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Characteristics of Living Things and Classification

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					Characteristics of Living
Things and Classification
   What makes something living?
  How do we organize living things?
How are living things organized?
    Organization of Living Things


                ORGANISM

              BODY SYSTEMS

                ORGANS       MULTICELLULAR
                             ORGANISMS
                TISSUES

                 CELLS
UNICELLULAR
ORGANISMS      ORGANELLES

               MOLECULES
     4 Characteristics of ALL Living Things


1.        Living things are made of CELLS that
          contain DNA
2.        Living things have a METABOLISM to
          help them use energy to live, grow, and
          develop
3.        Living things maintain HOMEOSTASIS
      •     A stable internal environment
4.        Living things REPRODUCE
Characteristics of Living Things:
    Similarities and Differences Among
               Living Things
   Living things go about the 4 characteristics in similar AND
    different ways
   8 Life processes that are similar and different among living
    things:
        Obtaining nutrients
        Transport of materials throughout organism
        Breaking down nutrients to get energy (cellular respiration)
        Combining simple substances to make more complex substances
         (synthesis)
        Growth
        Removal of waste products (Excretion)
        Responding to internal and external stimuli
        Reproducing
Simple to Complex:
                  Helping Vocabulary

   Number of cells:
       Multicellular:
            Made of many cells
       Unicellular:
            Made of one cell
   Nucleus?
       Eukaryote:
            Cells contain a nucleus
       Prokaryote:
            Cells lack a nucleus
   Mode of nutrition:
       Heterotroph:
            Need to obtain food
       Autotroph:
            Can make own food
        Website with nice graphics of
      levels of biological organization:
http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/Biology-Is-Studied-at-Many-Levels-of-35665
The Five Kingdoms:
                  The 5 Kingdoms

      Similarities and Differences in life processes has grouped
       organisms into 5 different kingdoms


                              Animalia
    EUKARYOTIC
                               Fungi                    MULTICELLULAR


                              Plantae
                              Protista                  UNICELLULAR
PROKARYOTIC
                              Monera
    Obtaining Nutrients (FOOD!)

   Heterotroph
       Gets nutrients from the environment
       Kingdoms:
            Animalia, Fungi, Some Protista and Monera
   Autotroph
       Makes own food
       Kingdoms:
            Plantae and some Protists (photosynthesis),
             some Bacteria (chemosynthesis)
              Transport of materials

   Unicellular Orgs:
       Transport within
        cytoplasm
       Kingdoms:
            Protista, Monera


   Multicellular Orgs:
       Transport within liquids
        and tubes
       Kingdoms:
            Animalia, Plantae, Fungi
                       Reproduction

   Asexual:
       One parent
       Offspring genetically identical
        (clones)
       Kingdoms:
            Some Fungi, Protista, Monera
   Sexual:
       Two parents
       Offspring genetically different from
        parents
       Kingdoms:
            Some Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
    Classification of Living Things

   Why classify organisms?
       For easy identification
       For evolutionary comparison of organisms
   Organisms are grouped into large
    categories based on similarities
   Once in a group, organisms are separated
    based on differences
Classification of Living Things
                     5 Kingdoms
                                  DIVIDED INTO
                   Phyla (s. Phylum)
                                  DIVIDED INTO
                        Class
  # OF ORGANISMS                   DIVIDED INTO   DIFFERENCES
  DECREASES                                       AMONG ORGS
                        Order
                                                  INCREASES
                                  DIVIDED INTO
                        Family
                                   DIVIDED INTO
                        Genus
                                   DIVIDED INTO
                        Species
Acronym to help remember!

           King
          Phillip
          Came
           Over
            For
           Good
         Spaghetti
        Classification of Humans

KINGDOM: Animalia
PHYLUM: Chordata
     Has backbone
CLASS: Mammalia
     Females have mammary glands
ORDER: Primates
     Larger brain size
FAMILY: Hominidae
GENUS: Homo
SPECIES: sapiens
                 Scientific Naming

   Scientific name = Genus + species
      Referred to as Binomial Nomenclature (2 name naming

       system)
      species is not capitalized

      Both are always italicized or underlined

      Ex. Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens

   Abbreviation:
      First letter of genus (capitalized), followed by species

      Ex. H. sapiens

      Scientists have only identified and named a

       FRACTION of all living organisms on Earth!!!!

				
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posted:1/31/2012
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