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									            Ch. 6: A More Perfect
              Union 1775-1789

                   American History

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 state and national gov’ts are established
  under the Articles of Confederation, but
  new national gov’t weak – many
  Americans fear strong executive power
 Strong central authority needed to keep the
  republic intact  Constitution created

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            Constitution Signing

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       Sec. 1: Gov’t in Transition
 New state gov’ts 
  bicameral (two house
  legislatures) similar to
  colonial gov’t
 Distrust of strong
  executive power made
  state governors weak with
  only 1 yr terms and no
  veto powers
 Citizenship Restrictions 
  only white male property
  owners could vote
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       Sec. 1: Gov’t in Transition
 Religious Freedom  Southern colonies
  disestablished Church Of England but New
  England still gave tax support to
  Congregational Church
 States still discriminated based on gender,
  race, religion & economic standing, but
  trial by jury & freedom of the press existed

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   The Articles of Confederation
 1777  Congress completed
  A of C – the first attempt at a
  central government
 1781  A of C ratified after 4
  yrs of dispute over western
  land claims by Virginia when
  British General Cornwallis’s
  army moved towards Virginia

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                The Albany Plan
 The States were wary of a strong
  central government so they took
  Benjamin Franklin’s Albany Plan
  as their guide
 They created what they called a
  “firm league of friendship” among
  the states
 Originally Congress was a
  unicameral system (one house) and
  each state had one vote (this would
  later cause a problem due to
  population differences

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            Problems with the Plan
 The national government proved
  ineffective for a number of reasons
1. No executive branch to carry out laws
2. No federal courts to interpret laws
3. Congress did not have the power to
    tax or or regulate commerce
4. Congress had to depend on the
    generosity of the states for income but
    they didn’t give enough
 Because the central government had
    no real power no one really attended
    session (it was difficult to even
    convene to ratify the treaty ending the
    Revolutionary war in 1783
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               Foreign Relations
 Treaty Violations  British and
  Americans did not carry out the
  terms of the Treaty of Paris 1783
  with the British not abandoning
  their northern forts
 The Americans treated Loyalists
  harshly and courts heavily
  favoured the American side in
  grievance cases regarding Britain
 American Trade Suffers 
  American ships were banned from
  the West Indies and only allowed
  into English ports with the
  products of their home states

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               Foreign Relations
 Trouble with Spain  Spanish
  unhappy with the Treaty of
  Paris 1783 that gave the
  Americans all the land to the
  Mississippi R
 Spain controlled New Orleans
  & refused to follow the Treaty
  of Paris boundary inciting
  Natives to attack American
  settlers in the disputed areas

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             Foreign Relations
 Strained Relations with
  France  French gov’t
  disappointed that there
  wasn’t more trade with
  America after the high cost
  of helping America against
  the British
 Barbary Pirates 
  unprotected by the British,
  North African states
  captured American ships
  that didn’t pay a tribute
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             Settling the West
 “The West” was the next area of settlement
 Late 1700s area of settlement just west of the
  Appalachian Mts
 Congress (National Gov’t) could not meet the needs of
  settlers (protection from Natives, Spanish control of
  Miss. R.)

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             Talk of Secession
 G. Washington made trip to
  Tennessee & Kentucky and
  observed that the region was
  barely hanging on to
 The areas were unable to
  obtain statehood from
  Congress so they were
  considering seceding from
  the Union
 As a result two laws were
  established that set a
  precedent for the future
  growth of the nation
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               Land Ordinance of 1785
 more orderly method for settling public land north of the Ohio River
 Land would be surveyed and divided into townships six miles square
 Land would be sold for $1 per acre in 640 acre packages which could
  then be sold for a profit

            The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
 region bounded by the Ohio R., Great Lakes, Miss. R. divided into 3
 whenever 5000 adult male citizens settled in a territory they could set
  up a territorial gov’t like a British colony
 The national government would appoint and pay judges and a
  territorial governor
 Same rights as original 13 colonies – freedom of religion, speech, and
 Prohibited slavery north
 Territory  60,000 people  statehood
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                  State Disputes
 The eastern states engaged in disputes with one
  another as a result of suspicion and rivalry from the
  postwar depression that occurred following the
 Boundary and Tax Disputes  Vermont claimed by
  New York, New Hampshire, Massachussetts
 Pennsylvania & Connecticut almost went to war
 States taxed each others products
 Each state had their own currency

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             Shay’s Rebellion
 Daniel Shay led a farmers
  rebellion in Mass against the
  state government because
  farmers were losing their
  farms to debt
 Rebellion caused great alarm
  among those who believed in
  orderly government
 Showed need for strong
  central government

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      Toward a New Constitution
 A meeting was called in the states of
  Philadelphia, “for the sole and express
  purpose of revising the Articles of
 The Philadelphia Convention was set for
  May 24, 1787
 12 of the 13 states were represented
  (Rhode Island was not present)
 55 delegates attended the convention –
  many of the most able political leaders
  (e.g. Washington, Franklin, Madison)
 Their goal was to work out a plan for a
  stronger central government

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              The Virginia Plan
 James Madison from
  Virginia was the first
  delegate to arrive with a draft
  of a new framework of
 The document became the
  basis for discussion in the
 Constitution of the United
  States would be based on
  Madison’s Virginia Plan

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             Conflicting Plans
 Almost all the delegates agreed that the Articles were
   hopelessly weak but there were two large stumbling
1. Representation – dispute between large and small states
2. Northern and Southern States disagreed over economics
    issues and slavery

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 The small states wanted the same
  number of votes as the larger
  states in Congress but the larger
  states felt it wasn’t fair
 Large states favoured a national
  government with separate
  executive, legislative and
  judicial branches
 The Great Compromise – the
  lower house of Congress would
  see representation based on
  population & in the upper house
  of Congress everyone would
  have one vote

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       Economic Issues & Slavery
 Dispute arose between the
  commercial North and the
  plantation interests of the South
 Southerners wanted to count
  slaves to determine
  representation to Congress but
  not for direct taxation
 The North wanted to count
  slaves for taxation but not for
 “three-fifths compromise” –
  established that five slaves
  would be equal to three free
  persons for the purposes of
  representation and taxation

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            The Issue of Slavery
 South Carolina and Georgia were
  afraid that the national government
  might act against slavery
 They insisted that the Constitution
  forbid interference with the slave
 The delegates agreed that for 20
  years the national government
  would not prevent the importation
  of slaves

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            The New Government
 The new government had more power
 It could levy and collect taxes – the taxes had to be
  uniform throughout the states
 It could regulate commerce with foreign nations and
  between the states
 It could write and enforce commercial treaties that would
  increase foreign trade
 It could keep the trade states free of barriers
 It could coin money and regulate its value – states would
  no longer make their own money
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            Ratification Struggle
 September 17, 1787 39 of the original 55
  delegates signed new Constitution
 11 of the 13 states would ratify the
  Constitution (July 1788) – they needed 9
  states to ratify
 Votes were close as many Anti-Federalists
  opposed the Constitution fearing it gave
  too much power to the Federal government
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 Strong central government
 States would not print their own
  money but use the national
 The Principle of shared power is
 States deal with their own issues
  but work together with the federal

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            Levels of Government
 Executive Branch – President of the
  United States
 Legislative Branch – Congress –
  Bicameral (two houses)
 Judicial Branch – Supreme Courts –
  evaluates validity of laws

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