reason, whenever reasonably practicable there should be a minimum of
       two accompanying leaders/supervisors when cycling in remote areas distant from
       the home establishment.

3.6.14 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
       cycling activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be expected
       of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge of the
       group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.

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       In addition it should be established whether the activity falls within scope of the
       AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence for that
       activity.

       The Liability Insurance of all outside providers should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

3.7     Orienteering

3.7.1 Orienteering challenges participants to find their way using a map to a series of
      check points, usually through parks, countryside, woodland and moorland, but
      can be adapted for school grounds, large buildings or even classrooms. The
      maps used are specifically drawn for orienteering using standard colours, lines
      and symbols.

       As an activity it attracts all ages, abilities and levels of involvement and is suitable
       for individuals or small groups

3.7.2 National Governing Body

       The National Governing Body of Orienteering is the British Orienteering
       Federation which manages coaching schemes and competitions and promotes
       the interests of the sport. The Federation has a regional structure for which the
       Scottish Orienteering Association is the Scottish body coordinating the activities
       of local orienteering clubs in Scotland.

3.7.3 Leadership Qualifications and Awards

               Level One Coach (formerly Teacher/Leader Award)

               This is an introductory level qualification for teachers and leaders who wish
               to teach orienteering within the confines of a safe controlled site, e.g.
               school grounds, or who wish to take groups to organised orienteering
               events.

               Level Two Coach (formerly Instructor Award)

               For teachers, outdoor centre instructors and orienteers who wish to
               introduce groups to orienteering in local parks and woods, and take them to
               local events.

               Level Three Coach (formerly Club Coach)

               For club orienteers who wish to get involved in coaching at club level.

               Levels Four and Five Coach (formerly Regional and Senior Coach)

               For orienteers who wish to become involved in coaching at a regional level
               and/or in coaching individual athletes.
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3.7.4 Technical Adviser

       Following currently accepted practice the Technical Adviser for an activity should
       be at least one qualification above that of the leader/instructor of the activity.

3.7.5 Guide to the deployment of Orienteering Awards

       (To be deployed during activities provided under the aegis of Renfrewshire
       Council)


          Coach Award                Type of coaching               Step System/colour code
                                     area                           levels
          Level 1                    School grounds or              Levels 1 and 2 White and
          (Teacher/Leader)           outdoor centre or              Yellow courses
                                     limited enclosed area

          Level 2                    As above plus other            Levels 1, 2 & 3 White,
          (Instructor)               small woods with               Yellow & Orange courses
                                     good access
          Level 3                    As above plus                  Levels 1 to 5 White to
          (Club Coach)               woods/open land with           Green courses
                                     good access which
                                     are not exposed,
                                     remote or complex
          Level 4 & 5                As above plus                  Levels 1 to 5 White to
          (Regional/Senior           complex woods and              Brown courses
          Coach)                     moors

       It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
       believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within
       the scope of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any
       other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis
       of the Council.

       All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessments suggest that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the leader.




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       The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.7.6. Site/activity specific training

       Site specific training for any orienteering activity will be delivered by a „technical
       adviser‟ recognised by BOF.

       The activity of individuals who have a site / activity specific endorsement from the
       Council will be overseen by the holder of an award appropriate for the purpose.
       This would normally be the award otherwise indicated as required for the site or
       activity in question.

       Endorsement of competence following „Site specific‟ training will only be
       considered„ in force‟ during activities authorised by the Council. The Council does
       not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained member of staff for
       deployment by any other organisation.

3.7.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

       In the spring and summer prolonged dry spells can lead to higher levels of fire
       risk especially in woodland, and care should be taken to avoid the possibility of
       starting a fire.

       During the winter season conditions underfoot can be icy, and especially
       hazardous when black ice or frozen puddles on paths are covered by a thin layer
       of snow. This should be considered in the choice of venue, especially for novices,
       and greater risk control measures should be adopted, especially the option of
       cancelling or abandoning activities.

3.7.8. Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.
       For some activities a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a group to
       ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       The Guidance in the matrix below indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety, rather than the supervision demanded by other
       considerations. In many circumstances an additional leader should be
       considered, who may not be a qualified leader.


          Award             Type of area                               Supervisory ratios
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          Level One         Small and simple areas with                1 teacher per class in
          Coach or          clear boundaries, good access.             school grounds
          relevant          Plenty of handrail features, and           1:15 at centres
          experience        small enough to allow                      1:15 or 1:20 with a
                            supervision of participants at             competent assistant,
                            frequent intervals.                        at club events or
                                                                       „simple‟ areas
          Level Two         Areas with clear boundaries,               1:15, or 1:20 with a
          Coach             good access. Plenty of handrail            competent assistant,
                            features, and small enough to              at club events or
                            allow supervision of participants          simple areas
                            at regular intervals.
          Level             Other areas but not complex or             1:10 for experienced
          Three             exposed: easier forests and                participants
          Coach             country parks, with clear                  1:10 plus 2 competent
                            boundaries and access for                  staff for less
                            vehicles in an emergency.                  experienced group
          Level Four        More demanding areas – if                  1:10 plus 2 competent
          Coach             complex, exposed or                        staff
                            mountainous increase staffing.

3.7.9 Orienteering Activity Risk Assessment

       The accompanying tables detail recommended activity specific control measures
       at the appropriate levels.

       Orienteering is not a “stop gap” activity. Participants require organisation and
       briefing with regard to their behaviour, the nature of the area and potential
       hazards.

       Safety management in orienteering must take account of the ability of the group
       and the nature of the area where the activity is taking place. The length and
       difficulty of the course should be appropriate to the ability and fitness of the
       participants. Planned progression in activities should allow participants to
       gradually gain the ability to complete more challenging courses.

       The importance of reporting back and handing in control cards should be
       stressed as an important safety measure. Briefing novices on what to do when
       lost, and giving time limits, may also be useful in reducing the need for organising
       a search for missing participants.




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3.7.10. Fail safes

              Reporting in procedure

              Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
              procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
              procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
              planned activity with a liaison person, and to contact him/her before starting
              and after finishing the activity.
              Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
              undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
              when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
              waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
              hypothermia.

              Communications

              Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone so that
              communications can be facilitated. While there may be places where there
              is no mobile phone reception, there will be other places where reception is
              possible, enabling much earlier contact than having to find a functioning
              public phone.

              First Aid

              Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any orienteering activity, an
              adequate First Aid kit is available. For on-site activities within school or
              centre grounds at least one person holding a Standard First Aid Certificate
              should be present on the site. During off-site orienteering activities, at least
              one of the leaders or instructors should hold a Standard First Aid Certificate.

              Whenever the leader responsible holds an orienteering award, the holding
              of a valid First Aid qualification is a necessary condition for the validity of
              the award.

3.7.11 Clothing and Personal Equipment

       It is the responsibility of the Instructor to ensure that students are appropriately
       clothed for the activity and the prevailing conditions, including full leg and body
       coverage. In areas other than limited enclosed areas, whistles and watches
       should be carried, and instructions given on their use and misuse. When
       compasses are used, a safety bearing can help participants to relocate.

3.7.12 Emergency Equipment

       Where appropriate, participants should have access to a group shelter.
       Depending on the degree of remoteness, spare clothing, food and drink may be
       required.

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3.7.13 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have an agreed search strategy in the event of a
       participant being unduly late reporting back. There should be a means of quickly
       contacting emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the
       head of establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants. For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a
       minimum of two accompanying leaders/supervisors is advised.

3.7.14 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
       orienteering activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be
       expected of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge
       of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.

       In addition it should be established whether the activity falls within scope of the
       AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence for that
       activity.

       The liability insurance of all outside providers should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

3.8     Race Rowing Activities

       With regard to watercraft, rowing is the propulsion in water, usually of a small
       boat, using one or more oars mounted on the craft, via rowlocks.

       As a sport, rowing is a system of competition that refines the rowing of boats into
       a specialised discipline. The participant usually sits on a seat above the water
       level and faces backwards. It is a speed sport in narrow boats, and can take
       place on rivers, lochs and on the sea.

        There are two main forms of rowing:

                Sweep-oar rowing, in which each rower has one oar, held with both
                hands.

                 Sculling, in which each rower has two oars, one in each hand.


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3.8.1 An indoor rower is a machine commonly used for training for rowing, or for
      exercise.

       Racing boats (usually called shells) are long and narrow for speed, but are
       unstable and liable to tip. There are various types of boat depending on the
       number of rowers and the position of the coxswain, who steers the boat.

       Coastal and ocean rowing is a type of rowing performed on the sea. Due to the
       harsher conditions encountered at sea, the boats are wider and more robust than
       those used on rivers and lakes. Most British sea rowing is "traditional" fixed seat
       rowing and competition is of a regional nature.

       Renfrewshire Council does not have its own facilities for race rowing activities. It
       is likely that any activities will involve facilities provided by local clubs such as
       Castle Semple Rowing Club or the Royal West of Scotland Amateur Boat Club.

3.8.2 National Governing Body

       The Scottish Amateur Rowing Association (SARA) is responsible for the
       organisation and development of the sport in Scotland. Enquiries should be made
       to: www.scottish-rowing.org.uk

       The Amateur Rowing Association (ARA) is the governing body of rowing in
       England and represents Great Britain‟s interests internationally. Enquiries should
       be made to: www.ara-rowing.org

3.8.3 Leadership, Instructor and Coaching Awards

       The coaching of rowing is currently undergoing revision as part of Phase 1 of the
       UK Coaching Certificate programme (www.ukcoachingcertificate.org), and is
       likely to change to align with UKCC standards. The awards below are those in
       use at the time of writing (November 2008).

              Dry Instructors Award

              This award is for dry land training only, and is not appropriate for activities
              on the water.

              Instructors Award

              This is the entry level for coaches to work on the water. Holders of the
              award are capable of organising a group safely on water, including
              undertaking a risk assessment and teaching early sculling and rowing
              progressions.




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              Bronze Coach Award

              This award is for experienced instructors who are able to introduce groups
              to a structured and progressive programme both on and off the water to
              include open competitions.

              Silver and Gold Coach Awards

              These awards are more advanced performance coach awards for very
              experienced coaches, coaching to national or international level, or
              delivering innovative programmes at a local level.

       Other Qualifications
       Coaches or instructors holding qualifications from countries outside the UK
       should seek the UK recognition. Accreditation for prior learning may enable direct
       assessment.

       If the activity takes place outside the UK, the qualification of any foreign instructor
       providing supervision or instruction should be one that is officially recognised in
       that country, and be of an equivalent or higher standard than the appropriate UK
       awards.

3.8.4 Technical Adviser

       Each rowing organisation is required by the National Governing Body to have a
       Safety Adviser. It is appropriate that the technical adviser for rowing activities
       should be the nominated safety adviser for the organisation.

3.8.5 Guide to the deployment of Awards

       To be deployed during race rowing activities.

           Award                   Activities
           Dry Instructors         Dry land rowing only
           Award
           Instructors             Early sculling and rowing progressions
           Award
           Bronze Coach            Performance training and preparation for
           Award                   competition.
           Silver and              Higher levels of competitive rowing
           Bronze




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        It should be noted that the matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council believes is
        appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within the scope
        of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any other
        opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis of the
        Council.

        All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
        risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
        has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
        weather).

        It is the duty of qualified instructors to ensure the safety of participants, not to
        enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.8.6 Site/activity specific training

        For coaches in charge of a session there is no alternative to the national awards,
        but site activity provision may be appropriate for assistants and helpers, as
        recommended by the Club Safety Adviser.

3.8.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

        While there is no close season for rowing, during the colder half of the year,
        weather conditions are more likely to lead to enhanced risk of hypothermia. Such
        conditions should be considered in the risk assessment, and additional layers of
        insulating clothing should be worn, with sufficient spare clothing readily available
        to deal with, or preferably avoid, cases of hypothermia.

3.8.8   Supervisory ratios

                 Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that
                 supervision is sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants.
                 Consideration should be given to educational and social needs of the
                 participants, the maintenance of proper discipline and child protection.

                 In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

                 For some activities, a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a
                 group to ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an
                 incident.

                 It should be noted that the number of participants has a bearing on the
                 safety of the group, as well as the ratio of instructors to participants.




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                 In contrast to other sports, the ARA does not specify a supervisory ratio
                 of coaches to participants. The recommendation of the ARA is that these
                 ratios should be determined by the coach for each session, based on the
                 risk assessment of the factors outlined below. This is to avoid coaches
                 being forced to accept a ratio they feel is unsafe on a particular day.


             Factors to               Parameters                  Variants
             consider:
             Participants             Numbers                     Individual, group
                                      Ages                        Young, adolescent, adult,
                                      Ability level               old
                                      Learning potential          Beginner, improver,
                                      Range of ability, age,      advanced
                                      learning                    learning difficulty, senior,
                                                                  young
                                                                  Wide range, narrow range
             Coach                    Qualification               Instructor, S/NVQ2,
                                                                  Bronze, Silver, Gold
                                      Experience                  None, some, a lot
             Helpers                  Number                      None, some, a lot
                                      Level                       Inexperienced,
                                                                  experienced, apprenticed
                                      Qualification               None, Coaching Assistant,
                                                                  Instructor, Bronze, Silver,
                                                                  Gold
             Boats                    Size                        1x, 2x, 4x, 8x, 2-, 2+, 4-,
                                                                  4+, 8+, other
                                      Type                        Shell, gig, jolly boat
                                      Stability                   Stable, unstable
                                      Number                      1, 2 etc
             Facilities               Mobility of coaching        Foot, coxing,
                                      positions                   rowing/sculling, bike,
                                                                  launch, car, other
             Environment              Shape                       Straight, bendy
                                      Length                      Pool, lake, canal, river,
                                      Stream                      coast
                                      Wind                        Still, fast, tidal, coastal
                                      Time of year                Strength, direction
                                                                  Winter, spring, summer,
                                      Time of day                 autumn, tourists
                                                                  High, low, mid tide




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3.8.9 Risk Assessments

        See attached sheets

3.8.10 Fail safes

              Reporting in procedure

              Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
              procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment.

              This procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
              planned activity with a liaison person, and contact them before starting and
              after finishing the activity.

              Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
              undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
              when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
              waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
              hypothermia.

              Communications

              Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a waterproof mobile
              phone or radio so that communications can be facilitated. If several staff are
              involved they should exchange their phone numbers.

              First Aid

              Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any rowing activity, an
              adequate First Aid kit is available. At least one person holding a Standard
              First Aid Certificate should be available on site or on the safety boat.

              Whenever the leader responsible holds a NGB award, the holding of an
              appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the
              validity of the award.

              Emergency Equipment

              An appropriate safety boat should be in attendance at all times. The safety
              boat should be quick and maneuverable enough to stay in close proximity to
              the rowing craft without creating undue wash. If powered by an outboard
              engine, it must be fitted with a “kill cord” so that the engine is disabled if the
              driver and boat part company unexpectedly. It should be stable and
              capable of dealing with the crew of a swamped or sinking boat, and able to
              carry injured rowers back to the boathouse quickly and safely.

              When in use, the safety boat should be equipped with a safety kit containing
              warm dry clothing, First Aid kit, floating throw line (minimum 15m),
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 74 of 251
              additional life jackets or buoyancy aids, oars or paddles, a baler, a sound
              signalling device (capable of being heard over at least 200m) a sharp knife
              in carrying sheath, anchor and line. The safety boat should be equipped
              with a means of towing racing rowing craft in the event of an incident.
              Inflatable boats should have an inflation pump.

              Activities after dark require lights on the launch as per International
              Prevention of Collision Regulations.

              Clothing and Personal Equipment

              It is the responsibility of instructors to ensure their students are
              appropriately equipped and clothed for the activity and prevailing conditions.
              While it is accepted practice that participants do not normally wear
              buoyancy aids or lifejackets during rowing activities, this only applies to
              participants who are able to swim. The minimum requirement is considered
              to be the ability to swim 50m in light clothing and to demonstrate
              competence underwater, in treading water, and in swimming on front and
              back (ARA Safety Code).

              Non-swimming participants, safety boat personnel and coxswains must
              wear lifejackets or buoyancy aids when on the water

3.8.11 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, two accompanying
       leaders/supervisors are advised.

3.8.12 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
       rowing activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be expected
       of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge of the
       group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.
       In addition it should be established whether the nature of the activity falls within
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                           Page 75 of 251
       scope of the AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence
       for that activity.

       Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

       Further sources of advice on rowing activities can be obtained from

       http://www.ara-rowing.org/docs/WaterSafety.pdf (The ARA Water Safety Code)

       http://www.rowingservice.com/FISA-min-guidelines.pdf for details of FISA
       Minimum Guidelines for Safe Practice of Rowing.

       http://www.scottish-rowing.org.uk/applets/02RulesofClyde.doc for Rules and
       Guidelines for Safe Use of the River Clyde by Rowing Clubs

       The Scottish Amateur Rowing Association

       Peter Morrison, Secretary
       46 Churchill Drive
       Bridge Of Allan
       STIRLING
       FK9 4TJ
       Phone 01786 833029

3.9     Rock Climbing and Abseiling

3.9.1 Rock climbing and abseiling form part of the wider sport of mountaineering and
      can take place in environments which expose participants to the hazards of
      hillwalking and mountaineering.

       The Mountaineering Council of Scotland [MCofS] endorses the following
       participation statement issued by the British Mountaineering Council [BMC]
       concerning all climbing and mountaineering activities:

       “The BMC recognises that climbing and mountaineering are activities with a
       danger of personal injury or death. Participants in these activities should be
       aware of and accept these risks and be responsible for their own involvement.”

       Renfrewshire Council believes that people for whom it has a responsibility should
       participate in such activities voluntarily, with the knowledge and written consent
       of their parents or guardians.

       Those responsible for gaining such consent should ensure that participants,
       parents or guardians are fully informed of the risks of harm to which they or their
       dependents may be exposed before giving their consent.




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3.9.2 A number of different climbing activities have evolved as educational outdoor
      pursuits, each of which is described below. The variety of activities arises from
      the different environments which provide opportunities for participation.
      However, it must be emphasised that it is never acceptable to expose
      participants to the full rigours and dangers involved with serious mountaineering.
      The risk arising must always be controlled and the duty of care must always be
      given precedence.

3.9.3 Progression in the sport of rock climbing may involve participation in a hierarchy
      of increasingly technical and skilled activities. These include:

                Scrambling

                For the purposes of this document, scrambling refers to a number of
                activities which are commonly associated with hill walking, and constitute a
                progression towards rock climbing. The activities usually involve using the
                hands to stay in balance while traversing, ascending or descending ridges,
                rock outcrops and shallow caves. Various titles have been adopted for
                such activities such as; gorge walking, coastal traversing, coasteering and
                caving. Each of these titles means something different and is more
                descriptive of the site than the actual activity which takes place there.
                They all expose participants to an enhanced risk of slipping and stumbling
                and sometimes a fall from a height. They may incidentally expose
                participants to water hazards and entrapment. In more technically difficult
                expressions of such activities it may be necessary to negotiate particular
                hazards or to use a rope for security. The experience, skills and
                understanding needed by those responsible for safety during such
                activities are essentially those of a mountaineer, rock climber or caver.

                Artificial and indoor climbing walls

                Artificial climbing walls provide a facility in which climbers can train for
                strength and endurance and novices can be introduced to the rudiments of
                rock climbing, fairly safely and indoors.
                Properly managed climbing walls are relatively safe and the operators are
                obliged to ensure their safety. It is normal practice for those with
                responsibility for others at a climbing wall to have to demonstrate
                competence to the operator‟s satisfaction. This is usually part of the
                operator‟s own risk management system.




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                Single pitch climbing

                Single pitch climbing involves the use of ropes, and other specialist
                equipment to ascend or descend natural rock outcrops. A single pitch
                climb is one which it is possible to ascend in a single rope length without
                taking intermediate stances or belays. Safety is provided by a rope
                secured from the top of the climb, and is controlled from the top or the
                bottom of the pitch. Such activities normally take place outdoors. This is
                the most common rock climbing activity undertaken as an educational
                outdoor activity.

                Multi pitch rock climbing

                Multi pitch rock climbs involve the use of ropes and specialist equipment to
                ascend rock faces which cannot be ascended in a single rope length and,
                therefore, intermediate stances with manufactured means of attachment to
                the rock must be used.
                Multi pitch climbs require the lead climber to ascend pitches while
                unsecured from above, using specialist equipment to limit the scope of any
                fall which might occur. Such activities always take place outdoors.
                Multi pitch rock climbing is rarely a part of day to day educational outdoor
                activities, but can be done without much risk of harm when undertaken by
                a suitably qualified instructor, as part of a progressive skills development
                programme.

                Abseiling

                Abseiling is a potentially dangerous technique, used during
                mountaineering expeditions to descend unavoidable rock faces which
                cannot be climbed down. It involves attaching a doubled rope at the top of
                the obstacle, by passing it around a belay, then wrapping it around the
                body, or a specialist device which provides similar friction, and sliding
                down the rope in a controlled fashion. The rope is then recovered by
                pulling it down from below and the process repeated as necessary.
                Numerous deaths have occurred while doing this carelessly in a
                mountaineering context.

                A modified form of this activity has become a feature of many outdoor
                activity programmes because of the sense of excitement it engenders in
                novice participants. It commonly takes place at a special single pitch site,
                where belays are well known and secure. When the safety of participants
                is the responsibility of a qualified instructor, every precaution is taken to
                ensure the well known risks are so controlled that it can be considered
                almost risk free. This may not be the case where the competence of a
                person responsible for the activity is not endorsed by an ML training body.



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3.9.4 National Representative Bodies.

       The Mountaineering Council of Scotland [MCofS] is the representative body in
       Scotland for people involved in informal, recreational hill walking and
       mountaineering activities. The MCofS can advise on good practice in relation to
       safety, access, conservation and coaching for improved performance. It does
       this in the sporting context of risk taking and personal responsibility. It does not
       endorse the competence of leaders or instructors for vocational purposes.

       Mountain Leader Training Scotland [MLTS] and Mountain Leader Training UK
       operate schemes of training and assessment for mountain leaders and
       mountaineering instructors. These are mainly for the benefit of education
       authorities, leisure and recreation providers, voluntary youth organisations and
       the M.O.D. The MLTUK and MLTS endorse experience and competence of
       award holders for vocational purposes.

3.9.5 Rock Climbing Instructor and Mountaineering Awards.

       Leaders of scrambling activities and instructors of rock climbing activities will
       have received training and will have had their competence assessed by an MLTS
       or MLTUK award holder. In certain cases „in house‟ site specific training may be
       sufficient for the purposes of Renfrewshire Council, but in these cases the “on
       site” work of people authorised to work on such a basis should be overseen by a
       qualified leader or instructor.

                Mountain Leader Summer or Winter

                A holder of this award is competent to take responsibility for scrambling
                activities where progress does not depend on the use of ropes, but during
                which providing security with a rope may be required as a control
                measure. (For example, where a short rope is used as a static aid to give
                additional security while moving together, or where a top rope is used to
                provide additional security).
                Holders of mountain leader awards are not endorsed as competent to
                introduce people to abseiling or to rock climbing activities, during which the
                correct use of the rope and specialist equipment is essential for the safety
                of participants.

                Single Pitch Award [SPA]

                A holder of this award is competent to run introductory rock climbing
                activities at a climbing wall or on an outdoor single pitch outcrop, provided
                it is not situated high on the side of a hill or in a remote mountain location.
                This is essentially a low ground qualification, rather than one which
                signifies mountaineering competence, and has been developed
                particularly for deployment on lowland outcrops.


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                A holder will have been trained and assessed as competent to supervise
                groups at a lowland single pitch outcrop, and introduce them to both
                climbing and abseiling.

                Mountaineering Instructor Award [MIA]

                A holder of this award is competent to take responsibility for the instruction
                of rock climbing, both on single pitch outcrops and mountain crags, and to
                lead parties on multi pitch climbs. The endorsement extends to rock
                climbing activity in summer conditions, and not winter conditions.

                Mountaineering Instructors Certificate [MIC]

                A holder of this award is competent to take responsibility for the instruction
                of all rock climbing or winter climbing activities, on single pitch outcrops
                and high mountain crags, in both summer and winter conditions. Award
                holders are able to lead parties on easy multi pitch rock, snow and ice
                climbs in most conditions which prevail.

3.9.6 Technical Adviser

       For all mountaineering activities a holder of a Mountaineering Instructor
       Certificate would be considered as the best person to oversee activities of staff
       working anywhere, on lowland outcrops, mountain crags and the high tops in
       both summer and winter. For summer rock climbing and hill walking activities a
       holder of the Mountaineering Instructor Award would be a suitable technical
       adviser.
       It should be noted that the Single Pitch Award is an entry level award and does
       not signify either substantial experience or considerable technical competence,
       although a holder may have both.

       Except in very limited circumstances to do with single pitch climbing activity at
       lowland outcrops the holder of an SPA would not be regarded as technical
       expert.




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3.9.7 Guide to the deployment of Rock Climbing Supervisory and Instructional Awards.

Environment/ Activity                  Qualification/ Award      Ratio of competent
                                                                 instructors to
                                                                 participants
Scrambling activities, during          ML Summer Award           1:10 max owing to
hill walking excursions, ascent                                  enhanced probability of risk
of water courses, traversing                                     of harm from common hill
the foot of cliffs, ascending                                    walking hazards.
and descending easy ridges,                                      Additional supervision and
and scrambling activities                                        lower numbers are advised,
among boulders                                                   as per risk assessment.
Similar activities to above in         MI – Winter Award or      1:8 with additional
winter months and / or wintry          Mountaineering Instructor accompanying supervision.
conditions.                            Certificate (as per risk
                                       assessment)
Introductory rock climbing             Single Pitch Award        1:6
sessions at indoor walls and
lowland single pitch outcrops.
Abseiling activities at indoor         Single Pitch Award              1:6
climbing walls and lowland
single pitch outcrops.
Multi pitch rock climbs in             Mountaineering Instructor 1:2 on climb
summer conditions on                   Award
mountain crags
Multi pitch rock climbs and            Mountaineering Instructor 1:2 on climb
winter climbs on mountain              Certificate
crags in winter

(To be deployed during activities provided under the aegis of Renfrewshire Council)

       Holders of The Single Pitch Award will not be recognised by Renfrewshire
       Council as qualified to have responsibility for other staff working at the same site,
       as their competence is not endorsed for this purpose.

3.9.8 Site / activity specific training.

       In circumstances where a rock climbing activity takes place regularly at a location
       close to the home establishment, on a lowland outcrop which is easily accessible
       by motor vehicle and where communications are good, Renfrewshire Council will
       consider site specific training on a site by site and person by person basis as a
       substitute for holding an award where otherwise a risk assessment would
       indicate an award is required.




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       Site and activity specific training will only be provided for persons with
       considerable relevant personal experience of rock climbing, at least the
       equivalent of that required for the activity. The site specific training will be
       provided by a „technical expert‟ as recognised by the SMLTB.

       Recognition of competence based on site / activity specific training will be time
       limited. Staff who work regularly instructing rock climbing, whose competence is
       recognised by Renfrewshire Council on the basis of site or activity specific
       training will be expected to acquire an appropriate nationally recognised award
       as soon as reasonable and practicable.

       A person qualified to at least Mountaineering Instructor Award standard will
       oversee the activity of persons authorised by Renfrewshire Council to take
       responsibility for participants after site or activity specific training.

       Recognition of „site specific‟ competence will only be considered „in force‟ when
       undertaking activities authorised by the Council. The Council cannot endorse the
       rock climbing competence of a member of staff on behalf of any other
       organisation.

3.9.9 Seasonal Factors affecting rock climbing activity.

       Rock climbing on single pitch lowland outcrops is recognised as an all year round
       activity. If winter conditions of extreme cold, snow or ice prevail, the activity
       should be curtailed or avoided.

       When leading routes, without a top rope for security, care should be exercised
       that this is not undertaken by novices in unsuitable conditions, for example, when
       rock is wet and slimy.

       Rock climbing on mountain crags should only be undertaken in suitable
       conditions when the rock is reasonably dry, and with friction such as to inspire
       confidence.

       While working on behalf of Renfrewshire Council and in accordance with its duty
       of care for employees, instructors are asked not to embark on multi pitch rock
       climbs in wet, cold and slippery conditions, whatever their competence and
       qualification.

       There should be a presumption against rock climbing on mountain crags during
       the winter months. There should also be a presumption against involving young
       people in ascents of winter climbs except in ideal safe conditions when snow and
       rock protection can be easily and effectively arranged, and during periods of
       relatively calm reliable weather, without too much wind.




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       All instructors should exercise great caution when the weather forecast is poor.
       This also applies when the avalanche forecast issued by the Scottish Avalanche
       Information Service (www.sais.gov.uk) indicates a category 3 or above risk of a
       natural avalanche occurring. In such circumstances large areas of accumulated
       snow on the faces where the hazard has been identified must be avoided.

3.9.10 Ratios.

       The above table is indicative of the ratios of competent instructors to participants
       which should be adopted. In the case of scrambling activities and rock climbing
       sessions at climbing walls and lowland single pitch outcrops some discretion may
       be exercised on the basis of the age, maturity and skill level of participants and
       the site specific risk assessment. The presence of other supervisory staff able to
       be responsible for participants while not engaged in rock climbing activities can
       also be taken into account.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       For multi pitch rock climbing on mountain crags the ratios indicated must be
       considered mandatory.

3.9.11 Scrambling and Rock climbing Risk Assessment.
       See attached tables.

       All outdoor scrambling and climbing activities expose participants to the normal
       hazards of the outdoor environment, including exposure to the hazards of
       elevated and remote terrain and in some cases fresh and marine water. Where
       activities take place in a hillwalking context then hazards of hillwalking will also
       be present.

3.9.12 Scrambling
      Scrambling activities, although not heavily dependent on the use of special
      technical equipment, do expose participants to an enhanced risk of a slip,
      stumble or fall from high places, falling objects and injury arising from unruly
      behaviour. Where scrambling involves combined rock and water activities, as is
      commonly the case, then exposure to the risk of slipping and stumbling is
      increased. In addition the risks arising from immersion in cold and deep water
      are aggravated. However, where appropriate control measures are in place,
      these risks can be managed:

3.9.13 Climbing Activities at Indoor Climbing Walls
       Currently the inspection and enforcement functions of the Health & Safety at
       Work Act 1974 for all sporting facilities, including climbing walls, rests with the
       Environmental Health Officer for the Council area unless the centre is owned or
       operated by the Council, in which case the HSE is the enforcing authority.

       All sports facilities with indoor or outdoor rock climbing facilities will be inspected
       by the Environmental Health Officer to ensure:
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                The structures comply with the draft Standard CEN/T136(pr EN 1257),
                entitled „Artificial Climbing Structures - Protection Points, Stability
                Requirements and Test Methods‟.

                Adequate First Aid provision is available; and

                The facilities meet current fire regulations.

        At indoor climbing walls the operators have responsibility for controlling the risk
       of harm from the general environment. Leaders in charge may wish to consult the
       Health & Safety risk management arrangements to familiarise themselves with
       the hazards identified by the operator. Where these appear to be significant and
       poorly controlled then this should be noted in the risk assessment form and the
       activity should not commence until the issues have been properly addressed.

3.9.14 Climbing activities outdoors / single pitch lowland outcrops and mountain crags

       These activities involve the use of specialist technical equipment and require a
       full appreciation of the risk and technical skill involved when employing security
       techniques.

3.9.15 Fail safes

                Notification and approval procedure

            In order to comply with the requirements of the Council‟s AALA licence, a
            system of notification and approval of climbing activities must be followed. To
            monitor the safety of all climbing and abseiling activities, and to resolve any
            ambiguity regarding whether an activity falls within the scope of AALA or not,
            all such activities should be notified to the Health Support Manager. This
            should be done in sufficient time for a response to be made, which may
            necessitate modifications to the planned activity. This would not apply to
            activities contracted with external providers, who should have their own
            AALA licence and heads of establishment should check this is in place.

                Reporting in procedure

            Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
            procedure whenever groups are remote from the home establishment. This
            procedure should require the leader in charge to leave details of the planned
            activity with a liaison person, and to contact him/her before starting and on
            finishing an activity.

            Leaders in charge are asked to plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
            undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
            when they are being picked up by transport.
            Standing, tired, wet and cold waiting for transport has been known to
            precipitate already uncomfortable participants into mild hypothermia.
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                Communications

            Good communications are equally important, particularly as any harm, which
            might occur, is likely to be severe, although when all the controls in are in
            place, the risk is low.

            Heads of establishment and rock climbing instructors may consider it prudent
            to check reception for mobile phones in the vicinity of the outcrop or crag to
            be used. Locations where reception is non-existent should be judged to be
            more serious locations for rock climbing activities.

                First Aid

            A comprehensive First Aid kit should be carried, or readily to hand, and
            during rock climbing activities everywhere other than indoor climbing walls
            the leader in charge should ensure the presence of a qualified First Aider
            with a Standard First Aid Certificate.

                Emergency Equipment

            The emergency equipment advised for hillwalking should be carried or readily
            to hand. In addition, instructors should carry a pocket knife, spare cord for
            arranging abseil anchors, and some long and short prussiks in case a lower
            or hoist has to be arranged.

                Emergency action plan

            Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an
            emergency. The most important element of this should be a means of quickly
            contacting emergency services and the home base and to keep the head of
            establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

            When climbing on mountain crags on multi pitch climbs it is advised that two
            qualified instructors work in close proximity to each other, so that they can
            come to each other‟s assistance if required.




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3.10    Dinghy Sailing

3.10.1 Dinghy sailing involves the use of a small open boat powered by the effect of
       wind on its sails. The variety of boats covered by this definition ranges from
       single-handed boats manned by one person (e.g.Topper, Optimist, Laser, Pico)
       and crewed boats manned by two or more persons, usually up to four (e.g.
       GP14, Wayfarer), to high performance dinghies built for speed rather than
       teaching or cruising. They have light, fast hulls, with powerful sail rigs, spinnakers
       and trapezes. They capsize readily and require previous sailing experience.

3.10.2. National Governing Body

       The National Governing Body for all forms of sailing, windsurfing and power
       boating in the UK is the Royal Yachting Association, and its regional organisation
       is the RYA Scotland.
       The RYA manages competitions, national coaching schemes and promotes the
       interests of sailing. The RYA administers National (adult) and Youth Sailing
       Schemes.

3.10.3 RYA Dinghy Sailing Coaching Awards

               Assistant Dinghy Instructor
               A holder of this award will be a trained instructor with some sailing
               experience, and an interest in introducing children to the activity. Assistant
               dinghy instructors can assist other RYA Dinghy Instructors but only at the
               site for which they have been trained.

               Dinghy Instructor
               Dinghy instructors are competent and experienced dinghy sailors, trained
               and assessed to teach from Stages One to Three, under the direction of a
               Senior Instructor. Dinghy instructors must also hold a Standard First Aid
               certificate and be Powerboat Level 2 qualified.

               Senior Instructor
               The holder of this award will be a competent and experienced Dinghy
               Instructor, trained and assessed to manage a fleet of teaching craft and
               supervise sailing instruction within RYA National and Youth Sailing
               Schemes. This is the minimum qualification required for the recognition of
               an RYA Training Centre.

                 Advanced Dinghy Instructor
                Holders of this award will be competent and experienced Dinghy
                Instructors, trained and assessed to instruct sailing in high performance
                dinghies.




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                Racing Instructor
                Holders of this award will be competent and experienced Dinghy
                Instructors with experience in racing and trained and assessed to teach
                racing.

       Coastal Endorsements
       The above qualifications are not valid for coastal waters unless they have been
       assessed on coastal waters i.e. inland qualifications are not valid on the sea.

3.10.4 Technical Adviser

       Following currently accepted practice the Technical Adviser for an activity should
       be at least one qualification level above that for the instructor/leader level of the
       activity.

3.10.5 Guide to the deployment of Dinghy Sailing Awards

       To be deployed during sailing activities provided under the aegis of Renfrewshire
       Council, as recommended by RYA, and supervised by an RYA Senior Instructor.


            Instructor              RYA Youth                 RYA National
            Level                   Scheme                    scheme
            Assistant               Stages 1 to 3             Level 1 & 2 when
            Instructor              when assisting an         assisting an Instructor
                                    Instructor

            Instructor              Stages 1 to 3             Level 1 & 2, Day
                                    Advanced Red &            Sailing, Seamanship
                                    White                     Skills, Sailing with
                                                              Spinnakers*
            Advanced                As Instructor plus        As Instructor plus
            Instructor              Advanced Blue             Sailing with
                                                              Spinnakers,
                                                              Performance Sailing
            Racing                  As Instructor plus        As Instructor plus
            Instructor              Racing Red                Start Racing
            Senior                  As for above              As for above
            Instructor              depending on              depending on
                                    qualifications held       qualifications held

       *Instructor experienced with spinnakers and approved by the Principal/Chief
       Instructor

       For tidal waters, instructors must hold a tidal endorsement to their award.

       It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
       believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within
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       the scope of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any
       other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis
       of the Council.

       All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
       weather). Modifications could include increasing safety boat cover, more
       favourable staff: student/boat ratios, or change of sailing activity.

       The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.10.6 Site/activity specific training

       The site specific training required for dinghy sailing is the RYA Assistant
       Instructor, and the training will be delivered by an RYA Senior Instructor.

       As noted above the Assistant Instructor can only operate alongside an RYA
       Instructor, and cannot operate alone. It should also be noted that the number of
       Assistant Instructors should not exceed 50% of the qualified staff instructing
       water activity at any time. The Council does not endorse the competence of a site
       specifically trained member of staff for deployment by any other organisation.

3.10.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

       Prior warning of extreme weather, especially of wind, is always important for
       sailing activities, for which weather forecasts should be sought.

       During the winter season weather conditions, especially air and water
       temperatures, water levels and wind have a higher likelihood of being extreme
       and changeable.
       This would make it much less advisable to plan activities for novices, and greater
       control measures should be adopted, including the option of cancelling or
       abandoning activities for more experienced participants.

3.10.8 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm

        For some activities a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a group to
       ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.


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       The Guidance in the matrix below indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety, rather than the supervision demanded by other
       considerations. In many circumstances an additional leader should be
       considered, who may not be a qualified leader.

       It should be noted that the size of the fleet has a bearing on the safety of the
       group, as well as the number of participants, and the number per boat.

           Instructor Level              Instructor Ratio

           Assistant Instructor*         1:each crewed boat of novices
                                         1:3 single handers
           Instructor                    1:each crewed boat of novices
                                         1:2 boats with CH
                                         1:6 single handers
           Advanced Instructor           1:each crewed boat of novices
                                         1:2 boats with CH
                                         1:6 single handers
           Racing Instructor             1:each crewed boat of novices
                                         1:2 boats with CH
                                         1:6 single handers
           Senior Instructor             1:each crewed boat of novices
                                         1:2 boats with CH
                                         1:6 single handers

       *Number of Assistant Instructors operating must not exceed the number of
       Instructors.
       CH = Competent helm in the boat

3.10.9 Dinghy sailing activity risk assessments

       See accompanying tables, which detail recommended activity specific control
       measures at the appropriate levels.

3.10.10 Fail safes

                Reporting in procedure

                Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
                procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
                procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
                planned activity with a liaison person, and to contact him/her before
                starting and after finishing the activity.

                Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
                undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
                when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,


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                waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
                hypothermia.

                Communications

                Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a waterproof mobile
                phone or radio so that communications can be facilitated.

                First Aid

                Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any sailing activity, an
                adequate First Aid kit is available. During windsurfing activities, at least
                one of the instructors present should hold a Standard First Aid Certificate.

                Whenever the leader responsible holds a sailing award, the holding of a
                valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the validity of the
                award.

                Emergency Equipment

                A powered safety boat must always be present and sufficient to meet
                situations that may arise, e.g. widely scattered fleet or multiple capsizes.
                The rescue boat driver must hold an RYA National Powerboat Level Two
                award. It is the responsibility of the Instructor in charge to judge the need
                for boats to be warmed up ready to go, or simply manned, depending on
                conditions. Recent research from the RYA indicates the value of being
                able to right a dinghy quickly in the event of entrapment in capsized boats.

       The main safety boat should be equipped with:

                Radio/mobile phone
                Knife
                Kill cord
                First aid kit
                Tow line
                Anchor and adequate warps
                Oars and rowlocks or paddles
                Basic engine tools and spares.

3.10.11 Clothing and Personal Equipment

       It is the responsibility of the Instructor to ensure that students are appropriately
       clothed for the activity and the prevailing conditions.

       All participants should wear an adequate lifejacket or buoyancy aid (personal
       flotation device) properly fitted and checked and compliant with the appropriate
       CE norm. Personal Flotation Devices (PFDs) should be inspected regularly for


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       wear and tear, and must be float tested annually. Inflatable lifejackets should
       remain firm for 24 hours.

       Lifejackets should comply with BS3595, CEN 100N or 150N.
       The use of helmets should be considered for single handers and novice sailors
       where there is a higher risk of head injury.

3.10.12 Personal Water Confidence

       Although the ability to swim is highly desirable, it is not uncommon or
       unreasonable for non-swimmers to be involved in introductory water activities.
       Water-confidence during immersion in cold water while wearing a PFD is more
       important than the ability to swim. Instructors should ensure non-swimmers and
       novices are closely supervised on or near the water at all times.

3.10.13 The Condition of the Dinghy

       The dinghy should be seaworthy, with sufficient buoyancy to ensure flotation
       when waterlogged with crew on board. To reduce the risk of entrapment during a
       capsize, control lines and sheets should be no longer than necessary, and kept
       tidy as appropriate as a matter of routine. The boat should be capable of being
       reefed afloat.
       Unless fitted with a removable daggerboard, the boat should carry a paddle or
       oars. A baler or bucket should be carried unless the vessel is a singlehander or a
       skiff type boat.

3.10.14 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a minimum of two
       accompanying leaders/supervisors is advised.




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 3.10.15 Advice on the use of outside providers

        It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside providers of
        windsurfing activities are able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be
        expected of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge
        of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

        These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
        qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
        match.
        In addition it should be established whether the activity falls within scope of the
        AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence for that
        activity.

        Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
        required by Renfrewshire Council.

 3.11    Windsurfing

3.11.1 Windsurfing evolved by combining a surf board with a sail, using a universal joint.

        It has grown rapidly as a sport for both recreational and competitive purposes
        and has evolved into four main competitive disciplines: race, slalom, freewave
        and speed.

        The development of the equipment has meant that modern boards are shorter
        with higher volume enabling extra stability and early planning.

 3.11.2 National Governing Bodies

        The National Governing Body of Windsurfing in the UK is the Royal Yachting
        Association, and its regional organisation is the RYA Scotland. The RYA
        manages national coaching schemes and competitions and promotes the
        interests of recreational windsurfing.
        The RYA administers National (adult) and Youth Windsurfing Schemes and a
        Team 15 youth competition scheme.

 3.11.3 RYA Windsurfing Coaching Awards and Qualifications

                 Assistant Windsurfing Instructor

                 Typically the holder of this award will be a trained and committed individual
                 with some windsurfing experience, and an interest in introducing children
                 and young people to the activity. Instructors can assist other instructors in
                 Level One activities.

                 Level One Instructor


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                Level One instructors are competent windsurfers trained to teach and
                assess to Level One of the National and Youth Windsurfing Schemes

                Level Two Instructor

                Level Two instructors are competent and experienced windsurfers trained
                to teach and assess up to Level Two of the National and Youth
                Windsurfing Schemes. This is the minimum qualification required of the
                responsible person on site supervising windsurfing activities.
                Level Three Instructor

                Level Three instructors are competent and experienced windsurfers
                trained to teach and assess up to Level Three of the National and Youth
                Windsurfing Schemes

                Level Four Instructor

                Level Four instructors are very competent and experienced windsurfers
                trained to teach and assess up to Level Four of the National Windsurfing
                Scheme.

                Level Five Instructor
                Level Five instructors are very competent and experienced windsurfers
                trained to teach and assess up to Level Five of the National Windsurfing
                Scheme

3.11.4 Technical Adviser

       Following currently accepted practice, the Technical Adviser for an activity should
       be at least one qualification level above that required for the activity.

3.11.5 Guide to the deployment of Windsurfing Awards

       (To be deployed during windsurfing activities promoted under the aegis of
       Renfrewshire Council, as recommended by RYA.)




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        Instructor            Sailing       Youth               National          Ratio
        Level                 Level         scheme              scheme
        Assistant             Level         Starting point      Introduction to   2:6
        Instructor* can       one:                              Windsurfing
        assist on                                               course
                                                                Learn to Windsurf
        Level One             Level         Starting point      Learn to Windsurf 1:6
        Instructor*           one:
        Level Two             Level         Starting Point      Improving               1:6
        Instructor            Two                               Techniques plus
                                                                above
        Level Three           Level         The Buzz            Introduction to         1:6
        Instructor            Three         Factor plus         planning plus the
                                            above               above
        Level Four            Level         All the above       Planning                1:6
        Instructor            Four                              Techniques plus
                                                                the above
        Level Five            Level         All the above       Advanced                1:6
        Instructor            Five                              Planning
                                                                Techniques plus
                                                                the above

       *under supervision of Level Two Instructor.
       It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
       believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within
       the scope of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any
       other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis
       of the Council.

        All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the leader.
       The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.


3.11.6 Site/activity specific training

       Site specific training for any windsurfing activity will be delivered by a „technical
       adviser‟ recognised by the RYA.

       The activity of individuals who have a site /activity specific endorsement by the
       Council will be overseen by the holder of an award appropriate for the purpose.
       This would normally be the award otherwise indicated as required for the site or
       activity in question.

       Endorsement of competence following „Site specific‟ training will only be
       considered in force during activities authorised by the Council.
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       The Council does not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained
       member of staff for deployment by any other organisation.

3.11.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

       During the winter season weather conditions, especially air and water
       temperatures, water levels and wind have a higher likelihood of being extreme
       and changeable. This would make it much less advisable to plan activities for
       novices, and greater risk control measures should be adopted, especially the
       option of cancelling or abandoning activities for less experienced participants.

3.11.8 Supervisory ratios

        Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

       In the case of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       For some activities a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a group to
       ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.

       The Guidance in the matrix below indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety, rather than the supervision demanded by other
       considerations. In many circumstances a further leader should be considered,
       who may not be a qualified leader.


           Minimum Award or                       Group size
           Qualification
           Assistant Instructor                   6 (included in group of other
                                                  instructor)
           Level One                              6
           Level Two                              6
           Level Three                            6
           Level Four                             6
           Level Five                             6

3.11.9 Windsurfing activity risk assessments

       See accompanying tables, which detail recommended activity specific control
       measures at the appropriate levels.




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3.11.10 Fail safes

                Reporting in procedure

                Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a “reporting in”
                procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment.
                This procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
                planned activity with a liaison person, and contact him/her before starting
                and after finishing the activity.
                Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
                undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
                when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
                waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
                hypothermia.

                Communications

                Whenever possible the leader in charge should have access to a
                waterproof mobile phone or radio so that communications can be
                facilitated. While there may be places where there is no mobile phone
                reception, there might other places where reception is possible, enabling
                much earlier contact than having to find a working public phone.

                First Aid

                Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any windsurfing activity, an
                adequate First Aid kit is available. During windsurfing activities, at least
                one of the instructors present should hold a Standard First Aid Certificate.

                Whenever the leader responsible holds a windsurfing award, the holding of
                a valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the validity of the
                award.

                Emergency Equipment

                A powered safety boat must always be present and sufficient to meet
                situations that may arise, e.g. a widely scattered fleet. The rescue boat
                driver must hold an RYA National Powerboat Level Two award. The
                manning of the boat may depend on conditions. It is the responsibility of
                the instructor in charge to judge the need for the boat to be warmed up
                ready to go, or manned, depending on conditions.




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       The main safety boat should be equipped with:

                Radio/mobile phone
                Knife
                Kill cord and spare
                First Aid kit
                Tow line
                Anchor and adequate warps
                Oars and rowlocks or paddles
                Basic engine tools and spares

3.11.11 Clothing and Personal Equipment

       It is the responsibility of the instructors to ensure that students are appropriately
       clothed for the activity and conditions prevailing.

       All participants should wear an adequate lifejacket or buoyancy aid (personal
       flotation device), properly fitted and checked and compliant with the appropriate
       CE norm. PFDs should be inspected regularly for wear and tear, and must be
       float tested annually.

3.11.12 Personal Water Confidence

       Although the ability to swim is highly desirable, it is not uncommon or
       unreasonable for non-swimmers to be involved in introductory water activities.
       Water-confidence during immersion in cold water while wearing a PFD is more
       important than the ability to swim. Instructors should ensure non-swimmers and
       novices are closely supervised on or near the water at all times.

3.11.13 The Condition of the Sailboard

       The board and rig should be safe and fit for use. To reduce the risk of entrapment
       during a capsize, control lines should be no longer than necessary.

3.11.14 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment; and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a minimum of two
       accompanying leaders/supervisors is advised.

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3.11.15 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside providers of
       windsurfing activities are able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be
       expected of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge
       of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.

       In addition it should be established whether the activity falls within scope of the
       AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence for that
       activity.

       Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

3.12    Miscellaneous Use of Boats/ Power Boating

3.12.1 Miscellaneous use of Boats

       This section refers to the use of small boats under 6 metres and the use of larger
       charter vessels

3.12.2 The miscellaneous use of boats is only permitted for activities of an educational
      nature e.g. Field Study Excursions, Canal Projects, bona-fide school Angling
      Club Excursions and Duke of Edinburgh Award expedition work.

       Where the specific Maritime and Coastguard Agency Codes of Practice, or
       appropriate National Governing Body Guidelines are not applicable to the activity,
       specific operational guidelines and risk assessments should be completed by
       activity leaders and submitted to their heads of establishment for approval well in
       advance of any activity taking place.

       The services of a professional boatman should be considered where appropriate.

       Where any doubt exists as to the safe operation of such activities, advice should
       be sought from the Director of Education and Leisure Services.




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3.12.3 National Governing Bodies

       The National Governing Body for all forms of sailing, and power boating in the UK
       is the Royal Yachting Association, and its regional organisation is the RYA
       Scotland. The RYA manages competitions, national coaching schemes and
       promotes the interests of sailing. The RYA administers National (adult) and Youth
       Sailing Schemes.

3.12.4 Qualifications and Awards

       The leader in charge of the activity should hold the qualification, certificate or
       licence appropriate to the type of vessels to be used and the waters on which
       they are to be operated.

       RYA Instructional Awards.

                   Dinghies, Multi hulls and Keelboats

                   RYA Assistant Instructor: Holders of this award will be experienced
                   sailors with a Level 2 proficiency certificate and assessed as capable of
                   working under the supervision of an RYA Senior Instructor or the Chief
                   Instructor of a keelboat training centre.

                   RYA Instructor (dinghy, keelboat or multi hull): Holders of this award will
                   be experienced and competent small boat sailors, over the age of 16
                   and assessed as capable of handling a Powerboat Level 2, smaller
                   power boats and training boats in strong winds. Instructors should
                   always work under the supervision of an RYA Senior Instructor or the
                   Chief Instructor of a keelboat training centre.

                   There are a number of endorsements that can be gained to augment an
                   Instructor‟s Certificate:

                   Coastal endorsement – for instructors who have completed their
                   Instructor training on inland water;

                   Keelboat/multi hull endorsement – for instructors have who completed
                   initial training in dinghies but have gained experience in keelboats or
                   multi hulls.

                   RYA Senior Instructor: Holders of this award are experienced and
                   competent sailors over the age of 18, with at least one year‟s
                   experience of teaching the National Sailing Scheme. A Senior Instructor
                   is qualified to organise and control group sailing tuition and to supervise
                   and assist instructors.




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                   RYA Coach Assessor: Holders of this award will be experienced Senior
                   and Advanced Instructors who have been assessed as competent to
                   train and assess Instructors and Senior Instructors, and appointed to
                   deliver such training by a National Coach. Coaches and Assessors are
                   appointed on an annual basis.

                   Powerboats

                   RYA Powerboat Instructor: Holders of this award will have at least 5
                   year‟s experience in handling a wide variety of powered craft, and
                   assessed as capable delivering the RYA Powerboat Scheme

                   Whenever the leader responsible holds a NGB award, the holding of an
                   appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for
                   the validity.

3.12.5 Technical Adviser

       Following currently accepted practice, the Technical Adviser for an activity should
       be at least one qualification level above that required for the activity.

3.12.6 General Safety Principles

       Most small craft are vulnerable to capsize or swamping in certain sea and
       weather conditions, therefore all persons using such craft should be fully aware
       of the limitations and handling characteristics of the craft.

       Each boat group should understand the prescribed procedure appropriate to the
       craft being used.

       All craft should be suited to the type of water and weather conditions likely to be
       met and also to the level of experience of the boat group leaders.

       The craft should be capable of supporting the crew weight when swamped and
       contain sufficient inherent buoyancy to stop the craft from sinking when capsized.

       Guidance, support and advice can be had from a variety of agencies, emergency
       services and local operators.

       Liaison with the appropriate emergency services should be evident in the
       planning and at all other appropriate stages of undertaking any activity away from
       an activity base.




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3.12.7 Group Size Ratios and Boat Numbers

       The number of persons per group leader should not exceed twelve (12) persons
       and the maximum number of boats must not exceed four (4).

       There must be a designated leader in each boat and the total capacity of the boat
       as recommended by the manufacturer should not be exceeded.

        In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       Boat capacities must be confirmed in writing by the hire company, either by letter
       to the leader in charge or prominently displayed on each craft.

3.12.8 Personal Water Confidence (Cold Water Immersion and Capsizes)

       It is not uncommon for non-swimmers to be involved in introductory water
       activities. Group leaders and instructors should ensure non-swimmers and
       novices are closely supervised at all times.

       Introductory water activity sessions should only be carried out in a limited location
       appropriate to the abilities of the participants.

       Introductory sessions should last no longer than a day and the Instructor in
       charge should satisfy themselves of the ability of each participant to manage
       themselves adequately in the prevailing conditions and also in the event of
       immersion in cold water.

       Involvement in any one water activity lasting longer than a day requires
       participants to demonstrate at the most appropriate opportunity the standard of
       personal water confidence required by the relevant National Governing Body.

       A swim test in a heated swimming pool is not sufficient by itself.

3.12.9 Lifejackets and Buoyancy Aids (Personal Flotation Devices)

       All participants must wear either a lifejacket or a buoyancy aid that conforms to
       current CE standards and is appropriate to the requirements of the activity, the
       personal proficiency of the participants and the level of training being undertaken.

       All Personal Flotation Devices should be checked regularly for signs of wear and
       tear and be „wet‟ tested with the correct test weight on an annual basis.

       All PFD‟s must show the date of their last test. PFD‟s with inherent buoyancy and
       additional secondary air inflation must be inspected regularly and checked for air
       leaks.

       PFD‟s unable to maintain „firm‟ inflation over a period of 24 hours must be
       removed from service and referred to a service agent for repair. All checks
       should be logged and be available for inspection.
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3.12.10 Clothing

       All participants must have available adequate clothing appropriate to the
       prevailing and expected weather conditions and should include appropriate
       waterproofs and a hat. Sufficient appropriate spare clothes and a flask containing
       a warm drink should be carried in a suitable waterproof bag or container in each
       boat.

3.12.11 First Aid

       At least one of the Group leaders must hold a current Standard First Aid
       Certificate and an appropriate First Aid kit, must be carried and accessible at all
       times.

3.12.12 Seasonal Factors

       Before going afloat a weather forecast should be obtained and studied. If any
       doubt exists regarding a change in weather, advice should be obtained by
       phoning either the HM Coastguard section of the Maritime and Coastguard
       Agency or by contacting other reliable sources of weather information.

       When afloat the leader should be aware that conditions can change rapidly and
       should the weather deteriorate more than expected the boats should return to
       more sheltered waters or to shore.

3.12.13 Designating Areas and Communication between Craft

       Before going afloat, the leader in charge must designate the area of water within
       which all craft must stay and the time at which all boats should return to shore.

       A method of communicating with each craft while afloat must be made known to
       and understood by the designated person in each craft.

3.12.14 Safety Procedures and Rescue Services

       Before sessions take place, the leader in charge should consider carefully
       whether the session should proceed if the weather is expected to be particularly
       inclement or if the conditions are likely to deteriorate.

       The group leader must appoint a contact person who will be responsible for
       alerting the emergency services at a prescribed time if the party is overdue in
       notifying him/her of their safe return to shore.

       A suitable and appropriate means for attracting attention in emergencies must be
       carried in each craft, e.g. VHF radio, mobile phone, flares and whistle.




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       A tow line of suitable length and strength should be carried aboard the group
       leader‟s craft. All craft should have aboard an alternative means of propulsion,
       and should carry spare fuel and basic engine spares if appropriate.

       Craft using outboard engines should only be used if a kill cord emergency cut out
       switch is installed on the engine.

       The cut out cord must be securely attached to the boat driver‟s body at all times
       when under way.

3.12.15 Sea Fishing and Charter Boats

       When larger charter boats are used, for example for sea fishing, the leader must
       ensure that the skipper of the boat is currently licensed for such operations, and
       that the boat is equipped to conform with all regulations relating to the provision
       of lifesaving equipment, fire appliances and shows the correct lights to meet the
       Rules for the Avoidance of Collision at Sea.

3.12.16 The boat must be appropriately insured against third party claims.

3.12.17 Written confirmation of the skipper‟s qualification, licence and insurance details,
      and the sea-worthiness of the boat should be obtained when booking.

3.12.18 A specimen charter agreement is added.

       Note: Heads of establishment and leaders in charge can get further information
       concerning safety and the use of small boats from the Marine and Coast Guard
       Agency or the Royal Yachting Association
       HM Coast Guard
       Navy Buildings
       1st Floor
       Eldon Street
       GREENOCK
       Inverclyde
       PA16 7QY
       Phone 01475 726703

       Royal Yachting Association (RYA) Scotland
       Caledonia House
       1 Redheughs Rigg
       EDINBURGH
       EH12 9DQ
       Phone 0131 317 7388

       The emergency number for the Coast Guard is 999




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                                                  CHARTER AGREEMENT


The leader of The group hiring/chartering the vessel(s) has been instructed by Renfrewshire
              Council Education and Leisure Services, having the primary duty of care for
              the welfare of the group, to receive written confirmation that the master of
              the vessel is qualified and that the vessel is seaworthy, and is equipped to
              comply with all regulations and is properly insured for hire or charter.
              You are requested to provide the information requested and sign the charter
              agreement.
                   Name of charter vessel
                   1Date of charter



                   I ……………………………………………….. skipper of the above vessel,
                   certify that I hold the Department of Trade Boatman’s Licence.



                   The charter vessel is licensed to carry ……………………………… passengers and
                   is fully equipped to meet lifesaving, fire and collision rules and regulations, and that
                   the boat is insured against third party claims and is seaworthy.




                             Details of use to be made of the vessel




                   2




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                    Signature ……………………………………………………….
                             Date ……………
3.13    Snowsports and Skiing Activities

3.13.1 Skiing activities have taken place for thousands of years, using long slender
      boards to slide on snow. The modern sport of skiing is less than a century old.
      The division into the two main disciplines of skiing came with the fixing of the heel
      to the ski, leading to Alpine (downhill) skiing, compared to the free heel style of
      Nordic skiing. These disciplines have now been further divided as the sports
      have developed.

                Nordic Skiing

                This now includes classic cross-country skiing on tracks (track skiing, ski
                de fond, langlauf) where the skis are relatively long and slender and grip
                when one ski is pressed into the snow, while sliding when the skis are
                more evenly weighted. The equipment is relatively lightweight, and the
                action is not unlike running or walking. Ultra light equipment is used for
                racing, where the means of propulsion is now more of a skating motion.
                Heavier boots and skis are used for ski-touring (also known as mountain
                touring). Where the emphasis is on skiing downhill as in Telemarking, the
                equipment has become more like Alpine skis and boots, apart from the
                free heel binding. Ski jumping also uses specialised free heel equipment
                where the skis are very long and broad, and only suitable for that purpose.
                Roller skiing uses a roller skate type ski for use on roads, and is used for
                fitness training when snow is not available.

                   Alpine Skiing

                The modern Alpine safety binding fixes the toe and heel of the boot to the
                ski with a spring loaded binding so that in the event of a fall, the boot is
                released, reducing the risk of injury. Recreational skiing, on prepared and
                patrolled slopes (the piste), is now supplemented by off-piste and ski-
                mountaineering. In addition to the now traditional racing disciplines of
                slalom, giant slalom and downhill, new competitive disciplines have
                developed to include various forms of freestyle skiing such as mogul,
                ballet, aerial and half pipe. Various types of artificial slopes have also been
                developed for Alpine skiing for all-year round use.

                Snowboarding

                In the late 1970s the snowboard developed, where both feet are attached
                to a single board by a fixed binding in a sideways-on fashion. Initially
                recreational, snowboarding now has several competitive disciplines.




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                 Adaptive

                Over the years various items of equipment have been developed to enable
                skiers with disabilities to take part in the sport.
                These include mono-ski, bi-ski, 3 track and 4 track. Support techniques
                have also been developed for those with sensory impairment and learning
                difficulties using orthodox equipment.

3.13.2 National Governing Bodies

       The National Governing Body for all forms of snowsports is SnowsportScotland
       (SNSC, formerly known as the Scottish National Ski Council). The SNSC is
       responsible for the national leadership and coaching awards. It also manages
       artificial slope instructor schemes and competitions and promotes the interests of
       snowsports.

       The British Association of Snowsport Instructors (BASI) is the professional
       association for ski instructors and is responsible for instructor training and
       assessment to the highest levels in the sport. It is the British component of the
       International Ski Instructor Association (ISIA).

3.13.3 Snowsport Leadership, Instructor and Coaching Awards

       ALPINE SKIING

                   SNSC Assistant Alpine Ski Leader

                The AASL is a responsible skier who has had basic training in the
                fundamentals of skiing skills, ski leading and supervision of groups. The
                ASSL should not be expected to assume total responsibility for any group
                with whom he or she is skiing, but work alongside or under the direct
                supervision of a qualified Alpine Ski Leader or Ski Instructor.

                   SNSC Alpine Ski Leader

                The Alpine Ski Leader is a responsible skier who has been trained and
                qualified to lead younger skiers within the boundaries of snow skiing
                resorts.

                   SNSC Artificial Slope Ski Instructor

                The Artificial Slope Ski Instructor is a responsible skier who is trained and
                qualified in instructing alpine skiing on artificial skiing surfaces. The
                primary role of the ASSI is to introduce novice skiers to the sport of skiing
                in safety, with enjoyment and to do so in such a way as to prepare them
                for further learning.

                   SNSC Alpine Performance Coach Level 1
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                The Alpine Performance Coach Level I course is designed specifically for
                those who work with young skiers on a regular basis. The training aims to
                ensure that children in their charge engage in safe purposeful practices
                which will develop skiing performance in addition to enhancing the
                personal development of the skiers.

                   SNSC Alpine Performance Coach Level 2

                The Alpine Performance Coach Level 2 course is designed specifically for
                club coaching programme staff who work with young (adolescent) skiers
                within a seasonal coaching programme. Its aim is to provide coaching staff
                with information relating to the planning, implementation and management
                of seasonal coaching programmes for developing athletes, encompassing
                physical, psychological, technical and tactical considerations.

                SNSC Freestyle Performance Coach

                The Freestyle Performance Coach - Mogul, Arial and Acro (Artificial Slope)
                qualifications are designed for those who coach freestyle skiers on artificial
                slopes on a long term basis (including indoor snow based slopes). It
                includes upright aerials both as a part of mogul skiing and also in its own
                right using ramps and rampettes. The Supervisor award is required for
                working at water ramp facilities.

                BASI Alpine Trainee Ski Instructor

                Following initial training, the Trainee Instructor is issued with a certificate
                of competence (not an on-snow instructor‟s licence). Trainees will be able
                to work under supervision within a controlled environment with novice and
                early intermediate skiers.

                BASI Alpine Ski Instructor (Grade3)

                Alpine Ski Instructors able to ski to a competent level, and have the
                knowledge, ability and understanding to safely teach alpine skiing up to
                and including parallel standard on marked pistes.

                BASI Alpine Ski Teacher ISIA (Grade2)

                Alpine Ski Instructors are able to ski to a high level, and have the
                knowledge, ability and understanding to safely teach alpine skiing up to
                and including parallel standard on and off marked pistes.




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                BASI Alpine International Ski Teacher Diploma (Grade1)

                Alpine International Ski Teachers are trained and assessed to instruct
                skiing at the highest levels on and off marked pistes.

                BASI Alpine Trainer

                Alpine Trainers are highly experienced Alpine International Ski Teachers
                who have been trained and assessed to train Alpine ski instructors at all
                levels.

       NORDIC CROSS COUNTRY SKIING

                SNSC Nordic Ski Leader

                The Nordic Ski Leader is a trained and qualified responsible skier who is
                primarily interested in introducing, developing and encouraging Nordic
                skiing by leading groups through the countryside in winter using
                appropriate equipment.

                BASI Nordic Cross Country Ski Instructor

                The Nordic Cross Country Ski Instructor is able to teach all the techniques
                (skating, classic and downhill), on simple undulating terrain.

                BASI Nordic Cross Country Ski Teacher ISIA

                The Nordic Cross Country Ski Teacher is able to teach all the techniques
                (skating, classic and downhill), to the highest level on simple undulating
                terrain, and in backcountry.

                BASI Nordic Trainer

                Nordic Trainers are highly experienced Ski Teachers who have been
                trained and assessed to train Nordic ski instructors at all levels.

       TELEMARK SKIING

                BASI Telemark Instructor

                The Telemark Instructor is trained and qualified to teach telemark
                techniques on marked pistes.




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                BASI Telemark Teacher ISIA

                The Telemark Teacher is a highly experienced Instructor who is able to
                teach and coach at the highest level on and off piste.

                BASI Telemark Trainer

                Telemark Trainers are highly experienced Telemark Teachers who have
                been trained and assessed to train ski instructors at all levels.


       SNOWBOARDING

                SNSC Snowboard Leader

                The Snowboard Leader course is designed to train and qualify responsible
                snowboarders to safely lead groups of snowboarders within ski patrolled
                areas. The award is primarily aimed at teachers, youth group leaders and
                other responsible adults wishing to encourage and supervise young
                snowboarders.

                SNSC Artificial Slope Snowboard Instructor

                The Artificial Slope Snowboard Instructor is a responsible snowboarder
                who is trained and qualified to instruct on artificial surfaces.

                SNSC Snowboard Performance Coach

                The Snowboard Performance Coach is trained to work with entry level
                athletes who are competent snowboarders, ready to learn the techniques
                and practise the skills of competitive snowboard disciplines. Training at
                this level is not generally discipline specific but will develop generic skills
                for both alpine and freestyle snowboarding. The focus is mainly on
                children from 6 to 16 years old but the skills learned can be adapted for
                athletes of any age.

                BASI Snowboard Instructor

                The Snowboard Instructor is trained and assessed to teach snowboarding
                in a variety of situations on piste.

                BASI Snowboard Teacher ISIA

                The Snowboard Teacher is a highly experienced Instructor who can teach
                snowboarding to the highest levels in a variety of situations on and off
                piste.

                BASI Snowboard Trainer
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                Snowboard Trainers are highly experienced Snowboard Teachers who
                have been trained and assessed to train snowboard instructors at all
                levels.

       ADAPTIVE

                SNSC Adaptive Module & BASI Adaptive Instructor

                This course has been developed in conjunction with BASI to meet the
                needs of persons instructing and supervising skiers with disabilities.

                The ten day course contains modules in the following five disciplines:
                Mono-ski, Bi-ski, Three track, Four Track, Sensory Impairment and
                Learning difficulties. On completion of the course candidates will be issued
                with an Adaptive endorsement to their Snowsport Scotland ASSI, ASL or
                Coach award or BASI Instructor award.

                BASI Adaptive Teacher

                This Is the Adaptive Module endorsement (see above ) for a BASI Teacher
                qualification.


       OTHER QUALIFICATIONS

                SNSC Development Coach

                This course provides training and appraisal for two roles: firstly the coach
                who coaches recreational skiers and trainee instructors on artificial and
                snow surfaces and secondly the tutor who intends to deliver ASSI courses.

                SNSC Mountain Ski Leader

                The Mountain Ski Leader is a skilful skier and experienced winter
                mountaineer who is trained and assessed to lead others on mountain ski
                tours.

                BMG Mountain Guide

                A fully qualified British Mountain Guide holding the carnet of the IFMGA is
                trained and assessed in leading off BASI Telemark Instructor
                The Telemark Instructor is trained and qualified to teach telemark
                techniques on marked pistes.

                BASI Telemark Teacher ISIA

                The Telemark Teacher is a highly experienced Instructor who is able to
                teach and coach at the highest level on and off piste.
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                BASI Telemark Trainer

                Telemark Trainers are highly experienced Telemark Teachers who have
                been trained and assessed to train ski instructors at all levels.

                SNSC Snowboard Leader

                The Snowboard Leader course is designed to train and qualify responsible
                snowboarders to safely lead groups of snowboarders within ski patrolled
                areas. The award is primarily aimed at teachers, youth group leaders and
                other responsible adults wishing to encourage and supervise young
                snowboarders.

                SNSC Artificial Slope Snowboard Instructor

                The Artificial Slope Snowboard Instructor is a responsible snowboarder
                who is trained and qualified to instruct on artificial surfaces.

                SNSC Snowboard Performance Coach

                The Snowboard Performance Coach is trained to work with entry level
                athletes who are competent snowboarders, ready to learn the techniques
                and practise the skills of competitive snowboard disciplines. Training at
                this level is not generally discipline specific but will develop generic skills
                for both alpine and freestyle snowboarding. The focus is mainly on
                children from 6 to 16 years old but the skills learned can be adapted for
                athletes of any age.

                BASI Snowboard Instructor

                The Snowboard Instructor is trained and assessed to teach snowboarding
                in a variety of situations on piste.

                BASI Snowboard Teacher ISIA

                The Snowboard Teacher is a highly experienced Instructor who can to
                teach snowboarding to the highest levels in a variety of situations on and
                off piste.




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                BASI Snowboard Trainer

                Snowboard Trainers are highly experienced Snowboard Teachers who
                have been trained and assessed to train snowboard instructors at all
                levels.

                SNSC Adaptive Module & BASI Adaptive Instructor

                This course has been developed in conjunction with BASI to meet the
                needs of persons instructing and supervising skiers with disabilities. The
                ten day course contains modules in the following five disciplines: Mono-
                ski, Bi-ski, Three track, Four Track, Sensory Impairment and Learning
                difficulties. On completion of the course candidates will be issued with an
                Adaptive endorsement to their Snowsport Scotland ASSI, ASL or Coach
                award or BASI Instructor award.

                BASI Adaptive Teacher

                This Is the Adaptive Module endorsement (see above ) for a BASI Teacher
                qualification.

                SNSC Development Coach

                This course provides training and appraisal for two roles: firstly the coach
                who coaches recreational skiers and trainee instructors on artificial and
                snow surfaces and secondly the tutor who intends to deliver ASSI courses.

                SNSC Mountain Ski Leader

                The Mountain Ski Leader is a skilful skier and experienced winter
                mountaineer who is trained and assessed to lead others on mountain ski
                tours.

                BMG Mountain Guide

                A fully qualified British Mountain Guide holding the carnet of the IFMGA is
                trained and assessed in leading off
                -piste ski mountaineering in Alpine mountains.

3.13.4 Technical Adviser

       Following currently accepted practice the Technical Adviser for an activity should
       be at least one qualification level above that for the instructor/leader level of the
       activity.


3.13.5 Guide to the deployment of Snowsport Awards

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       (To be deployed during snowsport activities provided under the aegis of
       Renfrewshire Council, as recommended by SNSC and/or BASI.)

        Discipline        Environment             Activity                     Instructor Level
        Alpine            Artificial Slope        Instruction                  SNSC Artificial
                                                                               Slope Ski Instructor
                                                                               or BASI Alpine
                                                                               Instructor or higher
        Alpine            Patrolled pisted        Assisting instruction        SNSC Assistant
                          snow                    of novices and early         Alpine Ski Leader
                                                  intermediate skiers          or BASI Alpine
                                                  under direct                 Trainee Instructor
                                                  supervision of Ski           or higher
                                                  Leader Instructor or
                                                  higher

        Alpine            Patrolled pisted        Leading groups               SNSC Alpine Ski
                          snow                                                 Leader, BASI
                                                                               Instructor or higher
        Alpine            Patrolled pisted        Instructing groups up        BASI Alpine
                          snow                    to parallel standard         Instructor (G3) or
                                                                               higher
        Alpine            Patrolled pisted        Instructing groups up        BASI Alpine Ski
                          snow and off-piste      to parallel standard         Teacher (G2) or
                                                                               higher
        Alpine            Patrolled pisted        Instruction to highest       BASI Alpine
                          snow and off-piste      levels                       International Ski
                                                                               Teacher (G1)

        Snowboard         Artificial Slope        Instruction in basic         SNSC Artificial
                                                  techniques                   Slope Snowboard
                                                                               Instructor or BASI
                                                                               Snowboard
                                                                               Instructor or higher

        Snowboard         Patrolled pisted        Leading groups in            SNSC Snowboard
                          snow                    basic techniques             Leader or higher
        Snowboard         Patrolled pisted        Instructing groups           BASI Snowboard
                          snow                                                 Instructor or higher
        Snowboard         On and off piste        Instructing groups to        BASI Snowboard
                                                  highest levels               Teacher or higher
        Nordic            Forest trails, fields   Leading groups in            SNSC Nordic Ski
                          and patrolled           basic techniques             Leader or higher
                          pistes

        Nordic            Simple undulating       Instructing groups in        BASI Nordic Ski
                          terrain                 all techniques               Instructor or higher
        Nordic            Simple undulating       Instructing groups in        BASI Nordic Ski

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        Discipline        Environment             Activity                     Instructor Level
                          terrain and             all techniques to the        Teacher
                          backcountry             highest level
        Telemark          Patrolled pisted        Instruction                  BASI Telemark
                          snow                                                 Instructor or higher
        Telemark          On and off piste        Instruction                  BASI Telemark
                                                                               Teacher
        Nordic,           Off piste snow          Ski-touring                  SNSC Alpine
        Telemark or                                                            Performance
        Alpine                                                                 Coach L1 or L2
                                                                               with Winter ML
                                                                               Award, or SNSC
                                                                               Mountain Ski
                                                                               Leader,
                                                                               or Mountain Guide

       It should be noted that the above matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council
       believes is appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within
       the scope of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any
       other opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis
       of the Council.

        All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
       weather).

       The first duty of leaders is to ensure the safety of participants at all times and not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.13.6 Site/activity specific training

       The Council does not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained
       member of staff for snowsports.

3.13.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

       For a winter sport, cold weather conditions are always important. However
       extreme conditions, especially of wind, temperature and precipitation can
       become significant hazards for which some warning should be sought through
       weather forecasts. Activities should then be planned to take these into account.




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3.13.8 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

        In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       For some activities a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a group to
       ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.

       The Guidance in the matrix below indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety during snowsport activities, rather than the
       supervision demanded by other considerations. In many circumstances an
       additional leader should be considered, who may not be a qualified leader. The
       residential element of a ski trip creates significant additional responsibilities for
       which preparation, planning and supervision are required. Group leaders should
       refer to Standard Circular 48.

       It should be noted that the number of participants has a bearing on the safety of
       the group, as well as the ratio of instructors to participants.


        Environment                      Discipline                  Instructor Ratio

        Artificial Slope and on          Alpine Skiing               1:12
        Piste                            Nordic
                                         Telemark
        Artificial Slope and on          Snowboarding                 1:8
        Piste

        Off-piste                        Alpine Skiing               1:6 or 2:12
                                         Nordic
                                         Telemark
        Off-piste                        Snowboarding                1:4 or 2:8



       Supervision of skiing activities outside formal snowsport lesson times should only
       take place on nominated runs and lifts which are appropriate to the ability of the
       participants and known to them. Participants should be supervised at all times at
       the same ratios as above and must not be allowed to ski alone or off-piste. They
       should remain in these small groups and be briefed on incident procedure. There
       should be a nominated rendezvous and check in time.




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3.13.9 Snowsport activity risk assessments

       The accompanying tables detail recommended activity specific control measures
       at the appropriate levels. These are not intended to be overly prescriptive, but
       reflect what is regarded as good practice, and what is probably what most
       competent leaders do.

3.13.10 Fail safes

            Reporting in procedure

            Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
            procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
            procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their planned
            activity with a liaison person, and contact him/her before starting and after
            finishing the activity.
            Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
            undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
            when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
            waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
            hypothermia.

            Communications

            Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone or radio
            so that communications can be facilitated. Where several staff are involved
            they should exchange their phone numbers.

            First Aid

            Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any snowsport activity, an
            adequate First Aid kit is available. At least one of the leaders should hold a
            Standard First Aid Certificate.

            Whenever the leader responsible holds a snowsports award, the holding of
            appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the
            validity of the award.

            Emergency Equipment

            The leader should carry or have close to hand a daysack containing an
            appropriate First Aid kit, compass, piste map or topographic map, torch,
            whistle, sunblock cream, spare goggles, hat, gloves and light waterproofs.
            (See section two of this document for advice on exposure to sunlight)




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            Groups operating outside patrolled areas (Nordic and ski-touring) should
            carry spare food, drink, group shelter and a small tool kit. In addition, for hill-
            touring and ski-mountaineering they should follow the guidelines for winter
            mountaineering.

3.13.11Clothing and Personal Equipment

       It is the responsibility of the instructor to ensure their students are appropriately
       equipped and clothed for the activity and the prevailing conditions. Gloves must
       be worn at all times during the activity, and goggles or sunglasses worn or
       carried.

       Alpine, Nordic & Telemark Skiing

               Skis should be the appropriate length and in good condition.

               Alpine ski bindings should be “step-in type” and adjusted by a trained
               person to the manufacturer‟s recommendation.

               Ski boots should fit well and be appropriate to the skier‟s ability.

               Ski sticks should be of the appropriate length and have baskets.

               Helmets should be worn by all children under 13 years of age. Helmets
               should be of the appropriate standard and size (EN1077 in Europe or RS98
               in the USA), with the chin straps correctly fastened.

               It should be noted that some countries may have additional legal
               requirements to wear helmets and these should be ascertained and
               complied with. These may also be subject to change.

              Wrist guards of various types are now available, specifically designed for
              snowboarding, and may be worth consideration. Their use is still open to
              debate, as it is claimed they can defer injury further up the arm. Statistics
              are being collated on their effectiveness. SnowsportScotland are in process
              of developing a statement on wrist guards. So, advice may change.




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3.13.12 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       In ski resorts the uniform of the ski patrol and the location of the ski patrol base
       should be identified.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a minimum of two
       accompanying leaders/supervisors are advised.

3.13.13 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside providers of
       snowsport activities are able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be
       expected of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge
       of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.
       In addition it should be established whether the nature of the activity falls within
       scope of the AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence
       for that activity.

       Outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level required by
       Renfrewshire Council.


       Further sources of advice on snowsports can be obtained from

       British Association of Snowsport Instructors: www.basi.org
       Snowsportscotland: www.snsc.demon.co.uk
       Snowsportengland: www.snowsportengland.org.uk




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3.14    Caving Activities

3.14.1 For the purposes of these guidelines, caving refers to most activities done
      underground in natural caves or mines, including variants described as potholing,
      cave diving and mine exploration. It does not include visits to parts of show caves
      or tourist mines which are open to the public, or to those parts of mines which are
      still being worked (underground excavations for the purpose of excavating
      minerals).

       Before introducing young people to caving, it is recommended that they should
       have some experience of comparable activities which make similar demands.
       Caves are not an appropriate environment for strenuous activity, as conditions
       can be hostile and result in exhaustion or hypothermia.

       Renfrewshire Council does not have its own facilities for caving. It is likely that
       any such activity will involve provision by an outdoor centre or caving club.
       Renfrewshire Council requires that they hold an AALA licence and adequate
       insurance.

3.14.2 National Governing Body

       The British Caving Association is now the governing body for underground
       exploration in the UK, following the merger of various associations including the
       National Caving Association and the British Cave Research Association.
       (www.british-caving.org.uk)

3.14.3 Leadership, Instructor and Coaching Awards

                Local Cave and Mine Leader Assessment
                The LCMLA Scheme provides an award recognising the competence of
                those who have responsibility for others underground while acting for
                employers or others in authority. The award reflects the level of
                competence of the holder in specified caves and mines and has 2 levels:

                Level 1: for non-vertical systems

                Level 2: for vertical systems with pitches up to 18m explored with ladders,
                although single rope technique is an option for the leader only.

                Cave Instructor Certificate
                The CIC Scheme is the highest instructing award designed for those
                involved in introducing others to caving, passing on technical skills and
                instructing at different technical levels in a variety of caves.

                Other Qualifications
                The Cave Leadership Certificate was replaced by the Caving Instructor
                Certificate in 1982. Anyone still holding this award has had no revalidation,
                and should no longer be recognised as competent.

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13.14.4 Technical Adviser

       The Caving Instructor Certificate is the level of expertise required to give
       technical caving advice.

3.14.5 Guide to the deployment of Awards

       Type of Cave            Competence          Competence of                 Qualified
                               of Leader           assistant leader              leader ratio
                                                                                 and group size
       Show caves and          Relevant            Responsible adult with        Max 1:12
       tourist mines in        experience          experience of cave.           Minimum 4
       public areas
       Cave and mine           BCA-NCA             Responsible adult with        Max 1:12
       systems without         Local Cave          experience of cave.           Minimum 4
       pitches or              and Mine
       technical difficulty    Leader Award
       (includes use of        Level 1
       simple belays and
       hand lines)
       Cave and mine           BCA-NCA             Responsible adult with        Max 1:6
       systems with            Local Cave          experience of cave.           Minimum 4
       pitches up to 18m       and Mine
                               Leader Award
                               Level 2
       Caves and mine          BCA-NCA             Responsible adult with        Max 1:6
       systems with            Cave                experience of cave.           Minimum 4
       pitches over 18m        Instructor
                               Certificate

       It should be noted that the matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council believes is
       appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within the scope
       of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any other
       opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis of the
       Renfrewshire Council.

       All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
       weather).

       It is the duty of instructors to ensure the safety of participants, not to enable the
       activity to proceed whatever the conditions.




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3.14.6 Site/activity specific training

       Renfrewshire Council will consider site specific training on a site by site and
       person by person basis as a substitute for holding a specified award for visits to
       natural caves or parts of caves which give rise only to everyday hazards.
       These are hazards which would be obvious to and surmountable by persons with
       no previous experience or special knowledge of hazards in caves. A judgement
       on whether exploration can be carried out safely without the application of special
       skills or techniques may have to be made by a technical adviser, except in the
       most straightforward of cases.

3.14.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity

       Flooding is a major hazard in caving activities. This can often be predicted from
       weather forecasts, and knowledge of recent weather conditions (cave and river
       water levels and how saturated the ground already is). Sudden heavy rainfall can
       happen at any time of year, but similar effects can also result from sudden snow
       melt during winter and spring.

3.14.8 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.

       For some activities a minimum of two adults may need to accompany a group to
       ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of an incident.

       The Guidance in the above matrix indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety during activities, rather than the supervision
       demanded by other considerations. In many circumstances a further leader
       should be considered, who may not be a qualified leader.

       It should be noted that the number of participants has a bearing on the safety of
       the group, as well as the ratio of instructors to participants.


3.14.9 Risk Assessments

       See attached sheets




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3.1410 Fail safes

                Reporting in procedure

                Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
                procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
                procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
                planned activity with a liaison person, and to contact him/her before
                starting and after finishing the activity.
                Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
                undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
                when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
                waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
                hypothermia.

                Communications

                Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a waterproof mobile
                phone or radio so that communications can be facilitated. If several staff
                are involved they should exchange their phone numbers.

                The leader should establish a system for communication within the group
                once inside the cave.

                First Aid

                Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any caving activity, an
                adequate First Aid kit is available. At least one of the leaders should hold a
                current Standard First Aid Certificate.

                Whenever the leader responsible holds a NGB award, the holding of
                appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the
                validity of the award.

                Emergency Equipment

                Group equipment should include emergency food, spare lighting, a First
                Aid kit, knife and whistle, a group shelter sufficient for the whole group, or
                individual bivi-bags and additional equipment including a rope if there is a
                danger of a fall.




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                Clothing and Personal Equipment

                It is the responsibility of the instructor to ensure that students are
                appropriately equipped and clothed for the activity and conditions
                prevailing. This includes adequate warm clothing with protective outer
                layer, a helmet conforming to CE/British Standard, an efficient lamp and
                suitable footwear such as Wellingtons or stout boots without hook lacing.

3.14.11 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants.

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a minimum of two
       accompanying leaders/supervisors are advised.

3.14.12 Advice on the use of outside providers
      It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
      caving activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be expected
      of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in charge of the
      group to establish that this is the case by checking with the provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match. If rock climbing or diving equipment is required for safe access to the
       caves, the nature of the activity will fall within scope of the AALA Regulations. It
       should be established that the provider has the appropriate licence for that
       activity.

       Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

       Further sources of advice on caving activities:

       http://www.caveinfo.org.uk/nca




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3.15    Camping Activities

3.15.1 Camping activities offer rich opportunities for positive educational experiences.
       They are not only concerned with residential living in a tent, but include a range
       of skills for survival out of doors, and which are useful in a variety of contexts.

       At the more extreme end of this spectrum is ultra-lightweight self-sufficient mobile
       multi-day camping in remote places under remote supervision. The camping
       could also form part of another activity such as canoeing or cycling.
        More common are shorter trips in easily accessible places or recognised
       campsites, overnight stays in bothies, huts and hostels. The simplest
       experiences are short training sessions that can be on or off the establishment
       premises.

       From a health and safety perspective there are several areas of campcraft that
       have particular importance:

                Food and water
                Stoves and fires
                Tents
                Bivouacs and emergency shelters
                Hygiene and rubbish
                Bothies
                Remote supervision

       When assessing the risks involved in camping, and identifying appropriate control
       measures, these should be considered in the context of the other activities, and
       the levels of remoteness involved.

3.15.2 National Governing Body

       There is no National Body that specifically concerns camping in an educational
       context.

3.15.3 Leadership, Instructor and Coaching Awards

       While there is no formal award for camping, it is included in the Mountain Leader
       Training Award (www.mltuk.org), and the in the Basic Expedition Leader Award
       (www.ccpr.org.uk). Leaders with these awards could be assumed to have some
       knowledge and experience of good practice during summer conditions, although
       the BELA is restricted to lowland countryside.

       The Winter Mountain Leader Award includes overnight stays in snowholes and
       the use of emergency shelters in winter conditions. Such an award would be
       appropriate for camping in such conditions.

       The Scottish Mountain Bike Leader Association has an expedition module as part
       of their Trail Cycle Leader and Mountain Bike Leader Awards. These would also
       be appropriate indicators of competence for summer conditions.
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       The Walking Group Leader Award does not include camping in its syllabus, and
       is no indication of any camping competence.

       All leaders should have significant camping experience in an environment similar
       to that being proposed, and with similar equipment. They should have knowledge
       of the camping area and access to mobile phone reception, telephone land lines,
       emergency services, doctors etc.

3.15.4 Technical Adviser
      The technical adviser for Camping Activities will normally be a Winter Mountain
      Leader Award Holder.

3.15.5 Guide to the deployment of Awards
       To be deployed during camping activities provided under the aegis of
       Renfrewshire Council.


         Environment            Leader Award                    Leader Ratio

         Lowland                BELA or Trail Cycle             1:10
         countryside            Leader with expedition
                                module
         Moorland terrain       Trainee Summer                  1:8
         (Summer)               Mountain Leader
         Mountain Terrain       Summer Mountain                 1:10
         (Summer)               Leader

         Mountain Terrain       Mountain Bike Leader            1:8
         (Summer)               with expedition module
         Mountain Terrain       Winter ML                       1:8
         (Winter)

       Note: Summer refers to times when winter conditions are not prevailing or
       forecast.
       Winter conditions refer to the presence of snow, ice, or sub-zero temperatures, or
       such conditions being forecast.

       It should be noted that the matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council believes is
       appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within the scope
       of the Health and Safety at Work Act. This has precedence over any other
       opinion about deployment when activities are taking place under the aegis
       of the Council.

       All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
       weather).

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       Qualified instructors are specified in order to ensure the safety of participants, not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.15.6 Site/activity specific training
       Where a leader has considerable experience, the technical adviser may sanction
       camping activities in a specific site and time of year, with specified groups.

3.15.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity
       Winter conditions present extra hazards of potentially extreme weather and long
       nights. As a result, leaders camping in winter need additional experience of such
       activities, and activities with novice campers should err on the side of caution. All
       proposed activities should be discussed with the Health Support Manager in
       advance.

3.15.8 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants.
       Consideration should be given to the educational and social needs of the
       participants, the maintenance of proper discipline and child protection.

       In the case of a mixed group leaders of both sexes should be the norm.
       Inexperienced adults with the group will not necessarily improve the staffing ratio.
       In such case they should be considered as group members.

       For some activities, even with very small numbers, two adults may need to
       accompany a group to ensure the health and safety of participants in the event of
       an incident.

       The Guidance in the above matrix indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety during camping activities, rather than the
       supervision demanded by other considerations. In many circumstances a further
       leader should be considered, who may not need to be a qualified leader. The
       residential element of a camping trip creates significant additional responsibilities
       for which preparation, planning and supervision are necessary.

       It should be noted that the number of participants has a bearing on the safety of
       the group, as well as the ratio of instructors to participants. Larger groups may
       need to be supervised in smaller units.




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3.15.9 Camping Activities risk assessments

       See accompanying tables, which detail recommended activity specific control
       measures at the appropriate levels. These are not intended to be overly
       prescriptive, but reflect what is regarded as good practice, and what is probably
       what most competent leaders do anyway.

                Camp stoves – general guidance

                Accidents with camp stoves are most likely when young people are
                inadequately trained in their use. This training should be given in a safe
                controlled environment before stoves are used during expeditions. Staff
                should be fully proficient in the operation of the stoves being used. The
                stoves should be in a stable position on a non-combustible surface, and in
                very well ventilated area or out of doors and sheltered from the wind.

                Cooking with a stove on the ground reduces the possibility of scalds if hot
                liquids are spilt. The stove should be in a position where it can easily be
                turned off or fires put out if they flare up. Methods for smothering and
                control of fires should form part of the training.

                Refuelling of stoves requires particular care, whatever the type of fuel, and
                should be carried out well away from tents. Spare fuel containers should
                be kept clear of lighted stoves.
                When not in use they should be kept outside the tent or bothy. Fuel
                containers should be appropriate for the fuel used, and clearly labelled.

                Close supervision of the stove use is essential until proficiency and good
                practice can be reliably demonstrated. Supervisors of Duke of Edinburgh
                Award expedition candidates should be confident of a high level of
                proficiency in stove use before such expeditions can take place.

                Stoves should not be used inside small tents. Cooking outside in wind and
                rain could lead to individuals becoming wet, cold and hypothermic, as well
                as risking the stove blowing out or over. In such circumstances campers
                may need to cook in the shelter of the tent porch, when extreme care
                should be exercised. The tent entrance should be left open so that, should
                the stove topple over or flare up it can be easily ejected. Movement around
                the stove should be minimised to reduce the risk of accidents.

                All users of camp stoves should be made aware of the risks of flammable
                materials such as straw, dry grass, paper, cooking fat, tent material,
                sleeping bags and nylon clothing.

                The lighting of open camp fires and the use of them for cooking is
                forbidden unless taking place in established camp grounds or barbecue
                sites, where there are constructed fireplaces and barbecues, and
                associated fire appliances.

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                Gas stoves (LPG)

                Older style gas stoves or lamps that puncture the gas cylinder (e.g.
                Camping Gaz S200) should not be used. There is dangerous leakage of
                gas when the burner and cylinder are disconnected, and mistakes made
                during connection of new cylinders can lead to highly dangerous leakage
                of gas. Even apparently spent cylinders have a residual but dangerous
                amount of gas leakage when disconnected from burners.

                Newer designs of gas stove which use re-sealing cylinders are safer, but
                should only be assembled and used in well ventilated areas. Screw-on
                cylinders should be held upright when attaching the burner, as leakage
                can occur if the cylinder is screwed in on its side. Picnic/barbecue stoves
                with enclosed re-sealable cylinders are very stable and safe provided that
                the cylinder is disconnected from the burner when not in use.

                Petrol/paraffin stoves

                These stoves pressurise fuel to vapour for burning. Likely dangers are
                from refueling and flaring of the flame. It is advised that young people do
                not use these types of stove unless they are very experienced in their
                operation, and are closely supervised.

                Methylated spirit stoves

                The Trangia is the most common design. The fuel is not pressurised, and
                less flammable, and so is seen as a safer alternative to other stoves.
                However incidents can occur, especially when refilling a burner. Overfilling
                and ignition of the fuel container by flashback are known hazards.

                Fuel Storage

                Most fuels used in stoves are subject to COSHH regulations, and should
                be stored accordingly in appropriate containers. During transit care must
                be taken to avoid the containers from being crushed and leaking. It is
                preferable to avoid fuel inside a vehicle containing passengers.

                Barbecues

                Instant-lighting and disposable barbecues are easily available now, and
                present an alternative to a camp-stove. Care should still be exercised in
                the supervision of their use, and they should only be used out of doors and
                be sited well away from flammable materials.




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                Camp Hygiene

                Always find a spot at least 30 metres from fresh/running water when going
                to the toilet.
                Bury excrement in a small hole (not under boulders). A trowel or ice axe
                can be used to lift a flap of turf. Burying tampons and sanitary towels is not
                advised as animals dig them up. Please carry them out. Placing them in a
                container with a tea bag helps to absorb odours. Always wash hands
                thoroughly after going to the toilet, and before eating.

                Rubbish

                Anything that can be carried in full should be carried out empty, and
                disposed of responsibly.

                Water safety

                Drinking water can be a source of infection, especially of gastro-enteritic
                illnesses. If not carried, a safe water source is a high priority in choosing
                where to camp. Water is generally cleaner in the hills than in the lowlands.
                Before using any water, care should be taken to identify sources of
                contamination, such as livestock, faeces and outfalls. It is better to
                sterilise, filter or boil drinking water.

                Food Safety

                Food poisoning is to be avoided at all times, but especially so on a
                camping expedition when support is less available.
                High risk foods are those intended to be consumed without further
                cooking, which would destroy bacteria. These include cooked meat,
                poultry, egg products and dairy foods. If these cannot be kept cool and
                separate from raw food they should not be used.

                In all but low winter temperatures these raw foods should be avoided in
                favour of dried, canned or preserved food. Frozen food may last longer
                than fresh but should still be thoroughly cooked soon after thawing out.

                Tents

                As a means of shelter during inclement weather, tents are important items
                of safety equipment. They must be appropriate for the conditions and
                serviceable. They should be checked before use to make sure there are
                sufficient pegs, the correct poles, and free from damage that could lead to
                serious failure.

                Higher level and more remote camps will require more robust designs than
                those for low level summer camps in sheltered sites. Practice in the
                erection and striking of tents should be part of expedition training, as
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                should good practice in and around tents to avoid damage and soiling.
                Smoking in or near tents is forbidden.
                Bivouacs and emergency shelters
                Given their nature, planned bivouacs can be more likely to expose
                participants to bad weather conditions. The site and conditions should be
                planned with this in mind, including a plan B, should conditions worsen.

                Bothies

                The use of bothies is part of the culture of mountain life in Scotland and
                elsewhere. It is essential that education in their responsible use is integral
                to the bothy experience. Leaders should have prior experience of a bothy
                to assess its suitability for a group.
                The lighting of open fires in bothies can be part of this, but must be closely
                supervised. Irresponsible damage to bothies and trees for firewood is
                forbidden.

                Remote supervision

                Developing independence is an important educational process. It is
                integral, but not exclusive, to the Duke of Edinburgh Award Expedition
                Section. Participants need extra training and proficiency before direct
                supervision can be withdrawn to supervision from a distance. The distance
                of the supervision can be a staged process, and depends on the leader‟s
                familiarity with the area and knowledge of the group‟s abilities.
                The leader still has a responsibility for the safety of the participants, and
                should remain contactable should an incident require it. The booklet
                published by Mountain Leader Training England is particularly useful:
                Remote Supervision – advice on current best practice.

3.15.10 Fail safes

                Reporting in procedure

                Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
                procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This
                procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
                planned activity with a liaison person, and contact them before starting and
                after finishing the activity.
                Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
                undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
                when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
                waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
                hypothermia.




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                Communications

                Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone or
                radio so that communications can be facilitated. If several staff are
                involved they should exchange their phone numbers.

                First Aid

                Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any campcraft activity, an
                adequate first aid kit is available.

                Whenever the leader responsible holds a relevant award, the holding of
                appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the
                validity of the award.

                Emergency Equipment

                The leader should carry or have close to hand a daysack containing an
                appropriate first aid kit, compass, topographic map, torch, whistle, gloves
                and light waterproofs.

                Clothing and Personal Equipment

                It is the responsibility of the instructor to ensure their students are
                appropriately equipped and clothed for the activity and conditions
                prevailing.

3.15.11 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well-formulated plan for action in an
       emergency. The most important element of this should be a means of quickly
       contacting emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the
       head of establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge may be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever possible, two accompanying leaders/supervisors are
       advised.




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3.15.12 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
       camping activities are able to ensure as good a level of safety as would be
       expected of Renfrewshire Council provision. It is the responsibility of the leader in
       charge of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the
       provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.

       In addition it should be established whether the nature of the activity falls within
       scope of the AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence
       for that activity.

       Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council.

       Further sources of advice on campcraft can be obtained from

       Expedition Guide. Wally Keay (2000) Duke of Edinburgh Award
       Mountaincraft and Leadership. 3rd Edition.. Eric Langmuir, (1995) Sport Sports
       Council & MLTB
       Hillwalking 2nd Edition Steve Long (2004) Mountain Leader Training UK
       Remote Supervision – advice on current best practice. Mountain Leader Training
       England

3.16 Angling

3.16.1 Angling for recreational purposes is one of Scotland‟s largest participant sports.

       There are three different types of angling:

                Coarse Angling - includes all types of freshwater fish (from rivers, streams
                and lakes) with the exception of salmon, trout and grayling. Most are
                considered inedible and are put back. All coarse anglers must be in
                possession of a rod licence. They can then fish wherever it is permitted.

                Sea Angling - is practised from beaches, rocks, piers and boats. All types
                of fish are caught from flatfish to sharks. Sea fish are seldom returned
                alive to the water, as most are considered edible. No rod licence is
                required.

                Game Angling - is considered by many to be a specialised branch of
                angling in which trout, salmon and to a lesser degree, grayling are hunted.
                Game angling is thought to require more skill than other forms of angling.
                Game angling can take place on rivers and lochs and in stocked and
                managed fisheries. Local permits are required for game angling,
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3.16.2 National Governing Bodies

       The National Federation of Sea Anglers and the Salmon and Trout Association
       are the Governing Bodies for the three angling disciplines at U.K. level. In
       Scotland, the Scottish Anglers National Association (SANA) is recognised as the
       national governing body for the sport. As such, it is consulted by sportscotland
       and the Scottish Executive on vital issues which will determine the future of the
       sport in Scotland.

3.16.3 Leadership Qualifications

       The SANA Coaching Committee is responsible for the development of the
       Association‟s coaching qualifications and the maintenance of a register of
       accredited instructors in Scotland.

       The Scottish Game Angling Instructors Certificate.

       This certificate is awarded to candidates who are able to establish their
       proficiency to instruct anglers of all ages and abilities in the arts of trout and
       salmon angling in Scotland.

       An annual coaching programme is also organised by SANA which involves the
       provision of trout and salmon fly casting tuition at the Scottish game fairs.
       The Joint Angling Governing Bodies in England and Wales have also created an
       introductory award for candidates with an interest in angling. It aims to introduce
       candidates to both practical and theoretical aspects of assisting coaching
       angling. This award is known as the:

       Level 1 Certificate in Assisting Coaching Angling. (L1CACA)

       This award has been designed to provide candidates with an introduction to the
       understanding of safe, ethical and effective coaching in one of the three angling
       disciplines.

       A level 2 certificate is also available from the Joint Angling Governing Bodies.
       This is the:

       Level 2 Certificate in Coaching Angling (L2CCA)

       This is a vocationally related award that qualifies the candidate to coach the skills
       and techniques of angling to both adults and children and can be studied in each
       of the three disciplines.




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3.16.4 Technical adviser

       It is recognised that most angling coaches will only coach in one of the three
       disciplines. In common with most other sports and outdoor activities and following
       currently accepted practice, the technical adviser for an activity should be at least
       one qualification above that of the instructor of the activity.

3.16.5 Site Specific Training

       The Council does not endorse the competence of a site specifically trained
       member of staff for angling.

3.16.6 Seasonal Factors affecting the Activity

       All coarse fishing used to have a close season when no fishing was allowed while
       fish spawned. However, since 1995 this has been scrapped on still waters (lakes,
       ponds and reservoirs). There is still a close season for rivers and most canals
       from 15 March to 15 June.

       The close season for wild game angling varies according to the fish being
       hunted, but tends to be during the winter months between September and March.
       Stocked and managed fisheries have their own regulations. There is no close
       season for sea angling.

       Depending on the discipline being practised, the advice on seasonal factors can
       vary and the advice pertinent to hillwalking and the miscellaneous use of boats
       will apply. However, in the Scottish climate, conditions at any time of the year can
       be hazardous and leaders in charge should include these factors in their risk
       assessment.

3.16.7 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishment and leaders-in-charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of all participants. Consideration should
       be given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance
       of proper discipline and child protection.
       The ratio of leader to participant will be determined by the risk assessments.
       However, in most cases a ratio of 1:6 should be the maximum permitted to
       ensure the safety of participants. In the case of very young children or
       participants with additional support needs, a more generous ratio may be
       required.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm.




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3.16.8 Equipment

       Angling involves the use of a rod, line and hook with usually a reel holding the
       coiled line.

                Hooks can be barbed or barbless. Both types of hooks can be hazardous,
                especially during casting, landing and in removal from fish. Novices should
                be briefed on this hazard and closely supervised during these operations.

                Baits are used to disguise the hooks and lure fish to the line. Baits include
                maggots, worms and artificial lures made to look like fish. Small live fish
                can also be used as bait. Baits can be a source of infection and normal
                hygiene rules should be observed.

                Rods can be hazardous both when carrying and casting, and especially
                near live overhead electricity wires. Briefing should be given to participants
                on handling and using rods. Live wire hazards should be noted during the
                risk assessment of the site.

3.16.9 Risk assessments

       Depending on the discipline being practised, risk assessments for hillwalking and
       the miscellaneous use of boats will be appropriate. A generic risk assessment for
       angling is attached. When carrying out a risk assessment for fishing activities,
       leaders in charge should also consult section 2.2 of this document which offers
       advice on “Activities involving the Use of Natural waters”.

3.16.10 Personal Water Confidence

       Although the ability to swim is highly desirable, it is not uncommon or
       unreasonable for non-swimmers to be involved in angling activities. Water-
       confidence while wearing a PFD during immersion in cold water is more
       important than the ability to swim. The decision on whether a flotation device
       should be worn should be part of the risk assessment. Instructors should ensure
       non-swimmers and novices are closely supervised on or near the water at all
       times.

       If worn, lifejackets or buoyancy aids (personal flotation device) should be properly
       fitted and checked and compliant with the appropriate CE norm. Personal
       Flotation Devices (PFDs) should be inspected regularly for wear and tear, and
       must be float tested annually and inflatable lifejackets should remain firm for 24
       hours.




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3.16.11Fail safes

       Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a “reporting in” procedure
       whenever groups are away from the home establishment. This procedure should
       require that leaders in charge leave details of their planned activity with a liaison
       person and contact him/her before starting and after finishing the activity.
        Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
       undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly when
       they are being picked up by transport. Standing wet, cold and tired, waiting for
       transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild hypothermia.

                Communications

                Whenever possible, a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone so
                that communications can be facilitated.

                While there may be places where there is no mobile phone reception,
                there will be other places where reception is possible, enabling much
                earlier contact than would be the case if a working public phone had to be
                found. Depending on circumstances, a VHF radio may also be required.

                Emergency Equipment

                All participants should carry some spare clothing and ample provisions for
                the activity. In remote areas, leaders in charge should carry as part of their
                usual day sack equipment an appropriate First Aid kit, spare food and
                spare clothes, a warm drink (in cool conditions) a map, a torch, a whistle, a
                note book and pencil and either an orange plastic survival bag or a “group
                shelter” suitable for 4 to 6 people, spare gloves and a spare hat.
                Depending on the risk assessment, PFDs should be available for all
                participants.

                In off shore sea angling activities in small boats, a powered safety boat
                must always be present and sufficient to meet situations which may arise.
                Details of the procedures to be followed are contained in section 12,
                “Miscellaneous Use of Boats”.

3.16.12 First Aid

       Leaders in charge should ensure that during any angling activity, an adequate
       First Aid Kit is available. One of the leaders/instructors should hold a Standard
       First Aid Certificate.




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3.16.13 Sea Fishing and Charter Boats

       When larger charter boats are used, for sea fishing, the leader in charge must
       ensure that the skipper of the boat is properly licensed for such operations and
       that the boat is equipped to conform with all regulations relating to the provision
       of lifesaving equipment and fire appliances and shows the correct lights in order
       to comply with the Rules for the Avoidance of Collision at Sea. Leaders in charge
       should refer to section 12, “Miscellaneous Use of Boats”.

       The boat must be appropriately insured against third party claims. Written
       confirmation of the skipper‟s qualification, licence and insurance details, and the
       sea-worthiness of the boat should be obtained when booking.

3.16.14 Weather and Tidal Conditions

       Leaders in charge or instructors organising activities taking place in exposed
       areas or which are subject to hazardous wind or tidal conditions should always
       obtain a weather forecast and check tidal predictions before deciding to proceed
       with the activity.

3.16.15 Emergency Action Plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge might be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital. Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a
       competent person to quickly make their way to the incident to take responsibility
       for other participants

       For this reason, whenever reasonable and practicable, a minimum of two
       accompanying leaders/supervisors are advised.

3.17    Combined Rock and Water Activities

3.17.1 Combined rock and water activities are activities which involve both water and
       rock environments and share the hazards of both. The activities go under a range
       of different names:

                Sea level traversing (usually a dry rock climbing activity)

                „Coasteering‟ (usually a coastal, wet activity often including swimming
                and/or jumping into water from a height)

                Canyoning (usually a wet activity, involving the descent of a steep water
                course and sometimes involving technical rope work)

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                Gorge walks, ghyll scrambles or scrambles (can be wet, dry or alternating)

                River running (swimming down white water rapids)

       There may be variations of the above with other names eg adventure swimming
       or cliff jumping.

       Such pursuits may be undertaken as dry activities, more akin to rock climbing
       and scrambling, or as a wet activities using skills and equipment associated with
       white water sports. How this is done may depend on the nature of the venue and
       prevailing conditions, and could involve transitions between wet and dry.

       The nature of the activities may require the skills and techniques of
       mountaineering, caving and white water sports, and various combinations of
       awards may cover the required competences depending on the venue and its
       hazards.

3.17.2 National Governing Body

       There is no single UK wide NGB that covers these hybrid activities. It is
       recognised by the Health and Safety Executive that in-house approval should
       follow appropriate training, assessment and certification by recognised technical
       experts as appropriate. It is good practice that leaders hold qualifications in
       closely related activities. The type and levels of qualifications need to be matched
       to the levels of hazard and risk.

       In 2005 the Scottish Combined Rock and Water Activities Association
       (www.scrawa.org) was established, with the purpose of disseminating training in
       good practice for such activities. Its training courses are generic and would need
       to be augmented by site specific training delivered by an acknowledged expert.

       In addition, a separate organisation called the Association of British
       Coasteering has been set up to share best practice and monitor the standards of
       coasteering guides.

3.17.3 Leadership, Instructor and Coaching Awards

       As mentioned above, without an NGB, hybrid activities are best delivered by
       leaders who hold qualifications in closely related activities.

       For details of hillwalking awards (WGL, MLS and MLW), rock climbing awards
       (SPA, MIA and MIC), caving awards (CIC), paddlesports and other awards, see
       the relevant sections.

       Other Qualifications
       Any other qualifications will require to be scrutinised for relevance to the nature of
       the activity concerned by a recognised technical adviser.

3.17.4 Technical Adviser
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       This depends on the nature of the venue and technical difficulty. The technical
       adviser needs to be the holder of a qualifications at least one level higher than
       the technical level of the activity concerned.

3.17.5 Guide to the deployment of Awards
      To be deployed during combined rock and water activities taking place under the
      aegis of Renfrewshire Council.

         Activity                 Technical level         Competencies                   Ratio
         Category
         Dry non-technical        No planned use          Summer ML                      1:10
                                  of climbing             or LCMLA Level 1
                                  equipment
                                  (including rope)        +site specific training
                                  required for
                                  progress
         Dry technical            Climbing                MIA                            1:8
                                  equipment               or Summer ML + SPA
                                  required,               or CIC
                                  graded ground           or LCMLA level 2
                                                          +site specific training
         Wet non-technical        No planned use          Summer ML                      1:8
                                  of climbing             + Lifesaving or
                                  equipment               + appropriate
                                  (including rope)        Paddlesport award
                                  required for            + site specific training
                                  progress
         Wet technical            Climbing                MIA                            1:6
                                  equipment               + Lifesaving or
                                  required                appropriate
                                                          Paddlesport award
                                                          + site specific training

       It should be noted that the matrix indicates what Renfrewshire Council believes is
       appropriate in the context of its Duty of Care for activities falling within the scope
       of the Health and Safety at Work Act.
       This has precedence over any other opinion about deployment when activities
       are taking place under the aegis of the Council.

       All activities should be halted or plans modified if formal or dynamic on the spot
       risk assessment suggests that participants may be more exposed to harm than
       has been foreseen, whatever the qualification of the instructor (e.g. change in the
       weather).




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       Qualified instructors are specified in order to ensure the safety of participants, not
       to enable the activity to proceed whatever the conditions.

3.17.6 Site/activity specific training
       Appropriately experienced staff may be validated as competent to lead activities
       at specific venues as determined by the Technical Advisor.

3.17.7 Seasonal factors affecting the activity
       Weather conditions can be severe at any time of the year in relation to
       precipitation, which is especially significant in wet technical and non-technical
       venues. Weather conditions several days before as well as during activities may
       influence the levels of hazard prevailing. However winter conditions present
       additional hazards, and require higher levels of leadership competence and
       greater control measures.

3.17.8 Supervisory ratios

       Heads of establishments and leaders in charge should ensure that supervision is
       sufficient to ensure the health and safety of participants. Consideration should be
       given to the educational and social needs of the participants, the maintenance of
       proper discipline and child protection.

       In cases of a mixed group, leaders of both sexes should be the norm

       For some activities, even when the numbers are very small, a minimum of two
       adults may need to accompany a group to ensure the health and safety of
       participants in the event of an incident.

       The Guidance in the matrix below indicates the ratio of qualified leaders to
       participants required for safety during combined rock and water activities, rather
       than the supervision demanded by other considerations. In many circumstances
       a further leader should be considered, who may not need to be a qualified leader.

       It should be noted that the number of participants has a bearing on the safety of
       the group, as well as the ratio of instructors to participants.




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 140 of 251
            Environment                   Instructor Ratio

            Dry non-technical             1:10

            Dry technical                 1:8

            Wet non-technical             1:8

            Wet technical                 1:8


3.17.9 Combined Rock and Water Activities risk assessments

       See accompanying tables, which detail recommended activity specific control
       measures at the appropriate levels. These are not intended to be overly
       prescriptive, but reflect what is regarded as good practice, and what is probably
       what most competent leaders do anyway.

3.17.10 Fail safes

                Reporting in procedure

                Heads of establishment should make arrangements for a reporting in
                procedure whenever groups are away from the home establishment.
                This procedure should require that leaders in charge leave details of their
                planned activity with a liaison person, and contact them before starting and
                after finishing the activity.

                Leaders in charge should plan carefully to allow sufficient time for their
                undertakings so that they start and finish at the time estimated, particularly
                when they are being picked up by transport. Standing, wet, cold and tired,
                waiting for transport has been known to progress from discomfort into mild
                hypothermia.

                Communications

                Whenever possible a leader in charge should carry a mobile phone or
                radio so that communications can be facilitated. If several staff are
                involved they should exchange their phone numbers.

                First Aid

                Leaders in charge should ensure that, during any combined rock and
                water activity, an adequate first aid kit is available.

                Whenever the leader responsible holds a NGB award, the holding of an
                appropriate and valid first aid qualification is a necessary condition for the
                validity of the award.
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 141 of 251
                Emergency Equipment

                The leader should carry or have close to hand a daysack containing an
                appropriate first aid kit, compass, topographic map, torch, whistle, gloves
                and light waterproofs.

                Clothing and Personal Equipment

                It is the responsibility of the instructor to ensure their students are
                appropriately equipped and clothed for the activity and conditions
                prevailing.

3.17.11 Emergency action plan

       Leaders in charge should have a well formulated plan for action in an emergency.
       The most important element of this should be a means of quickly contacting
       emergency services and the home establishment, and to keep the head of
       establishment fully informed of the progress of events.

       During the site-specific training, realistic incident and accident scenarios and
       responses should be practised and recorded.

       It should be noted that the leader in charge may be required to accompany a
       casualty to hospital.
       Consequently it may be necessary to arrange for a competent person to quickly
       make their way to the incident to take responsibility for other participants

       For this reason, whenever possible a minimum of two accompanying leaders or
       supervisors are advised.

3.17.12 Advice on the use of outside providers

       It is important that precautions are taken to ensure that any outside provider of
       combined rock and water activities is able to ensure as good a level of safety as
       would be expected of Renfrewshire Council. It is the responsibility of the leader in
       charge of the group to establish that this is the case by checking with the
       provider.

       These checks should compare the level of the proposed activity with the
       qualification matrix, and vetting that the qualification of the instructors involved do
       match.

       In addition it should be established whether the nature of the activity falls within
       scope of the AALA Regulations, and that the provider has the appropriate licence
       for that activity.

       Lastly, outside providers‟ liability insurance should meet the minimum level
       required by Renfrewshire Council .
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 142 of 251
       Further sources of advice on combined rock and water activities can be obtained
       from

       Scottish Combined Rock and Water Activities Association: www.scrawa.org

       UK Mountain training board: www.mltuk.org

       British Canoe Union: www.bcu.org.uk

       National Caving Association: www.nca.org.uk

       Royal Life Saving Society: www.lifesavers.org.uk

       British Surfing Association: www.britsurf.co.uk

       Surf Life Saving Association of Great Britain: www.surflifesavers.org.uk

       HSE: www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/etis13.pdf

3.18 Other Adventurous Activities

3.18.1 Activities not included in this circular

       The activities listed in this circular are not exhaustive and from time to time new
       activities will be identified which may be beneficial to young people and groups
       within the Council. Subject to a satisfactory risk assessment and delivery in
       conformity with the rules and procedures established in this Circular and in
       Standard Circular 48, these activities can be permitted in principle, provided the
       following procedures are followed:

                   The educational benefits associated with the activity should be clearly
                   identified;
                   Heads of establishment should be presented with a clear description of
                   the activity and the environment in which it will be undertaken;
                   The National Governing Body (or National Representative Body) should
                   be clearly identified (absence of such a body may jeopardise
                   recognition by the Council);
                   Qualifications, awards and training schemes should be identified and
                   matched with the qualifications of the group leaders or those who will be
                   responsible for delivering the activity.

3.18.2 Risk Assessment

       The activity must be carefully risk assessed using the methods adopted
       throughout this Circular. This will include:

                   A risk assessment of the environment in which the activity will take
                   place;
________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 143 of 251
                   A risk assessment of the activity itself, identifying the hazards that can
                   arise from human error and equipment malfunction;
                   Identification of those who might be harmed;
                   The control measures which will be put in place;
                   Arrangements for review of the control measures.

3.18.3 Seasonal factors

       Any seasonal factors which might limit the educational benefit or may affect the
       safety of participants should be clearly identified.

3.18.4 Supervisory ratios

       Reasonable and prudent supervisory measures should be included as part of the
       overall risk assessment.

3.18.5 Fail safes

       Measures to minimise the risk of an accident, referred to as “fail safes” elsewhere
       in this document should be stated.

3.18.6 An emergency action plan

       An emergency action plan for the activity should be drawn up, similar to that
       which has been prepared for other activities described in this document.

3.18.7 This information should be given to the health support manager who will assess it
       before making a recommendation to the Director of Education and Leisure
       Services.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 144 of 251
                                     STANDARD CIRCULAR 33

       References and Bibliography


       General Guidance


       Health and Safety on Educational Excursions
       A Good Practice Guide
       Scottish Executive 2004

       A Practical Guide to Safe School Trips
       Scottish School Board Association 2005

       Five Steps to Risk Assessment
       Health And Safety Executive First Published 1999. Reprinted 2003

       5 Steps to Risk Assessment
       Case Studies
       Health and Safety Executive 1998

       Adventure Activities Centres
       Five Steps to Risk Assessment 1999

       Outdoor Safety and Good Practice: Guidelines
       Published by: The Duke of Edinburgh‟s Award Scheme (1988)


       Circulars and Codes of Practice


       Revised Standard Circular 48
       Excursions and Educational Visits (Advice on Good Practice)

       Revised Standard Circular 31
       Insurance for Pupils, Teachers and other Adults Raking part in educational
       Excursions

       Management Safety File
       Guidance on The Provision of Health care in schools (August 2002)

       The Administration of Medicines in Schools
       Scottish Executive Publications



________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 145 of 251
       Health and Safety in Physical Education
       A Revised Code of Practice (May 2005)

       Review of Health and safety (First Aid) Regulations
       Health and Safety Executive, Corporate and Medical Unit (2005)


       Specific Activities


       The Duke of Edinburgh‟s Award Handbook 2nd Edition
       Published by: The Duke of Edinburgh‟s Award

       Expedition Guide, Official Handbook of the Basic Expedition Award
       Produced by: The Duke of Edinburgh‟s Award Scheme

       Mountaincraft and Leadership
       Eric Langmuir
       Produced by: Scottish Sports Council and SMLTB

       Rock Climbing, Single Pitch Authorisation
       Produce by: Scottish Advisory Panel in Outdoor Education

       ROSPA, Safety on Holidays
       Produced by: Royal Society for The Prevention of Accidents




________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 146 of 251
Addresses of Organisations, National Governing Bodies and other
Representative Organisations


Addresses                                                                       Phone Numbers



Adventure Activities Licensing Authority                                        029 2075 5715
Unit 17 Lambourne Crescent, Cardiff Business Park
Llanishen, CARDIFF CF14 5GF

Amateur Rowing Association                                                      020 8748 3632
6 Lower Mall, Hammersmith, LONDON W6 9DJ

British Association of Snowsport Instructors                                    01479 861717
Glenmore Lodge, Glenmore, AVIEMORE, Inverness-shire
PH22 1QU

British Orienteering Federation (BOF)                                           01629 734042
Riversdale, Dale Road North, Darley Dale, MATLOCK DE4 2HX

British Red Cross Society (Scotland)                                            0141 891 4000
4 Nasmyth Place Hillington GLASGOW G4 0AX

British Ski and Snowboard Federation                                            0131 445 7676
Hillend, Biggar Road, EDINBURGH EH10 7EF

British Snowboard Association (Scotland)                                        0131 445 4151
Hillend, Biggar Rd, EDINBURGH EH10 7EF

British Waterways Board                                                         01923 226422
Willow Grange, Church Road, WATFORD WD17 4QA

Child Accident Prevention Trust                                                 020 7608 3828
Clerks court, 18-20 Farringdon Lane, LONDON EC1R 3HA

Field Studies Council                                                           01743 852100
Central Services, Preston Montford Field Centre,
Montford Bridge, SHREWSBURY, Shropshire SY4 1DX

Forestry Commission                                                             0131 334 0303
231 Corstorphine Road, EDINBURGH EH12 7AT

The National Trust For Scotland                                                 0131 243 9300
28 Charlotte Square, EDINBURGH EH2 4ET


________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 147 of 251
The Royal Life Saving Society UK (RLSS)                                         01789 773994
River House, High Street, Broom, ALCESTER B50 4HN

Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents (ROSPA)                           0870 777 2171
ROSPA House, Edgbaston Park, 353 Bristol Road,
BIRMINGHAM B5 7ST

Royal Yachting Association Scotland                                             0131 317 7388
Caledonia House, 1 Redheughs Rigg,
EDINBURGH EH12 9DQ

The Sandyflats Riding for the Disabled Association                              0141 945 1369
Riding Stable, Caldercuilt Road, Summerston,
GLASGOW G23 5NA
Scottish Accident Prevention Council                                            0131 449 9379
Livingstone House, 43 Discovery Terrace,
Heriott Watt Research Park, EDINBURGH EH14 1TL

Scottish Amateur Rowing Association                                             01387 264233
71 Gillbrae Crescent, Georgetown, DUMFRIES DG1 4DJ

Scottish Canoe Association (SCA)                                                0131 317 7314
Caledonia House, 1 Redheughs Rigg, EDINBURGH EH12 9DQ

Scottish Cycling                                                                0131 652 0187
The Velodrome, Meadowbank Stadium,
London Road, EDINBURGH EH7 6AD

Mountain Leader Training Scotland                                               01479 861248
Glenmore Lodge, Glenmore, AVIEMORE, Inverness-shire
PH22 1QU

Scottish Rights of Way and Access Society                                       0131 558 1222
24 Anandale St, EDINBURGH EH7 4AN

Scottish Youth Hostels Association                                              01786 891400
National Office, 7 Glebe Crescent, STIRLING FK8 2JA

St Andrew’s Ambulance Association                                               0141 332 4031
St Andrew‟s House, 48 Milton Street,
GLASGOW G4 0HR

St John’s Ambulance Association                                                 020 7235 5231
1 Grosvenor Crescent, LONDON SW1X 7EF




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                          Page 148 of 251
                                                                                                        Appendix A



 Planning the off site activity

 This page charts the likely stages of planning an off site activity.


                      Outline proposal to head of establishment or directorate, seeking
                      approval in principle. Proposals might include:
                           Visit‟s objectives
                           Likely date, duration, venue
                           Resources, estimate of costs
                      (Proposal for longer visits may need making well before the start of the
                      relevant academic year)


                       Planning
                           Contact venue. Is it suitable for the group?
                           What are the transport options?
                           Who would lead the group and who would help to supervise it?
                           Who would pay for the visit?
                           Risk assessment. Exploratory visit


                      Substantive proposal to head of establishment or directorate
                         Details of dates, risk assessment, emergency procedures, transport,
                         insurance, costs, group membership, staffing




Shorter visits                                                      Residential and abroad
    Obtain approval and parental consent for day visits                 Obtain approval to prepare the visit subject to
    Inform parents as necessary of shorter routine visits               satisfactory preparation
    Brief pupils
    Go on visit monitoring the risks at all times
                                                                    Final preparation
                                                                        Information to and from parents
                                                                        Briefing evening (meet the supervisors)
                                                                        Brief pupils
                                                                        Deposits/full payments by parents



                                                                         Obtain final approval and parental consents.
                                                                         Notify directorate.



                                                                         Go on visit monitoring the risks at all times




                                                Continuous evaluation




       ________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                 Page 149 of 251
                                                                                                                              Appendix 1


Risk Assessment. Abseiling. Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                  Risk                      Who             Controls                                          Review
Falling from the        Risk of serious           All             Until ready to begin abseiling, participants      All incidents will be
top of a crag.          injury or fatality                        will remain at a safe place designated by the     recorded and
                        resulting from a fall                     leader or instructor, well back from the          evaluated.
                        from the top of a                         edge. No participant will approach the edge
                        crag.                                     of the crag until secured by a personal belay
                                                                  sling or a security rope. Novice participants
                                                                  will be provided with additional protection by
                                                                  the use of a security rope handled by a
                                                                  competent person.
Objects falling         Risk of injury,           All             All participants will wear protective helmets     All incidents will be
while abseiling or      particularly to the                       and after descending will be asked to leave       recorded and
when standing           head.                                     the area at the base of the crag and wait in      evaluated.
below the crag.                                                   a designated place where they are not
                                                                  exposed to any hazard.
Failure of belays.      Natural belays may        All             Belays will be checked before use to ensure       All incidents will be
                        fail- resulting in                        that they are capable of holding the weight       recorded and
                        uncontrolled fall.                        of at least two people. Where natural             evaluated.
                                                                  protection is used, for example nuts or
                                                                  mechanical devices in cracks, slings on
                                                                  spikes or slings threaded around chock
                                                                  stones, at least three points of attachment
                                                                  will be used for a belay. Where in situ
                                                                  artificial belays are used, for example large
                                                                  boulders or substantial trees, one point of
                                                                  attachment may be used but there must be
                                                                  no doubt about the security of the object. In
                                                                  situ belays will be checked before each
                                                                  session. One belay will be used to secure
                                                                  the rope used for abseiling and an
                                                                  independent belay will be used for the
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 150 of 251
Hazard                  Risk                      Who             Controls                                          Review
                                                                  person managing the security rope. Leaders
                                                                  or instructors will test the security of the
                                                                  system by themselves using it for an abseil
                                                                  descent before those for whom they are
                                                                  responsible are asked to depend on it.
Equipment failure.      Equipment may be          All             The leader or instructor will check all           Equipment will be
Artificial fibre        used incorrectly or                       equipment is fit for the purpose before each      monitored and
ropes have              fail.                                     abseiling session. During the session the         subjected to a
unexpectedly                                                      leader will ensure that, as far as practicable,   thorough annual
failed because                                                    unnecessary wear or abrasion is minimised         check.
they have been                                                    by keeping spare rope in a protective bag or
damaged by                                                        lap coiled and tied off the ground.
fumes from                                                        Karabiners with screw gates, which can be
battery acid,                                                     securely closed, will be used throughout the
solvents or                                                       security system for all attachments,
contact with petrol                                               particularly when used for connection to a
or diesel.                                                        friction device for abseiling.
Poor rope               Lack of technical         All             Leaders and instructors responsible for the       Techniques reviewed
management and          skill or inattention                      safety of participants will be endorsed as        annually.
the incorrect use       may expose those                          experienced and competent to teach and
of equipment by         climbing to the risk                      supervise abseiling and rock climbing
persons                 of an uncontrolled                        activities by the SMLTB/UKMTB. See above
responsible for         fall.                                     section.
the safety of other
participants.
Clothing and hair       Hair or clothing          All             Leaders or instructors will check clothing is  All incidents will be
become caught in        may cause a                               properly adjusted and tucked into place and recorded and
friction devices        friction device to                        hair is tied up and tucked inside the safety   evaluated.
during descent.         jam, resulting in the                     helmet or inside clothing immediately before
                        participant being                         participants begin a descent. The abseil
                        unable to descend.                        rope will be attached in a fashion which
                                                                  allows it to be released easily should clothes
                                                                  or hair become caught. Earrings and
                                                                  dangling adornments should be removed.

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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 151 of 251
Hazard                  Risk                      Who             Controls                                          Review


Friction burns or       Rope burns to hand All                    When abseiling using friction around parts        All incidents will be
abrasions to the        and shoulders.                            of the body to slow the descent. Participants     recorded and
hands and body                                                    will wear clothing suitable for protection        evaluated.
while abseiling                                                   against burns. The leader or instructor will
and while                                                         check protective clothing is properly
controlling the                                                   adjusted immediately before a descent
security rope.                                                    begins. In circumstances where friction
                                                                  devices are being used and/or the speed of
                                                                  descent is hard to control, participants will
                                                                  be provided with gloves. Gloves will be
                                                                  provided for the person controlling the
                                                                  safety rope.
Mismanagement                                     All             The maximum ratio of leaders or instructors       Annually or in the
of a group of                                                     to participants will be dictated by the nature    event of problem
participants or                                                   of the site being used and will be indicated      occurrence.
misbehaviour by                                                   in the risk assessment. The ratio identified
members of the                                                    will be a maximum and will not be
group and/or                                                      exceeded. The ratio will be reduced if a
passers-by may                                                    group includes participants with special
cause an                                                          needs or behaviour characteristics, which
accident.                                                         require higher levels of supervision.
                                                                  If at any time the leader feels that safety is
                                                                  being compromised by the behaviour of the
                                                                  group or by passers-by the session will be
                                                                  terminated.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 152 of 251
                                                                                                                                     Appendix 2


Risk Assessment, Angling: Common Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                 Risk                       Who                     Control                                           Review
Exposure to the        Sunburn.                   All, but particularly   Consult weather forecast. Assess                  Review and report
elements               Over exposure to           novice                  conditions. Modify or cancel plans. Clothing      all incidents.
                       cold and rain. Risk        participants.           available to cover all limbs. Use of sun
                       of hypothermia and                                 cream and eye protection.
                       hyperthermia.
Unstable bank/         Trips and falls into       All                     Risk assessment during pre-visit and              Review and report
unstable rough         water/drowning.                                    avoidance of hazard. Appropriate footwear.        all incidents.
ground                                                                    First Aid Kit. Appropriate supervision.
Slips and falls        Immersion in cold          All                     Check water confidence. Use of PFDs and           Review and report
into water.            water. Drowning.                                   correctly fitting lifejackets. Keep to walkways   all incidents.
                                                                          and paths.
Slippy/wet fishing Participants and /or           All, but particularly   Appropriate supervision. Check the                Review and report
platforms          others running and             young and novice        construction of the platforms. Limit the          all incidents.
                   slipping or causing            participants.           number of participants to the available area.
                   others to slip.
Poor casting       Participant or other           All, but particularly   Appropriate training in casting. Headgear         Review and report
technique.         is hooked by a fly.            novice                  and sunglasses to be worn. Leader qualified       all incidents.
misuse of                                         participants.           in First Aid. Emergency procedures known
equipment.                                                                to all participants.
Rocks, trees and Head injuries.                   All, but particularly   Safety helmets worn                               Review and report
overhanging                                       novice                                                                    all incidents.
branches                                          participants.
Wildlife, stings   Anaphylactic                   All. Particularly       Check medical history of participants.            Review and report
and bites          shock. Swelling,               those with allergic     Avoidance of places known to have a high          all incidents.
                   incapacity or                  response.               hazard. Immediate treatment.
                   extreme discomfort.
Exposure to        Hepatitis B,                   All                     Inoculation. Avoidance of places known to         Review and report
disease/effluent/ Tetanus. Lymes                                          be hazardous. Immediate treatment. Cover          all incidents.
polluted water.    disease. Weil‟s                                        all open wounds.
                   disease.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                  Page 153 of 251
                                                                                                                                Appendix 3


  Risk Assessment: Camping Activities. Common Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                 Risks                        Who             Controls                                         Review

Leadership             Enhanced risk of             All             Competence and supervision of leader             Record and evaluate
                       other hazards                                matched to requirements of the venue and         all incidents.
                                                                    abilities of participants.

Weather                Sunburn,                     All             Obtain relevant weather forecasts. Modify        Record and evaluate
                       hyperthermia                                 plans and actions appropriately.                 all incidents.

Stoves                 Poisoning, burns and         All             Fuel containers clearly labelled. Close      Record and evaluate
                       scalds                                       supervision of novices. Clear instruction in all incidents.
                                                                    use of stoves. Refuelling well away from
                                                                    naked flames. Stoves used well away from
                                                                    flammable materials, on stable surfaces in
                                                                    well-ventilated position.

Tents                  Injury from trips and        All             Choice of tent appropriate to environment.       Record and evaluate
                       falls                                        Careful siting and pitching of tents. Careful    all incidents.
                       Exposure to other                            checking of parts and condition before and
                       hazards if tent is                           after use. Responsible behaviour in and
                       damaged.                                     around tents, including no smoking.

Hygiene                Infection and illness.       All             Avoid high-risk foods. Proper storage and        Record and evaluate
                                                                    cooking of food. Avoid contamination by          all incidents.
                                                                    diligent washing of hands, cooking and
                                                                    eating utensils. Sterilisation or filtering of
                                                                    drinking water as appropriate.



  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 154 of 251
Hazard                 Risks                        Who             Controls                                        Review

Bivouacs and                                                        Careful choice of equipment,                    Record and evaluate
emergency                                                           circumstances and participants, with well       all incidents. Record
shelters                                                            considered plan B.                              and evaluate all
                                                                                                                    incidents.
Remote                 Enhanced risk of                             Adequate training and proficiency in
supervision            other hazards                                camping skills. Knowledge of area and
                                                                    abilities of participants.




  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 155 of 251
                                                                                                                                 Appendix 4


  Risk Assessment. Camping: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                 Risk                         Who             Controls                                         Review
Burns from             Injury from burns or         All             Leaders must ensure that those in their          All incidents will be
flammable              scalds. The injuries                         charge understand the dangers present,           recorded and
materials. Scalds      associated with                              are trained in the use of stoves and are         evaluated.
from hot               flammable materials                          able to deal with dangerous incidents in a
foodstuffs. Burns      and fuels are likely to                      safe and appropriate manner.
from fuels such        be severe.                                   Leaders should supervise group cooking
as paraffin, gas or    Spillage of hot                              and the lighting of stoves.
petrol.                liquids.                                     Leaders should control the storage of fuel.
                                                                    Cooking should only take place inside if a
                                                                    separate tent or shelter is available for this
                                                                    purpose. The use of candles or other
                                                                    lighting methods that rely on a flame
                                                                    should not be used. Smoking is forbidden.
Poor food              The risk of food             All             Using foodstuffs that can be consumed hot        All incidents will be
hygiene.               poisoning from poor                          or cold can reduce the risk of food              recorded and
                       hygiene is low, but                          poisoning. Training in basic food hygiene        evaluated.
                       will increase when                           practices should be considered before the
                       using perishable                             activity. Wash plates, cutlery and utensils
                       foods.                                       immediately after use.
Becoming lost          The level of risk            All             Participants must be briefed on any local        All incidents will be
                       associated with                              hazards.                                         recorded and
                       becoming lost is                             Site boundaries that are not to be crossed       evaluated.
                       small. However, this                         should be defined.
                       risk will increase                           Particular attention should be given to the
                       when camping in                              location of camp toilets and water
                       remote areas and                             collection points to reduce the chance of a
                       conditions of poor                           participant becoming disorientated and
                       visibility. Participants                     lost in poor visibility especially at night.
                       are likely to explore
                       their immediate
  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 156 of 251
Hazard                Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
                      surroundings when
                      unsupervised which
                      may also result in
                      becoming lost.




 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 157 of 251
                                                                                                                                Appendix 5


  Risk Assessment. Camping: Caving Activities: Hazards, Risks and Controls
Hazard          Risk                 Who                  Control                                                   Review
Leader          Various              All                  Appropriately trained and assessed for the                Record all incidents
                                                          activity. Prior experience of cave system.
                                                          Route details left with responsible adult on
                                                          surface with details of emergency
                                                          procedures in event of late return or
                                                          incident.
Participants    Various              All participants     Proper briefing and preparation for the                   Record all incidents
                                                          activity, taking account of fitness and
                                                          weaknesses. Frequent head counts and
                                                          monitoring of condition of participants.
Weather         Enhanced risk of     All                  All participants wear adequate clothing for               Record all incidents
                other hazards                             conditions, & adequate spare clothing
                                                          available
                                                          Check weather forecast, especially if
                                                          danger of flooding. Abandon activities in
                                                          deteriorating conditions
Cold, water &   Hypothermia          All                  Proper clothing for conditions, staying dry               Record all incidents
immersion                                                 if possible, eating properly before and
                                                          during trip, Pace & length of trip
                                                          appropriate to fitness of participants,
                                                          avoiding long waits at ladder pitches etc.
                                                          Group equipment carried includes food,
                                                          lighting, FAK, knife & whistle. Group
                                                          shelter/bivibags
Technical       Various              All                  Equipment maintained as fit for purpose.                  Record all incidents
equipment                                                 Practice technical skills on surface before
                                                          going underground.
Darkness        Enhanced risk of     All                  Adequate lighting and spares                              Record all incidents
                other hazards


  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 158 of 251
Fall from height,      Impact injury                All             Use of rope when risk of falls. Practice        Record all incidents
falling objects                                                     technical skills on surface before going
                                                                    underground. Helmet. Suitable footwear.
Additional support Various                          Particular      Physically challenged participants must be      Record all incidents
needs                                               participants    accompanied, and with enhanced rescue
                                                                    and first aid facilities appropriate to cope.
Radon                  Radiation related            All             Obtain recent advice on radon levels and        Record all incidents
                       illness                                      plan accordingly.




  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 159 of 251
                                                                                                                                Appendix 6


  Risk Assessment. Artificial Climbing Walls: Hazards, Risks and Controls
Hazard                 Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
Actions of other       The BMC advises              All             Groups will not use a wall if participants      In consultation with the
users of the           that walls should be                         are likely to be placed at risk by people       manager of the facility.
facility               in a dedicated area                          engaged in other sports.
                       so that climbers are
                       not put at risk by
                       participants of other
                       sports, for example
                       by balls or other
                       projectiles hitting
                       climbers. Climbers
                       should not be
                       exposed to risk as a
                       result of the unsafe
                       activities of
                       spectators or non-
                       climbers.
The design of the      There may be a risk          All             If activities of other climbers are likely to   In consultation with the
wall                   of a climber falling                         put participants at risk, the area in which a   manager of the facility.
                       and swinging into                            risk is present will not be used. Leaders
                       other climbers or                            and instructors will not climb unprotected
                       against projections,                         in order to place top ropes.
                       for example
                       prominent holds or
                       sharp corners.
Overcrowding of        Climbers may put             All             The space below the climbing area will be       In consultation with the
the                    others at risk by                            kept completely free of obstruction,            manager of the facility.
facility and floor     falling off or jumping                       particularly the floor space onto which a
space becoming         from the wall. Trips                         climber may be lowered or fall, and where
obstructed             and stumbles may                             those responsible for their security are
                       occur if the floor area                      positioned.
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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 160 of 251
Hazard                 Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
                       is obstructed by
                       bags, clothes and
                       climbing equipment.
Poorly fitted          Uneven floors and            All             Climbers will be protected from above by a      A record will be
flooring               crash matting may                            top rope. At any time when a climber is         maintained of all
or loose crash         cause trips and                              unable to ascend further or wishes to           incidents resulting in or
matting                stumbles.                                    descend, they will be lowered slowly to the     which may have
                       Matting beneath a                            floor by means of a correctly used friction     caused injury.
                       wall does not in itself                      device designed for the purpose. When
                       make a wall safer.                           “bouldering” close to the floor, matting will
                       Matting designed to                          be correctly positioned and climbers
                       cushion landings                             instructed not to go beyond their own
                       may encourage                                height above the ground. Participants will
                       inexperienced                                operate in pairs while bouldering with one
                       participants to jump                         participant climbing and the other standing
                       from too high on the                         prepared to give them support if they fall
                       wall.                                        awkwardly.
Equipment failure      Equipment may be             All             Unless equipment is in situ or on hire from     Equipment will be
                       used incorrectly or                          a climbing wall, only ropes, karabiners and     monitored and
                       fail                                         slings owned by the Council and dedicated       subjected to a
                                                                    for use at indoor climbing walls will be        thorough annual
                                                                    used. All equipment supplied by the             check. Technological
                                                                    Council will conform to the relevant UIAA       advances in equipment
                                                                    standard. All equipment will be stored and      will be reviewed and
                                                                    maintained in accordance with                   adopted.
                                                                    recommendations of the manufacturer. An
                                                                    equipment logbook will be maintained by
                                                                    those responsible for the care and storage
                                                                    of climbing equipment. Leaders and
                                                                    instructors will ensure that the use of the
                                                                    equipment for which they are responsible
                                                                    is properly recorded in the logbook.



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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 161 of 251
Hazard                 Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
Uncontrolled falls     Falling or jumping           All             Leaders and instructors responsible for the     A record will be
caused by poor         from the wall may                            safety of participants will be endorsed as      maintained of all
belaying,              result in injury. Most                       experienced and competent to teach and          incidents resulting in or
unskilled              recorded accidents                           supervise rock climbing activities by the       which may have
rope                   involve injury to                            SMLTB/UKMTB.                                    caused injury.
management             limbs, both arms and                         Normal ratio of trained instructor to
or lack of             legs.                                        participant will not exceed 1:6.
attention              The most common
                       accidents are sprains
                       and facture to the
                       ankles, although
                       more serious injuries
                       have been recorded
Jumping from the       Jumping from the             All             Clear briefing and supervision of               All incidents and near
wall while soloing     wall may result in                           participants. Limit height above ground for     misses.
and landing            injury. Participants                         soloing. Crash mats for landing. Using a
awkwardly              may be tempted to                            spotter to manage falls.
                       finish the climb
                       before it is safe to do
                       so.
Landing and            Poor landing                 All             Clear briefing and supervision of               All incidents and near
stumbling              technique causes                             participants. Appropriate management of         misses.
over badly placed      participant to                               matting.
matting or other       stumble.
obstacle               Matting may cause
                       trips and stumbles.




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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 162 of 251
                                                                                                                                Appendix 7


  Risk Assessment. Accompanied – On Road: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazards                Risks                        Who             Controls                                        Review
Poor leadership        Increased exposure           All             Route pre- visited, risk assessed and risk      All incidents. Report
                       of participants to                           disclosed. Route card left at base.             “near misses”.
                       other hazards                                Max ratio 1:8. Maximum group size 12.
Defects in the         Injury from fall or          All             Route carefully planned, pre- visited and       All serious incidents.
road surface           collision                                    risk assessed.
Road traffic           Injury from fall or          All             Avoid use of busy main roads during             All incidents. Report
accident with          collision                                    periods of time when fast moving traffic        “near misses”.
other road users                                                    can be expected. Use of cycle lanes, cycle
(vehicles, cyclists,                                                tracks and bridleways where possible.
horses or                                                           Route pre-visited, risk assessed. High
pedestrians)                                                        visibility clothing recommended for all
                                                                    participants. Adequate knowledge of the
                                                                    Highway Code.
Road rage              Injury from fall or          All             Consideration and courtesy to other road        All incidents. Report
attacks                collision                                    users. Adherence to the Highway Code.           “near misses”.
                                                                    Group briefing and strict group discipline.
Group separation       Increased exposure           All             High visibility clothing recommended for all    All incidents. Report
                       of participants to                           participants. Frequent head counts.             “near misses”.
                       other hazards                                Appointment of back marker as
                                                                    appropriate. Briefing and strict group
                                                                    discipline.
Wet and windy          Increased exposure           All             Weather forecast. Consider change of            All incidents. Report
weather                of participants to                           route.                                          “near misses”.
                       other hazards




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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 163 of 251
                                                                                                                               Appendix 8


Risk Assessment. Off Road Cycling: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard          Risk                              Who             Controls                                         Review
Poor leadership Various                           All             Leader should hold valid level II Trail          All incidents and near
                                                                  Cycle Leader Award, valid First Aid              misses will be
                                                                  Certificate (min. 12 hours HSE)                  recorded and
                                                                                                                   evaluated.
Falling off the      Injury – especially to                       All leaders and participants must wear           All incidents will be
bike.                limbs                                        cycle helmets and be clothed properly.           recorded and
                                                                  Prior to any excursion participants should       evaluated.
                                                                  be given clear instructions on the use of
                                                                  the equipment and the opportunity to
                                                                  familiarise themselves with the equipment
                                                                  in safe conditions, for example by
                                                                  conducting a skills test before progressing
                                                                  to open country. Leaders should assess
                                                                  the capabilities of participants before
                                                                  moving on to challenging terrain.
Collisions with      Injury, when cycling         All             All cyclists must be fully briefed on the        All incidents will be
other bikes,         as a group in close                          hazards of group cycling. Proper control of      recorded and
obstacles,           proximity in                                 speed at all times should be emphasised.         evaluated.
walkers, wildlife    unfamiliar terrain, in                       A safe distance between bikes should be
etc.                 public areas and in                          insisted upon and a riding order should be
                     wildlife habitats.                           maintained. Overtaking procedures should
                                                                  be discussed and agreed upon prior to
                                                                  departure.
Injuries/            Posture related         All                  Leaders must make sure that all                  All incidents will be
illnesses            injuries occurring e.g.                      participants have correctly fitting bikes with   recorded and
relating to          to neck, back and                            appropriate frame size, saddle height and        evaluated.
sport.               knee.                                        pedal height.

                                                                  Instructors must be aware of any medical
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 164 of 251
Hazard               Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
                                                                  history of the participants in their care and
                                                                  monitor the situation accordingly.
Equipment or         Off-road cycling is a All                    Regular checks and proper maintenance           All incidents will be
mechanical           high impact sport and                        can reduce the likelihood of equipment          recorded and
failure and          equipment can                                failure. Appropriate tool kit and spare parts   evaluated.
associated           damage or break at                           must be carried. If equipment is hired, the
problems.            any time.                                    leader must be sure that it is suitable and
                                                                  sound before departure.
Traffic in on-       Cycling on any road          All             Road awareness should be discussed and          All incidents will be
road sections.       will lead to                                 clear instructions given to the group           recorded and
                     encounters with                              regarding cycling in traffic. Whilst on         evaluated.
                     traffic and therefore                        roads, cyclists should wear high visibility
                     there is a risk that                         strips or bibs. Frequent stops should be
                     problems will arise.                         made by the group to enable traffic to
                                                                  overtake, thus reducing (driver) frustration.




Group                There is a risk that         All             Group members should be made aware of           All incidents will be
dispersal            the group becomes                            the possibility of this happening, the          recorded and
                     split due to                                 problems it could cause, and be given           evaluated.
                     unforeseen                                   clear briefing instructions as to what action
                     circumstances.                               to take in the event of the group becoming
                                                                  dispersed.

Steep ascents        Injury from fall or          All             Knowledge of route and group ability.           All incidents and near
and descents.        collision.                                   Special care on single tracks, particularly     misses.
Uneven                                                            “red” graded routes. Avoidance of “black”
ground.                                                           graded technical single track except for
                                                                  very experienced cyclists.
Fords, streams       Injury from fall,            All             Knowledge of route and likelihood of            All incidents and near
and river            hypothermia and                              hazard in light of recent conditions,           misses.
crossings            drowning from                                weather forecast and current conditions.
                     immersion.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 165 of 251
Hazard               Risk                   Who                   Controls                                        Review
 Contaminated        Water borne            All                   Check for latest information at sites with      All reportable incidents
water.               infections and toxins.                       history of problem. Brief the group on          and near misses.
Infections.          (Weil‟s disease,                             hazard. Avoid if possible. Wash hands
                     Cryptosporidium, E.                          before eating or drinking. Close monitoring
                     coli, blue-green algae                       following immersion.
                     etc.)

Tree branches,       Eye injury                   All             Leader goes first and stops group if the        All incidents and near
mud, dust.                                                        danger is high, especially on single track      misses.
                                                                  in the forest. Eye protection is
                                                                  recommended.

Plants e.g           Skin contact rashes,         All             Knowledge of route and likelihood of            All incidents and near
nettles,             abrasions and                                hazard. Group briefing and control.             misses
brambles,            wounds.
thorns and
giant hogweed.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 166 of 251
                                                                                                                                 Appendix 9


Risk Assessment. Cycling, Supervised, Unaccompanied, On Road: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazards              Risks                        Who                  Controls                                       Review
All hazards          Injury from fall or          All participants and Meticulous training of participants until      All incidents. Report
found in             collision.                   other road users.    supervisor is confident that they can be       near misses.
accompanied                                                            relied upon to secure their own safety.
road cycling.
Getting lost,        All types of injury.         All participants and Training to include navigation and route       All incidents. Report
leading to                                        other road users.    cards. Supervision to include pre-arranged     near misses.
increased                                                              checkpoints.
exposure to
other hazards.
Road traffic         Injury from fall or          All participants and Careful selection of route, avoiding busy      All incidents. Report
accident with        collision.                   other road users.    roads even more than with accompanied          near misses.
other road                                                             trips. Continuous close monitoring of
users (vehicles,                                                       sections with any significant motor traffic,
cyclists, horses                                                       so that assistance can be mobilised
or pedestrians)                                                        quickly in the event of an accident.
Ignoring of          Injury from fall or          All participants and Swift intervention. Consider termination of    All incidents. Report
safety advice or     collision.                   other road users.    expedition or continuation as accompanied      near misses.
action that                                                            training expedition.
threatens
participants‟
own safety.
Steep ascents        Injury from fall or          All participants and Careful route planning, route choice and       All incidents. Report
and descents.        collision.                   other road users.    navigation, so that participants can           near misses.
                                                                       anticipate or avoid hazards. Continuous
                                                                       close monitoring of sections with steep
                                                                       ascents and descents, so that assistance
                                                                       can be mobilised quickly in the vent of an
                                                                       accident.


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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                              Page 167 of 251
                                                                                                                               Appendix 10


  Risk Assessment. Dinghy Sailing at Castle Semple: Risk Assessment, Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                 Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
Vehicles in            Impact injury                All             Briefing and supervision of participants        All incidents and near
compound and                                                        when vehicles are in use in storage             misses
around apron.                                                       compound and launching apron.
Lifting and            Strains and crush            All             Only qualified instructors to be used           All incidents and near
moving heavy           injuries                                     (having received training in manual             misses
objects.                                                            handling for instructors). Briefing and
                                                                    supervision of participants.
Cold                   Hypothermia                  All             Wetsuits and other warm clothing to suit        All incidents and near
                                                                    conditions.                                     misses
                                                                    Supervision of participants. Spare clothing
                                                                    and first aid readily available. Safety boat
                                                                    cover.
Water                  Drowning                     All             Adequate personal buoyancy to                   All incidents and near
                                                                    appropriate CE norm properly fitted and         misses
                                                                    checked. Supervision of participants.
                                                                    Safety boat cover.
Contaminated           Water borne                  All             Check for latest information at site. Brief     All reportable incidents
water                  infections& toxins                           group on hazards. Avoid if possible. Cover      and near misses
                       (Weil‟s disease,                             up cuts and lesions with waterproof
                       Cryptosporidium,                             dressing. Wash hands after activity. Close
                       E.coli, blue-green                           monitoring following immersion.
                       algae etc)
Safety boat             Impact injury               All             Safety boat to be operated only by holder       All incidents and near
                                                                    of Powerboat Level 2 plus Rescue Boat           misses
                                                                    Course, when acting as safety boat to
                                                                    windsurfing fleet. Kill cord must be used
                                                                    when engine is running.

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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 168 of 251
Hazard                 Risk                         Who                  Controls                                       Review


Slips/trips on         Any of above                 All                  Appropriate footwear for participants.       All incidents and near
pontoons and                                                             Buoyancy aids worn on pontoons & slip.       misses
slipway                                                                  Immediate cleaning up of spillages of oil or
                                                                         fuel. Briefing and supervision of
                                                                         participants.

Engine fuels and       Burns                        All                  No naked flames near fuel or engines.        All incidents and near
lubricants                                                               Immediate cleaning up of spillages of oil or misses
                                                                         fuel. Fuel kept in secure store when not in
                                                                         use.

Collisions and         Any of above                 All participants and Briefing and supervision of participants.      All incidents and near
underwater                                          other water users    Rules of the road. Appropriate choice and      misses
obstructions                                                             definition of sailing area. Marking position
                                                                         of obstructions until hazard can be
                                                                         removed
Dinghies               Various physical             Participants         Dinghies to be checked before use. Any         All incidents and near
                       injuries                                          defects to be reported and clearly marked      misses
                                                                         unfit for use until rectified. Briefing and
                                                                         supervision of participants about hazards
Dinghy sailing         Fatigue and                  Participants         Instructor monitors condition of               All incidents and near
activities             increased exposure           especially novices participants. Activities delivered by RYA        misses
                       to other risks                                    Dinghy Instructor under supervision of
                                                                         RYA Senior Instructor.
                                                                         Max instructor: student ratios

                                                                          1:6 for singlehanders
                                                                          1: 3 for other boats
                                                                          Max rescue-boat boat ratio 1:6

Dinghy rig –           Impact injury                Participants         Briefing and training. Helmets                 All incidents and near
especially the         especially to head           especially novices   recommended for complete beginners,            misses

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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                              Page 169 of 251
Hazard                 Risk                         Who                  Controls                                      Review
boom                                                                     especially in toppers and in severe
                                                                         weather conditions.
Ropes                  Burns and crush              Participants         Briefing. Gloves in heavier winds.            All incidents requiring
                       injuries                     especially novices                                                 medical attention.

Being blown            Enhanced likelihood          Participants         Careful selection and patrolling of sailing   All incidents and near
downwind out of        of above hazards             especially novices   area. Limiting group size or increasing       misses
sailing area                                                             safety boat cover according to conditions.
                                                                         Clear briefing of students on procedure
                                                                         when blown downwind. Appropriate
                                                                         reefing of rig to ability and conditions.

Severe weather         Enhanced likelihood          All                  Check weather forecast. Reefing of rigs.      All incidents and near
                       of above hazards                                  Consider scaling down water activities in     misses
                                                                         favour of on-shore activities




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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                             Page 170 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 11


Risk Assessment. Educational Walking Excursions: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard               Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
Group                Lack of knowledge of         All             Leader should be familiar with designated       Any incidence of
becoming lost        local area may result                        route and meeting point. Simple                 participant becoming
                     in becoming lost/                            instructions or sketch map should be            lost must be reported
                     disorientated.                               made available.                                 and recorded.
Individual           Participant becomes          All             A named adult should supervise back line.       Any incidence of
becoming lost        detached from the                            Regular head counts.                            participant becoming
                     group.                                                                                       lost must be reported
                                                                                                                  and recorded.
                                                                                                                  Parent contact as
                                                                                                                  appropriate.
Participant          Unexpected illness.          All             First Aid kit and trained personnel on          Any incidence of
unable to                                                         hand.                                           participant becoming ill
continue due to      Diagnosed illness                            Leader to ensure that appropriate               must be reported and
injury or illness    e.g. asthma,                                 medication is carried with the group.           recorded.
                     diabetes.                                    Procedure for administration is known.          Parent contact as
                                                                  Emergency procedure is in place and has         appropriate.
                                                                  been rehearsed by participants.
Changes in           Changing weather             All             Known shelter points should be utilised.        Any incident will prompt
weather              conditions cause                                                                             review of route
conditions           route to deteriorate                                                                         suitability.
                     or become more
                     difficult than
                     anticipated.
Injury to            Unruly behaviour             All             Designated adult responsible for                Any incidence of
participant          leads to accident or                         appropriate supervision of defined group.       participant being injured
                     injury                                       Nominated first aid person assigned to          must be reported and
                                                                  group.                                          recorded.
                                                                                                                  Parent contact as
                                                                                                                  appropriate.

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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 171 of 251
                                                                                                                                 Appendix 12


Risk Assessment in the Freshwater and Marine Environment: Common Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard               Risk                         Who                   Controls                                       Review
Freshwater and       Drowning                     All                   The water confidence of participants           All incidents are
marine                                                                  should be ascertained before participating     reportable incidents.
environment:                                                            in watersports.
                                                                        Correct protective clothing. Use of
Water                                                                   correctly fitting lifejackets or buoyancy
                                                                        aids.
                                                                        Match the activity to the capability of the
                                                                        participants.
                                                                        Shorten or terminate the activity if
                                                                        problems arise.
                                                                        Avoid accidental capsize by choosing the
                                                                        correct location for the activity and taking
                                                                        weather forecast and tidal effects into
                                                                        consideration.
                                                                        Reducing sail.
Cold water           Immersion                    All those             Define the season for the activity.            Every incident which
immersion            hypothermia.                 participants who      Prevention of accidental capsize through:      involves accidental
                     (Possible at any time        are immersed in       weather forecast;                              capsize and immersion
                     of the year)                 the freshwater or     monitor temperature, humidity, wind speed      in cold water.
                                                  marine                and direction;
                                                  environment.          appropriate clothing;
                                                                        Define area of the activity.
                                                                        Cancel the activity.
                                                                        Monitor food and drink intake.
Extreme              Hypothermia and              All those             Obtain weather forecast and in particular,     Every incident of
weather:             hyperthermia.                participants          note temperature, humidity, wind speed         unforeseen change of
Wet, cold and        (Both are possible at        unfamiliar with the   and direction. Ensure appropriate clothing.    plans resulting from
wind chill.          any time of the year)        outdoor               Consider cancellation of activity. Route       participants discomfort
                                                  environment.          planning to minimise risk. Monitor food        arising from cold or
                                                                        and drink intake.                              heat.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                               Page 172 of 251
Hazard               Risk                         Who                     Controls                                       Review
                                                  Elderly, young, the
                                                  physically disabled
                                                  and those with
                                                  special
                                                  educational needs.
Sunlight           Sunburn.                       All, but particularly   Full limb cover available.                     Every incident, record
                   Eye damage.                    those with fair         Hat with brim or peak. Sunblock.               as a reportable incident.
                   Particularly on bright         complexions.            Sunglasses.
                   sunny days when
                   there is also
                   reflection.
Excessive          Exhaustion.            Potentially all, but            Matching the activity to the capabilities of   Every incident of
physical           (aggravated by hot or particularly unfit,              participants.                                  unforeseen change of
activity.          cold)                  poorly co-                      Shorten or terminate the activity if           plans resulting from
                                          ordinated and                   problems arise.                                fatigue of participants.
                                          nervous                                                                        All late returns.
                                          participants.
Wildlife:          Anaphylactic shock,    All. Particularly               Medical history of participants. Avoidance     Frequency of incidents.
Jelly fish stings. swelling, incapacity.  those with allergic             of places known to have a high hazard.
Other marine       Extreme discomfort.    response.                       Immediate treatment.
animal bites
etc.
Polluted water. Poisoning.                All. Particularly               Wash after exposure.                           Every incident, record
agro chemicals.                           those with a high               Guidance from local Water Authorities.         as a reportable incident.
Water born                                or regular
infection.                                exposure to
                                          hazard.
                                          Instructional staff.
Farmyard           Hepatitis B. Tetanus, All. Particularly                Inoculation.                                   Every incident, record
residues           Lymes disease or       instructional staff.            Avoidance of places known to have a high       as a reportable incident.
                   leptospirosis.                                         hazard. Immediate treatment.
                   Louping II                                             Cover all wounds.



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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                  Page 173 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 13


Risk Assessment. General Outdoor: Common Hazard, Risks and Controls

Hazard               Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
Poor                 Various, but serious         All             Explicit authorisation procedures. Careful      Every incident which
judgement and        injury or fatality is                        assessment of risk during pre visit.            raises doubt about a
lack of ability of   possible.                                    Competence of leader commensurate with          leader‟s competence.
leader in                                                         the activity being undertaken which may
charge.                                                           involve site specific training and/or
                                                                  qualifications endorsed by expert bodies
                                                                  (NGB/MLTB)
                                                                  Supervision of personnel.
Rough terrain        Slips, trips, bumps,         All             Leader familiar with work site. Raising         Report all incidents.
and common           grazes, wounds and                           awareness of hazard by briefing. Sensible       Review all injuries
obstacles.           minor injury.                                supervision. Provision for immediate first      requiring medical
                                                                  aid.                                            treatment.
Sunlight.            Sunburn. Eye                 All             Clothing available to cover all limbs and       Report all moderate or
Reflection from      damage. Melanoma.                            shade face. Use of sun screen cream, eye        severe incidents. Review
snow and                                                          protection in bright conditions. Raising        application of controls.
water.                                                            awareness of risk as part of safety
                                                                  education.
Infections           Tetanus.                     All             Maintaining inoculation against tetanus.        All incidents.
                     E coli.                                      Normal adequate standards of hygiene.
                     Leptospirosis.                               Normal sensible precautions. Avoiding
                     Lymes disease.                               sites where risk is high. Avoiding
                     Stomach upsets.                              behaviour which might cause risk. Keeping
                                                                  utensils clean when camping.

Hyper                Pain, discomfort.            All             Medical information about vulnerable            All incidents.
allergens. Bee       Anaphylaxis due to                           young people. Avoidance of hazard.
and wasp             stings or nuts.                              Appropriate clothing/equipment. Epi pen
stings.                                                           available for treatment.
Allergy to nuts
etc.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 174 of 251
Hazard               Risk                         Who                   Controls                                     Review
Wildlife and         Bites, stings, rashes,       All                   Awareness and avoidance of hazard.           All incidents.
poisonous            wounds, crush                                      Avoidance of livestock. Warnings against
plants.              injuries, inflammation                             eating berries and mushrooms etc.
                     and pain.
Water hazards,       Unexpected                   All                   Familiarity with site. Risk assessment       Report and review all
deep pools,          immersion or                                       carried out. Avoidance of hazard when risk   incidents.
stagnant water,      drowning.                                          is high. Raising awareness as part of
fast flowing         Hypothermia.                                       safety education. Careful supervision.
streams, steep       Infection.                                         When exposure is high, means of rescue
banks, blue                                                             is available (walking pole or throw line)
green algae                                                             Change of clothing and buoyancy aids are
etc.                                                                    available.
Blown sand           Damage to eyes and           All                   Avoid exposure to hazard. Eye protection.    Report incidents of
and dust.            respiratory damage.                                Raise awareness as part of safety            potential damage.
Smoke and                                                               education.                                   Review all incidents.
fumes.
Sharp objects,       Cuts puncture                All                   Risk assessment during pre visit. Gloves     Report and review all
glass, barbed        wounds, infection                                  and protective clothing. Raise awareness     incidents.
wire, syringe        and tetanus, HIV,                                  as part of safety education.
needles.             hepatitis.

Existing             Overcome by                  Those with            Parental consent and medical information.    All incidents where
medical              symptoms of                  conditions            Medication available, inhalers, special      controls are insufficient.
conditions and       condition, e.g.                                    foods. Additional, skilled supervision.
special needs.       asthma, epilepsy or                                Means of emergency communication.
                     diabetes.                                          Means of making casualty comfortable.
                                                                        Transport close at hand.
Anti social          Verbal, physical or          All, but especially   Disclosure checks. Avoid unsupervised        Report and review all
interactions.        sexual abuse.                vulnerable young      access to young people. Young people to      incidents.
                                                  people.               work in pairs or groups. Adequate
                                                                        supervision. Group always in sight.
                                                                        Consent to use site or locality. Avoidance
                                                                        of places where hazard might be high.


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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                              Page 175 of 251
Hazard               Risk                   Who                   Controls                                        Review
Ill discipline of    Unexpected injury or Participants and        Prior knowledge of participants. Match the      All incidents.
participants.        hazard to participants public.               activity and venue to the type of behaviour
                     or members of the                            which can be reasonably expected. Clear
                     public.                                      instructions on standards of behaviour.
                                                                  Agreement signed by participants where
                                                                  appropriate. Adequate supervision.
                                                                  Appropriate personal and social education.
                                                                  Quick intervention and known sanctions.
                                                                  Change or abandon the activity if
                                                                  behaviour is likely to enhance the risk of
                                                                  injury.
Falls from a         Serious physical             All             Risk assessment during pre visit.               All incidents whether
high place.          injury.                                      Avoidance of hazard (except where               injury occurs or not -
                                                                  essential part of the activity – see activity   treat as “near miss”
                                                                  specific risk assessments). Raise               incident.
                                                                  awareness as part of safety education.
                                                                  Adequate supervision. If practicable put
                                                                  barrier in front of hazard. Prevention of
                                                                  unruly behaviour.
Darkness. Poor       Enhanced                     All             Careful planning and time management.           All unplanned incidents.
visibility.          vulnerability to other                       Avoidance of remote places in winter
Benightment.         harm.                                        months. High visibility clothing. Torch as
                                                                  part of emergency equipment. Appropriate
                                                                  choice of site for night orienteering.
                                                                  Progressive training of participants.
                                                                  Adequate organisation and supervision of
                                                                  planned activities. well understood recall
                                                                  procedures.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 176 of 251
Hazard               Risk                         Who             Controls                                        Review
Weather              Discomfort,                  All             Consult weather forecast, assess                All incidents where
conditions.          hypothermia and                              implications, and plan accordingly.             controls are insufficient.
Precipitation.       hyperthermia.                                Waterproof and windproof clothing, head
Cold and heat.                                                    cover and gloves available for wear by all
Wind strength                                                     participants. Warm underclothing to cover
and direction.                                                    all limbs – suitable for heat or cold as
                                                                  appropriate to activity. Group shelter when
                                                                  in remote locations. Careful observation of
                                                                  condition of the party.
Extremely            Vulnerability to             All             Consult weather forecast, assess                All incidents where
adverse              environmental risks                          extremity of conditions. Modify plans or        controls are insufficient
weather              greatly enhanced.                            cancel excursion or activity. Stop on-
conditions.                                                       going activities and seek place of shelter
Heavy rain,                                                       and security. Contact emergency services
very cold, very                                                   and seek assistance. Implement
windy, winter                                                     emergency survival procedures
conditions.                                                       appropriate to activity.
High water           Enhanced risk of             All             Consult weather forecast and heed any           All incidents where
conditions in        being swept away or                          warnings. Avoid any hazard. Modify plans        controls are insufficient
rivers and           drowning.                                    or cancel excursion or activity. Halt on-
burns. Local                                                      going activities and seek place of shelter
flooding.                                                         and security.
Fire in              Burns, smoke                 All             Strict compliance with fire precautions. No     All incidents where
extremely dry        inhalation, asphyxia                         smoking. No campfires or barbecues.             controls are insufficient.
conditions on        or fatality.                                 No use of naked flames. Raise awareness
grassland and                                                     as part of safety education. Responsible
in woodland.                                                      exercise of rights of access.
Infections from      Lymes disease.               All             Awareness of risk of infection. Vigilance       All incidents where
tick bites.                                                       for tick bites and covering up bare skin        controls are insufficient.
                                                                  when in grassy, forested habitat during
                                                                  peak times (especially June and July).
                                                                  Removal of ticks at earliest opportunity,
                                                                  identification of diagnostic rash and
                                                                  medical treatment.

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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 177 of 251
                                                                                                                              Appendix 14


 1       GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – ALL EDUCATIONAL VISITS:

Hazard                Risk/Harm                    Who             Control                                         Review
Incompetence or       Various but serious          All             Clear authorisation procedures                  Every incident that
poor judgement        Injury, possible                             Careful assessment of risk during pre visit     raises doubt about a
by group leader       fatality                                     Supervision of work of staff                    leader‟s competence
Exposure to           Cold injury, heat            All             Consider possible weather conditions and        Report all incidents
weather               injury, over exposure                        plan appropriate programme. Clothing and        Review all incidents
                      to sun                                       equipment are appropriate (warm and
                                                                   waterproof clothing and, in summer, sun
                                                                   protection).
                                                                   Plan for pupils who do not bring suitable
                                                                   kit – check before departure and/or bring
                                                                   spares.
                                                                   Daily weather forecast obtained and plans
                                                                   adjusted accordingly.
                                                                   Provide clear information re. suitable
                                                                   clothing and equipment for pupils and
                                                                   parents.
Pupil lost or         Injury, possible             Pupils          Plan supervision before visit and brief staff   Report all incidents
separated from        fatality                                     and pupils.                                     Review all incidents
group,                                                             Ensure supervising staff are competent
inadequate                                                         and understand their roles.
supervision                                                        Appropriate ratios for activity.
                                                                   Plan and use suitable group control
                                                                   measures (e.g. buddy systems, large
                                                                   groups split into small groups each with
                                                                   named leaders, coloured caps etc).
                                                                   Discuss itinerary and arrangements with
                                                                   pupils.
                                                                   Briefing to all on what to do if separated
                                                                   from group.
                                                                   Head counts by leaders particularly at
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 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 178 of 251
Hazard                Risk/Harm                    Who             Control                                         Review
                                                                   arrival/departure points, and when
                                                                   separating and reforming groups.
Illness or injury     Illness, injury              All             At least 1 Leader with each group is first      Report all incidents
                                                                   aid trained                                     Review all incidents
                                                                   Leaders know how to call emergency
                                                                   services
                                                                   Pupils and parents are reminded to bring
                                                                   individual medication and this is kept
                                                                   securely
                                                                   First aid and travel sickness equipment
                                                                   carried
                                                                   Mobile phones carried
                                                                   Emergency contacts with establishment
                                                                   and parents arranged
                                                                   Check first aid certificates are current.
                                                                   Remind parents pupils re medication.
                                                                   Medication brought by pupils.
Hyper allergens,      Pain, discomfort,            All             Medical information about vulnerable            Report all incidents
bee and wasp          anaphylaxis due to                           people                                          Review all incidents
stings, nuts etc.     stings and nuts                              Avoidance of hazard
                                                                   Appropriate clothing/equipment
                                                                   Ensure those with known allergies carry
                                                                   medication such as epi pen treatment
                                                                   Checking of food by group leader
Wildlife and          Bites, stings, rashes,       All             Awareness of hazard and avoidance of            Report all incidents
poisonous plants      wounds, crush                                livestock.                                      Review all incidents
                      injuries, inflammation                       Warnings against eating berries,
                      and pain                                     mushrooms, etc.
Existing medical      Overcome by                  Those with      Obtain information from parents.                Report all incidents
conditions and        symptoms of                  conditions      Use recommended parental consent form.          where controls
Special needs         condition, e.g.                              Take advice from SEN manager if                 insufficient.
                      asthma, epilepsy,                            appropriate.                                    Review all incidents
                      diabetes                                     Make necessary arrangements for
                                                                   individual pupils including individual risk
                                                                   assessment and additional staffing as
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 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 179 of 251
Hazard                Risk/Harm                    Who                 Control                                        Review
                                                                       necessary.
                                                                       Means of emergency communication
                                                                       Means of making casualty comfortable
                                                                       Transport close at hand
Anti social           Verbal, physical,            All especially      Enhance disclosure check all leaders           Report all incidents
interactions          sexual abuse                 vulnerable young    Avoid unsupervised access to young             Review all incidents
                                                   people              people
                                                                       Young people to work in pairs or groups
                                                                       Adequate supervision, group always in
                                                                       sight
                                                                       Consent to visit site or locality
                                                                       Avoidance of places where hazard might
                                                                       be high
Ill discipline of     Unexpected injury or         Pupils and public   Clear instructions on standards of             Report all incidents
participants          hazard to members                                behaviour                                      Review all incidents
                      of the public                                    Adequate supervision
                                                                       Appropriate personal and social education
                                                                       Quick intervention and known sanctions
Leaders‟ own          Injury, possible             All                 If staff or volunteers‟ families join group,   Report all incidents
children              fatality                                         pupil supervision must not be                  Review all incidents
                                                                       compromised
                                                                       Staff children are of a similar age to group
                                                                       and supervised with pupils or separate
                                                                       supervision must be arranged
                                                                       Consider before agreeing staffing
Indirect or           Injury, possible             Pupils              If remote supervision is proposed:             Report all incidents
remote                fatality                                         Check that location is suitable for this       Review all incidents
supervision                                                            mode of supervision
(includes field                                                        Ensure pupils sufficiently briefed and
work, souvenir                                                         competent (any individual pupils for whom
shopping, theme                                                        indirect supervision is not suitable must be
parks, historic                                                        directly supervised)
sites, etc)                                                            Clear guidelines and emergency
                                                                       procedures set and understood
                                                                       Pupils remain in pairs or groups (e.g.
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                             Page 180 of 251
Hazard                Risk/Harm                    Who             Control                                         Review
                                                                   buddy system – each responsible for
                                                                   named other)
                                                                   Rendezvous points and meeting times set
                                                                   Pupils know how to contact staff
                                                                   Staff understand they are still responsible.
                                                                   Parents informed and consent given
Return from           Termination of               Pupils          Return is pre-planned and parents are           Report all incidents
excursions            supervision resulting                        informed where to collect pupils (or it is      Review all incidents
particularly after    in injury or serious                         pre-arranged with parents that older pupils
school hours          incident                                     will walk home).
                                                                   Suitable arrangements are made for any
                                                                   pupils whose parents fail to collect them
                                                                   Include this in information to parents.
Emergencies           Injury, possible             All             The establishment has an emergency plan         Report all incidents
                      fatality                                     for dealing with an incident on an              Review all incidents
                                                                   educational visit.
                                                                   Contact details of parents, school liaison,
                                                                   and establishment head are held by group
                                                                   leader.
                                                                   Leader and establishment contact has
                                                                   instructions as to what to do in an
                                                                   emergency.
                                                                   All staff understand emergency plan and
                                                                   their role. Pupils briefed appropriately.




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 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 181 of 251
                                                                                                                               Appendix 15


  2       GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – TRAVEL ON EDUCATIONAL VISITS

Hazard                  Risk/Harm                   Who              Existing Control                              Review
Incompetence or         Various but serious         All              Explicit authorisation procedures             Every incident that
poor judgement          Injury, possible                             Careful assessment of risk during pre         raises doubt about a
by Group Leader         fatality                                     visit                                         leader‟s competence
                                                                     Competence of staff assessed as apart
                                                                     of risk assessment.

On foot                 Injury, possible            All              Walk on foot planned to avoid dangerous Report all incidents
- Traffic               fatality                                     roads wherever possible                   Review all incidents
- Anti social                                                        Supervision on pavements, roads.
  interactions                                                       Crossing of any busy roads is pre-
                                                                     planned
                                                                     Pupils are briefed re hazards and
                                                                     behaviour required
                                                                     If abroad, pupils are briefed re. traffic
                                                                     direction and foreign traffic regulations

Coach                   Injury, possible            All              Coach used meets Council requirements         Report all incidents
- Traffic accident      fatality, separated                          – hired from accredited coach company         Review all incidents
- Embarcation           from group                                   Coaches have seat belts which staff
  disembarkation                                                     ensure are used
                                                                     Buses without seat belts are only used
                                                                     for local journeys
                                                                     Supervision ratios appropriate for group
                                                                     and journey
                                                                     Suitable embarkation points used (e.g.
                                                                     coach park, onto wide pavement)
                                                                     Close supervision and head counts
                                                                     during any breaks in journey and getting
                                                                     on and off coach

  ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 182 of 251
Hazard                  Risk/Harm                   Who              Existing Control                              Review
Minibus                 Injury, possible            All              Minibus driver has PVC or SCC Permit          Report all incidents
                        fatality, separated                          to drive (PCV licence if abroad)              Review all incidents
                        from group                                   Bus has small bus permit in windscreen
                                                                     Driver ensures seatbelts are used
                                                                     Luggage on roof does not exceed 100kg
                                                                     Luggage in vehicle securely fastened
                                                                     and clear of aisles
                                                                     If abroad, minibus and drivers‟ hours
                                                                     follow EC requirements
                                                                     Driver must read and follow policy for
                                                                     educational visits re minibuses
                                                                     Care always taken in parking in suitable
                                                                     places for disembarkation
                                                                     Close supervision and head counts
                                                                     during any breaks in journey and getting
                                                                     in and out of bus
Use of private          Injury, possible            All              Driver confirms car is insured to carry       Report all incidents
vehicles                fatality                                     pupils and is roadworthy                      Review all incidents
                                                                     Seatbelts worn at all times
                                                                     Permission obtained from parents
Public transport        Injury, possible            All              Specific plan/risk assessment completed       Report all incidents
(bus, tram, train,      fatality, person left                        prior to journey                              Review all incidents
underground etc)        behind/separated                             Identify higher risk points including
                        from group                                   getting on and off transport and have a
                                                                     specific plan for these including briefing
                                                                     staff and pupils and head counts
                                                                     Larger parties split into manageable
                                                                     groups. (Unless remote supervision has
                                                                     been agreed)
                                                                     Each party with adequate staffing to
                                                                     ensure pupils all get on or off transport
                                                                     safely.
                                                                     For crowded transport situations, such
                                                                     as the London Underground, this can
                                                                     require very high ratios.
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  Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 183 of 251
Hazard                 Risk/Harm                   Who              Existing Control                              Review
                                                                    All staff and pupils know destination and
                                                                    route and what to do if separated from
                                                                    main group
                                                                    (Unless remote supervision agreed),
                                                                    staff are with pupils in each carriage,
                                                                    deck of bus etc

Service station        Injury, possible            All              Brief pupils:                                 Report all incidents
and other breaks       fatality, left                               Re purpose and timings of stop                Review all incidents
in journey             behind/separated                             How and where to contact staff
                       from group                                   Remain in pairs or threes (buddy system
                                                                    – each responsible for named other)
                                                                    Remind re moving traffic (driving on right
                                                                    abroad)
                                                                    Careful head count before departure
Use of passenger       Drowning, injury            All              Pre-visit                                     Report all incident
ferries, pleasure                                                   Brief staff and pupils re risks and control   Review all incidents
craft etc                                                           measures
                                                                    Leader must check that vessel is
                                                                    licensed
                                                                    Leader should risk assess journey with
                                                                    reference to size/age of pupils
                                                                    Consider areas where smaller children
                                                                    could fall (overboard/down stairways etc)
                                                                    and arrange close supervision
                                                                    Consider if/when personal buoyancy
                                                                    should be worn
                                                                    With groups of small children, leader
                                                                    must pre-check craft has sufficient
                                                                    personal buoyancy of appropriate size
Ferry crossing         Injury, possible     All                      Close supervision on vehicle deck            Report all incident
                       fatality, drowning,                           “Rules” established and pupils briefed       Review all incidents
                       separated from group                          especially re open deck area (not
                                                                     permitted in dark or if sea rough)
                                                                     Remain in pairs or threes (buddy system
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 184 of 251
Hazard                 Risk/Harm                   Who              Existing Control                          Review
                                                                    – each responsible for named other)
                                                                    Establish a specific seating area/meeting
                                                                    point and have a member of staff there
                                                                    throughout crossing
                                                                    Explain the ferries emergency
                                                                    procedures (term muster station, etc.) to
                                                                    the group
                                                                    Plan arrangements for docking
                                                                    reminding group of numbered stairway to
                                                                    coach deck
                                                                    Careful head count before
                                                                    disembarkation
                                                                    Planned procedure for missing pupils –
                                                                    e.g. member of staff to leave as foot
                                                                    passenger
                                                                    Arrange procedures with staff and pupils
                                                                    before arrival at ferry




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 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 185 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 16


3 GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – RESIDENTIAL VISIT (ACCOMMODATION)

Hazard              Risk/Harm                     Who             Existing Control                              Review
Fire                Injury, possible fatality     All             Pre-visit assessment. If not undertaken,      Report all incidents
                                                                  check on information/assurance from           Review all incidents
                                                                  reputable tour operator.
                                                                  Check on arrival.
                                                                  Take up any issues, such as locked fire
                                                                  doors, with management.
                                                                  Inform group re fire procedures on
                                                                  arrival.
                                                                  Check accommodation meets national
                                                                  standards, i.e. meets fire officer‟s
                                                                  recommendations/or has fire certificate.
                                                                  Establish no smoking rule.
                                                                  Visit site visual inspection of fire
                                                                  escapes, alarms, equipment, meeting
                                                                  point and procedures.
                                                                  Check systems again on arrival
Special needs       Injury                        All             Pre-visit check as necessary.                 Report all incidents
                                                                  Accommodation meets any special               Review all incidents
                                                                  needs of anyone in the group
Night time          Injury, possible fatality     Pupils          Information gained from parents re pupil      Report all incidents
tendencies                                                        illnesses, sleepwalking, etc.                 Review all incidents
                                                                  Suitable supervision arranged to meet
                                                                  needs of pupils
Hygiene             Illness                       All             Pre-visit check and/or check of               Report all incidents
                                                                  information/assurance from reputable          Review all incidents
                                                                  tour operator.
                                                                  Tourist board rating/environmental
                                                                  health endorsement or similar.
                                                                  Visual inspection of washing facilities,
                                                                  toilets, lighting, heating, ventilation,
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 186 of 251
Hazard              Risk/Harm                     Who             Existing Control                               Review
                                                                  catering, general cleanliness


  Domestic          Injury, possible fatality     All             Pre-visit check and/or check of                Report all incidents
  hazards                                                         information/assurance from reputable           Review all incidents
                                                                  tour operator.
                                                                  Accommodation has tourist board
                                                                  rating/other external validation of
                                                                  standards
                                                                  Check on arrival and insist on changes if
                                                                  necessary
                                                                  On arrival, staff and pupils to report any
                                                                  faulty items found in rooms.
                                                                  Visual inspection of balconies, stairways,
                                                                  glass doors, electrical fittings, hazards in
                                                                  grounds or immediate surroundings
                                                                  Brief group re any hazards and establish
                                                                  necessary rules including no climbing on
                                                                  balconies, proper use of lifts etc.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 187 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 17


4       GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – USE OF A PROVIDER/TOUR OPERATOR/
        ARRANGED PROGRAMMES (e.g. visit to adventure centres, use of freelance
        instructors, cultural tour abroad)

Hazard         Risk/Harm                          Who             Existing Control                              Review
Provision does Injury, possible fatality          All             Leader to check and raise any concerns        Report all incidents
not meet                                                          with Head of Establishment                    Review all incidents
appropriate                                                       Check that organisation is reputable,
standards                                                         competent and safe
/best practice                                                    Check literature provided
                                                                  Gain information from other users
                                                                  Check leaders of adventure activities are
                                                                  appropriately qualified/centre has AALA
                                                                  licence
                                                                  Pre-visit to centre
                                                                  Notification to Education Services
                                                                  completed in advance
                                                                  Leader maintains dynamic assessment
                                                                  throughout visit
Programme           Injury, possible fatality     All             Establishment gives necessary                 Report all incidents
does not meet                                                     information to provider about age, ability    Review all incidents
needs of                                                          and any special needs in group
group                                                             Programme is agreed with provider
                                                                  before visit
Lack of clarity Injury, possible fatality         All             Ensure that a clear programme is agreed       Report all incidents
re split of                                                       and separate responsibilities for             Review all incidents
responsibilities                                                  establishment and provider are clear
between                                                           Ensure all aspects of visit, travel,
establishment                                                     accommodation and activities are
and provider                                                      properly planned and risks assessed by
                                                                  establishment or provider
                                                                  Where establishment is undertaking
                                                                  responsibility for activities (e.g. evening
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 188 of 251
Hazard              Risk/Harm                     Who             Existing Control                              Review
                                                                  activities, town visits) these are properly
                                                                  planned and risk assessed




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 189 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 18


5       GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT – SPORTS MATCHES
        (including after-school away matches) Please refer to generic
        risk assessments 1 (All Visits) and 2 (Travel)

 Hazard            Risk/Harm                      Who            Existing Control                              Review
 Parents           Parental anxiety/lack          Pupils         Parents informed in writing of their          Report all incidents
 unaware of        of parental approval           Parents        child‟s involvement in sports fixtures        Review all incidents
 activity                                                        including accurate dates and times
                                                                 It is good practice to obtain parental
                                                                 consent for after-hours activities – this
                                                                 could be a general consent covering a
                                                                 term or year
 Travel            Parents inadequately                          Follow generic risk assessment for travel     Report all incidents
                   informed Injury,                              Foresee any use of private cars and           Review all incidents
                   possible fatality                             ensure parental permission is given if
                                                                 pupils are to be transported in private
                                                                 cars, taken home by other parents, etc.
 Inadequate        Injury, possible fatality      Pupils         Pre-plan supervision and ensure               Report all incidents
 supervision                                                     numbers of staff sufficient to provide        Review all incidents
                                                                 suitable supervision for pupils
                                                                 participating and spectating, changing
                                                                 etc, and to deal with any injuries or
                                                                 emergencies
                                                                 Ensure pupils understand arrangements
                                                                 Keep a register of participants.
                                                                 Head count especially when leaving
                                                                 establishment, on arrival and departure.
                                                                 Inform staff and pupils of arrangements




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 190 of 251
 Hazard            Risk/Harm                      Who            Existing Control                              Review
 Return from       Injury, possibly               Pupils         Return is pre-planned and parents are         Report all incidents
 visits after      serious                                       informed where to collect pupils from (or     Review all incidents
 school            Interruption of                               it is pre-agreed with parents that older
 hours             adequate supervision                          pupils will walk home)
                                                                 Suitable arrangements are made for any
                                                                 pupils whose parents fail to collect them
                                                                 Include in information to parents




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 191 of 251
                                                                                                                                  Appendix 19


6       GENERIC RISK ASSESSMENT: ACTIVITIES LOCAL TO THE ESTABLISHMENT
        (including traffic surveys, visits to local church etc.)
        Please refer to generic risk assessments 1 (All visits) and 2 (Travel)

    Hazard        Risk/Harm                       Who                  Existing Control                              Review
    Parents       Parental concern                Pupils and parents   Follow procedure outlined in SC48             Report all incidents
    unaware of                                                         including informing parents annually or       Review all incidents
    activity                                                           specifically that children will be off-site
    Traffic       Injury, possible fatality       All                  Refer to Generic Risk Assessment 2            Report all incidents
    accident                                                           (Travel)                                      Review all incidents
                                                                       Consider all aspects of journey to be
                                                                       made and plan supervision accordingly
                                                                       When conducting traffic surveys, plan
                                                                       suitable low risk locations for pupils to
                                                                       operate from.
                                                                       Brief pupils and staff
    Pupil         Injury, possible fatality       Pupils               Information to parents                        Report all incidents
    separated                                                          Pre-plan supervision and ensure               Review all incidents
    from group                                                         sufficient staff
                                                                       Ensure pupils understand arrangements,
                                                                       that they are part of an establishment
                                                                       party and must stay with group and
                                                                       follow instructions
                                                                       Have a list of who is in the group.
                                                                       Head count when leaving establishment
                                                                       and returning to establishment and at
                                                                       key points, e.g. when leaving a building
                                                                       or venue.
    Abuse by      Injury                          Pupils and staff     Information to parents                        Report all incidents
    member of                                                          Pre-plan supervision and ensure               Review all incidents
    the public                                                         sufficient staff
                                                                       Ensure pupils understand arrangements,
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                Page 192 of 251
 Hazard           Risk/Harm                       Who            Existing Control                                Review
                                                                 that they are part of an establishment
                                                                 party and must stay with group and
                                                                 follow instructions
                                                                 Have a list of who is in the group.
                                                                 Head count when leaving establishment
                                                                 and returning to establishment and at
                                                                 key points, e.g. when leaving a building
                                                                 or venue.
                                                                 Consider personal safety training for
                                                                 adults
 Remote           Injury, possible fatality       Pupils         If remote supervision proposed, plan            Report all incidents
 supervision                                                     activity with reference to control              Review all incidents
                                                                 measures in generic risk assessment 1
 Illness or       Injury, possible fatality       All            Ensure that plan is in place and all            Report all incidents
 accident                                                        understand this                                 Review all incidents
                                                                 Ensure sufficient supervisors to deal with
                                                                 an incident and care for rest of group
                                                                 Take mobile phone to be able to call
                                                                 establishment or emergency services
                                                                 Pupils have medication if necessary (e.g.
                                                                 asthma inhalers)
                                                                 One leader to be responsible for first aid
                                                                 and carry first aid kit
                                                                 If conducting a litter survey arrange
                                                                 suitable protective gloves and equipment
                                                                 if pupils are to handle litter (Consider risk
                                                                 from needles)
                                                                 Ensure group have protective clothing
                                                                 for prevailing weather
 Behaviour        Injury or possible              Pupils         Suitable arrangements are made for any          Report all incidents
 or special       fatality                                       pupils with special educational needs           Review all incidents
 needs of                                                        (see generic Risk Assessment 1 ALL
 individual                                                      VISITS)
 pupils

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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 193 of 251
Hazard            Risk/Harm                       Who           Existing Control                              Review
Rides,            Injury, possible fatality       All           Pre-visit check                               Report all incidents
machinery                                                       Briefing of pupils and information to         Review all incidents
and theme                                                       parents
park                                                            Use publicly well recognised, usually
attractions                                                     permanent or semi-permanent facilities
                                                                Theme parks should be able to provide
                                                                documentation which shows that they
                                                                are run according to the Amusement
                                                                Devices Inspection Procedures Scheme
                                                                (ADIPS) or other HSE recognised
                                                                scheme, and the attraction has £5m
                                                                public liability insurance
                                                                Pupils and staff have copies of park
                                                                rules and regulations and map of site;
                                                                prior discussion of hazards and control
                                                                measures, including behaviour required

Pupil             Injury, possible fatality       All           Site pre-visited by leader who seeks          Report all incidents
separated                                                       advice from management on procedures          Review all incidents
from group,                                                     for groups
assault,                                                        The site is fenced and/or has a clear
abuse by                                                        boundary
public, lack                                                    Park managers aware of group presence
of adequate                                                     and has mobile phone number of group
supervision                                                     leader.
                                                                Leaders can contact park manager
                                                                quickly if necessary
                                                                Pre-planned supervision with sufficient
                                                                staff.
                                                                Careful head counts at arrival and
                                                                departure
                                                                All staff carry lists of pupils
                                                                Staff can communicate with each other
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 194 of 251
Hazard            Risk/Harm                       Who           Existing Control                              Review
                                                                by phones or radios
                                                                Pupils work in groups and understand
                                                                responsibility to look out for others
                                                                Pupils never on their own
                                                                Leaders and pupils understand
                                                                arrangements including time and place
                                                                of meetings.
                                                                Central meeting point arranged, staffed
                                                                by full time rota or at very regular times
                                                                Arrangements made clear to parents
                                                                Information to parents re hazards and
                                                                supervision arrangements.
                                                                Briefing of pupils and staff




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 195 of 251
 Hazard          Risk/Harm                        Who           Existing Control                              Review
 Lack of         Injury, possible fatality        All           Clear educational purpose understood          Report all incidents
 focus of                                                       by pupils and leaders                         Review all incidents
 pupils on                                                      Clear structure for visit which is of a
 activity                                                       suitable duration and appropriate to age,
                                                                ability, and aptitude.

 Emergency Pupils, staff separated                All           Leader researches site‟s provision for        Report all incidents
           from group                                           emergencies such as staff with                Review all incidents
                                                                radio/telephone contacts, first aid
                                                                facilities etc. and group briefed on these.
                                                                Pupils in difficulty know to contact site
                                                                staff
                                                                Pupils and staff know what to do and
                                                                where to meet on site in emergency
                                                                Pupils and staff also know how to
                                                                identify and locate coach in coach park
                                                                Briefing of staff and pupils
 Fear and                                         All           Awareness of special needs, medical           Report all incidents
 anxiety                                                        conditions and personalities in group         Review all incidents
                                                                Progressive use of rides (less
                                                                demanding/frightening first)
                                                                Awareness of coping strategies e.g. say
                                                                “no” to peer pressure
 Terrain         Injury or possible               All           Pupils briefed re:                            Report all incidents
 features        fatality                                       Requirement to obey notices and theme         Review all incidents
 e.g. water,                                                    park instructions
 cliffs, steep                                                  Awareness of water hazards and what to
 ground                                                         do in case of incident
                                                                No unauthorised/unsupervised entry into
                                                                or onto water for swimming, paddling or
                                                                rides, water-sports, boats, etc.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 196 of 251
                                                                                                                                Appendix 20


Risk Assessment. Hill Walking: Common Hazards, Risks and Controls.

 Hazards          Risk                            Who           Controls                                       Review
 Incompeten       Avoidable incident              All           Advance visit and familiarity with locality.   All incidents.
 t or poor                                                      Risk assessment of the site and activity.
 judgement                                                      Compliance with safety procedures and
 of leader                                                      advice. Experience and training
                                                                appropriate to responsibilities.
                                                                Appropriate planning and cautious
                                                                approach to activity. Leader to hold
                                                                appropriate award as per guidance.
 Rough,           Slips, stumbles, falls,         All           Walk at reasonable pace for whole              Report all injuries. Review
 uneven           sprains, twists,                              group. Appropriate footwear for                serious incidents.
 terrain          bruises, grazes or                            mountain walking. Walking pole
 presenting       limb injury.                                  available for less able participants to
 risk of slip                                                   provide support if required.
 or stumble.                                                    First Aid Kit and leader with First Aid
                                                                Certificate. Carry appropriate emergency
                                                                equipment with which to shelter a
                                                                casualty and make them comfortable.
                                                                Leader to hold award as per guidance.
 Dangerous Head, body and /or                     All           Avoid as far as possible if not an ML          All incidents.
 steep         limb injury.                                     award holder. If it has to be negotiated,
 ground, with                                                   then draw attention to the hazard and
 risk of                                                        negotiate cautiously. Wear head
 uncontrolled                                                   protection. Leader to hold ML Summer
 slide or fall                                                  Award.
 from a high
 place.
 Severe cold Cold injuries/frostbite.             All           Adequate clothing - gloves. Hat, scarf         All incidents requiring
                                                                and socks. Descend immediately                 medical treatment.
                                                                symptoms appear and rewarm slowly.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 197 of 251
 Hazards          Risk                            Who           Controls                                      Review
                                                                Refer to doctor.
 More             Discomfort, cold,               All           Consult weather forecast. Modify plans if     All incidents of activities
 extreme          hypothermia and                               necessary. Waterproof and windproof           being aborted because of
 weather          hyperthermia.                                 clothing. Hats and gloves. Daysack with       individual or group
 hazards.                                                       spare clothing and spare food. Group          discomfort.
                                                                shelter. Each participant to carry survival
                                                                pack.


 Very             Drowning and                    All           Avoid as far as reasonable and                All incidents.
 variable         immersion exposure.                           practicable. Raise awareness as part of
 water            Enhanced risk of slip.                        safety education. Leader to hold MLS
 hazards                                                        award and carry rope or throwing line,
 and                                                            walking poles to aid balance and give
 streams.                                                       additional support if required. Avoid
 Rivers in                                                      entering water above knee depth. Spare
 spate.                                                         clothing available.
 Tiredness        Enhanced possibility            All           Advance visit and familiarity with the        All incidents. Report
 and              of slip or stumble and                        area. Awareness of hazard and careful         serious cases as “near
 physical         greater susceptibility                        observation by leader. Careful planning,      miss” incidents.
 exhaustion.      to cold.                                      keeping to route and walking so that
                                                                planned distance is achieved in time
                                                                available. Progressive training of
                                                                participants.
 Blisters and     Enhanced possibility            All           Well fitting boots or shoes and clean         All serious cases.
 sore feet        of a late return or                           cushioned socks. Pre-plastering feet and
 slowing the      benightment.                                  /or quick treatment as soon as
 party.           Discomfort and                                discomfort felt. Progressive training of
                  infection.                                    participants. Leader sensitive to
                                                                participants‟ discomfort. All serious
                                                                blisters referred to doctor.
 Mist,            Failure to avoid     All                      Familiarity with the area and advance         Leader in charge to review
 darkness         hazards and                                   visit. Knowledge of location of hazards.      all incidents of
 and poor         enhanced exposure to                          Experienced leaders with adequate map         disorientation. Report
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 198 of 251
 Hazards          Risk                            Who           Controls                                       Review
 visibility.      hazard for a longer                           reading skills. Leaders‟ ability to navigate   serious or inexplicable
 Becoming         time.                                         in poor visibility assessed. Careful           incidents as a “near miss”.
 lost or                                                        planning, keeping to route and walking to
 disorientate                                                   time. Leader with MLS award on higher
 d.                                                             and more remote hills.
 Benightmen       Greater exposure to             All           Familiarity with the area and advanced         Review all incidents.
 t                other hazards for a                           visit. Spare clothing and food. Shelter
                  longer period of time.                        from wind and weather. Either plastic
                  Head or limb injuries.                        personal bags and or group shelter.
                                                                Careful planning and walking to time.
                                                                Awareness of length of daylight hours.
                                                                Leader carries torch in summer. All
                                                                participants to carry torches during
                                                                winter months.

 Falling or       Head body or limb               All           Avoid situations where people are              Review all incidents.
 tumbling         injuries.                                     moving around above. Keep participants         Report all incidents that
 rocks                                                          close together and as far as possible out      might have resulted in
                                                                of the fall line of displaced stones. Wear     injury as “near miss”
                                                                helmets where risk may be high –               incidents.
                                                                narrow loose gullies and gorges. Avoid
                                                                descending steep loose terrain. Leader
                                                                with ML award when hazard is known.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 199 of 251
                                                                                                                              Appendix 21


 Risk Assessment. Multi Pitch Rock Climbing: Hazards, Risks and controls

Hazard             Risk                            Who           Controls                                      Review
Loose rock         Displaced rock                  All           Participants will wear climbing helmets       The venue will be
causing the                                                      while climbing or belaying.                   abandoned if any incident
failure of a                                                                                                   occurs.
hand or
foothold
and/or
displacement
of rock.
Lack of            Leader may fall                 All           All participants will wear a harness for      Equipment will be
physical or                                                      rock climbing. Instructors will already be    inspected in the event of a
technical                                                        familiar with the routes used for             leader sustaining a fall.
ability.                                                         instruction. Only climbs which can be
                                                                 well protected will be used for
                                                                 instructional purposes. The instructor will
                                                                 protect the ascent with running belays to
                                                                 limit the extent of a Leader fall. The
                                                                 instructor will have been assessed as
                                                                 technically competent to place effective
                                                                 protection as part of the assessment for
                                                                 the MIA or MIC.
Falling and        The leader or the               All           Prior to ascending multi pitch routes         The venue will be
being unable       seconding climber                             which traverse overhanging rock, all          abandoned if any incident
to regain the      may fall and be                               participants will practice ascending a        occurs.
rock.              unable to regain the                          rope using prussic knots. During ascents
                   rock.                                         all participants will carry rope loops
                                                                 suitable for prussiking. Instructors will
                                                                 practice casualty hoisting techniques
                                                                 annually.

 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 200 of 251
Hazard             Risk                     Who                  Controls                                     Review
Unexpected         Changing weather         All                  In the event of a climb becoming too         The venue will be
changes in the     conditions may make                           difficult as a consequence of changing       abandoned if any incident
weather.           the climb more difficult                      conditions, a descent will be made by        occurs.
                   than usual.                                   the instructor first lowering participants
                                                                 and then personally descending using an
                                                                 abseil technique. Routes will be selected
                                                                 for instruction which have large stances
                                                                 and sound belays from which an abseil
                                                                 descent can be made safely. Instructors
                                                                 will carry with them on the climb
                                                                 equipment for creating safe abseil
                                                                 stations, and for protecting themselves
                                                                 during an abseil descent.
                                                                 Double ropes will be used when leading
                                                                 to enable a lower of 300ft.
Incorrect use      An uncontrolled fall.           All           Only qualified instructors will be           The venue will be
of equipment                                                     employed, whose competence has been          abandoned if any incident
and/or poor                                                      endorsed by the SMLTB/UKMTB.                 occurs.
rope
management.
Failure of         Failure of runners or           All           All belays will be constructed with at       Equipment will be
points of          belays may result in a                        least three secure points of attachment      monitored and subjected to
attachment to      fall and/or rock                              to the rock. More will be used if            a thorough annual check.
the rock.          displacement.                                 available.
Failure of         Equipment may fail or           All           Only ropes with a diameter of at least       Equipment will be
equipment          be used incorrectly.                          10mm will be used for multi pitch rock       monitored and subjected to
                                                                 climbing. Ropes, slings and karabiners       a thorough annual check.
                                                                 will be used which have a recorded           Technological advances in
                                                                 history. Before an ascent all equipment      equipment will be reviewed
                                                                 will be checked as fit for the purpose.      and adopted.
                                                                 Ropes with obvious damage will be
                                                                 taken out of service. After a period of
                                                                 use and in accord with the
                                                                 manufacturers recommendations, ropes
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 201 of 251
Hazard             Risk                            Who           Controls                                        Review
                                                                 will be taken out of service for multi pitch
                                                                 climbing and used for less exacting
                                                                 purposes.




Lack of            Participants may be             All           The ratio of instructors to participants will   Review practice annually
understanding      exposed to the risk of                        never exceed 1:2 to enable the instructor       or in the event of problem
of technical       an uncontrolled fall or                       to easily ensure that inexperienced             occurrence.
skill on the       other difficulties.                           participants are looking after their own
part of novice                                                   safety competently.
participants                                                     Novice climbers will be introduced on
                                                                 straight forward climbs with large belay
                                                                 stances.
Mismanageme Mismanagement of a                     All           Only instructors trained and assessed as        Annually or in the event of
nt of the safety group and/or their                              competent by the SMLT/UKMTB to                  problem occurrence.
of participants. safety may cause an                             manage the safety of participants during
                 accident.                                       the ascent of multi pitch rock climbs will
                                                                 be deployed by the Council, or those
                                                                 acting on its behalf.




 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                             Page 202 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 22


Risk Assessment. Paddlesport Activities: Common Hazards, Risk and Controls 1.

Hazard            Risk                      Who                 Controls                                     Review
Trips, slips      Due to the rough and All                      Course design should take account of         All incidents will be
and falls         uneven nature of the                          the ability level of the intended            recorded and evaluated.
while moving      terrain and the                               participants.
across            competitive element                           Consideration must be given to the
rough,            present in Orienteering,                      length of the course and the nature of
uneven and        there is a high risk of                       the underfoot conditions. Footwear
overgrown         these injuries occurring.                     appropriate to these conditions should
terrain                                                         be used which provide support to the
resulting in                                                    ankle and ample grip underfoot.
injury to
limbs,
including
bruises and
fractures.
Injuries          The risk of injury              All           Students should be warned against the   All incidents will be
sustained         whilst negotiating                            dangers of collapsing walls and dykes   recorded and evaluated.
whilst            obstacles is low when                         and barbed wire fencing. Courses should
negotiating       students are able to                          be designed to avoid any need to cross
obstacles         follow a well-planned                         dangerous obstacles. Alternatively,
like walls,       course. However, if a                         dangerous crossing points should be
fences and        student is unable to                          made safe by covering barbed wire or
ditches.          follow the intended                           providing a stile or gate.
                  “Safe corridor”, the
                  risk may increase.
Isolation,        The level of risk of a          All           Pre-visit the area. Careful course           All incidents will be
becoming          student becoming lost                         planning. Waterproof map/ map case           recorded and evaluated.
lost. Losing      or isolated from the                          and control card. Assistants monitor
the map.          rest of the group will                        critical points for navigational errors.
                  increase when                                 Build up ability gradually. Reporting in
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 203 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Controls                                     Review
                  working with novices                          system. Safety instructions on maps and
                  and/or using more                             control cards. Plan several short courses
                  demanding courses.                            rather than one long one.


Adverse           Hypothermia,hyperth             All           Choice of area. Check that clothing is    All incidents will be
weather:          ermia,                                        adequate for prevailing conditions. Spare recorded and evaluated.
wet, cold,        dehydration.                                  clothes, drinks and shelter.
wind, hot
Thorns and        Infected scratches              All           Full body and leg coverage. First Aid kit    All incidents will be
brambles                                                        and washing facilities post activity.        recorded and evaluated.
Walls,            Impact injuries, cuts           All           Briefing on danger of collapsing walls       All incidents will be
fences and        and lacerations.                              and barbed fences. Course design to          recorded and evaluated.
ditches.                                                        reduce need to cross such obstacles.

Busy roads        Collision with vehicle          All           Plan course to reduce chance of straying     All incidents will be
                                                                on to such a road or supervise the           recorded and evaluated.
                                                                crossing point.

Forestry          Injury from machinery           All           Check area in advance. Avoid areas of        All incidents will be
activity                                                        tree felling.                                recorded and evaluated.
Ticks             Lymes disease                   All           Briefing. Checking and removal post          All incidents will be
                                                                activity.                                    recorded and evaluated.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 204 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Control                                       Review
Adverse           Hypothermia and                 All           Consult weather forecast, be alert to         All reportable incidents
weather and       hyperthermia.                                 changes in weather and water                  and near misses.
water             Enhanced risk of                              conditions. Modify plans appropriately.
conditions.       other incidents.                              Proper clothing for conditions. Monitor all
(heat, cold,                                                    group members. Spare clothing readily
high winds                                                      accessible.
and
precipitation)
Moving and        Physical injury.                All           Instructors trained in correct techniques     All reportable incidents
handling                                                        to NGB standards. Adequate boat               and near misses.
kayaks.                                                         buoyancy. Teaching and following
                                                                principles of safe manual handling
                                                                whenever appropriate, under supervision
Access to         Slips and falls.                All           Instructors check access and egress           All reportable incidents
water,                                                          points. Briefing and supervision.             and near misses.
uneven and                                                      Appropriate footwear.
slippery
surfaces.
Water             Entrapment.                     All           Group control buoyancy aids correctly         All reportable incidents
                  Drowning.                                     fitted. Group members briefed on the          and near misses.
                                                                hazards and instructed in skills and
                                                                techniques before they need to deal with
                                                                them.
Deep water        Hypothermia,                    All           Participants undertake capsize exercises      All reportable incidents
                  entrapment and                                and experience being rescued before           and near misses.
                  drowning.                                     progressing to deeper water further from
                                                                shore.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 205 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Control                                      Review
Condition of      Injury. Enhanced risk           All           Equipment checked before and after use       All reportable incidents
equipment         of other incidents.                           – especially buoyancy bags and               and near misses.
                                                                footrests. System for reporting, repair
                                                                and maintenance. Equipment correctly
                                                                used. Emergency repair kit easily
                                                                available.


Loss of           Inability to paddle and         All           Spare paddles carried by the instructor.     All reportable incidents
paddle            control canoe,                                                                             and near misses.
                  enhancing risk of
                  other incidents.
Fatigue           Enhanced risk of                All           Activity appropriate to group and            All reportable incidents
                  other incidents                               conditions. Positive support to slower       and near misses.
                                                                members of the group. Monitor all group
                                                                members. Instructors carry towline.
Group             Enhanced risk of                All           Group briefing and control. Defined          All reportable incidents
separation        other incidents                               operating area.                              and near misses.
Contaminate       Water borne                     All           Check for the latest information at sites    All reportable incidents
d water           infections and toxins.                        with history of problem. Brief group on      and near misses
                  (Weil‟s disease,                              the hazards. Avoid if possible. Wash
                  Cryptosporidium,                              hands before eating or drinking. Close
                   E.coli. Blue-green                           monitoring following immersion.
                  algae etc.
Sharp             Cuts, grazes and                All           Appropriate footwear must be worn.           All incidents requiring
objects on        puncture wounds,                              Avoidance or removal of hazard.              treatment.
the ground        especially to the feet.
and under
water.
Intense           Sunburn and eye                 All           Briefing and depending on conditions:        All reportable incidents
sunlight          damage.                                       use of sunscreen, vigilance and              and near misses.
                                                                monitoring, especially of those with fair
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 206 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Control                                      Review
                                                                complexions, use of sunglasses; head,
                                                                arm and leg cover.

Capsized          Musculo-skeletal                All           Adequate buoyancy to reduce volume of        All incidents requiring
boats             injury to rescuer.                            water in boat. Following NGB guidance        treatment.
                                                                when performing rescues.
Collisions        Various impact                  All           Safety briefing and group control.           All reportable incidents
                  injuries.                                                                                  and near misses.
Skin              Rashes and infections           All           Disinfection of loaned clothing,             All incidents requiring
infections                                                      especially wetsuits. Briefing and            treatment.
                                                                screening medical information.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 207 of 251
           River Kayaking and River Canoeing

Hazard            Risk                            Who                 Control                                     Review
Rocks, trees,     Head injury                     All                 Group members wear safety helmet.           All incidents and near
branches                                                                                                          misses.
and paddles.
Rocks, trees,     Entrapment and                  All                 Prior knowledge of river. Instructor        All incidents and near
branches          drowning.                                           carries throw line and knife and is trained misses.
and                                                                   in their use.
submerged
fences.
Capsize and       Bodily injury.                  All                 Briefing. Effective buoyancy reduces        All incidents and near
entrapment        Drowning.                                           chance of pinning and entrapment.           misses.
against the                                                           Throw lines readily accessible at bow
rocks.                                                                and stern.
Swamping of       Enhanced exposure to All                            Spray decks to be used if waves are         All incidents and near
the boat.         other hazards.                                      likely to splash into cockpit. Check        misses.
                                                                      integrity of buoyancy bags.

            Sea Kayaking and Canoeing on Open Water

Hazard            Risk                            Who                 Control                                     Review
Fatigue           Exhaustion, slowing             Those less fit or   Toe line carried by the instructors.        All incidents and near
                  of group, increasing            unwell.                                                         misses.
                  exposure to other
                  hazards.
Swamping of       Enhanced exposure               All                 Spray decks to be used if waves are         All incidents and near
the boat          to other hazards.                                   likely to splash into cockpit. Check the    misses
                                                                      integrity of hatch seals/ buoyancy bags.

Distance from Enhanced exposure                   All                 Instructor carries VHF/mobile phone and     All incidents and near
the shore     to other hazards.                                       suitable distress flares to attract         misses
                                                                      attention.
Distress          Burns                           User and by-        Training in proper use of flares.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                              Page 208 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Control                                      Review
flares                                            standers.
Large vessels     Being run                       All           Keep clear of all large vessels while     Any incident where safety
and wash          down/swamped or                               under way. Be alert for dangerous wakes is compromised by the
from passing      capsized.                                     while close to shore. Avoid activities in proximity of other vehicles.
ships and fast                                                  busy shipping lanes or close to piers and
power boats                                                     harbour mouths.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 209 of 251
Risk Assessment. Paddlesports: Surfing, Common Hazards, Risks and Controls 3

Hazard            Risk                            Who                 Control                                      Review
Surfing           Various                         All                 Activities delivered by appropriately        All incidents and near
activities                                                            qualified surf coach.                        misses.
Frequent          Surfer‟s ear (aural             All                 Limit exposure or use earplugs and/or        All incidents requiring
immersion         osteomata)                                          skullcaps.                                   medical treatment.
Separation        Enhanced risks of               All                 Shore partly in signal contact with coach,   All incidents and near
                  other hazards                                       acting as look out for group. Competent      misses
                                                                      paddler stationed seaward of the break
                                                                      line to act as sweeper.
Multiple          Fatigue and                     All                 Ensuring conditions do not exceed            All incidents and near
capsizes          enhanced risk of                                    abilities of students.                       misses
                  other hazards
Collisions        Physical injury                 All participants    Briefing on surf etiquette, as in BCU Surf   All incidents and near
                                                  and other surfers   Yearbook.                                    misses
                                                  and swimmers.
Dumping           Impact with beach               All                 Avoid surfing in these conditions. Wait      All incidents and near
waves                                                                 until tide changes.                          misses
Rips              Prolonged immersion/            All                 Briefing on location of rips and             All incidents and near
                  hypothermia                                         importance of swimming at right angles       misses
                                                                      to rip, before swimming to beach.
Swimming in       Collision with the boat         All who capsize     Push boat ahead to beach so that wave
with boat                                         and exit            does not push it on top of swimming
                                                                      paddler.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                Page 210 of 251
Risk Assessment. Paddlesports: Canadian Canoeing and The use of Swimming Pools. Common Hazards, Risks and
Controls 2


Canadian Canoeing

Hazard            Risk                            Who                Control                                    Review
Swamping          Enhanced exposure               All                Adequate boat buoyancy.                    All incidents & near misses
                  to other hazards
Capsize &         Bodily injury,                  All                Briefing. Throw lines readily accessible   All incidents & near misses
entrapment        drowning                                           at bow & stern
against rocks
Throw lines       Entrapment, drowning All                           Safety knife ready to hand                 All incidents & near misses
& ropes           and impact injury                                  Avoid coils around the hand
High winds        Enhanced risk of     All                           Check weather forecast                     All incidents & near misses
                  capsize, swamping &                                Avoid open water in strong winds
                  hypothermia

Paddlesports in Swimming pools
Hazard            Risk                            Who                Control                                    Review
Swimming          Various                         All                Normal operating procedures for pool       All incidents & near misses
pool and its                                                         should be followed. Pool lifeguard or
environs                                                             holder of Rescue Test for Teachers and
                                                                     Coaches of Swimming on duty.
                                                                     Appropriate padding on boats, and
                                                                     safety briefing to prevent cracked tiles
Water             Drowning                        Non-swimmers       Buoyancy aid must be worn.                 All incidents & near misses
Paddlesport       Various                         Participants       Supervised by Level 2 Coach or above.      All incidents & near misses
activity                                                             Use a „buddy‟ system where possible,
                                                                     close supervision.

Paddlesport       Various                         Non- participant   Segregation of pool by roping off from     All incidents & near misses
activity                                          swimmers           paddlesports, and separate supervision
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 211 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who            Control                                     Review
Paddles           Injury to upper body            All            Paddles with metal edges must not be        All incidents & near misses
                  or head                                        used.
                                                                 Helmets and buoyancy aids to be used
                                                                 for Canoe Polo.
Boats             Body injury                     Participants   Use baths-trainer Kayaks                    Incidents and near misses
                  Entrapment &                                   Buddy system, close supervision:
                  drowning
Waterlogged       Lifting and moving –            Participants   Briefing and supervision                    Incidents requiring medical
boats             skeleto-muscular                                                                           treatment
                  injury
Number of         Various                         All            No more than 6 boats in a 25m pool,         All incidents & near misses
boats                                                            less for smaller pools, and more for
                                                                 larger pools as appropriate




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 212 of 251
                                                                                                                                     Appendix 23


Risk Assessment. Race Rowing Activities: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard            Risk                            Who                   Control                                       Review
Leader            Various                         All                   Minimum Leadership qualification              All incidents to be recorded.
                                                                        SARA/ARA Instructor Award                     Qualifications to be checked
                                                                        Coaches have prior knowledge of               annually
                                                                        participants‟ capabilities and limitations.
Participants      Various                         All, but              Proper instruction in watermanship &          All incidents to be recorded.
                                                  particularly novice   technique including capsize drills
                                                  participants
Weather           Enhanced risk of                All                   All participants wear adequate clothing       All incidents to be recorded.
                  other hazards                                         for conditions, & adequate spare clothing
                                                                        available.
                                                                        Check weather forecast.
                                                                        Abandon activities in deteriorating
                                                                        conditions
Cold water &      Hypothermia &                   All                   Ability to swim 50m in light clothing or      Frequency of incidents. All
immersion         drowning                                              wear lifejacket/buoyancy aid.                 incidents to be recorded.
                                                                        Safety boat/launch in attendance.



Collision         Impacts with solid              All                   Maintain proper look out.                     Frequency of incidents. All
                  objects, other craft                                  Learn & use simple commands for boat          incidents to be recorded.
                  and water users                                       control.
                                                                        Observe local navigation rules.
                                                                        Learn & practice accident and man-
                                                                        overboard drills.
Equipment         Various                         All                   Equipment maintained as fit for purpose       All incidents to be recorded.
                                                                        in accordance with SARA/ARA Water             All faulty or outdated
                                                                        Safety Code.                                  equipment to be discarded
                                                                                                                      and replaced where
                                                                                                                      necessary.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                   Page 213 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who                   Control                                      Review
Darkness          Various                         All                   To be avoided. Abandon activities in         All incidents to be recorded.
                                                                        failing light.

Additional        Various                         Participants with     Participants with such needs must be          All incidents to be recorded.
support                                           additional needs,     accompanied, and with enhanced rescue
needs                                             but potentially all   and first aid facilities appropriate to cope.
                                                  participants.
Safety            Various                         All                   Adequate for purpose, properly equipped All incidents to be recorded.
boat/launch                                                             and maintained, manned by competent
                                                                        personnel.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                  Page 214 of 251
                                                                                                                                    Appendix 24


Risk Assessment. Horse Riding: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard       Risk                                 Who                Control                                       Review
Riding       Various                              All                Establishment approved by ABRS, BHS           Each excursion
establishmen                                                         or TRSS for activities proposed.
t
Leader       Various                              All                Leader appropriately trained and              Each excursion
                                                                     assessed for the activity. Prior
                                                                     experience of route/venue. Route details
                                                                     left with responsible adult at base with
                                                                     details of emergency procedures in
                                                                     event of late return or incident.
Participants      Various                         All                Proper safety briefing and preparation        Every incident
                                                                     for the activity, taking account of fitness
                                                                     and competence. Matching temperament
                                                                     of horse to participants. Frequent head
                                                                     counts and monitoring of condition of
                                                                     participants.
Weather           Enhanced risk of                All participants   All participants wear adequate clothing       Every incident
                  other hazards                                      for conditions, & adequate spare clothing
                                                                     available. Check weather forecast,
                                                                     Abandon activities in deteriorating
                                                                     conditions
Clothing          Hypothermia,                    All                Proper clothing for conditions, including     Every incident
                  hyperthermia,                                      full arm and leg covering. Pace & length
                  sunburn                                            of trip appropriate to fitness of
                                                                     participants. Sun screen as necessary.

Technical         Various                         All                Equipment, saddlery and tack checked          Every incident
equipment                                                            regularly and maintained as fit for
                                                                     purpose. Consider body protectors if
                                                                     appropriate to activity.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                               Page 215 of 251
Hazard          Risk                              Who            Control                                        Review
Poor visibility Enhanced risk of                  All            Plan to complete activity well before light    Every incident
and             other hazards                                    deteriorates. Avoid roads in poor
darkness                                                         visibility.

Horses            Impact injury from fall,        All            Use of horses appropriate to participant       Every incident
                  collision, kick or bite.                       and activity. Ensure horse is adequately
                                                                 prepared for activity. Briefing participants
                                                                 on safe approach to horse. Riding
                                                                 helmets must be worn. Suitable footwear
                                                                 with heel. Not trainers.
Additional        Various                         All            Use recognised riding-for-the-disabled         Every incident
support                                                          establishment. Physically challenged
needs                                                            participants must be accompanied, and
                                                                 with enhanced rescue and first aid
                                                                 facilities appropriate to cope.
Collision         Impact injury                   Certain        Briefing, rules of the road: passing to the    Every incident
                                                  participants   left. No jewellery should be worn.
Loud noises       Bites and kicks                 All            Briefing. Avoid walking close behind           Every incident
& abusive                                                        horses. Avoid loud or abusive
movements                                                        movements that might spook the horses.
Branches          Various, from impact,           All            No jewellery should be worn. Long hair         Every incident
and other         tangles & tears                                contained within riding helmet or hair
obstructions                                                     net.
Road traffic      Distraction to rider            All            High visibility clothing to be worn. Use       Every incident
                  and/ or horse.                                 only quiet byways, avoiding busy roads.
                  Collision.                                     Novice riders in middle of group. Comply
                                                                 with Highway Code.
Stallions         Aggressive or                   All            Knowledge of route to avoid encounters         Every incident
                  amorous behaviour                              with stallions. If present on bridleways,
                  from stallion leading                          notify local authority, who has powers to
                  to uncontrollable                              act.
                  situations
Low flying        Various                         All            Awareness of problem in regular training       Every incident
aircraft                                                         areas and during special exercises. High
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 216 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Control                                      Review
                                                                visibility clothing worn.
Jewellery         Puncture and tear               All           Wearing of jewellery should be avoided.      Every incident
                  injuries
Loose horse       Various                         All           Keep yard and field gates closed. Notify     Every incident
in road                                                         police if horse escapes or loose in road.
Lifting and       Musculo-skeletal                All           Break loads into manageable size or          Every incident
carrying          injury                                        weight. Use safe lifting techniques.
heavy items.




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 217 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 25


Risk assessment: Combined Rock and Water Activities. Common Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard            Risks                           Who           Controls                                     Review

Leadership        Enhanced risk of                All           Competence of leader matched to              All incidents recorded and
                  other hazards                                 requirements of the venue and validated      evaluated.
                                                                by Technical Adviser. Site-specific
                                                                training on local hazards and risks, and
                                                                emergency action plans.
                                                                Clear systems of briefings and
                                                                communications with group at times
                                                                appropriate to safety.



Group             Enhanced risk of                All           Venue appropriate for abilities of group.    All incidents recorded and
organisation      other hazards                                 Group size appropriate to abilities of       evaluated.
and                                                             group, with additional instructors if
membership                                                      appropriate.
                                                                Inform participants of the nature of the
                                                                activity, and the hazards and risks
                                                                involved, with the opportunity not to
                                                                participate.


Weather           Enhanced risk of                All           Obtain information on recent conditions      All incidents recorded and
                  other hazards                                 and weather forecast, interpreted for        evaluated.
                                                                local conditions, especially rising water
                                                                levels. Icy conditions in winter are to be
                                                                avoided.


___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 218 of 251
Hazard            Risks                           Who           Controls                                     Review

Cold &            Hypothermia                     All           Adequate personal clothing during and        All incidents recorded and
Water                                                           after the activity.                          evaluated
Immersion

Entrapment        Drowning                        All           Buoyancy aids or lifejackets worn by all     All incidents recorded and
and                                                             participants when this hazard is             evaluated
submersion                                                      significant.
by water/
being swept
away from
group.
Impacts with      Impact injury to                All           Headgear appropriate to the activity,        All incidents recorded and
solid objects     heady, body or limbs                          which could be paddlesport or rock-          evaluated
                                                                climbing helmets. Security or safety rope
                                                                used appropriate to hazard and risk.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 219 of 251
                                                                                                                              Appendix 26


  Risk assessment. Sailing: Hazards, Risks and Controls
Hazard        Risk/harm               Who                        Existing Controls                            Review
Incompetence Various, but disabling All                          Party leader with appropriate experience     Any incident raising doubt
and/or poor   injury or fatality is                              of activity. Pre visit and risk assessment   as to leader‟s or
judgement of  possible.                                          of excursion. Deployment/employment          instructor‟s competence
leader or                                                        of RYA instructors. Use of AALA
instructor                                                       licensed and RYA recognised
                                                                 establishments
Immersion in   Hypothermia and                     All           All participants adequately clothed with     Any incident.
cold water     immersion exposure                                warm, wind & waterproof clothing, or wet
and/or                                                           or dry suits. Careful supervision and
exposure to                                                      prudent instruction. Fail safes – safety
cold wet windy                                                   boats, spare clothing, and quick access
conditions                                                       to warm protected environments and
                                                                 medical care.
Capsize and        Gasp reflex, inhalation All                   Appropriate clothing for the activity, the   Any incident of near
falling            of water, drowning                            wearing of buoyancy aid or life jackets      drowning.
overboard                                                        while afloat. Coldwater swim test to
Sudden                                                           familiarise participants, and identify
immersion in                                                     vulnerable individuals. Early practice of
cold water                                                       man overboard and capsize drills.
                                                                 Reefing sail to reduce risk of capsize.
                                                                 Safety boat close at hand. All instructors
                                                                 trained to recover participants from
                                                                 water, and provide resuscitation. Quick
                                                                 access to medical care
All boat           Bumps, bruises, minor All                     Careful supervision. Protection provided     Any serious incident
handling           cuts and grazes                               by clothing & footwear appropriate for
activities                                                       the activity, Raise awareness of hazards.
                                                                 Progressive instruction with
                                                                 demonstrations of good practice
                                                                 applicable to all manoeuvres.
Sharp objects      Serious cuts and                All           Raise awareness of hazard. Wear              Any incident.

 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 220 of 251
Hazard             Risk/harm                       Who           Existing Controls                              Review
on shore and       injuries, and                                 suitable footwear, Check for underwater
underwater         subsequent infection                          obstacle at low water. Avoid as far as
                                                                 possible. Clear foreshore of dangerous
                                                                 debris
Slips, trips &     Bumps, bruises                  All           Appropriate footwear, Raise awareness          Any serious injury
stumbles           sprains and muscular                          of particular hazards. Orderly behaviour,
                   injury                                        when ashore and afloat.
                                                                 Adequate supervision.
                                                                 Keep launching and boarding areas
                                                                 clean and free of obstructions
Violent            Serious bumps                   All           Rig boats with boom elevated above             Any incident of serious
movement of        particularly to the                           normal position during introductory            blow, or evidence of
boom during        head, concussion.                             sessions, Practice gybing manoeuvres           concussion.
manoeuvres                                                       initially in light winds and in a controlled
                                                                 fashion
                                                                 Reef sails in strong wind conditions until
                                                                 students are proficient.
                                                                 Progressive instruction to ensure skilful
                                                                 boat handling
Hands or      Crush injuries                       All           Raise awareness of hazard and                  Any incident of minor
limbs trapped                                                    demonstrate safe procedures.                   harm
between boats                                                    Use adequate fenders to keep boats
                                                                 apart.
                                                                 Give warning when coming alongside,
                                                                 and moving from boat to boat

Manual             Muscular and joint              All           Raise awareness of hazard. Move heavy          Any disabling injury.
handling           injuries, particularly to                     items ashore on trolley. Break down
                   back                                          loads when afloat to a manageable size.
                                                                 Demonstration of good practice. Use
                                                                 lifting tackle where possible
Collisions         Boats riding over each All                    Early introduction of the rules for            Any incident involving
                   other, damage to                              avoiding collisions at sea, Progressive        injury or damage to a
                   limbs and ribs                                instruction with a focus on keeping boat       boat.
                                                                 speed and manoeuvres under control.
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 221 of 251
Hazard             Risk/harm                       Who           Existing Controls                              Review
                                                                 Emphasis of need to be aware of the
                                                                 behaviour of other craft.
                                                                 Use of effective fenders.



Equipment          Hazardous loss of               All           Properly maintained boats. Check fittings Any incident of equipment
failure.           function, raising                             while rigging boat. Spare fittings        failure with significant
                   exposure to other                             shackles and cord at hand to make on-     implications for safety
                   hazards                                       water repairs. Sailing knife with
                                                                 appropriate tools to effect repairs.
                                                                 Instructors capable of sailing without
                                                                 tiller & rudder, and under single or
                                                                 reduced sail.
                                                                 Adequate reserve buoyancy to keep
                                                                 boat afloat.
                                                                 Safety boat at hand with tools, spares,
                                                                 able to come to assistance.

Collision with     Sinking of boat, or             All           All instructors familiar with chart of         Any incident resulting in
floating or        throwing crew into                            sailing area, tidal phenomena and              damage that might have
underwater         disturbed water                               hazards shown on chart. Designate safe         affected safety.
obstacles,                                                       sailing area. Hazards marked with
grounding                                                        buoys, All instructors familiar with sailing
                                                                 area. Avoid shallow waters during falling
                                                                 tides. Sailing area checked for floating
                                                                 debris.
Strong             Return to shore                 All           Close regard to weather forecasts and          Any incident involving the
offshore winds     rendered difficult,                           tidal predictions.                             loss of control of the fleet.
and tidal          dispersal of fleet,                           Choice of safe sailing area, Choice of
currents,          reducing ability to                           safe sailing activities appropriate to
                   cope with incidents                           conditions.
                   effectively.                                  Suspension of activities when conditions
                                                                 are hazardous.
                                                                 Safety boat at hand capable of towing
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                             Page 222 of 251
Hazard             Risk/harm                       Who                   Existing Controls                            Review
                                                                         fleet to safety.
                                                                         Boat to shore communications.
                                                                         Ready access to Emergency Services.
Strong winds       Capsize, equipment              All                   Close regard to weather forecasts and        Any incident of loss of
                   failure, drifting out of                              tidal predictions.                           control of fleet.
                   control.                                              All instructors trained in seamanship.
                                                                         Boats reefed early and appropriately to
                                                                         skill levels of participants and ambient
                                                                         conditions.
                                                                         Safety boat to hand. Boat to shore
                                                                         communication.

Bright sunlight    Sunburn, eye strain             All                   Raise awareness of hazard.                   Any incident of painful
& reflected        and damage,                                           Clothing to provide full limb cover. Use     sunburn, obvious
light from         Headaches                                             of sun block on exposed surfaces such        bloodshot eyes,
water and          dehydration                                           as face neck and hands. Hat with peak        headaches, and
sails Hot          Hyperthermia.                                         to protect nose and shade eyes.              symptoms of dehydration.
humid                                                                    Sunglasses.
conditions                                                               Access to fresh drinking water, either in
                                                                         boat or safety boat. Quick access to
                                                                         medical care.
All hazards to     Wreck or collisions             All                   Familiarity with chart of area. Conformity   Any incident of failure of
navigation                                                               with the rules for the avoidance of          safe navigation.
                                                                         collisions at sea. Understanding of the
                                                                         meaning of all aids to navigation.
                                                                         Keeping well clear of less manoeuvrable
                                                                         craft and all marked hazards. Proper
                                                                         understanding of the effect of wind and
                                                                         tidal conditions on sea state.
Capsize            Particularly in                 All, but particular   Early introduction of capsize and            Frequency of incidents
                   singlehandlers or               risk to novice        recovery techniques. Use of sail-head        All incidents to be
                   during early sessions           sailors.              buoyancy will help prevent the dinghy        recorded
                   sailing solo in larger                                from completely inverting. Limit use of
                   dinghies.                                             high performance to those with existing
                                                                         skills (including capsize recovery).
 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                  Page 223 of 251
Hazard             Risk/harm                       Who                 Existing Controls                           Review
                   Dayboats failing to                                 Instructor in boat or on hand in safety
                   right in the event of a                             boat. Dayboats must sail in company or
                   capsize.                                            with an appropriate Rescue Craft.
Head injury        Particularly in                 Novice sailors,     Provision of protective headgear.           Frequency of incidents
from boom,         singlehanders.                  especially in       Appropriate briefing on hazards.            All incidents to be
sheet block                                        strong winds or                                                 recorded
etc.                                               during gibing
                                                   practice.
Crush injuries;    Risk occurs when                All, particularly   Every briefing and management of            Frequency of incidents
collisions         transfers from one              novice sailors.     participants.                               All incidents to be
coming             craft to another take                                                                           recorded
alongside.         place. Lack of wind
                   awareness and the
                   relative position of
                   other craft can create
                   collisions. Lack of
                   knowledge of “Rules
                   of the Road”
Lack of            Inability of the                All                 Use of VHF radios using an agreed           Frequency of loss of
communicatio       instructor to relay the                             channel with check in-times.                communication.
n                  status of his crew or                                                                           All incidents to be
                   to initiate rescue.                                                                             recorded
Cold water &       Hypothermia and                 All                 Ability to swim 50 m in light clothing or   Frequency of incidents. All
immersion          drowning.                                           wear lifejacket/buoyancy aid. Safety        incidents to be recorded
                                                                       boat/launch in attendance.
Weather            Enhanced risk of                All                 All participants wear adequate clothing     All incidents to be
                   other hazards.                                      for conditions and adequate spare           recorded
                                                                       clothing available is available. Always
                                                                       check weather forecast. Abandon
                                                                       activities in deteriorating conditions.




 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
 Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                               Page 224 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 27


Risk Assessment. Scrambling; Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard            Risk                            Who           Controls                                       Review
Poor              Incorrect use of                All           Advance visit & familiarity with hazards.      All incidents and near
leadership        equipment                                     Risk assessment.                               misses
                  Failure to provide                            Leaders with ML Award/ MIA/MIC or site
                  adequate                                      specific training as appropriate, skilled
                  security - avoidable                          in providing security with a rope.
                  harm.
Rock fall         Head or limb injury             All           Avoidance of areas of loose rock and           All incidents and near
from above.                                                     vegetation. Participants to stand clear of     misses
                                                                people moving above them. Participants
                                                                to wear climbing helmets. Awareness of
                                                                hazard as part of safety education.
                                                                Cautious progress and care when
                                                                climbing.
Slips,            Head or limb injury             All           Keep low on rock when traversing.              All incidents and near
stumbles,                                                       Avoid areas of very slippery rock, halt        misses
falls from a                                                    activity if conditions too risky.
height                                                          Participants to wear climbing helmets.
                                                                Leader to provide additional support if
                                                                required. Use of walking pole or rope to
                                                                provide security.
Underwater        Head & limb injury              All           Advance visit & familiarity with hazard.       All incidents and near
obstructions      with enhanced risk of                         Avoidance of places where hazard is            misses
- fall on,        drowning or                                   significant. Stopping activity in unsuitable
entrapment,       hyperthermia                                  conditions.
swept                                                           Wear buoyancy aid if hazard exists.
into                                                            Avoid locations where leader could not
something                                                       rescue casualty without risk to self.
solid



___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 225 of 251
Hazard          Risk                     Who                    Controls                                      Review
Failure of      In technically harder    All                    Activities will only take place at sites      All incidents will be
belays          and more serious                                where belays required for the safety of       recorded and evaluated.
                versions of the activity                        participants are secure and sufficient in
                there may be steep                              number. Belays will be checked before
                loose rock and                                  use and will be assessed annually after
                leaders may have to                             winter conditions. Participants will wear
                set up reliable belays                          helmets and climbing harnesses as
                for guarding an ascent                          dictated by the environment.
                with a rope, descent
                by abseil or securing
                ropeways for sliding
                over pools and inlets.
                In such
                circumstances,
                participants are
                exposed to risks
                associated with rock
                climbing. Belay failure
                may result in an
                uncontrolled fall down
                steep ground.
Lack of         In versions of the       All                    The maximum ratio of participant to           All incidents will be
understandin activities which                                   leader will be established during the risk    recorded and evaluated.
g or            expose participants to                          assessment of each activity and site.
technical skill the risk of falling deep                        The ratio will be such that instructors can
by inexpert     into water or involve                           adequately supervise the number of
leaders or      deliberately jumping                            people for whom they are responsible.
novice          into pools or inlets,                           Group management methods will be
participants    participants are                                adopted that focus on safety.
                exposed to all the
                risks of a serious
                water sport.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 226 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who           Controls                                     Review
Sudden            Immersion may result            All           All participants will wear sufficient        All incidents will be
immersion in      in hypothermia or                             clothing to protect them from shock of       recorded and evaluated
cold or           drowning.                                     immersion in water. The leader will carry
violently                                                       spare dry clothing and carry an
disturbed                                                       extendible walking stick which can be
deep water.                                                     used to reach out and draw a person to
                                                                the side. Where violent water is
                                                                anticipated, participants will wear
                                                                helmets, buoyancy aids and wetsuits.
                                                                The leader will carry a throwing line with
                                                                a buoyancy object for throwing to people
                                                                unable to reach the side of the pools and
                                                                inlets. Leaders will be qualified in
                                                                emergency resuscitation and life saving
                                                                techniques appropriate to natural waters.

Incorrect use     Equipment may be                All           Leaders will hold Leader or Instructional    All incidents will be
of equipment      used incorrectly.                             Awards from relevant body of sport,          recorded and evaluated
and poor                                                        which endorses the experience and
rope                                                            technical skills required to ensure the
management                                                      safety of participants.
.
Neck injury       This type of injury can         All           Buoyancy aids supplied will fit snugly.      All incidents will be
similar to        occur where an ill-                           Entry into the water will only take place    recorded and evaluated
“whiplash”.       fitting buoyancy aid is                       from positions less than 2 metres above
                  suddenly forced up                            the water.
                  under the chin as a
                  participant enters the
                  water after jumping
                  from a considerable
                  height.
Rock fall         Head or limb injury             All           Avoidance of area of loose rock and          All incidents report as “near
from above                                                      vegetation. Participants to stand clear of   miss”.
                                                                people moving above them. Participants
                                                                to wear climbing helmets. Awareness of
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 227 of 251
Hazard            Risk                            Who                Controls                                      Review
                                                                     hazard as part of safety education.
                                                                     Cautious progress and care when
                                                                     climbing.
Slips,            Head and limb injury.           Participants,      Keep low on rock when traversing. Avoid       All incidents report as “near
stumbles,                                         especially novices areas of very slippery rock and halt the      miss”.
falls from a                                      and those with     activity if conditions are too risky.
height.                                           special needs.     Participants to wear climbing helmets.
                                                                     Leader to provide additional support if
                                                                     required. Use of walking pole or rope to
                                                                     provide security.


Entrapment        Entrapment, fear and            All                Avoidance of places where boulders are        All incidents report as “near
among             crush injury.                                      unstable. Avoid scrambling through very       miss”.
boulders,                                                            tight holes or into crevices not previously
settling                                                             explored.
boulders.
Jumping           Ill-fitting buoyancy aid        All                Not to be done deliberately – treat        All incidents report as “near
from a height     is forced suddenly up                              wearing of safety equipment as providing miss”.
into deep         under the participant‟s                            additional security. It should not be used
water,            chin causing whiplash                              to do things which would otherwise be
wearing a         type neck injury.                                  seen as unacceptable.
buoyancy
aid.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                Page 228 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 28


   Sea Kayaking: Hazards, Risks and Controls
Hazards               Risks                       Who           Controls                                      Review
Injuries/illness      High                        All           Sessions on the water must be
es such as                                                      structured to minimise the risk of
blisters, wrist                                                 injuries occurring. Primary age children
sprains,                                                        must wear helmets, during surf
dislocated                                                      conditions or on journeys in rough open
shoulders.                                                      water close to rocky shores.
Seasickness,
jellyfish
stings,
diseases
specific to
water based
activities e.g.
Weils Disease
Equipment             Equipment can               All           Maintenance must take place on a
failure               be damaged or                             regular basis. Appropriate safety
                      break at any                              equipment must be carried. See
                      time but with                             section on equipment.
                      regular checks
                      and proper
                      maintenance
                      this risk can be
                      limited and
                      related
                      problems
                      reduced.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 229 of 251
Hazards               Risks                       Who           Controls                                      Review
Group                 There is a                  All           Designated areas should be made
dispersal             realistic risk that                       clear to all group members prior to
                      a group could                             going on the water and action to take
                      be split up due                           should a member of the group capsize
                      to unforeseen                             or separate from the group. Ability and
                      circumstances                             experience of the group should, where
                      such as weather                           possible, be matched to avoid potential
                      conditions                                group dispersal. Instructors must carry
                      suddenly                                  tow lines.
                      deteriorating,
                      capsizes.
                      landings and
                      launches in off-
                      shore winds, lee
                      shores, tides, rip
                      currents etc.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 230 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 29


Risk assessment. Single Pitch Rock Climbing: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                Risk                        Who           Controls                                      Review
The actions of        Loose material              All           Participants will wear climbing helmets       The venue will be
other climbers.       may be pulled or                          and, unless climbing or belaying, will        abandoned if incidents
                      knocked off the                           stand well away from the base of the          occur regularly.
                      crag, equipment                           crag. Belayers will not stand directly
                      may be dropped,                           beneath people who are climbing. The
                      and climbers may                          top of the crag will be cleared of loose
                      fall off causing                          material twice per year.
                      harm to others.
The structure of      A climber may fall          All           Routes exposed to climbers falling from       The venue will be
an outcrop.           and swing into                            other climbs will not be used while a         abandoned if incidents
                      other climbers or                         hazard is present. Only climbs which can      occur regularly.
                      against                                   be adequately protected from above will
                      projections.                              be used. Routes which expose a falling
                                                                climber to any obvious hazard will be
                                                                avoided or carefully protected. If the
                                                                ground is uneven or boulder strewn, care
                                                                will be taken in the location of people
                                                                providing security. In appropriate
                                                                circumstances a sitting position will be
                                                                used to permit better rope control should
                                                                a fall occur or a lower be required. People
                                                                providing security in positions exposed to
                                                                steep terrain will themselves be belayed.



Overcrowding.                                                                                                 The venue will be
                      A crag may                  All           The area at the base of the crag will be
                                                                                                              abandoned if incidents
                      become                                    kept clear of obstructions and areas
                                                                                                              occur regularly.
                      overcrowded and                           which are crowded with other climbers
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 231 of 251
Hazard                Risk                        Who           Controls                                      Review
                      its base become                           and their equipment will be avoided.
                      obstructed. Trips                         Group equipment will be placed well
                      and stumbles may                          away from the base of the crag or where
                      occur if the ground                       it does not constitute a hazard.
                      is obstructed by                          The use of the site will be timetabled
                      bags, clothes and                         where possible.
                      equipment. The
                      attention of
                      belayers may be
                      distracted by
                      passers by.
Falling objects.                                                                                              The venue will be
                      Objects such as    All                    Any person not climbing or belaying will
                                                                                                              abandoned if incidents
                      loose rocks or                            stand well clear of the base of the crag at
                                                                                                              occur regularly.
                      discarded                                 a safe place designated by the leader or
                      equipment may fall                        instructor.
                      from above and
                      cause injury.
Steep ground.                                                                                                 The venue will be
                      Falling from a high         All           All participants will be protected from
                                                                                                              abandoned if incidents
                      place.                                    above at all times by the use of a “top
                                                                                                              occur regularly.
                                                                rope”.
Failure of                                                                                                    The venue will be
                      Natural belays              All           The weight bearing capacity of the top
belays.                                                                                                       abandoned if any incident
                      may fail, resulting                       belays will be checked by applying the
                                                                                                              occurs.
                      in an uncontrolled                        weight of two people to them from a
                      fall.                                     single position at the bottom of the climb
                                                                before they are used to secure the ascent
                                                                of a single climber. Equipment will be
                                                                monitored and subjected to a thorough
                                                                annual check.
                                                                Belays will be checked annually for
                                                                soundness and environmental
                                                                degradation.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 232 of 251
Hazard                Risk                        Who           Controls                                       Review
Equipment                                                                                                      Equipment will be
                      Equipment may be            All           All equipment will be checked as fit for its
failure.                                                                                                       monitored and subjected to
                      incorrectly used or                       purpose and all participants will practice
                                                                                                               a thorough annual check.
                      fail.                                     arresting a fall before the climbing
                                                                participant has ascended to above head
                                                                height. Only ropes, slings and karabiners
                                                                which have a formally recorded history of
                                                                previous use will be used.
Group                                                                                                          Annually or in the event of
                      Mismanagement               All           The ratio of Leaders or Instructors to
management                                                                                                     problem occurrence.
                      of a group of                             participants, climbing or belaying will not
problems.             participants or                           exceed 1:6. All members of a group will
                      misbehaviour by                           be positioned in sight of the leader or
                      members of the                            instructor, at a designated place, well
                      group and/or                              clear of the base of the crag where they
                      passers-by may                            are not exposed to any climbing hazard.
                      cause an accident.                        Any participant not complying with the
                                                                safety arrangements will be excluded fro
                                                                the session and if the session is
                                                                interrupted by the misbehaviour of
                                                                passers-by, it will be suspended until any
                                                                possible risk has disappeared.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 233 of 251
                                                                                                                                   Appendix 30


Risk assessment. Dry Slope Environment: Hazards, Risks and Controls

Hazard                Risk                        Who                 Controls                                       Review

Poor /                Enhanced risk of            All                 Leader trained and assessed for                All incidents to be
inexperienced         other hazards                                   competence to lead group appropriate to        recorded. Qualifications to
leadership                                                            the terrain and conditions prevailing.         be checked annually.
                                                                      Behaves responsibly and maintains
                                                                      vigilance over the group.
Weather &             Sunburn                     All                 Gloves worn at all times during activity.      All incidents to be
clothing                                                              Sun glasses or goggles worn or carried.        recorded.
assembly                                                              Sunscreen/block available to all
                                                                      participants.
                                                                      Clothing assembly checked appropriate
                                                                      to conditions and forecast.
Ski Equipment         Impact injuries             All, particularly   Skiers should only use equipment issued        All incidents to be
                                                  novice skiers       to them. Bindings adjusted only by trained     recorded.
                                                                      technician. Gloves worn at all times           Any faulty or defective
                                                                      during activity. Participants briefed on       material to be discarded.
                                                                      correct means of carriage.
Dry slope             Friction burns              All, particularly   Briefing on hazard. Demonstrate falling        All incidents to be
surface               Impact injuries             novice skiers       over and getting up. Identify and avoid        recorded.
                                                                      defects in slope, and notify slope
                                                                      management.
Terrain               Impact injuries             All, particularly   Choose terrain appropriate to ability of all   All incidents to be
                                                  novice skiers       the group members, given the conditions.       recorded.
                                                                      Choose route and method of negotiation
                                                                      appropriate to group, terrain and
                                                                      conditions.
Weather and           Dehydration                 All                 Encourage group to drink at appropriate        All incidents to be
activity                                                              times to maintain hydration.                   recorded.

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                 Page 234 of 251
Hazard                Risk                        Who                 Controls                                    Review

Collisions            Impact injuries             All, particularly   Group follows FIS Code of Conduct for       All incidents to be
                                                  novice skiers       Skiers and Snowboarders. Skiing at          recorded.
                                                                      appropriate distance apart. Extra care on
                                                                      crowded slopes and at end of day.
                                                                      Children up to age 12 wear safety
                                                                      helmets.
Ski lift              Impact injuries             All, particularly   Briefing, preparation and close             All incidents to be
equipment                                         novice skiers       supervision of novices                      recorded.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                              Page 235 of 251
                                                                                                                                   Appendix 31


Risk Assessment. Snowsports on Snow: Hazards, Risk and Controls

Hazard                 Risk                       Who                   Control                                       Review
Leadership             Enhanced risk of           All                   Leader trained and assessed for               Every incident
                       other hazards                                    competence to lead group appropriate to
                                                                        the terrain and conditions prevailing.
                                                                        Behaves responsibly and maintains
                                                                        vigilance over the group.
Getting lost and       Enhanced risk of           All                   Leader‟s knowledge of ski area and ability    Every incident
bad visibility         other hazards                                    to navigate to safety in bad visibility.
                                                                        Frequent head counts, and stops
                                                                        appropriate to visibility and crowding of
                                                                        slopes.
Clothing               Hypothermia                All, but              Gloves worn at all times during activity.     Every incident
assembly               Frostnip                   particularly novice   Sun glasses or goggles worn or carried.
                       Sunburn                    skiers.               Sunscreen/block available to all
                       Snow blindness                                   participants.
                                                                        Clothing assembly checked appropriate
                                                                        to conditions and forecast.

Snowsport              Impact injuries            All                   Participants should only use equipment        Every incident
Equipment                                                               issued to them. Bindings adjusted only by
                                                                        trained technician. Gloves worn at all
                                                                        times during activity. Participants briefed
                                                                        on correct means of carrying and
                                                                        handling of equipment. A retaining leash
                                                                        must be worn by snowboarders.

Weather                Hypothermia                All                   Leader has accurate forecast and              Every incident
                       Frostnip                                         modifies plans to suit. Maintains vigilance
                       Sunburn                                          over the group‟s clothing assembly and
                       Snow blindness                                   condition. Leader has easy access to
                       Acute Mountain                                   spare gloves, goggles and warm wear
                       Sickness
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                 Page 236 of 251
Avalanche              Impact injuries            All                 Stay on piste areas during periods of          Every incident
                       Asphyxiation                                   enhanced risk. Obey Ski Patrol
                       Hypothermia                                    instructions and signage.


Terrain and snow Impact injuries                  All                 Choose terrain appropriate to ability of all   Every incident
conditions                                                            the group members, given the conditions.
                                                                      Choose route and method of negotiation
                                                                      appropriate to group, terrain and
                                                                      conditions.
Weather and            Dehydration                All                 Encourage group to drink at appropriate
activity                                                              times to maintain hydration.
Collisions             Impact injuries            All                 Group follows FIS Code of Conduct for
                                                                      Skiers and Snowboarders. Skiing at
                                                                      appropriate distance apart. Extra care on
                                                                      crowded slopes and at end of day.
                                                                      Children up to age 13 wear safety
                                                                      helmets for snowboarding and alpine
                                                                      skiing.
Ski lift equipment     Impact injuries            All                 Briefing, preparation and close
                                                                      supervision of novices.
Fitness and            Musculo-skeletal           All participants,   Activities should be matched to the ability
ability                injuries                   but particularly    of participants. Training and briefing in
                                                  novice skiers.      the proper use of equipment. Close
                                                                      supervision, particularly of novice
                                                                      participants.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                Page 237 of 251
Risk Assessment. Snowsports: Hazards, Risks and Controls


Hazard                    Risk                           Who                Controls                                   Review
Cold injuries             Wind chill                     All                Obtain weather forecast, paying close      Every incident.
                          Frostbite                                         attention to wind speed and wind
                          Hypothermia                                       direction. Wear adequate, appropriate
                                                                            clothing to insulate head, hands and
                                                                            feet e.g. hats, gloves and socks.
                                                                            Monitor consumption of food and
                                                                            liquid.
Sun injuries              Sunburn, snow blindness.       All                Cover exposed areas where possible         Every incident
                                                                            with clothes. Apply sun block. Wear
                                                                            appropriate eye protection e.g.
                                                                            sunglasses or goggles.
Unfamiliar                Injury, especially limbs       Participants       Explain to participants how to fall over   Every incident
environment               caused by a fall or a trip.                       properly. Continually assess the ability
                                                                            of the group. Refrain from moving
                                                                            onto steeper slopes too soon. Include
                                                                            warm up as part of your session.
                                                                            Comply with safety signs.
Steep ground              Injury caused by falling or    All                Familiarise instructors with the piste     Every incident
                          sliding down steep slope.                         map of the ski area. Plan routes
                                                                            avoiding steep slopes where
                                                                            appropriate. Always ski in control.
                                                                            Avoid stopping in the middle of a
                                                                            piste. Follow the Federation
                                                                            Internationale De Ski (FSI) code of
                                                                            conduct.
Equipment failure         Equipment may be used          All                Only use equipment that has been by        Every incident
                          incorrectly or may fail.                          authorised personnel. Do not adjust
                                                                            bindings without the supervision of a
                                                                            technician. Equipment should be
                                                                            clearly labelled by the individual using
                                                                            it. Equipment should be monitored
                                                                            and subject to a thorough check
                                                                            before every use.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 238 of 251
Collision                 Injury when skiing in close    All                Do not stop in the middle of a piste.      Every incident
                          proximity.                                        Do not stop over the brow of a hill.
                                                                            Leave enough space between skiers
                                                                            to allow other skiers to take avoiding
                                                                            action in the vent of a fall. Follow the
                                                                            FIS code of conduct.
Ski lifts and tows        Injury/getting lost.           All                All groups must be shown how to use        Every incident
                                                                            individual lifts and tows before using
                                                                            them. All group members must know
                                                                            the plan of action to be taken, should
                                                                            the group get separated.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 239 of 251
                                                                                                                                                      Appendix 32


                                                                      Renfrewshire Council: Education Services

                                                                           Outdoor Activity Risk Assessments


                                                                                     Assessor:
                    School:                                                          Print name and sign
                                                                                                                                                   Date
                    Activity: Snowsports – Dry slope.

   Numbers                Hazard        Risk / Harm      Severity      Probability    Risk control measures           Overall        Actions and person              Due
   exposed                                                                                                            perceived risk responsible                     date
   to risk                                                                                                            control
Pupils
         Staff
                 others




                                                                                                                      Adequate


                                                                                                                                      Inadequate
                                                                                                                                 N/
                                                                                                                                 A


                          Leadership    Enhanced         Low to        Low            Leader trained and assessed
                                        risk of other    high                         for competence to lead
                                        hazards                                       group appropriate to the
                                                                                      terrain and conditions
                                                                                      prevailing. Behaves
                                                                                      responsibly and maintains
                                                                                      vigilance over the group.
                          Weather &                      Low to        Low to         Gloves worn at all times
                          clothing      Sunburn          medium        medium         during activity. Sun glasses
                          assembly                                                    or goggles worn or carried.
                                                                                      Sunscreen/block available to
                                                                                      all participants.
                                                                                      Clothing assembly checked
                                                                                      appropriate to conditions and
                                                                                      forecast.


                    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                    Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                Page 240 of 251
    Ski             Impact           Low to       Low to   Skiers should only use
    Equipment       injuries         medium       medium   equipment issued to them.
                                                           Bindings adjusted only by
                                                           trained technician. Gloves
                                                           worn at all times during
                                                           activity. Participants briefed
                                                           on correct means of
                                                           carriage.
    Dry slope       Friction                               Briefing on hazard.
    surface         burns                                  Demonstrate falling over and
                    Impact                                 getting up. Identify and avoid
                    injuries                               defects in slope, and notify
                                                           slope management.
    Terrain         Impact                                 Choose terrain appropriate
                    injuries                               to ability of all the group
                                                           members, given the
                                                           conditions. Choose route
                                                           and method of negotiation
                                                           appropriate to group, terrain
                                                           and conditions.
    Weather         Dehydration Low to            Low      Encourage group to drink at
    and activity                medium                     appropriate times to maintain
                                                           hydration.
    Collisions      Impact                                 Group follows FIS Code of
                    injuries                               Conduct for Skiers and
                                                           Snowboarders. Skiing at
                                                           appropriate distance apart.
                                                           Extra care on crowded
                                                           slopes and at end of day.
                                                           Children up to age 12 wear
                                                           safety helmets.
    Ski lift        Impact           Low to       Low      Briefing, preparation and
    equipment       injuries         medium                close supervision of novices




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 241 of 251
                                                                       Renfrewshire Council: Education Services

                                                                         Outdoor Activity Risk Assessments


                    School:                                                         Print name and sign
                                                                                                                                                      Date
                    Activity: Snowsports – On snow

   Numbers                Hazard        Risk / Harm       Severity    Probability     Risk control measures             Overall        Actions and person               Due
   exposed                                                                                                              perceived risk responsible                      date
   to risk                                                                                                              control
Pupils
         Staff
                 others




                                                                                                                         Adequate


                                                                                                                                         Inadequate
                                                                                                                                    N
                                                                                                                                    /A


                          Leadership    Enhanced          Low to      Low             Leader trained and
                                        risk of other     high                        assessed for competence to
                                        hazards                                       lead group appropriate to
                                                                                      the terrain and conditions
                                                                                      prevailing. Behaves
                                                                                      responsibly and maintains
                                                                                      vigilance over the group.
                          Getting lost Enhanced           Low to      Low to          Leader‟s knowledge of ski
                          and bad      risk of other      high        medium          area and ability to navigate
                          visibility   hazards                                        to safety in bad visibility.
                                                                                      Frequent head counts, and
                                                                                      stops appropriate to visibility
                                                                                      and crowding of slopes.

                    ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                    Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                                   Page 242 of 251
    Clothing        Hypothermia       Low to      Low to    Gloves worn at all times
    assembly        Frostnip          medium      medium    during activity. Sun glasses
                    Sunburn                                 or goggles worn or carried.
                    Snow                                    Sunscreen/block available
                    blindness                               to all participants.
                                                            Clothing assembly checked
                                                            appropriate to conditions
                                                            and forecast.
    Snowsport       Impact            Low to      Low to    Participants should only use
    Equipment       injuries          medium      medium    equipment issued to them.
                                                            Bindings adjusted only by
                                                            trained technician. Gloves
                                                            worn at all times during
                                                            activity. Participants briefed
                                                            on correct means of
                                                            carrying and handling of
                                                            equipment. A retaining
                                                            leash must be worn by
                                                            snowboarders.
    Weather         Hypothermia       Low to      Low to    Leader has accurate
                    Frostnip          high        medium    forecast and modifies plans
                    Sunburn                                 to suit. Maintains vigilance
                    Snow                                    over the group‟s clothing
                    blindness                               assembly and condition.
                    Acute                                   Leader has easy access to
                    Mountain                                spare gloves, goggles and
                    Sickness                                warmwear.
    Avalanche       Impact            Low to      Low       Stay on pisted areas during
                    injuries          high                  periods of enhanced risk.
                    Asphyxiation                            Obey Ski Patrol instructions
                    Hypothermia                             and signage.



___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 243 of 251
    Terrain         Impact            Low to      Low to    Choose terrain appropriate
    and snow        injuries          medium      medium    to ability of all the group
    conditions                                              members, given the
                                                            conditions. Choose route
                                                            and method of negotiation
                                                            appropriate to group, terrain
                                                            and conditions.
    Weather         Dehydration       Low to      Low       Encourage group to drink at
    and activity                      medium                appropriate times to
                                                            maintain hydration.
    Collisions      Impact            Low to      Low to    Group follows FIS Code of
                    injuries          medium      medium    Conduct for Skiers and
                                                            Snowboarders. Skiing at
                                                            appropriate distance apart.
                                                            Extra care on crowded
                                                            slopes and at end of day.
                                                            Children up to age 13 wear
                                                            safety helmets for
                                                            snowboarding and alpine
                                                            skiing.
    Ski lift        Impact            Low to      Low       Briefing, preparation and
    equipment       injuries          medium                close supervision of
                                                            novices. Loose clothing that
                                                            could catch in the tow
                                                            should not be worn.
    Fitness         Musculo-          Low to      Low to    Gentle stretching and warm
    and ability     skeletal          medium      medium    up exercises before
                    injuries                                snowsport activity.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 244 of 251
Risk Assessment. Summer Hill Walking Environment: Hazards, Risks and Controls                                             Appendix 33




 Hazard                    Risk                           Who                 Controls                                    Review
 Becoming lost             Errors or lack of skill in     All                 The leader will be suitably experienced     Every incident of
                           navigation may result in                           in navigation skills.                       unforeseen
                           becoming lost or                                                                               change of plans
                           encountering an                                    A map and compass will be carried           resulting in
                           unexpected difficulty                              together with additional spares.            participants
                           such as a cliff.                                                                               illness or injury.
 Participant unable to     Injury or illness may          All, but            An emergency procedure will be in           Every incident of
 continue due to injury or render one or more             particularly less   place which has been clearly explained      unforeseen
 illness                   participants immobile.         able, unfit or      to participants. A group emergency          change of plans
                                                          nervous             shelter, spare clothing and food will be    resulting in
                                                          participants.       carried to provide shelter if required.     participants‟
                                                                              An alternative escape route will be         illness or injury.
                                                                              planned and available for use if
                                                                              necessary.
                                                                              The group medical history and consent
                                                                              for emergency treatment should be
                                                                              scrutinised and particular attention paid
                                                                              to such conditions as asthma and hay
                                                                              fever.
 Unexpected changes in          Changing weather          All                 An alternative escape route will be       Every incident of
 the weather                    conditions may make the                       planned and available for use if          unforeseen
                                route more difficult than                     necessary. A group emergency shelter      change of plans
                                expected.                                     and spare food and clothing will be       resulting in
                                                                              carried.                                  participants‟
                                                                                                                        illness or injury.
 Loss of daylight               Darkness may restrict     All                 A head torch, spare battery and bulb will Every incident of
                                navigation.                                   be carried by the leader. An alternative  unforeseen
                                                                              escape route will be planned and          change of plans
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 245 of 251
 Hazard                         Risk                     Who                 Controls                                     Review
                                                                             available for use.                           resulting in
                                                                                                                          participants‟
                                                                                                                          illness or injury.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 246 of 251
                                                                                                                             Appendix 34


Risk Assessment in the Terrestrial Environment: Common Hazards, Risks and Controls
Hazard                    Risk                      Who                Controls                                            Review
General Hazards           Sticks/branches in eye.   All. Particularly, Knowledge of location. Avoidance of                 All incidents,
                          Puncture wounds from      those involved     places where hazard is high. Prudent                particularly
                          barbed wire and sticks.   in lowland         management. Appropriate First Aid Kit.              penetrating
                          Minor cuts, scratches and activities such    Cover all wounds.                                   wounds, eye
                          abrasions.                as Orienteering,                                                       injuries and
                                                    Field Studies                                                          incidents of
                                                    and Gorge                                                              subsequent
                                                    Walking.                                                               infection.
Extreme weather:          Hypothermia and           All, particularly  Obtain weather forecast and in                      Every incident
Wet, cold and wind chill. hyperthermia. (Both are   those              particular note temperature, humidity,              of unforeseen
                          possible at any time of   participants       wind speed and direction. Ensure                    change of
                          the year.                 unfamiliar with    appropriate clothing. Consider                      plans resulting
                                                    the outdoor        cancellation of activity. Route planning            from
                                                    environment.       to minimise risk. Monitor food and drink            participants
                                                    Elderly, young,    intake.                                             discomfort
                                                    the physically                                                         arising from
                                                    disabled and                                                           cold or heat.
                                                    those with
                                                    special
                                                    educational
                                                    needs.
Cold injuries.            Frostbite (exceptional)   All                Adequate hand, head and foot                        Every incident,
                                                                       protection: boots gaiters, gloves and               record as a
                                                                       hat.                                                reportable
                                                                                                                           incident.
Sunlight                        Sunburn and snow          All. Especially,   Full limb cover available. Hat with brim      Every incident,
                                blindness.                those with fair    or peak. Sunblock.                            record as a
                                                          complexion and Sunglasses or snow goggles.                       reportable
                                                          particularly early                                               incident.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                           Page 247 of 251
Hazard                          Risk                          Who                  Controls                                    Review
                                                              in the year or
                                                              when there is
                                                              potential for
                                                              snow on the
                                                              ground.
Underfoot conditions:           Falls, slips and stumbles     All. Particularly    Properly fitting equipment suited to the  Every incident.
slippery, wet, loose,           resulting in sprains and      those who are        activity.                                 Report as near
obstructed or overgrown         fractures.                    unfit. Poorly                                                  miss every
terrain.                                                      coordinated or                                                 incident that
                                                              nervous.                                                       involves
                                                                                                                             change of
                                                                                                                             activity plan.
Steep, exposed terrain.         Fall from a height.           All. Particularly,   Knowledge of location. Avoidance of       Every incident.
                                Uncontrolled slips or falls   those who are        places where hazard is high.              Record as a
                                resulting in injury.          unfit, poorly        Supervisory ratios are appropriate to the reportable
                                                              coordinated or       level of risk.                            incident.
                                                              nervous.             Crash hats and helmets. All instructional
                                                                                   staff familiar with the techniques for
                                                                                   providing security with a rope.
Water Hazards:                  Risk of injury increased      All. Particularly    Familiarity with the environment and      Report every
Slippery rock, heavy            because of water and/or       those who are         avoidance in extreme conditions.         incident as
rain,                           ice.                          exposed to           Appropriate route planning and            near miss if it
swollen streams and             Consequence of injury         these hazards.       supervisory ratios appropriate to the     involves a
rivers                          aggravated by immersion       Unfit, poorly        level of risk.                            change in
                                in water.                     coordinated or       Prudent management of group.              activity plan.
                                Possibility of being swept    nervous              Trekking pole for support. Familiarity
                                away.                         participants.        with means of securing people crossing
                                Drowning.                                          rivers.




___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                               Page 248 of 251
Hazard                          Risk                        Who                 Controls                                     Review
Exposure to disease.            Hepatitis B, Tetanus.       All. Particularly   Inoculation. Avoidance of places known       Every incident
Farmyard residues.              Lymes disease. Weil‟s       instructional       to have a high hazard. Immediate             and report as
                                disease or leptospirosis.   staff.              treatment. Cover all open wounds.            appropriate.
                                Louping II.
                                Carcinogenic Spores
                                (bracken)
Wildlife:                       Anaphylactic shock.         All. Particularly   Check medical history of participants.       Frequency of
Stings and bites.               Swelling, incapacity or     those with          Avoidance of places known to have a          incidents.
                                extreme discomfort.         allergic            high hazard. Immediate treatment.
                                                            response
Polluted water:                 Poisoning.                  All. Particularly   Wash after exposure.                         Every incident
agro chemicals. plants.                                     those with high                                                  and report as
Infected food.                                              or regular                                                       appropriate.
                                                            exposure to
                                                            hazard such as
                                                            instructional
                                                            staff and those
                                                            involved in
                                                            environmental
                                                            studies.
Falling objects                 Impact injury.              All.                Knowledge of location. Avoidance of          Every incident.
                                                                                places where hazard is high. Crash hats      Record as a
                                                                                or helmets.                                  reportable
                                                                                                                             incident.
Excessive physical              Exhaustion (aggravated      Unfit, poorly co-   Supervisory ratios appropriate to the        Every incident
activity.                       by hot or cold)             ordinated or        level of risk. Reduce incidence of           of unforeseen
                                                            nervous             exposure to hazard.                          change of
                                                            participants.       Match the activity to the capabilities of    plans resulting
                                                                                the group.                                   from fatigue of
                                                                                                                             participants.
                                                                                                                             Late returns
                                                                                                                             and
                                                                                                                             benightments.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                             Page 249 of 251
Hazard                          Risk                         Who              Controls                                       Review
Poor leadership                 Enhanced risk of other       All              Appropriately trained and qualified            All incidents
                                hazards                                       instructors

Vehicles                        Impact injury                All              Briefing and supervision of participants       All incidents
                                                                              when vehicles are in use in storage            and near
                                                                              compound and launching apron.                  misses
Lifting and moving              Strains and crush injuries   All              Only qualified instructors to be used          All incidents
heavy objects.                                                                (having received training in manual            and near
                                                                              handling for instructors). Briefing and        misses
                                                                              supervision of participants.
Cold                            Hypothermia                  All              Wetsuits and other warm clothing to suit       All incidents
                                                                              conditions.                                    and near
                                                                              Supervision of participants. Spare             misses
                                                                              clothing and first aid readily available.
Water                           Drowning                     All              Adequate personal buoyancy to                  All incidents
                                                                              appropriate CE norm.                           and near
                                                                                                                             misses
Contaminated water              Water borne infections       All              Check for latest information at site. Brief    All reportable
                                & toxins (Weil‟s disease,                     group on hazards. Avoid if possible.           incidents and
                                Cryptosporidium, E.coli,                      Cover up cuts and lesions with                 near misses
                                blue-green algae etc)                         waterproof dressing. Wash hands after
                                                                              activity. Close monitoring following
                                                                              immersion.
Safety boat                     Impact injury                All              Safety boat to be operated only by             All incidents
                                                                              holder of Powerboat Level 2 plus               and near
                                                                              Rescue Boat Course, when acting as             misses
                                                                              safety boat to windsurfing fleet. Kill cord
                                                                              must be used when engine is running.
                                                                              See powerboat risk assessment.
Engine fuels and                Burns                        All              No naked flames near fuel or engines.          All incidents
lubricants                                                                    Immediate cleaning up of spillages of oil      and near
                                                                              or fuel. Fuel kept in secure store when        misses
                                                                              not in use.
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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                             Page 250 of 251
Hazard                          Risk                        Who                Controls                                     Review
Collision and                   Any of above                All participants   Briefing and supervision of participants.    All incidents
underwater obstructions                                     and other water    Appropriate choice and definition of         and near
                                                            users              sailing area. Marking position of            misses
                                                                               obstructions until hazard can be
                                                                               removed
Slips/trips on pontoons         Any of above                All                Appropriate footwear for participants.       All incidents
and slipway                                                                    Immediate cleaning up of spillages of oil    and near
                                                                               or fuel. Briefing and supervision of         misses
                                                                               participants.

Windsurfing equipment           Various physical injuries   Participants       Boards and rigs to be checked before         All incidents
                                                                               use. Any defects to be reported and          and near
                                                                               clearly marked unfit for use until           misses
                                                                               rectified.
Windsurfing activities          Fatigue and increased       Participants       Instructor monitors condition of             All incidents
                                exposure to other risks     especially         participants                                 and near
                                                            novices                                                         misses
Windsurfing rig                 Head injury                 Participants       Abandon activities in deteriorating or       All incidents
                                                            especially         serious conditions.                          and near
                                                            novices                                                         misses
Being blown downwind            Enhanced likelihood of      Participants       Careful selection and patrolling of          All incidents
out of sailing area             above hazards               especially         sailing area. Limiting group size or         and near
                                                            novices            increasing safety boat cover according       misses
                                                                               to conditions. Clear briefing of students
                                                                               on procedure when blown downwind.
Severe weather                  Enhanced likelihood of      All                Check weather forecast. Consider           I. All
                                above hazards                                  scaling down water activities in favour of incidents and
                                                                               on-shore activities.                       near misses




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Educational Outdooractivities (SC33) EPB 250210                                                                            Page 251 of 251

				
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