Characteristics of Living Things and Classification What makes something living? How do we organize living things? How are living things organized? Organization of Living Things ORGANISM BODY SYSTEMS ORGANS MULTICELLULAR ORGANISMS TISSUES CELLS UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS ORGANELLES MOLECULES 4 Characteristics of ALL Living Things 1. Living things are made of CELLS that contain DNA 2. Living things have a METABOLISM to help them use energy to live, grow, and develop 3. Living things maintain HOMEOSTASIS • A stable internal environment 4. Living things REPRODUCE Characteristics of Living Things: Similarities and Differences Among Living Things Living things go about the 4 characteristics in similar AND different ways 8 Life processes that are similar and different among living things: Obtaining nutrients Transport of materials throughout organism Breaking down nutrients to get energy (cellular respiration) Combining simple substances to make more complex substances (synthesis) Growth Removal of waste products (Excretion) Responding to internal and external stimuli Reproducing Simple to Complex: Helping Vocabulary Number of cells: Multicellular: Made of many cells Unicellular: Made of one cell Nucleus? Eukaryote: Cells contain a nucleus Prokaryote: Cells lack a nucleus Mode of nutrition: Heterotroph: Need to obtain food Autotroph: Can make own food Website with nice graphics of levels of biological organization: http://www.nature.com/scitable/content/Biology-Is-Studied-at-Many-Levels-of-35665 The Five Kingdoms: The 5 Kingdoms Similarities and Differences in life processes has grouped organisms into 5 different kingdoms Animalia EUKARYOTIC Fungi MULTICELLULAR Plantae Protista UNICELLULAR PROKARYOTIC Monera Obtaining Nutrients (FOOD!) Heterotroph Gets nutrients from the environment Kingdoms: Animalia, Fungi, Some Protista and Monera Autotroph Makes own food Kingdoms: Plantae and some Protists (photosynthesis), some Bacteria (chemosynthesis) Transport of materials Unicellular Orgs: Transport within cytoplasm Kingdoms: Protista, Monera Multicellular Orgs: Transport within liquids and tubes Kingdoms: Animalia, Plantae, Fungi Reproduction Asexual: One parent Offspring genetically identical (clones) Kingdoms: Some Fungi, Protista, Monera Sexual: Two parents Offspring genetically different from parents Kingdoms: Some Fungi, Plantae, Animalia Classification of Living Things Why classify organisms? For easy identification For evolutionary comparison of organisms Organisms are grouped into large categories based on similarities Once in a group, organisms are separated based on differences Classification of Living Things 5 Kingdoms DIVIDED INTO Phyla (s. Phylum) DIVIDED INTO Class # OF ORGANISMS DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENCES DECREASES AMONG ORGS Order INCREASES DIVIDED INTO Family DIVIDED INTO Genus DIVIDED INTO Species Acronym to help remember! King Phillip Came Over For Good Spaghetti Classification of Humans KINGDOM: Animalia PHYLUM: Chordata Has backbone CLASS: Mammalia Females have mammary glands ORDER: Primates Larger brain size FAMILY: Hominidae GENUS: Homo SPECIES: sapiens Scientific Naming Scientific name = Genus + species Referred to as Binomial Nomenclature (2 name naming system) species is not capitalized Both are always italicized or underlined Ex. Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens Abbreviation: First letter of genus (capitalized), followed by species Ex. H. sapiens Scientists have only identified and named a FRACTION of all living organisms on Earth!!!!
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