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Argument

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					Argument
       Elements of Argument
• Claim/thesis/assertion/position/proposition
• Support/evidence
  – Fact, statistic, example/experience/anecdote,
    opinion, analogy/comparison,
    authority/expertise, shared beliefs/values,
    causal relationships, appeals (logos, pathos,
    ethos)
• Refutation
• Concession
       Organizing Arguments: Classical Approach
• Introduction
   – Urge audience consider case
   – Capture attention
• Statement of Background
   – Narrate key events to back story
• Proposition
   – State position
• Proof
   –   Use outline
   –   Present heart of argument
   –   Make case
   –   Discuss reasons and cite evidence
• Refutation
   – Anticipate and refute opposing views
   – By showing what wrong with opponent’s views you demonstrate you
     have studied issue thoroughly and have reached only acceptable
     conclusion
• Conclusion
   – Sum up most important points
   – Make final appeals to values and feelings likely to leave audience
     favorable disposed toward case
When Facing STRONG Opposition:
 You may begin with refutations!
•   Intro
•   Statement of Background
•   Position
•   Refutation (opposing argument)
•   Proof
•   Conclusion
         When C/C Effective:
    Refute paragraph by paragraph!
•   Intro
•   Statement of Background
•   Position
•   Opposition Argument 1—Refutation w/Proof
•   Opposition Argument 2—Refutation w/Proof
•   Opposition Argument 3—Refutation w/Proof
•   Conclusion
                 Fallacies
• Raise questions about ethics of argument
  (Fair? Accurate? Principled?)
• One person’s fallacy may be another’s
  stroke of genius
  – Situations where character central to
    argument
• NOT errors, but strategies that hurt all
  because make productive argument more
  difficult!
          Emotional Fallacies
• Scare tactics
  – stampede legit fears into panic
  – close off thinking—scared people rarely act rationally
  – AIDS TRIED TO SCARE HETEROSEXUALS—DID
    OPPOSITE
• Either-or Choices
  – Simplify argument to 2 choices
  – Reduce complicated issue to simple terms or obscure
    legit alternatives
  – DO YOU WANT TO GO TO COLLEGE OR WORK
    AT MCD’S?
• Slippery Slope
  – Exaggeration of future consequences to frighten
    readers
  – IF TAKE AWAY THIS ONE FREE SPEECH RIGHT,
    THEN ALL RIGHTS WILL EVENTUALLY GO!
• Sentimental Appeal
  – Use emotion excessively to distract readers from facts
  – TV NEWS!!!
• Bandwagon Appeals
  – Urge people to follow same path everyone else is
    taking
  – Most potentially serious and permanently damaging
  – Not as obvious as seems!
  – MCCARTHY
             Ethical Fallacies
• Appeals to False Authority
  – Draw on authority of widely respected people,
    institutions, texts (quotes, footnotes, allusions)
  – Trust, but verify!
  – IT SAYS SO IN THE BIBLE or THE CONSTITUTION
    SAYS (How many cases against Constitution?)
• Dogmatism
  – Persuade by assertion/assumption particular position
    only one conceivably acceptable within community
  – TAKE ARG OFF TABLE FOR FEAR OF POLITICAL
    CORRECTNESS—REPRESSING IDEAS!
• Moral Equivalence
  – Serious wrong-doings don’t differ in kind from
    minor offenses
  – SMOKING AS BAD AS OTHER DRUGS,
    CHOCOLATE AS BAD AS SMOKING
• Ad Hominem “to the man”
  – Attacks at person rather than at claim
  – SMITH SHOULD NOT BE ELECTED, HE
    JUST GOT A DIVORCE!
           Logical Fallacies
• Hasty Generalizations
  – Inference drawn from insufficient evidence
  – Too few instances presented to reach an
    accurate conclusion
  – Basis for stereotypes (person/event typical of
    whole class)
  – BEWARE OF POLLS (# of people, time,
    wording of question)
• Faulty Causality
  – post hoc, ergo propter hoc=after this,
    therefore because of this
  – Because second event follows fiRst, second
    event result of first
  – NOTE: sometimes right cause enough
    evidence exists to show relationship
  – EVERY TIME THE DEMOCRATS GET INTO
    OFFICE, WE HAVE A WAR. EVERY TIME
    THE REPUBLICANS GET INTO OFFICE, WE
    HAVE A RECESSION.
• Begging the Question
  – Circular reasoning
  – Assuming true the very claim being disputed
  – THIS HANDWRITING IS HARD TO READ BECAUSE
    IT IS NEARLY ILLEGIBLE!
• Equivocation
  – Using the same term with different meanings
  – “NOBODY” in The Odyssey
  – I DIDN’T PLAGIARIZE THIS PAPER, I WROTE IT
    MYSELF!
• Non Sequitur “it does not follow”
  – One point doesn’t follow from another
  – TOM DOES NOT DRINK OR SMOKE, SO HE
    OUGHT TO MAKE A GOOD HUSBAND!
             Other Fallacies
• Aphorisms=often used as substitutes for real
  reasons or truly authoritative explanations
• Self-interest
• Etymology=a term must be used in particular
  way cause always defined that way
• Answering questions with questions
• Composition=group must have same qualities as
  members
• Division=individual must have characteristics of
  group
• Appeal to Pity
• Appeal to Prejudice
• Appeal to Tradition
• Argue by Analogy=what comparing must have
  several characteristics in common relevant to
  conclusion intend to draw (politics=football)
• Straw Man=ignores a person's actual position
  and substitutes a distorted, exaggerated or
  misrepresented version of that position
• Oversimplification=when a writer obscures or
  denies complexity of issues in an argument
• Poisoning the Well=attempts to shift attention
  from the merits of the argument to the
  source/origin of argument
       Practice with Fallacies
1. “It’s the economy, stupid.” (sign on wall at
  Clinton’s campaign headquarters)
  – Bandwagon
2. “Nixon’s the one.” (campaign slogan)
  – Begging the question
  – Equivocation
3. “No Payne, your gain.” (aimed at
  opponent named Payne)
  – Ad hominem
4. “Make love, not war.” (slogan during the
  Vietnam war)
   – Either/or
   – Dogmatism
5. “Guns don’t kill, people do.” (NRA slogan)
   – Faulty causality
6. “If you can’t stand the heat, get out of the
  kitchen.”
   – Either/or
7. “He went to the movies on three consecutive
  nights, so he must love movies.”
   – Non sequitur
8. “Poverty causes crime.”
  – Oversimplification
9. “Automobiles cause more deaths than
  handguns. If you oppose handguns to
  save lives, you’ll soon find yourself
  wanting to outlaw automobiles.”
  – Slippery slope
10. "If such actions were not illegal, then
  they would not be prohibited by the law.”
  -Begging the question
11. "The US shouldn't get involved militarily in other
  countries. Once the government sends in a few troops,
  it will then send in thousands to die."
   – Slippery slope
12. “I'm not a doctor, but I play one on the hit series
  "Bimbos and Studmuffins in the OR." You can take it
  from me that when you need a fast acting, effective and
  safe pain killer there is nothing better than MorphiDope
  2000. That is my considered medical opinion.”
   – False authority
13. “Bill: "I believe that abortion is morally wrong."
  Dave: "Of course you would say that, you're a priest."
  Bill: "What about the arguments I gave to support my
  position?"
  Dave: "Those don't count. Like I said, you're a priest, so
  you have to say that abortion is wrong. Further, you are
  just a lackey to the Pope, so I can't believe what you
  say."
   – Ad hominem
14. "Bill lives in a large building, so his apartment must be
  large."
   – Division
15. “Smith, who is from England, decides to attend
  graduate school at Ohio State University. He has never
  been to the US before. The day after he arrives, he is
  walking back from an orientation session and sees two
  white (albino) squirrels chasing each other around a tree.
  In his next letter home, he tells his family that American
  squirrels are white.”
   – Hasty generalization
16. "Every player on the team is a superstar and a great
  player, so the team is a great team."
   – Composition (all all-stars might not play well together)
17. "I'm positive that my work will meet your requirements. I
  really need the job since my grandmother is sick.”
   – Appeal to Pity
18. “Of course this mode of government is the
  best. We have had this government for over 200
  years and no one has talked about changing it in
  all that time. So, it has got to be good.”
   – Appeal to tradition
19. "Senator Jones says that we should not fund
  the attack submarine program. I disagree
  entirely. I can't understand why he wants to
  leave us defenseless like that."
   – Straw Man
20. “You must believe that God exists. After all, if
  you do not accept the existence of God, then
  you will face the horrors of hell."
   – Scare tactics (Jonathon Edwards anyone?)
          Smoking Fallacies
1. Either-or Choices
2. Slippery Slope
3. Bandwagon Appeals
4. Appeals to False Authority
5. Dogmatism
6. Hasty Generalizations
7. Begging the Question
8. Non Sequitur “it does not follow”
9. Aphorisms
10. Appeal to Tradition or Prejudice

				
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posted:1/30/2012
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