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Schengen

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 50

									E.U. AND SCHENGEN




                                Rodolfo Peikov
                                Member of the
  International Institute For   Advisory Board
                                     IISC
  Security and Cooperation           2011
             E.U. AND SCHENGEN
•This presentation is intended only to furnish a basic
 knowledge of the European Union and its laws, treaties, etc.,
 and could be a starting point for further and more detailed
 study.
•It is not to be taken as a complete or detailed work but, rather,
 as an introduction to an interesting but very complex and
 dynamic subject.
•It gives a minimum essential background knowledge required
 to properly analyze the European Union and its place in
 today’s society.
                                E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                  Where in the world is the EU?




Sources: Europa.eu
         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                      500 million people-27 countries

  *Countries shaded
  grey are
  candidates for EU
  membership:
  Croatia
  FYROM
  Iceland
  Montenegro
  Turkey



Sources: Europa.eu
         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                             E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                EU Population in the World


                                 1,341,932,000




                  500,441,000


                                                                               310,384,000

                                                 126,536,000   142,958,000




Sources: Europa.eu      EU         China          Japan          Russia      United States
         Open sources
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
    Area of the EU compared with the rest of the World
                                                           17,075,200




                                     9,596,960                               9,372,614




                  4,326,253




                                                 377,835


          Surface     EU
Sources: Europa.eu area, 1 000 km²   China       Japan     Russia         United States
         Open sources                                          Surface area in km²
                                                                  France                                                                   544

                                                                  Spain                                                                    506

                                                                  Sweden                                                             410




Sources: Europa.eu
                                                                  Germany                                                      357

                                                                  Poland                                                 313

                                                                  Finland                                               305

                                                                  Italy                                                295

                                                                  United Kingdom                                 244

                                                                  Romania                                       230

                                                                  Greece                                  131

                                                                  Bulgaria                              111

                                                                  Hungary                          93




         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                                                  Surface area
                                                                  Portugal                         92

                                                                  Austria                          83

                                                                  Czech Republic               77

                                                                  Lithuania                    68




                              in 1 000 km²
                                                                  Ireland                     63

                                                                  Latvia                      62

                                                                  Slovakia                49


                                                                  Estonia                 43

                                                                                          43
                                                                                                                                             Size of the EU countries
                                                                                                                                             E.U. AND SCHENGEN




                                                                  Denmark
                                                                  Netherlands            34

                                                                  Belgium                30

                                                                  Slovenia           20


                                                                  Cyprus             9


                                                                  Luxemburg          3

                                                                  Malta            0.3
                                                                                             Germany                                                            82.1

                                                                                             France                                                      64.4

                                                                                             United Kingdom                                            61.6




Sources: Europa.eu
                                                                                            Italy                                                     60.1


                                                                                                                                               45.8
                                                                                            Spain

                                                                                            Poland                                          38.1

                                                                                            Romania                                  21.5

                                                                                            Netherlands                            16.5

                                                                                            Greece                          11.3

                                                                                            Belgium                         10.8


                                                                                            Portugal                        10.6


                                                                                            Czech Republic                  10.5




         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                                                                                            Hungary                         10.0


                                                                                            Sweden                         9.3

                                                                                            Austria                       8.4


                                                                                            Bulgaria                       7.6

                                                                                       Denmark                       5.5

                                                                                            Slovakia                 5.4

                                                                  Population in millions,   Finland                  5.3


  500 million total in 2009                                                                 Ireland                 4.5
                                                                                                                                                                          E.U. AND SCHENGEN




                                                                                            Lithuania           3.3

                                                                                            Latvia             2.3

                                                                                                               2.0
                                                                                                                                                                       Population of the EU countries




                                                                                            Slovenia
                                                                                            Estonia           1.3

                                                                                            Cyprus            0.8

                                                                                            Luxemburg         0.5

                                                                                            Malta             0.4
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                           European Union
Европейски съюз (Bulgarian) Unione europea (Italian)
Evropská unie (Czech)         Eiropas Savienība (Latvian)
Den Europæiske Union (Danish) Europos Sąjunga (Lithuanian)
Europese Unie (Dutch)         Unjoni Ewropea (Maltese)
Euroopa Liit (Estonian)       Unia Europejska (Polish)
Euroopan unioni (Finnish)     União Europeia (Portuguese)
Union européenne (French)     Uniunea Europeană (Romanian)
Europäische Union (German) Európska únia (Slovak)
Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (Greek)       Evropska unija (Slovene)
Európai Unió (Hungarian)      Unión Europea (Spanish)
An tAontas Eorpach (Irish)    Europeiska unionen (Swedish)

Sources: Open Sources
                      E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                    23 Official Languages




Sources: Europa.eu
         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                                 E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                      A brief history
                                         From six to 27 countries




Sources: Europa.eu
         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                        Treaties and Institutions
Signed:   1948     1951          1957     1965   1985        1986      1992        1997      2001   2007
In force:          1952          1958     1967               1987      1993        1999      2003   2009
Document: Brussels Paris         Rome     Merger Schengen     Single    Maastricht Amsterdam Nice   Lisbon
             Treaty     Treaty   Treaty   Treaty   Agreement European Treaty     Treaty    Treaty   Treaty
              Mutual Defense                                    Act
                     European Coal and Steel Community (CECA) – expired 2002
                             European Atomic Energy Community (CEEA) or (EURATOM)
                             European Economic Community (CEE)
                                      Single Commission and Single Council
                                                         Internal Market
                                                                   European Community (EC)
                                                                   Justice and Home Affairs (JHA)
                                                                    Police and Judicial Cooperation in
                                                                   Criminal Matters (PJCC)
                                                                   Common Foreign and Security
                                                                    Policy (CFSP)
                                                                              Schengen Rules
                                                                        European Union (EU)


Sources: Open Sources
                          E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                     TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, ACTS


TREATY OF BRUSSELS 1948

The Treaty of Brussels was signed on March 17, 1948 between Belgium, France, Luxembourg,
Netherlands and the United Kingdom, as an expansion to the preceding year's defence pledge,
the Dunkirk Treaty signed between Britain and France. As the Treaty of Brussels contained a
mutual defence clause, it provided a basis upon which the 1954 Paris Conference established the
Western European Union (WEU).

TREATY OF PARIS 1951-1952

The Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), which was signed on
April 18, 1951 in Paris, entered into force on July 23, 1952 and expired on July 23, 2002. It was
signed by France, West Germany, Italy and the three Benelux countries, Belgium, Netherlands,
Luxembourg.



Sources: Europa
                       E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                   TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, ACTS


TREATY OF ROME 1957-1958

The Treaty of Rome establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), signed in
Rome on March 25, 1957, entered into force on January 1, 1958. On the same date the
Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) was signed
and the two are therefore jointly known as the Treaties of Rome.

MERGER TREATY 1965-1967

The Merger Treaty, signed in Brussels on April 8, 1965, in force on July 1, 1967, which
provided for a Single Commission and a Single Council of the then three European
Communities.



Sources: Europa
                          E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                      TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, ACTS
SCHENGEN AGREEMENT 1985

The Schengen Agreement is a treaty signed on 14 June 1985 on the boat Princess Astrid on the
Mosel river near the town of Schengen in Luxembourg between five of the ten member states of
the European Economic Community. It was supplemented by the Convention implementing the
Schengen Agreement 5 years later. Together these treaties created Europe's borderless Schengen,
which operates very much like a single state for international travel with external border controls
for travellers travelling in and out of the area, but with no internal border controls.
The Schengen Agreement and the rules adopted under them were, for the EU members of the
Agreement, entirely separate from the EU structures until the 1997 Amsterdam Treaty, which
incorporated them into the mainstream of European Union Law. The borderless zone created by
the Schengen Agreement, the Schengen Area, covers a population of over 492 million people and
an area of 4,326,253 square kilometers.

SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (SEA) 1986-1987

The Single European Act (SEA), signed in Luxembourg and the Hague, and entered
into force on 1 July 1, 1987, provided for the adaptations required for the achievement
of the Internal Market.
Sources: Europa
                       E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                   TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, ACTS
MAASTRICHT TREATY 1992-1993
Also known as the Treaty on European Union, was signed in Maastricht on February 7,
1992, entered into force on November 1, 1993. The Maastricht Treaty changed the
name of the European Economic Community to simply "the European Community". It
also introduced new forms of co-operation between the Member State governments -
for example on defence, and in the area of "justice and home affairs". By adding this
inter-governmental co-operation to the existing "Community" system, the Maastricht
Treaty created a new structure with three "pillars" which is political as well economic.
This is the European Union (EU).
1. The European Communities pillar handled economic, social and environmental
policies. It was the only pillar with a legal personality, consisting of the European
Community (EC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, until its expiry in
2002), and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).
2. The Common Foreign and Security Police (CFSP) pillar took care of foreign policy
and military matters.
3. Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJCC) brought together co-
operation in the fight against crime. This pillar was originally named Justice and Home
Affairs (JHA).
Sources: Europa
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                    TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, ACTS
TREATY OF AMSTERDAM 1997-1999

The Treaty of Amsterdam, signed on October 2, 1997, entered into force on May 1,
1999. It amended and renumbered the EU and EC Treaties. Consolidated versions of the
EU and EC Treaties are attached to it. The Treaty of Amsterdam changed the articles of
the Treaty on European Union, identified by letters A to S, into numerical form.

TREATY OF NICE 2001-2003

The Treaty of Nice was signed by European leaders on February 26, 2001 and came
into force on February 1, 2003. It amended the Maastricht treaty (or the Treaty on
European Union) and the Treaty of Rome (or the Treaty establishing the European
Community). The Treaty of Nice reformed the institutional structure of the European
Union to withstand eastward expansion, a task which was originally intended to have
been done by the Amsterdam Treaty, but failed to be addressed at the time.
The entrance into force of the treaty was in doubt for a time, after its initial rejection by
Irish voters in a referendum in June 2001. This referendum result was reversed in a
subsequent referendum held a little over a year later.
Sources: Europa
                    E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                  TREATIES, AGREEMENTS, ACTS
TREATY OF LISBON 2007-2009
The Treaty of Lisbon was signed on December 13, 2007. Its main
objectives are to make the EU more democratic, meeting the European
citizens expectations for high standards of accountability, openness,
transparency and participation; and to make the EU more efficient and
able to tackle today's global challenges such as climate change, security
and sustainable development.

The agreement on the Treaty of Lisbon followed the discussion about a
constitution. A "Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe" was
adopted by the Heads of State and Government at the Brussels European
Council on June 17-18, 2004 and signed in Rome on 29 October 2004,
but it was never ratified.

Sources: Europa
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                        ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE
                         (COMMUNITY ACQUIS)
The Acquis Communautaire or Community Acquis (pronunciation: AKI), sometimes
called the EU Acquis, and often shortened to Acquis, is the accumulated legislation,
legal acts, court decisions which constitute the body of European Union Law. Acquis is
a French word meaning “acquired” and in general sense "that which has been agreed
upon".

During the process of the enlargement of the European Union, the Acquis was divided
into 31 chapters for the purpose of negotiation between the EU and the candidate
member states for the fifth enlargement (the ten that joined in 2004 plus Bulgaria and
Romania which joined in 2007). Following are these chapters.

For negotiations with Croatia and Turkey, the Acquis is split up into 35 chapters, with
the purpose of better balancing between the chapters: dividing the most difficult ones
into separate chapters for easier negotiation, uniting some easier chapters, moving some
policies between chapters, as well as renaming a few of them in the process.

Sources: Open Sources
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                        ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE
                         (COMMUNITY ACQUIS)
1.Free movement of goods          17.Science and research
2.Free movement of persons        18.Education and training
3.Freedom to provide services     19.Telecommunication and information technologies
4.Free movement of capital        20.Culture and audio-visual policy
5.Company law                     21.Regional policy and coordination of structural
6.Competition policy              instruments
7.Agriculture                     22.Environment
8.Fisheries                       23.Consumers and health protection
9.Transport policy                24.Cooperation in the field of Justice and Home Affairs
10.Taxation                       25.Customs union
11.Economic and Monetary Union    26.External relations
12.Statistics                     27.Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP)
13.Social policy and employment   28.Financial control
14.Energy                         29.Financial and budgetary provisions
15.Industrial policy              30.Institutions
16.Small and medium-sized         31.Others
enterprises

Sources: Open Sources
                                E.U. AND SCHENGEN




Sources: Open Sources
         Europe Euler Diagram
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                        European Union Member States
       States            Entered European Union
 Belgium                                             Cyprus
 France
                        July 23, 1952 (CECA)         Estonia
 Germany                January 1, 1958
                        European EconomicCommunity   Latvia
 Italy
                        (CEE)
 Luxemburg                                           Lithuania
 Netherlands                                         Malta
 Denmark                                                              May 1, 2004
                                                     Poland
 Ireland                January 1, 1973
                                                     Czech Republic
 United Kingdom
 Greece                 January 1, 1981              Slovakia

 Portugal                                            Slovenia
                        January 1, 1986
 Spain
                                                     Hungary
 Austria
                                                     Bulgaria
 Finland                January 1, 1995                               January 1, 2007
 Sweden                                              Romania
Sources: Open Sources
                              E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                           Member States of the European Union
          Austria               Germany      Netherlands
                                                               Candidate States
          Belgium               Greece       Poland
                                                                      Croatia

          Bulgaria              Hungary      Portugal
                                                                      FYROM
                                                                      Former Yugoslav
                                                                      Republic of Macedonia
          Cyprus                Ireland      Romania


          Czech Republic        Italy        Slovakia                 Iceland



          Denmark               Latvia       Slovenia
                                                                      Montenegro

          Estonia               Lithuania    Spain

                                                                       Turkey
          Finland               Luxembourg   Sweden



          France                Malta        United Kingodom

Sources: Open Sources
                                E.U. AND SCHENGEN
        Schengen
                             European Union Member States
Flag:           State:        Costitutional name(s):         Joined:   Population:   km²:      Currency:   Capital:    Languages:


          yes      Austria     Republik Österreich            1995      8,372,930    83,871    Euro        Vienna      German

         yes       Belgium    Koninkrijk België   Founder 1957         10,827,519    30,528     Euro        Brussels   Dutch
                              Royaume de Belgique                                                                      French
                              Königreich Belgien                                                                       German
         no     Bulgaria      Република България              2007      7,576,751    110,910    Lev         Sofia      Bulgarian


         no     Cyprus        Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία             2004        801,851     9,251     Euro        Nicosia    Greek
                              Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti                                                                       Turkish

         yes    Czech         Česká republika                 2004     10,512,397     78,866    Czech       Prague     Czech
                Republik                                                                        Koruna
         yes    Denmark       Kongeriget Danmark              1973      5,547,088     43,094    Danish     Copenhagen
                                                                                                Krone                Danish
         yes    Estonia       Eesti Vabariik                  2004     1,340,274     17,908     Euro       Tallin      Estonian

         yes    Finland       Suomen tasavalta                1995     5,350,475     33,555     Euro       Helsinki    Finnish
                              Republiken Finland                                                                       Swedish

         yes    France        République               Founder 1957    64,709,480    674,843    Euro        Paris       French
                              française



 Sources: Open Sources
                              E.U. AND SCHENGEN
        Schengen            European Union Member States
Flag:          State:        Costitutional name(s):        Joined:   Population:    km²:     Currency:   Capital:   Languages:


        yes    Germany       Bundesrepublik         Founder 1957     81,757,595    357,050    Euro       Berlin     German
                             Deutschland

        yes    Greece        Ελληνική                      1981      11,125,179    131,990    Euro       Athens     Greek
                             Δημοκρατία

         yes   Hungary       Magyar Köztársaság            2004      10,013,628     93,030   Hungarian Budapest     Hungarian
                                                                                             Forint
         no    Ireland        Éire                         1973       4,581,269     70,273   Euro        Dublin      Irish
                              Ireland                                                                                English
        yes    Italy         Repubblica italiana    Founder 1957     60,397,353    301,318   Euro        Rome       Italian

        yes    Latvia        Latvijas Republika            2004       2,248,961     64,589   Latvian lats Riga      Latvian

        yes    Lithuania     Lietuvos Respublika           2004       3,329,227     65,303   Lithuanian Vilnius      Lithuanian
                                                                                             litas
        yes    Luxembourg    Grand-Duché de    Founder 1957            502,207       2,586   Euro        Luxembourg French
                             Luxembourg                                                                            German
                             Großherzogtum Luxemburg                                                               Luxembourgish
                             Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg
        yes    Malta         Repubblika ta' Malta           2004        416,333       316    Euro        Valletta   Maltese
                             Republic of Malta                                                                      English


Sources: Open Sources
                                  E.U. AND SCHENGEN
        Schengen
                             European Union Member States
Flag:          State:            Costitutional name(s):         Joined:   Population:   km²:       Currency:   Capital:     Languages:


        yes    Netherlands      Koninkrijk der            Founder 1957    16,576,800    41,526     Euro        Amsterdam Dutch
                                Nederlanden                                                                                 Frisian

        yes    Poland           Rzeczpospolita Polska            2004     38,163,895    312,683    Polish zloty Warsaw      Polish


         yes   Portugal          República Portuguesa            1986     11,317,192     92,391    Euro         Lisbon      Portuguese

         no    Romania          România                           2007    21,466,174    238,391    Romanian leu Bucarest     Romanian


        yes    Slovakia         Slovenská republika              2004      5,424,057     49,037     Euro          Bratislava Slovak

        yes    Slovenia         Republika Slovenija               2004      2,054,119     20,273    Euro         Ljubljana Slovenian

        yes    Spain            Reino de España                  1986      47,150,819    506,030    Euro         Madrid     Spanish

         yes   Sweden           Konungariket Sverige             1993      9,347,899     449,964    Swedish krona Stockolm Swedish

         no    United Kingdom    United Kingdom of                1973     62,041,708    244,820    Pound sterling London    English
                                Great Britain and
                                Northern Ireland

Sources: Open Sources
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                                         The Euro
                                                              17 European Union member States use Euro
                                                              currency.
                                                              10 are still using their old currency.




Sources: Europa.eu
         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                                         The Euro have a common front and
                                                             EU coins
                                                                  nation-specific designs on the reverse.




Sources: Europa.eu
         The European Union – 500 million people – 27 countries
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
Schengen States:           Member from:                          Effective from:
   Belgium
   France
  Germany                  4 June 1985                          26 March 1995
                           Monaco has open border with France
  Luxemburg
                           EU member
  Netherlands
  Monaco

  Portugal
                           25 June 1992                         26 March 1995
  Spain

   Italy                   27 November 1990                     26 October 1997
                           San Marino and Vatican City have open borders with Italy.
   San Marino              Both have right to mint Euro. Both are no EU member
   Vatican City
                           Vatican City: controls incoming – Schengen outgoing

   Austria                 28 April 1995                        1 April 1998

  Greece                    6 November 1992                     26 March 2000
Sources: Open Sources
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
Schengen States:           Member from:                        Effective from:

    Denmark
    Finland
   Sweden                  19 December 1996                   25 March 2001

    Iceland                Iceland and Norway are not part of the EU, but together with Denmark,
                           Finland and Norway they are members of the Nordic Passport Union (in
   Norway                  effect since 1958) who joined EU in 1996.


   Slovenia
   Estonia                  1 May 2004                          21 December 2007
   Latvia
   Lithuania                                                    (land and maritime borders)
   Poland
   Czech Republic                                               30 March 2008
   Slovakia                                                     (airports)
   Hungary
   Malta


Sources: Open Sources
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
Schengen States:           Member from:                        Effective from:
                          16 October 2004                    12 December 2008
   Switzwerland           Currency: Swiss Franc      (land and maritime borders)
                          No EU member                       29 March 2009
                                                              (airports)


                          28 February 2008                   1 November 2009
  Liechtenstein           Currency: Swiss Franc
                          Open border with Austria and Switzerland
                          No EU member

  Bulgaria
                          1 January 2007                     Undetermined
  Romania


  Cyprus                  1 May 2004                         Undetermined




Sources: Open Sources
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                        European microstates bordered by the
                                 European Union
                        Euro
   Andorra              Customs Agreement
                        No Schengen

                                Swiss Franc
  Liechtenstein           Customs Agreement
                                   Schengen
                        Euro
   Monaco               Customs Agreement
                        Schengen
                                       Euro
   San Marino             Customs Agreement
                                    Schengen
                        Euro
                        Customs Agreement
    Vatican City        Schengen outgoing
                        Controls incoming

Sources: Open Sources
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                             EU Overseas




Sources: Open Sources
            E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                 EU Overseas
 Flag: Country:   Territories:
                        Austria                   -
                        Belgium                   -
                        Bulgaria                  -
                        Cyprus           excludes:
                                            Northern Cyprus
                                            UN Buffer Zone
                                            UK Sovereign Base Areas (Akrotiri and Dhekelia)
                        Czech Republic             -
                        Denmark          excludes:
                                            Faroe Islands
                                            Greenland
                         Estonia                   -
                         Finland         includes:
                                            Åland Islands



Sources: Open Sources
            E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                 EU Overseas
 Flag: Country:   Territories:
                    France   includes:
                                French Guiana
                                Guadeloupe
                                Martinique
                                Rèunion
                                Saint Barthélemy
                                Saint Martin
                             excludes:
                                New Caledonia
                                Mayotte
                                French Polinesia
                                Saint-Pierre and Miquelon
                                TAAF Terres Australe Antartique FR
                                Wallis and Futura



Sources: Open Sources
            E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                 EU Overseas
 Flag: Country:   Territories:
                    Germany                 -
                    Greece                  -
                    Hungary                 -
                    Ireland                 -
                    Italy                   -
                    Latvia                  -
                    Lithuania               -
                    Luxembourg              -
                    Malta                   -
                    Netherlands   excludes:
                                     Aruba
                                     Curaçao
                                     Sint Maarten
                                     Bonaire
                                     Sint Eustatius
                                     Saba

Sources: Open Sources
            E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                 EU Overseas
 Flag: Country:   Territories:
                    Poland                -
                    Portugal     includes:
                                    Azores
                                    Madeira
                    Romania                -
                    Slovakia               -
                    Slovenia               -
                    Spain        includes:
                                    Canary Islands
                                    Ceuta
                                    Melilla
                                    Plazas de Soberania (Spanish North Africa)
                        Sweden             -




Sources: Open Sources
                             E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                  EU Overseas
 Flag: Country:                      Territories:
                    United Kingdom   excludes:
                                        Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Cyprus)
                                        Anguilla
                                        British Antarctic Territory
                                        Bermuda
                                        Cayman Islands
                                        Falkland Island
                                        British Indian Ocean Territory (Chagos Islands)
                                        Montserrat
                                        Pitcairn Islands
                                        Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha
                                        South Georgia and the South Sandwich Island
                                        Turks and Caicos Islands
                                        British Virgin Islands


Sources: Open Sources
                        E.U. AND SCHENGEN


Schengen, Luxembourg




The '80s marked the beginning of a debate on the concept of
"free circulation of persons, goods, capital and services",
initiated by a "White Paper" of the European Commission.

For some of the member States, free movement was to apply
only to European citizens, which required to maintain border
controls to distinguish Europeans from those of third countries.
 Sources: Emanuele Marotta
         “International Police and Judicial Cooperation”
                       E.U. AND SCHENGEN
Open borders:
Tui, Portugal
Pontevedra, Spain


Others advocated, instead, free circulation for all, with
consequent abolition of checks at internal borders of member
countries.

Given the impossibility of reaching an agreement in the EU,
France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands
decided to create a territory without borders, the so-called
"Schengen area" after the small town in Luxembourg where the
first agreement was signed (June 14, 1985)…
 Sources: Emanuele Marotta
         “International Police and Judicial Cooperation”
                      E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                                    Open borders:
                                                    Germany
                                                    Austria


                                    Signatures on the
                                    Schengen
                                    Agreement,
                                    June 14, 1985

…After the first agreement between the five founding countries, on June
19, 1990, the Schengen Convention was signed, convention entered into
force 1995, which enabled the abolition of controls at the internal
borders of the signatory States in order to create a single external border
along which controls at the entrance in the Schengen area are carried out
according to identical procedures. Common rules have been on visas,
asylum and external border controls, to allow the free circulation of
persons within the member countries…
Sources: Emanuele Marotta
        “International Police and Judicial Cooperation”
                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                         Schengen Borders Code
 Internal borders
 Irrespective of nationality, any person may cross the internal borders at any crossing-
 point without checks being carried out. The police may exercise their powers in border
 zones in the same fashion as elsewhere in their territory, provided that this is not
 equivalent to the exercise of border checks.

 EU countries must remove all obstacles to fluid traffic flow at road crossing-points at
 internal borders.

 Where there is a serious threat to public policy or internal security, an EU country may
 exceptionally reintroduce border controls at its internal borders for, in principle, a
 limited period of no more than thirty days. If such controls are to be reintroduced, the
 other EU countries and the Commission should be informed as soon as possible. The
 European Parliament should also be informed.

Sources: Europa.eu
                          E.U. AND SCHENGEN
External borders
                          Schengen Borders Code
External borders may be crossed only at border crossing-points and during the fixed opening
hours.

When crossing an external border, European Union (EU) citizens and other persons enjoying the
right of free movement within the EU (such as the family members of an EU citizen) undergo a
minimum check. This minimum check is carried out to establish their identity on the basis of
their travel documents and consists of a rapid and straightforward verification of the validity of
the documents and a check for signs of falsification or counterfeiting. Non-EU country nationals
are subject to thorough checks.
For stays not exceeding three months per a six-month period, a non-EU country national must:
possess a valid travel document;
possess a valid visa, if required;
justify the purpose of his/her intended stay and have sufficient means of subsistence;
not have an alert issued for him/her in the Schengen Information System (SIS) for the purpose of
refusing entry;
not be considered a threat to public policy, internal security, public health or the international
relations of EU countries.

Sources: Europa.eu
                                     E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                  WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A COUNTRY JOINS
                                THE SCHENGEN AREA.
1. Gradually controls at the land borders with other Schengen state are abolished,
   both passports (police, immigration) and goods (customs). There are possibilities
   to conduct spot checks. And controls could be reinstated in particular cases (e.g.
   public order etc.) after notification to all other Schengen partners.

2. The usual border controls in ports and aeroports stay for passengers coming from
   no Schengen areas who will be, mandatorily, divided from passengers coming
   from Schengen areas.

3. Mandatorily the checks at the external borders will be reinforced using common
   standards, to avoid the entering in the Schengen area to citizens of countries who
   are not Schengen.

4. The country will enter an integrated system for the issuance of visas which will be
      issued from any consular office of any member State, the visa should be presented
      at any Schengen entry point. To visa issuance should follow directives from the
      “Manual of Common Consular Instructions on visas for the diplomatic missions
      and consular posts”.
Sources: Emanuele Marotta
    “International Police and Judicial Cooperation”
     Bonanno Editore, Catania 2011 (in print)
                                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                    WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A COUNTRY JOINS
                                           THE SCHENGEN AREA.
5. Police, Consulate and other competent authorities have access to the Schengen
   Information System (SIS) which contains information and data on individuals,
   vehicles, objects, false, stolen or lost documents, so that necessary steps required by
   the State who entered those information, can be taken. To facilitate the execution of
   such steps there is an informatic network connection between police, justice,
   customs and consular authorities called Supplementary Information Request at the
   National Entry (SIRENE).

6. In agreement with the bordering Schengen State, it should be established a buffer
   zone at the borders (usually 20 km.) which police vehicles from both States can
   trespass to chase vehicles that avoided controls or might have on board perpetrators
   of serious crimes in flagrante delicto. In this case, the use of weapons by the chasing
   car will not be allowed unless in self-defense, nor can they carry out executive acts
   (arrest, seizure) which are supposed to be carried out by the police of the State
   where the chase ended. In addition the guest police chasing the car will desist from
   the chase when a local police car takes over the chase.
Sources: Emanuele Marotta
        “International Police and Judicial Cooperation”
         Bonanno Editore, Catania 2011 (in print)
                                         E.U. AND SCHENGEN
                                    WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A COUNTRY JOINS
                                           THE SCHENGEN AREA.


7. To facilitate relations among law enforcement and as a “compensatory
   measure” to the abolition of internal borders controls, new police and
   customs cooperation centers could be created, with bilateral
   agreements, in place of the old border crossings. Similarly mixed
   police groups could be established to conduct controls and/or patrol
   the border area.

8. Soon to be applied is a simplified and accelerated form to execute
   extraditions. The entry into force of the European arrest warrant will
   substitute the old extradition system with a very simple “delivery”.



Sources: Emanuele Marotta
        “International Police and Judicial Cooperation”
         Bonanno Editore, Catania 2011 (in print)
                                        First anti-EU protests
                                        in Bulgaria (January
                                        2007)


                                        Issue: sales tax on
                                        home-made liquor



 Graffiti:
 We don’t want Europe
 We don’t want money
 We want Rakia at the old prices.
Sources: Gary Marks
         Introduction to the EU, 2008
                                THE STATE OF THE
                                EUROPEAN UNION
                               Europe united tackles the crisis




According to the pessimistic

								
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